Importing

and
Exporting

Importing and Exporting
Data
© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 162108

February 2004

© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation
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Importing and Exporting Data

Contents

Importing and Exporting Data
Introduction
Overview .............................................................................................................

1

Organization of the Guides ...............................................................................

2

Conventions Used in the Guides .....................................................................

3

Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data
Overview .............................................................................................................

4

Importing Data from OpenWorks .....................................................................

6

OpenWorks Well Data ..................................................................................

6

Select the Wells and Log Curves ..........................................................

7

Setting Parameters for Importing ..........................................................

10

Importing the Log Curves ......................................................................

14

Exiting Import Wells and Curves from OW ..........................................

14

Points and Grids ..........................................................................................

15

Exporting Data to OpenWorks .........................................................................

18

Curves ...........................................................................................................

18

Grids ..............................................................................................................

22

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Building Pointsets .............................................................................................

24

Aliasing .........................................................................................................

26

Pointset Format ............................................................................................

26

Creating Pointsets .......................................................................................

27

General Procedure ..................................................................................

27

Filters .......................................................................................................

33

Pointset Fields ........................................................................................

38

First and Last Duplicate Resolution Methods ......................................

43

Exiting Pointset Builder ...............................................................................

44

Importing and Exporting Grids
Overview .............................................................................................................

45

Importing Grids ............................................................................................

45

Exporting Grids ............................................................................................

46

Stratamodel’s Treatment of Grids ..............................................................

46

Rules for Grids ........................................................................................

46

Grid Format .............................................................................................

47

Importing Grids ..................................................................................................

54

Required Parameters ...................................................................................

54

Importing ASCII Grids ..................................................................................

55

Selecting and Describing the Grids ......................................................

56

Limiting the Grids ..................................................................................

61

Importing or Saving ................................................................................

63

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Importing Grids continued
Importing Binary Grids ................................................................................

64

Beginning the Import ..............................................................................

64

Selecting Files .........................................................................................

65

Importing or Saving ................................................................................

69

Displaying Internal Grid Files ...........................................................................

70

Exporting Grids .................................................................................................

73

Reversing Grid Rows and Columns on Output .........................................

73

Exporting ASCII Grids .................................................................................

74

Exporting Binary Grids ................................................................................

77

Loading LGC Seismic Data
Overview .............................................................................................................

79

Selecting the Seismic Source ..........................................................................

80

For 3DV Files ................................................................................................

80

For SEGY Files .............................................................................................

81

Choosing Whether to Accept Headers .................................................

82

Setting Other SEGY Parameters ...........................................................

84

For 2V2 Data .................................................................................................

85

Choosing the Velocity Model ...........................................................................

87

Selecting a Destination .....................................................................................

88

Importing the Data .............................................................................................

90

Saving Parameters ............................................................................................

91

Exiting LGC Seismic Loading ..........................................................................

91

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Importing and Exporting Data

Loading Culture Data from Z-MAP Plus
Overview .............................................................................................................

92

Selecting the Data and Associated Files ...................................................

93

Handling Z Values ........................................................................................

96

Choosing a Color .........................................................................................

97

Saving and Loading Parameters ......................................................................

98

Saving Parameters .......................................................................................

98

Loading Parameters .....................................................................................

98

Importing the Data .............................................................................................

99

Exiting Z-Map Plus Culture Loader ..................................................................

99

Extracting and Loading Attributes
Overview ............................................................................................................. 100
Menu Options ............................................................................................... 100
File Types ...................................................................................................... 101
Loading Attribute Data from an ASCII File ...................................................... 102
Loading Grids into the Model ........................................................................... 107
Setting the Load Parameters ...................................................................... 108
Loading or Saving the Template ................................................................. 111
Exiting Attribute Model Load ...................................................................... 111
Extracting Attributes to an ASCII File .............................................................. 112
Extracting Attributes to a Pseudo Log ............................................................ 115
Formats for x, y, z Data ................................................................................ 115
Extracting to a Pseudo Log ......................................................................... 116

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Extracting an Attribute Grid ............................................................................. 118
Getting Adjacent Attributes .............................................................................. 122
VIP to SGM ......................................................................................................... 124

POSC RESCUE Export
Overview ............................................................................................................. 127
Translating Stratamodel Terminology to RESCUE Terminology ............ 128
Using POSC RESCUE Export ........................................................................... 129
Load Control File .......................................................................................... 131
Well Model .................................................................................................... 131
Project Axis Units ........................................................................................ 132
RESCUE Output File Type ........................................................................... 132
Sequence Block Grid ................................................................................... 132
Implicit (Ref. Surfaces) ........................................................................... 133
Explicit (Clip Layer Edges) and Explicit (Bend Layer Edges) ............ 133
RESCUE Output K-Layer Trims .................................................................. 135
Sequence Geobody Minimum Volume Tolerance ..................................... 135
Attribute(s) to export ................................................................................... 136
Blocks and Zones to Export ........................................................................ 138
Fault Polygons ............................................................................................. 139
Export to File ................................................................................................ 141
Message Level .............................................................................................. 141

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POSC RESCUE Dialog Buttons .................................................................. 141
Calculate Sequence Volume Attribute .................................................. 141
Save Cntrl-File ......................................................................................... 142
Export Full Model .................................................................................... 142
Export Attributes .................................................................................... 142
Cancel ...................................................................................................... 142
Help .......................................................................................................... 142

Index ....................................................................................................................

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Introduction
Overview
In Stratamodel, you can import ASCII and binary grids, well data, and
seismic data. You can convert line data stored in MFDs (Master File
Directories, a storage device used by Z-MAP Plus and some other
Landmark products) to culture data for display. You can also load data
into an attribute model from ASCII files.
You can export ASCII and binary grids and extract attribute data to an
ASCII file, a GLK file, a pseudo log, or a grid. You can extract attribute
values from six adjacent cells and store them in a new field in an
attribute model.
This guide contains the following sections:

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Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data — How to import
wells, curves, grids, and pointsets from the OpenWorks database,
and how to export curves, points, and grids to OpenWorks. This
section also explains how to create pointsets in the OpenWorks
database from various data types.

Importing and Exporting Grids — How Stratamodel treats grids
and which formats it requires. This section also explains how to
use the modules to import and export ASCII and binary grids.

Loading LGC Seismic Data — How to load 3DV, 2V2, or SEGY
seismic data from OpenWorks projects into an attribute in an
attribute model.

Loading Z-MAP Plus Culture Data — How to extract line data
from an MFD into a .clt file, which you can display in Stratamodel.

Extracting and Loading Attributes — How to use modules that
load data into an attribute model from an ASCII file or extract
attribute data into various file types.

Introduction

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Organization of the Guides
The Stratamodel guides provide information for geoscientists to help
them build three-dimensional models that incorporate various data
types for an accurate visualization of the reservoir subsurface. The
guides provide explanations of the modules in the Stratamodel program
and instructions for using them, arranged according to topic. The
modules of Stratamodel are arranged roughly in order of use. The
Stratamodel guides are:

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Introduction to Stratamodel — introduces Stratamodel, explains
the Motif window manager and Stratamodel interface, provides
instructions for opening and exiting the program and for
performing tasks common to many of the Stratamodel modules,
tells you how to prepare data for use in Stratamodel, and explains
the Global, Projects, and Utilities menus. Provides information
about file-naming conventions, environment variables that you can
set, special keys and mouse combinations in Stratamodel and
Stratamodel modules, the XSgm resource files, NIS, and the
4DWm file.

Importing and Exporting Data — explains how to import and
export data from OpenWorks, ASCII and binary grids, seismic
data from other Landmark products, culture data from Z-MAP
Plus, and attribute data.

Creating Models — provides the concepts, examples, and
instructions for building the framework for your modeling
operations, bringing well data into the model, and modeling
attribute data.

Manipulating Models — explains how to perform simple
arithmetic and If-Then operations and on the attribute model data,
how to locate cells with shared attributes that are connected to
each other, how to bias an attribute model by using a template, and
how to convert an ASCII file that describes a polygon to an
Stratamodel grid.

Creating Displays — explains how to build cross section,
stratigraphic slice, layer, and geobody displays and how to display
them. Also explains how to manipulate the display and work with
grids in 2D mode. Finally, explains how to create scaled hardcopy
from two-dimensional displays.

Introduction: Organization of the Guides

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Conventions Used in the Guides
In these guides, the following conventions are used:

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Menu Options

Menu options and button names are printed in
boldface, for example, Setup.

OK

Click the indicated button, for example, OK.

Global → Exit

Menu paths are indicated by menu options in
bold, separated by arrows; in this example, you
select Global, then Exit.

Return

Keys on the keyboard are capitalized.

enter startow

Text that you are required to enter from the
keyboard appears in a different typeface
(Courier).
Enter the text exactly as shown.

enter
projectname

A different typeface in italics (Courier
Italics) indicates that you must supply
information. For example, at this instruction,
enter the project name.

click

Move the cursor to the specified option or
object and quickly press and release the mouse
button. Unless otherwise specified, use
Button 1.

press and drag

Press the mouse button and continue to hold it
down while moving the cursor to the option
you want or to a new location in the graphic
display area; then release the button.

highlight

Move the cursor to the name of the item you
wish to use and select it with the mouse.

select

Move the cursor to the option or object you
want to select and click it.

double-click

Click the mouse button twice rapidly without
moving the mouse. The first click highlights
the option, object, or text beneath the cursor;
the second click is equivalent to pressing the
OK button to accept the selection.

triple-click

Click the mouse button three times rapidly
without moving the mouse to highlight a string
of text (more than one word) beneath the
cursor.

Introduction: Conventions Used in the Guides

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing and Exporting
OpenWorks Data
Overview
Three Stratamodel modules help you load data from the OpenWorks
database:
Data Type

Stratamodel Module

Page

wells

Import Wells and Curves from OW

page 6

curves

Import Wells and Curves from OW

page 6

grids

Points and Grids

page 15

pointsets

Points and Grids

page 15

Pointset Builder (builds pointsets from OpenWorks
data)

page 24

You can also export two types of data to the database:

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Data Type

Stratamodel Module

Page

curves

Export Curves to OW

page 18

grids

Points and Grids

page 22

Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data

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You can use Pointset Builder to build pointsets from 17 different types
of data.
Menu Option

Suboption

Paleo
Strat Unit Attributes
Strat Unit Isochores
DST/RFT

General
Pressure
Summary

Well

Completion
Fault
Header
Perforation
Pick
Pressure
Surface Elevation
Test
Total Depth

Well Production

Volume Record
Zone

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Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data: Overview

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Importing Data from OpenWorks
You can import the following types of data from OpenWorks:



wells
curves
grids
pointsets

You can also build pointsets in Pointset Builder from 17 different data
types then export them to Stratamodel. (For more information, see
“Building Pointsets” on page 24.)

OpenWorks Well Data
Import Wells and Curves from OW imports well data from the
OpenWorks database so that it can be used in your Stratamodel project.
The program imports log curve data in ASCII SM1 format.
(For information about the SM1 format, see “Preparing Well Data” on
page 57 in Introduction to Stratamodel.) Imported log data creates an
additional well set that you can select when you build the well model.
Option Names
Option titles in Import Wells and Curves from OW refer to export rather than
import, as this utility is based on PetroWorks Log Data Export.

Imported well curves are resampled them to the resolution you desire
when you build your model. In many cases this means upscaling the
curve to one averaged point per layer in the model.
You can import more than one well and log at a time. You can load any
of the logs for multiple wells, or you can have the program show you
the logs common to the wells you have selected. You have control over
the depth units and mode, and you can limit the logs to specified
depths. You can also designate the depth interval.
To get curve data from OpenWorks into Stratamodel, follow these
general steps:

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1.

Select the wells and log curves.

2.

Choose settings that control depth mode, units, and intervals.

3.

Set the format options and import.

4.

Select the wells when you create a well model. (See “Selecting the
Wells” on page 47 in Creating Displays.)

Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data: Importing Data from OpenWorks

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Select the Wells and Log Curves
To open Import Wells and Curves from OW, select Commands →
Import Wells and Curves from OW. If you have not already selected
an OpenWorks project, interpreter, and well set, you are prompted to do
so. For information on OpenWorks projects, interpreters, and well sets,
see GeoData Management in your OpenWorks manual set.
Import Wells and Curves from OW appears. (This module is identical
to the PetroWorks Log Export Utility except for the choice of formats.)
A popup list of wells may also appear.

You can use the tab and arrow keys to traverse this interface.

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Selecting Wells
Use the Wells panel to choose the wells you want to import.
1.

Select a well from the popup list, if it appears, or select one or
more wells from the Wells list on the left-hand side of the window.
You can use the buttons below the Wells list to help select the
wells.

2.

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Select All — Selects all the wells in the list.
Select None — Clears selection from all wells.

Once you have selected wells, click Apply Selections. The curves
in the selected well files appear in the Log Curves list.

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Selecting Log Curves
Use the Log Curves panel to select the log curves.
1.

If you wish, use the Display Logs Common to Selected Wells
button at the bottom of the Log Curves panel to display only the
common logs. The default is to display all the logs.

Display All the Logs . . . or . . . Display Only Common Logs

2.

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Select one or more logs to import. You can use the selection
buttons below the Log Curves list to help select them.

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Setting Parameters for Importing
Now, set the parameters that will control the following:


depth
format for data
format options

Selecting Depth Options
Use the Options menu and the right panel of the window to select depth
options.

Options Menu

Right Panel of Main Window

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1.

Set the depth mode on the right-hand panel by toggling between
Meters and Feet.

2.

To filter the Units information shown on the right-hand panel, you
can choose a Strat Column for the project. Select Options →
Select Column. Then choose a Strat Column from the list and
click OK.

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Importing and Exporting Data

3.

Choose the depth range from the next three buttons on the panel:

Total Depth Range imports the entire log curve. This range
may vary between logs.

Depth Interval bounds the logs by specified depths. You could
use this option if, for example, your model only occupies a
portion of the range of the logs. If you choose this option,
double-click in the Top Depth and Bottom Depth fields and
enter the ranges you want to use. Press Button 3 in the fields to
see the minimum, maximum, and default values.
When Log Curve Interval Lies Outside Values
If you specify top and base depths that lie outside the log values for a
selected well, the log curve interval that lies outside logged intervals is
imported as nulls.

4.

Unit Selections are available if you have a StratWorks or
PetroWorks project that defines units in the Strat Column
Editor. Import Wells and Curves from OW displays all units
whose bounding surfaces are present in all the selected wells.
You can select one or more units from the list. The resulting
depth interval ranges from the highest to the lowest bounding
surface for the selected units.
If you select Unit Selections, indicate whether the space
between uncontiguous units will be filled with nulls by
checking the box under the list of units.

Choose how to specify a sample depth interval.

Default uses the smallest nonzero depth increment for the
selected log curves. The default is well-specific.

User-specified allows you to specify a sample interval. You
can see the minimum and maximum intervals of the logs by
pressing Button 3 over the entry field.
If you select User-Specified, double-click the field and enter a
number.

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Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data: Importing Data from OpenWorks

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5.

Make a selection from the Options → Depth Mode menu. The
Depth Mode indicates the type of depth for the Depth Interval on
the right-hand side of the screen, not the depth type for importing
data. The log data is always imported with a z value in TVD and a
z' value in MD. Depth Mode instructs Stratamodel to interpret the
top and base depth values in the type of depth you specify.

Measured Depth (MD) is measured along the wellbore and is
always expressed as a positive number. The top depth must be
higher than the base depth.

True Vertical Depth (TVD) is measured perpendicular to a
horizontal surface and is always expressed as a positive
number. The top depth must be higher than the base depth.

True Vertical Depth Sub Sea (TVDSS) is measured
perpendicular to a horizontal surface. Zero depth is at sea level.
Positive values indicated elevations above sea level, and
negative values indicate elevation below sea level.

Choosing the Format for Data
Under Options → Export Format, the only option available for
Stratamodel is SM1.
Stratamodel Deviated Well (SM1) is the standard ASCII format that
Stratamodel uses to import well data. (For more information, see
“Preparing Well Data” on page 57 in Introduction to Stratamodel.)

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Setting Format Options
The import format options name the file with the correct conventions
and control how to handle null values and identify the wells.

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1.

Select Options → Export Format Options.

2.

Optional: To change the destination directory for the files,
double-click the Export Files to Directory field and enter a new
path. Ideally, this should be the path to the Stratamodel project
directory.

3.

Choose either Common Well Name or Unique Well Identifier
(UWI) as the basis for the well’s file name.

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Importing and Exporting Data

4.

Determine how you want to remove or replace restricted characters
in the file name.
• Remove Restricted Characters removes all blanks, quotes,
apostrophes, and slashes.
• Replace Restricted Characters with ‘_’ replaces blanks,
quotes, apostrophes, and slashes with an underscore.
• Replace Restricted Characters with ‘x’ replaces blanks,
quotes, apostrophes, and slashes with an x.

5.

Double-click in the Export File Extension field and enter an
extension for the file. A period is not required, but you should
follow the conventions for file extensions (if any) for your system.
The extension identifies different well sets within Stratamodel, so
a new extension creates a new well set. Using an extension that
already exists in your Stratamodel project adds the imported wells
to the well set with that extension. (For more information, see
“Well Sets” on page 46 in Creating Models.)
Warning About Using Existing Extensions
If an imported well with an existing extension has the same name as an
existing well with that extension, the existing well will be overwritten.

6.

Optional: To change the default null value, enter a new value in the
“In a File, Export Empty or Null Values as” field.

7.

Choose whether to use the common well name or the unique well
identifier for the well’s name. This choice is offered to help
maintain a distinction between wells, since the OpenWorks
common well name need not be unique.
Length of Well Identifier
SM1 format limits the length of the well identifier to 12 characters.

8.

Click OK when you are satisfied with the options.

Importing the Log Curves
Import the curves by clicking the Export Log Curves button. A status
bar shows the progress of the import. If you cancel the operation, the
program continues to load the current well and stops when that well is
loaded.
Exiting Import Wells and Curves from OW
Select File → Exit to exit Import Wells and Curves from OW.
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Points and Grids
You can use Points and Grids to load grids and pointsets created by
other Landmark applications into Stratamodel from the OpenWorks
database. You can also use it to export grids to OpenWorks. This
section of the chapter is concerned with importing points and grids.
Points and Grids can load any grids or pointsets that have been stored in
the OpenWorks database. It converts the grids to .smg format and
pointsets to .xyz format to be used in Stratamodel.
Points will be converted into the same pointset format used by the
Pointset Builder (see “Pointset Format” on page 26).
To import grids or pointsets:
1.

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Select Commands → OW to/from Stratamodel →
Points and Grids from the Stratamodel main menu.

Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data: Importing Data from OpenWorks

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2.

Make sure that the Import OpenWorks Grids/Pointsets button at
the top of the dialog box is pushed in. If it is not, you can either
click it with your mouse or select Edit → Import OpenWorks
Grids/Pointsets from the dialog box menu.

Select the button

Or the menu

3.

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Depending on whether you want to select grids or pointsets (or
both), click the Get Grids List or the Get Pointsets List button.
The program reads the grids and pointsets for the current project
from the database.

Importing and Exporting OpenWorks Data: Importing Data from OpenWorks

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4.

Use the various available selection techniques to select grids and
pointsets from their respective lists:





To select one, click it.
To make contiguous selections, drag your mouse across them.
To make uncontiguous selections, hold down the Control key
and click each one.
To select all, click the Select All button.
To release all your selections, click the Unselect All button.
To reverse your selection, click the Toggle Selection button.

Originally Selected Grids

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After Selecting Toggle

Selection

5.

Once you select grids and pointsets, click the Import Grids or
Import Pointsets button.

6.

Exit Points and Grids by selecting File → Exit.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Exporting Data to OpenWorks
You can export the following data types:

curve data to OpenWorks using Export Curves to OW
grids using Points and Grids

You can also use the Pointset Builder to export any pointsets you built
with it. (See “Building Pointsets” on page 24 for more information.)

Curves
Curves that have been imported into Stratamodel and modeled may
have been resampled to fit the resolution of the model. Using Export
Curves to OW, you can export this curve data to compare the curves to
the original or plot them in StratWorks. You can also use Export Curves
to OW to extract a pseudo well that you created in the 3D display and
plot it on a StratWorks section.
To export curves, follow these s
1.

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From the Stratamodel main menu, select Commands → OW to/
from Stratamodel → Export Curves to OW.

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2.

Open a well model by selecting File → Open in the Well
Correspondence dialog and select the name of a well model. Then
click OK.
The dialog box displays the names of wells and curves.

Match
Button

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3.

Click the Match button to instruct the program to try to match
wells from the Stratamodel Well list to the OpenWorks wells.
When Stratamodel successfully associates wells, the names of the
OpenWorks wells appear in the left pane.

4.

For Stratamodel wells with no match, select the Stratamodel well
name from the left pane by clicking it. The 10mac well is selected
in the previous illustration.

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Importing and Exporting Data

5.

Click the name of the OpenWorks well you want to associate to the
selected Stratamodel well. The OpenWorks well name now
appears in the left pane and an asterisk appears to mark the
associated Stratamodel well.

6.

The Curve Correspondence panel of the dialog box lists the
Stratamodel Curves with their corresponding OpenWorks curves.
Select the curves to export by clicking a curve name, then clicking
the Select button.

The selected curve becomes starred. Use the other selection
buttons to determine further selections.
7.

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Optional: To rename the corresponding OpenWorks curve, enter a
new name in the Corresponding OpenWorks Curve box.

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Importing and Exporting Data

8.

The Depth Units panel shows the units for the OpenWorks well.
This field is read only. Set the Stratamodel depth units by selecting
them from the SGM Depth Units menu.

9.

Choose the type of curve to export by clicking the appropriate
icon. The Continuous icon exports a curve that looks similar to
the original, only it is averaged to the resolution of the Stratamodel
model. The Block icon exports a curve that has one averaged value
for the entire cell interval. The icon with the white background
indicates the selected curve type; the one with the gray background
indicates the unselected curve type.

10. Click Import Log Curves to export the curves.
11. To exit Export Curves to OW, select File → Exit.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Grids
To export grids from Stratamodel to OpenWorks, follow these steps:

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1.

Select Commands → OW to/from Stratamodel →
Points and Grids.

2.

Select the export option by clicking the Export Grids
to OpenWorks button or by selecting Edit → Export Grids
to OpenWorks.

3.

Click the Grid File button and use the file selection box to select a
grid file.

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4.

Select a Depth Type.





TVD — True Vertical Depth
MD — Measured Depth
TVDSS — True Vertical Depth Subsea
TVT — True Vertical Thickness
TST — True Stratigraphic Thickness
None

5.

Select a Geo Type. A strat unit is a zone bounded by two surfaces.

6.

Select a Depth Unit.

7.

Click the Geo Name button to select the name of the surface, unit,
fault, etc. The StrataModel Grids to Export panel on the right side
of the dialog box changes its title to OpenWorks Geo-Name and
lists the choices for that grid. Select a name from that list.

8.

Click the Map Data Set button to choose a pointset. The
right-hand panel now changes its name to OpenWorks
MapDataSet-Name List and lists the available pointset names.
Select one from the list or enter a new pointset name.

9.

Click the Grid Name button. The right-hand panel shows the
available grids that have that type, geo name, and map data set
name. Select a name from that list or enter a new grid name.

10. Click Show Export List button to see what will be exported.
11. Use the buttons below the export list to select grids to export.
12. When you have chosen the grids, click Export Grids.
13. To exit Points and Grids, click File → Exit.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Building Pointsets
The Pointset Builder extracts well data that can be described by points
from the OpenWorks database, which stores data for most Landmark
products. Once the data is extracted, Pointset Builder creates data files
called pointsets from it, extrapolating z values for x, y locations by
calculating them from surrounding points. This data can be used for
surface modeling, data operations, or plotting. Pointsets are sets of x, y,
z values, where the x and y fields indicate the location of the data and
the z field give the value of an attribute.
Many Landmark products create data that can be used for pointsets.

SeisWorks creates horizons and fault polygons.

StratWorks and PetroWorks can write zone attributes to the
database.

Grids and fault polygons can be created inside StratWorks and
written to the database.

Contouring Assistant can also export grids.

You can create pointsets directly in StratWorks mapping.

All of these pointsets can be accessed by Stratamodel. The pointset
bridges these products because pointsets created by any product that
uses the OpenWorks database can be read by any other OpenWorks
product.
Pointset Builder allows you to write data to a table in the database
without changing the values of the original data that you used to build
the pointset.

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Importing and Exporting Data

You can use Pointset Builder to create pointsets from 17 different data
types:
Menu Option

Suboption

View Data From

Load or Create Data With

Paleo

OpenWorks Well Data Manager

OW ASCII Well Loader

Strat Unit Attributes

OW Well Data Manager

OW ASCII Well Loader

Strat Unit Isochores

DST/RFT

OW Surface/Fault Manager
StratWorks Strat Column Editor
General

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Completion

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Fault

OW Surface/Fault Manager

OW Surface/Fault Manager
StratWorks
Seisworks
Stratamodel

Header

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager
OW ASCII Well Loader

Perforation

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Pick

OW Surface/Fault Manager

OW ASCII Well Loader
OW Well Data Manager
StratWorks Correlation

Pressure

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Surface Elevation

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Test

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Total Depth

OW Well Data Manager

OW ASCII Well Loader
StratWorks

Volume Record

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager

Zone

OW Well Data Manager

OW Well Data Manager
OW ASCII Well Loader

Pressure
Summary
Well

Well Production

Open Landmark Pointset Builder by selecting Commands → OW to/
from Stratamodel → Pointset Builder.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Aliasing
You can use aliasing in the pointset for picks and isochores. For
example, you may know that interpreter AMZ calls the ASAND
formation, ASANDTOP. By aliasing ASANDTOP to ASAND, the
module knows that ASAND and ASANDTOP refer to the same
formation. Therefore, if you don’t have an ASAND in a given well, but
you do have an ASANDTOP, ASANDTOP will be included in the
pointset.
Note that all of the profiles for ASAND will be accessed any time you
include profiles, regardless of where they were created.

Pointset Format
The file that Pointset Builder exports for use by Stratamodel looks like
the following:
!ow_point_set
!This file contains data for the L. BALMEI SURFACE.
#X - FIELD
Y - FIELD
SSTVD
WELL NAME
DATA SOURCE
624350.000000,5758380.000000,-7053.201172,1,FLOUNDER-1,JOE
626375.000000,5757515.000000,-6853.197754,2,FLOUNDER-2,JOE
628640.000000,5758140.000000,-7216.395508,3,FLOUNDER-3,JOE
630835.500000,5759084.500000,-6756.055664,4,FLOUNDER-4,JOE
626675.000000,5759125.000000,-7095.562012,6,FLOUNDER-5,JOE
625520.000000,5757835.000000,-6757.345703,7,FLOUNDER-6,JD

WELL ID

The fields are separated by commas and labeled by a header that must
include an identifier (!ow_point_set) that indicates to the program that
it is a pointset and an SSTVD (or MD) field. Once a pointset file is
imported into Stratamodel for viewing, Stratamodel looks for the depth
field (SSTVD or MD) You can display any data in the pointset, and
Stratamodel positions it using the SSTVD or MD field.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Creating Pointsets
This section explains the general procedure for building pointsets. It
then is broken up by data type to explain the parameters that are
particular to each type.
General Procedure
The procedure for building a pointset follows.

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1.

Set the depth units by selecting File → Depth Units. The choices
are feet or meters.

2.

Set the output specifications by selecting File →
Output Specifications.

3.

You can send output to one or more of three products: RAVE,
Stratamodel, or OpenWorks. For RAVE data, you can also send the
pointsets by writing to a file and by PDing directly into the
program. Choose your output destinations by clicking one or more
of the check boxes.

4.

If you send pointsets to RAVE or Stratamodel and you want to
send the data to a directory other than that shown on the
corresponding directory file buttons, click the buttons and use the
filter dialog box to pick the correct directory.

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The Stratamodel format will create a file with an .xyz extension.
This file can then be used in Show Displays or StrataMap in
Stratamodel. Use Show Displays to visualize the data and
StrataMap to grid it.

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5.

When you have chosen all the Output Specifications, click OK.

6.

From the Pointsets menu, select the data type for building a
pointset.

7.

A dialog box appears containing the parameters for that particular
data type. The following example is the dialog box for Paleo data.

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In general, the dialog boxes and reasons for selections for data
types are the same. The differences are:

Each data type has different filters. Aside from general
categories of filters referring to features of the data (such as
Strat Unit, Surface, etc.), some data types can also be filtered
by date.

Depending on the data type, some dialog boxes do not have the
panel called Filter Results, which tells how many wells contain
data with the filters you applied and how many of those wells
have duplicate data.

Each data type has different pointset fields that you can select.
You can select multiple fields.

There may be fewer options in the Output Controls.

Each data type use specific rules to determiine what is First
and Last for duplicate resolution methods.

The first step in selecting the parameters for the data type is to
choose the filters from those that are specfic to the data type. For
more information about the use of filters and the filters employed
by each data type, see “Filters” on page 33.
8.

Select the Features to Include for the appropriate data types.
Features to Include are generally attributes of a pick. Features
categorize picks, usually to distinguish multiple picks caused by
reversed faulting. So, for example, if in the Stratigraphic Unit B
Sand, you had features designating Upper Fault Block and Lower
Fault Block, selecting Upper Fault Block would filter out the lower
fault block from being used to build the pointset.

9.

You can indicate Qualifiers to Include if it is an option. You may
have specified these qualifiers for the unit’s bounding picks.

10. If the Filter Results panel is available, after selecting or changing
any of the values for the Filters, click the Calculate button. The
values for Wells with Data and Wells with Duplicates will be
displayed for data included in the currently active well list.

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Importing and Exporting Data

11. In the Output Controls panel, choose from a list of Pointset Fields.
These are the actual fields that will be exported. For more
information, see “Pointset Fields” on page 38.
12. If the selected Pointset fields include any of the Depth z fields, then
the Pointset Creation Option allows you to select what data to
incorporate into the pointset, including picks, StratWorks fault
segments, and SeisWorks fault planes. Aliases apply picks from
surfaces aliased to the selected surface. Aliases are defined in
StratWorks Strat Column Editor.

For Strat Unit Isochores, choose whether to use aliases:

For Faults, choose whether to use picks, fault segments, or a
SeisWorks fault model. You can choose more than one.

Use Picks — Fault picks are interpreted in StratWorks Cross
Section and Correlation for the selected surface..
Use Segments — Segments (formerly called fault profiles) are
interpreted in StratWorks Cross Section for the selected fault
pick. For Use Segments, the pointset is created by merging
selected picks and segments.
Use SeisWorks Fault Segments — This option uses fault
segments created in SeisWorks.

For Picks, choose whether to use picks or segments and
whether to use aliases. You can choose more than one.

Use Picks — Picks are interpreted in StratWorks Cross Section
and Correlation for the selected surface.
Use Aliases — Aliases apply picks from surfaces aliased to the
selected surface, and they are defined in the StratWorks Strat
Column Editor.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Use Segments†— Segments (formerly called profiles) are
interpreted in StratWorks Cross Section for the selected
surface. For Use Segments, the pointset is created by merging
selected picks and segments.
13. Choose an X,Y Location Mode. Only one X/Y location is
included with each pointset. You can use the top location, base
location, or a point halfway down the well trace (middle).

14. Pointset Name provides an opportunity to name the pointset that
will result from the program. You can accept the default name, or
you can click the button to select another name or rename it.

15. Choose an Output Stratigraphic Unit. Output Stratigraphic Unit
sets the geoname (surface, stratigraphic unit, fault) for the pointset
that is being created. The geoname ties the data in the pointset to
the data model.

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Importing and Exporting Data

16. Select a method for resolving duplicates, if one is required. When
wells have a more than one entry that meet the filter criteria, you
may select which entry to use.

Both Deepest and Shallowest relate to the depth of the geologic
feature. First and Last are supposed to refer to the order in which
well tests were made. However, depending on data type, that
information is not always available. For an explanation of the rules
the program uses to determine which is first and last, see “First and
Last Duplicate Resolution Methods” on page 43.
17. Check the File Identifier information at the bottom of the dialog
box to see if it is correct. File Identifier indicates what the full
pointset identifier name will look like in application selection
boxes. This field is read only and will automatically update as filter
and output selections are made.

In the above example

GeoName is the name of the selected stratigraphic unit.

Geo Type is defined as a STRAT_UNIT; this parameter is
automatically set.

Dataset Name is the Pointset Name.

Type references the type of data.

Interp references the interpreter’s initials; LGC is the
interpreter for all data forms that are not interpreter based.

18. Export the pointset: Click OK to export and close the dialog box
or click Apply to export the data, but leave the dialog box open to
make other choices.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Filters
Generating a pointset that contains duplicate data is a concern if you
are dealing with nondeterministic data forms such as Paleo, Zone
Attribute, Well Test, Drill Stem Test/Repeat Formation Test, Well
Completion, Well Perforation, Well Pressure and Well Production.
Unlike picks and faults which are uniquely identified by an interpreter’s
initials, non-deterministic data forms have no key fields that uniquely
identify them to the database. By filtering these data forms, you can
uniquely identify the data that you want to map.
For Example:
When creating a Well Test pointset, you may choose to filter by the
Blue Production zone. Since the Blue Production zone is not a key
field, it doesn’t uniquely define the pointset. You may have three Blue
Production Zones in your well. When you press the Calculate Button,
the application calculates that 100 wells have a well test in the Blue
Zone. It also calculates that five of these wells have more than one Well
Test in the Blue Zone.
To uniquely identify the points you want, you may choose to select the
Field filter. When you press the Calculate button after specifying that
you only want to see the wells that are in the James Field in the Blue
zone, you find that there are only 35 wells instead of 100. This may
eliminate all of your duplicates.
For Data Forms with only One Formation as Top
Data forms that only have one formation as top do not have to be filtered.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Deterministic - uses
source priority
Fault
Pick
Surface Elevation
Total Depth

Non-Deterministic - items that have filters cannot be
associated with a user’s interpreter initials
Paleo
Zone Attribute
Well Test
Drill Stem Test: General, Summary and Pressure
Well Test
Well Completion
Well Perforation
Well Pressure
Well Production Zone
Well Production Volume Record

Deterministic versus Non-Deterministic Data Forms
Aside from the filters for characteristics of data, there are also filters
based on the date range you want to cover.

Filters based on Data Characteristics
You can use one or more filters to uniquely identify the data you want
to use to create the pointset. The default for most filters is <ANY>,
which means that for that particular type of filter, the program uses all
available choices.

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Importing and Exporting Data

The following table lists and comments on the characteristics of each
data type you can filter:
Menu Option

Suboption

Filters

Comments, if Application

Paleo

Stratigraphic Unit
Genus
Species
Ecozone
Indicated Environment

Strat Unit Attributes

Stratigraphic Unit
Strat Unit Attribute
Interpretation Method
Interpretation Units
Unit Descriptions
Features to Include

Are petrophysical or other types of data,
such as porosity or permeability, that
have been averaged over a stratigraphic
unit (created in the OpenWorks Surface/
Fault Manager or the StratWorks Strat
Column Editor).
See Step 8 on page 29 for more information about Features to Include.

Strat Unit Isochores

Unit
Column Name
Top Surface
Base Surface
Features to Include
Qualifiers to Include
Confidence Factor
Input Curve
Curve Thresholding

Thickness data for units created in the
OpenWorks Surface/Fault Editor or
StratWorks Strat Column Editor.
See Step 8 on page 29 for more information about Features to Include.
See Step 9 on page 29 for more information about Qualifiers to Include.
Input Curve lists the curves that you
loaded with the OpenWorks ASCII
Loader. An Input Curve is required if
you output Curve Sum, Arithmetic Average, Geometric Average, or Harmonic
Average for Pointset Fields.
Curve Thresholding allows you to select
multiple thresholds to filter from gross
unit thickness to some net value. For
example, a net thickness curve may be
defined by a GR curve and an arbitrary
API cutoff.

General

Stratigraphic Unit
Test Type

Pressure

Stratigraphic Unit
Test Type
Recorder Number

Summary

Stratigraphic Unit
Test Type
Recorder Number

Drill Stem Test and Repeat Formation
Test data loaded using the OpenWorks
Well Data Manager. These tests are evaluation tools that help determine the
potential of a reservoir before completing a well.
Here, Stratigraphic Unit refers to a formation, or interval, in which the test was
performed.

DST/RFT

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Menu Option
Well

Well Production

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Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption

Filters

Comments, if Application

Completion

Stratigraphic Unit
Completion Type
Completion Method
Current Status

Fault

Fault Name
Features to Include
Confidence Factor

Header

none

Perforation

Stratigraphic Unit
Perforation Type

Pick

Surface
Features to Include
Qualifiers to Include
Confidence Factor

See Step 8 on page 29 for more information about Features to Include.

Pressure

Field
Pool
Stratigraphic Unit
Pressure Type

Field, Pool, and Stratigraphic Unit indicate where the pressures were taken.
Pressure Type refers to the type of test.

Surface Elevation

Elevation Type

Elevation Type indicates the zero point
for locating data in the well.

Test

Field
Pool
Stratigraphic Unit
Test Type

Total Depth

Total Depth Type
Formation at Total Depth

Volume Record

Zone
Activity Type
Producer or Injector
Production Type
Period Type

Zone refers to the geologic unit or
formation where the production
information was recovered. A well
production zone has a single pressure
system and does not communicate with
other zones.

Zone

Zone
Field
Pool
Stratigraphic Unit
Operator

Zone refers to the geologic unit or formation where the production information
was recovered. A well production zone
has a single pressure system and does not
communicate with other zones.

See Step 8 on page 29 for more information about Features to Include.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Filters based on Date Range
Another way to filter your data is to set the date mode to reflect the time
range you want the data to cover. These dates represent the date that the
paleo sample was taken.

You can choose from these options:

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Most Recent, which takes the most recent information. Oldest
Date and Youngest Date buttons are inactive when this option is
selected.

Explicit, which allows you to select a specific date by activating
the Oldest Date button. Click that button and choose a specific
date.

Oldest in Range, which creates pointsets from the first data
encountered in a range of dates. For example, if you knew
completion tests were taken in the first six months of 1962, you
would pick a range of January 1962 to June 1962. Oldest in
Range activates both the Oldest Date and Youngest Date
buttons.

Youngest in Range, which works the same as Oldest in Range,
but it takes the last occurrence of the data within the date range.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Pointset Fields
The Pointset Fields (the data Pointset Builder uses to construct the
pointset) are specific to the data type:
Menu Option
Paleo

Strat Unit
Attributes
(called Depth
Fields rather than
Pointset Fields)

Strat Unit Isochores

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Suboption

Pointset Field
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST Thickness
TVT Thickness
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TVT Thickness
TST Thickness
Curve Sum
Arithmetic Average
Geometric Average
Harmonic Average
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
Unit Name

Comments
Measured Depth
True Vertical Depth
True Vertical Depth Subsea

True Stratigraphic Thickness
True Vertical Thickness

True Stratigraphic Thickness
True Vertical Thickness

True Vertical Thickness; dip information required for TVT and TST
input curve required
input curve required
input curve required
input curve required

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Menu Option
DST/RFT

DST/RFT (cont.)

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Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption
General

Pointset Field

Comments

DST Drill Col Len
DST Drill Col Dia
DST Drill Pipe Len
DST Drill Pipe Dia
DST Water Loss
DST Mud Weight
RFT Chamber Size
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
base depth in MD
base depth in TVD
base depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT

Length of the drill column
Diameter of the drill column
Length of the drill pipe
Inner diameter of the drill pipe
Water loss before test
Weight of the mud before test
Size of the chamber in gallons
Top depth of the tested interval

Pressure

Recorder Cap
First Init Flow Press
First Fin Flow Press
First Si Press
Second Init Flow Press
Second Fin Flow Press
Second Si Press
Fin Init Flow Press
Fin Fin Flow Press
Fin Si Press
Fin Si BHP
Ihp Mud
Fhp Mud
Surf Choke
Bot Choke
Sampler Press
Press Gradient
Equiv Mud Weight
Formation Pressure

Recorder pressure capability
Pressure at 1st opening of the tool
Final flow pressure
Pressure during first shut-in period
Pressure at 2nd opening of the tool
Final pressure during 2nd period
Pressure during 2nd shut-in period
Last initial flow pressure
Final flow pressure measured
Final shut-in pressure
Final shut-in bottomhole pressure
Initial hydrostatic pressure
Final hydrostatic pressure
Surface choke size
Downhole choke size
Pressure of the sampler
Pressure Gradient
Weight equiv. to sample pressure
Formation pressure

Summary

Potentiometric Surface
Productivity Index
Effective Transfer
Net Productive Interval
Estimated Porosity
Gas Oil Ratio
Estimated Permeability
Effective Permeability
Estimated Damage Ratio

Calculated test results
.
.
.
.

Bottom of the tested interval

dip information required
dip information required

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Menu Option
Well

Well (cont.)

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Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption

Pointset Field

Completion

Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT

Fault

Fault Name
Heave
Vertical Separation
Fault Dip Angle
Fault Dip Azimuth
Repeat Below
MD
TVD
SSTVD

Header

Latitude
Longitude
Latitude BH
Longitude BH
X Coord BH
Y Coord BH
Elevation
Total Depth in MD
Total Depth in TVD
Total Depth in SSTVD
Plugged Back TD in MD
Plugged Back TD in TVD
Plugged Back TD in SSTVD

Perforation

Comments

Latitude at bottomhole
Longitude at bottomhole
X coordinate at bottomhole
Y coordinate at bottomhole

Perforation Density
Perforation Diameter
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TST
TVT

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Menu Option

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Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption

Pointset Field

Pick

Surface Name
Dip Angle
Dip Azimuth
MD
TVD
SSTVD

Pressure

Initial Reservoir Press
Well Datum Depth
Shutin Tubing Press
Shutin Casing Press
Pool Datum Depth
Flow Tubing Press
Flow Casing Press
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT

Surface Elevation

N/A

Comments

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Menu Option
Well (cont.)

Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption
Test

Rat Hole Diam
Rat Hole Length
Report Temp
Test Hole Diam
Test TD
BSW PCT
Max Gas Flow Rate
Caliper Hole Diam
Max Water Flow Rate
Max Oil Flow Rate
Max Hydrostatic Press
Casing Press
Condensate Flow Amt
Condensate Ratio
Flow Press
Flow Temp
Gas Flow Amt
GOR
H2S PCT
Oil Flow Amt
Oil Gravity
Test Duration
Static Press
Well Cut Pct
Water Flow Amt
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT

Total Depth

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Pointset Field

Comments
Rat hole diameter

% of bottom sediment and water

Gas/Oil ratio
% of hydrogen sulfide in oil

Measured Depth
True Vertical Depth
Sub-sea True Vertical Depth

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Menu Option
Well Production

Importing and Exporting Data
Suboption

Pointset Field

Volume Record

Volume
Period On
Volume Quality

Zone

Rated WellHD Press
Unit Oil Interest
Unit Gas Interest
Daily Oil Allowed
Daily Gas Allowed
App WellHD Press
Top Depth in MD
Top Depth in TVD
Top Depth in SSTVD
Base Depth in MD
Base Depth in TVD
Base Depth in SSTVD
MD Thickness
TVD Thickness
TST
TVT

Comments

First and Last Duplicate Resolution Methods
First and Last are supposed to be the first and last test made in the
well; however, depending on which fields are available in the database,
it is not always possible to make this determination. In cases where the
data type has a test number, the test number is used to determine which
test was first and which one was last. In cases where no test number
exists, then if there is a test date or start date, it is used. If there is no
other way of determining which test was actually made first, the date
the data was entered into the database is used (Create Date). The
assumption, which is not always correct, is that data for tests that were
run first are entered into the database first.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Each data type uses its own rules to determine the order of the tests.
These rules are the fields in the database the program checks for data.
The following table contains information about the tests:
Menu Option

Suboption

Rule

Paleo

Paleo Date, with Create Date as a fall back

Strat Unit Attributes

N/A

Strat Unit Isochores
DST/RFT

General

DST/RFT Test Number

Pressure
Summary
Well

Completion

Completion Observation Number

Fault

N/A

Header

Well Production

Perforation

Perforation Observation Number

Pick

N/A

Pressure

Test Number with Create Date as a fall back

Surface Elevation

Create Date

Test

Test Number

Total Depth

Create Date

Volume Record

Volume Start Date and Volume End Date with Create Date as a
fall back

Zone

Create Date

Exiting Pointset Builder
To exit Pointset Builder, select File → Exit.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing and Exporting Grids
Overview
The stratigraphic framework model, which provides the basic
framework for your entire project, is constructed from horizons and is
typically defined based on “tops,” or surfaces, picked from well logs or
seismic reflections. These surfaces are generated along important
formation tops and bases or define correlation patterns within
geological units. This information is part of the interpretation needed to
define the overall stratigraphic framework for the model.
You import these surfaces as grids generated by mapping packages
such as Z-MAP Plus or StrataModel’s StrataMap. Import Grids
contains programs for importing grids for use by Stratamodel and for
exporting grids created in StrataMap or used in Stratamodel. It also
contains a program for viewing your Stratamodel grid files.

Importing Grids
Use Import Grids to import external (ASCII, CPS3® binary, and
Z-MAP Plus MFD) surface grids representing sequences of similar
depositional, diagenetic, or structural events into Stratamodel's internal
binary format to build events, horizons, or faults.
A control file is used to define how the external grid is read and
converted into Stratamodel's internal format. If you have more than one
type of grid file to import, you will need to create a control file for each
type.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Exporting Grids
You can use Export Grids to export grids for use in mapping packages
such as Z-MAP Plus or Radian’s CPS™. You can also use the program
to make a few changes in the grid, such as filling in null areas.
The Export Grids Control File contains the information Stratamodel
uses to export binary (.smg) grids into ASCII .grd files, binary CPS3
.svs grids, and binary Z-MAP Plus MFD files. Stratamodel only
exports the Z values, not the column, row, x or y values. The .grd files
can be read with any UNIX editor, the more command, or cat.

Stratamodel’s Treatment of Grids
This section provides explanations on the requirements for grids.

Rules for Grids
Grids you import to use for creating a stratigraphic framework model
must follow these rules:

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Each grid type should be in a separate file.

Grid z values should represent elevation, not depth.

Time should be expressed as negative to represent elevation.

All grids should have the same origin and the same number of grid
rows and columns to be used in the same model. StrataMap can
resample the grids to the same specifications. See the StrataMap
User Guide for more information.

The x and y gridding increment should be consistent for every grid
in the model. The increment can also be correcting using
StrataMap.

The grid increment determines the lateral resolution of the cells.
Therefore, the grid increment must be small enough to realize
sufficient resolution in the model. It is the final grid increment,
after smoothing in your grid package, that must be used in the
control file.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Grid Format
You must know the grid format, in particular whether it is column or
row oriented, to correctly fill out the Import Grids Control File. This is
because Import Grids reads grids from the x, y origin, either by row or
by column. The information about how your grid is output to the grid
file is usually provided by your mapping package.
Avoiding Errors
Make sure you use the most current values for the grid.
Correct Grid Format for Some Standard Grids
For Z-MAP Plus and Radian's CPS® grids, use a column-oriented grid type and
reverse the rows. Program defaults are set for these grids.

Examine the following grid file and the examples that follow to see how
column and row orientation affect the reading of grid values.

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-5000

-5020

-5034

-5045

-5055

Record 1

-5004

-5025

-5038

-5046

-5054

Record 2

-5007

-5028

-5040

-5048

-5059

Record 3

-5012

-5030

-5041

-5055

-5065

Record 4

-5020

-5035

-5044

-5060

-5070

Record 5

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Importing and Exporting Data

If the example file is read in by column, it produces a grid like the
following example.
Column Oriented Grids

-5055

5

If the values in the grid file are
imported to column 1, row 1;
column 1, row 2; column 1, row 3,
etc., then the grid is
column-oriented.

-5045

4

Rows

Arrows indicate the direction the grid is
read, starting from the origin.

-5070

-5060

-5034

3

-5020

-5025

-5000

-5004

2
1
1

2

3

4

5

Columns

If the example file is read in by row, it produces a grid like the
following example.
Row Oriented Grids

5

If the values in the grid file are
imported to column 1, row 1;
column 2, row 1; column 3, row 1;
etc., then the grid is row-oriented.

-5060

-5070

-5045

-5055

4

Rows

3

-5004

-5025

-5000

-5020

2
1
1

2

-5034
3

4

5

Columns

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Importing and Exporting Data

Because of the differences in the way data is placed into a grid between
current mapping packages, you may need to reverse the grid rows,
columns, or both.
Grid Orientation
Changing how the data is read by reversing grid rows or columns does not affect
the original orientation of the grid; it just changes which value is read in first and
how the rest of the values are placed so that the .smg representation of your grid is
positioned accurately.

In the following examples, the row-column origin is indicated by the
black dot . The origin indicates where the first value in the grid file is
placed. The first value in your grid file may or may not be the first one
imported to the .smg grids. For example, Z-MAP Plus ® and Radian's
CPS® produce grids with the origin in the upper-left corner that are
column-oriented. The row-column and x, y origins for Stratamodel’s
.smg grids, on the other hand, are always in the lower left corner of the
grid. So, when grids from these packages are imported, they are
imported as column-oriented and the rows are reversed (the default).
If you use another mapping package besides Zycor’s or Radian’s, use
the following examples to determine the orientation of your grids so
that after the import process the grid’s row-column origin is in the
lower left and is column-oriented.

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The examples below illustrate all the possible combination of grid type
and row-column reversal.
Output File from Mapping Package

Output File from Mapping Package

-100

-105

-110

-111

-115

-100

-102

-104

-106

-102

-107

-112

-115

-117

-105

-107

-109

-111

-104

-109

-114

-115

-119

-110

-112

-114

-116

-106

-111

-116

-117

-999

-111

-115

-115

-117

-115

-117

-119

-999

Grid type Column oriented
Input Grid Null Value: -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Do Not Reverse Columns

Grid type Row oriented
Input Grid Null Value: -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Do Not Reverse Columns
If You Do Not Reverse the Rows or Columns...

for a Columnoriented grid ...

Rows

for a Roworiented grid ...

Stratamodel’s .smg
grid will look like this.

5

5

5

4

4

4

3

Rows

2
1

Rows

2
1

2

3

Columns

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3

4

1

2

3

Columns

4

-117

-119

-999

-111

-115

-115

-117

-110

-112

-114

-116

-105

-107

-109

-111

-100

-102

-104

-106

3
2

1

-115

1

1

2

3

4

Columns

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Importing and Exporting Data

Output File from Mapping Package

Output File from Mapping Package
-115

-111

-110

-105

-100

-115

-117

-119

-999

-117

-115

-112

-107

-102

-111

-115

-115

-117

-119

-115

-114

-109

-104

-110

-112

-114

-116

-999

-117

-116

-111

-106

-105

-107

-109

-111

-100

-102

-104

-106

Zycor’s Z-MAP and Radian’s CPS Grids

Grid type: Row oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Reverse Rows
Do Not Reverse Columns

Grid type: Column oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Reverse Rows
Do Not Reverse Columns

If You Reverse the Grid Rows...

for a
Column-Oriented

Rows

Stratamodel’s .smg Grid
Will Look Like This.

for a RowOriented Grid ...

1

1

5

2

2

4

3

Rows

4
5

1

2

3

Columns

The

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4

3

Rows

2

5

1

2

3

4

-117

-119

-999

-111

-115

-115

-117

-110

-112

-114

-116

-105

-107

-109

-111

-100

-102

-104

-106

3

4

1

-115

1

2

Columns

3

4

Columns

represents the location of the row-column origin of the grids.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Output File from Mapping Package

Output File from Mapping Package
-106

-111

-116

-117

-999

-106

-104

-102

-100

-104

-109

-114

-115

-119

-119

-111

-109

-107

-102

-107

-112

-115

-117

-117

-116

-114

-112

-100

-105

-110

-111

-115

-110

-100

-105

-110

-999

-119

-117

-115

Grid type: Column oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Reverse Columns

Grid type: Row oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Reverse Columns

If You Reverse the Grid Columns...

for a Columnoriented grid ...

Rows

Stratamodel’s .smg grid
will look like this.

for a Roworiented grid ...

5

5

5

4

4

4

3

Rows

2
1

4

3

2

Columns

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1

3

Rows

2

1

1

3

2

Columns

1

-117

-119

-999

-111

-115

-115

-117

-110

-112

-114

-116

-105

-107

-109

-111

-100

-102

-104

-106

3

2

4

-115

1

2

3

4

Columns

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Importing and Exporting Data

Output File from Mapping Package

Output File from Mapping Package
-999

-117

-116

-111

-106

-999

-119

-117

-115

-119

-115

-114

-109

-104

-117

-115

-115

-111

-117

-117

-112

-107

-102

-116

-114

-112

-110

-115

-111

-110

-105

-100

-111

-109

-107

-105

-106

-104

-102

-100

Grid type: Column oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Reverse Columns

Grid type: Row oriented
Input Grid Null Value -999
Do Not Reverse Rows
Reverse Columns

If You Reverse Both the Rows and Columns...

for a Columnoriented grid ...

Rows

Stratamodel’s .smg
grid will look like this.

for a Roworiented grid ...

1

1

5

2

2

4

3

Rows

4
5

4

3

2

Columns

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1

3

Rows

2

5

1

3

2

Columns

1

-117

-119

-999

-111

-115

-115

-117

-110

-112

-114

-116

-105

-107

-109

-111

-100

-102

-104

-106

3

4

4

-115

1

2

3

4

Columns

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing Grids
This topic contains information about the following subjects:

Stratamodel’s Treatment of Grids — guidelines for grids to be
imported, formats of grids, and information on limiting grids

Required Parameters — information on the parameters required

Importing ASCII Grids — instructions for importing ASCII
grids

Importing Binary Grids — instructions for importing binary
grids

Required Parameters
To build an Import Grids control file, you need to know the following:

the names of the grid files — (default extension is .grd)

grid type — column or row oriented (default is column oriented);
Z-MAP Plus and Radian CPS are column oriented

grid NULL value (default is 1E+30)

the orientation of the grid rows and whether to reverse or not
reverse them (default is Reverse Grid Rows); for Z-MAP Plus
and Radian CPS reverse grid rows

the orientation of the grid columns and whether to reverse or not
reverse them (default is Do Not Reverse Grid Columns); for
Z-MAP Plus and Radian CPS do not reverse the grid columns

x, y origins and increments

number of rows and columns

number of header lines in the grid file

grid data format

limits of the external grid
Location of Grid Files
It is easier to keep track of your files if they are in the project directory, but this
version of Stratamodel is able to pull in grid files from any directory you have
access to. Once they are imported, the binary versions of the grids are kept in the
project directory.

If you need help, click the Help button at the bottom of the window.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing ASCII Grids
You can import grids from any directory you have access to, but it is
preferable to locate the grid files in the project directory. Importing the
grids converts them to suitable binary format for Stratamodel to use and
stores them as .smg files in the project directory.
Important
Make sure the data represents the most current grid from the gridding package.

You will need the following information about the grids from your
gridding package:





x-y origin and x-y increment
number of rows and columns
number of lines in the header
origin’s location on grid (lower or upper left, lower or upper right)
the format of the data
the grid null value
Naming ASCII Grids
The default extension for ASCII grids to be input is .grd.

The Import Grids Control File contains information about the layout of
your external ASCII grids that Stratamodel uses to convert these grids
into the Stratamodel’s internal binary format (.smg).
If you are starting a new project, you must create a control file. If you
have an existing project, you can use the current control file, create a
new control file from an existing control file, or create a new empty
control file. For more information on control files, see “Choosing or
Creating a Control File” on page 29 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Selecting and Describing the Grids
1.

Select Commands → Import Grid(s) → ASCII Grid(s)
(Defer Execution or Save & Execute).

2.

Select or create a control file and click OK.
If the control file you selected upon entering the program was one
you created previously, the parameters in the Import Grids dialog
box will be those you previously set.
Use your information about the grids to complete the parameters
in the Import Grids dialog box.

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Importing and Exporting Data

3.

Enter list of Grid File Names selects the grids for import. The
grids should be in the project directory and should have the same
extensions. Click the Enter list of Grid File Names.

The Import Grids Control File - Grid Names window displays a
list of all files with a .grd extension in your project directory.
Select the files you want to import

4.

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If you are not using the .grd as your grid file extension,
change the File Filter field to your grid file extension and click
the Filter button to display your grid files.

You can select the files individually or select all files in the
directory at once as described in the introduction.

Use the radio push-buttons under the list to add files, select all
the files in the directory or delete files.

When you have selected the grids to import, Click OK.

Importing and Exporting Grids: Importing Grids

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Importing and Exporting Data

5.

Select the grid type by clicking the Column-oriented Grid Type
or Row-oriented Grid Type radio button.

The default type is Column-oriented, for Z-MAP Plus or Radian
CPS grids. If you have another gridding package, the information
at the beginning of this chapter will help you determine if the grids
are column or row-oriented.
6.

Stratamodel needs to know the origin of the import grids.
Stratamodel assumes that the origin is in the lower left-hand corner
of the grid and that columns (x) increase left to right while rows (y)
increase bottom to top. However, the x, y origin of the grids can be
in any one of four corners. By telling Stratamodel to reverse the
rows, columns, or both, you can match the imported grids to
Stratamodel’s orientation.

Defaults for Zycor’s Z-MAP® and Radian’s CPS® are Reverse
Grid Rows, Do Not Reverse Grid Columns.
“Grid Format” on page 47 illustrates the eight possible grid
combinations in Stratamodel.
Click the appropriate radio button to reflect your data’s origin.
7.

For Enter Grid NULL Value, set the NULL value to be used
while reading your grid data. This option accepts any value that
conforms to the FORTRAN format statement used in Input Grid
Data Format. The value can be negative or positive. If an
exponential format was used in outputting the grids, then any large
null value may be referred to in exponential format here.

Examples include 99999, -99999, 1.0E+31, etc.
Place the cursor in the Enter Grid NULL Value input field and
enter a value or use the current default.

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Importing and Exporting Data

8.

The x and y minimum values define the origin of your grids. These
values can be any real number, but they must be in the same map /
units and map scale.

Click each input field and enter the x and y values.
Dimension Limitations for Importing Several Grids
The following parameters refer to the dimensions of your grids as they come
from your mapping package. All grids in the same project must have the same
x, y origin, x, y increment, number of columns and rows, and number of header
records to be imported by the same control file.

9.

The x and y increments define the spacing of rows and columns on
the import grids. These values can be any positive real numbers.
While they need not be the same, they must be in the same map
units as each other and as the x origin and y origin.

The x and y increments must reflect the final grid intervals of the
gridding package. If a smoothing operation was performed on the
grid with a corresponding grid interval reduction, the x and y
increments should reflect those values.
Click in the Enter X-Increment/Y-Increment for Grid(s) fields and
enter the increments for the grid.

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Importing and Exporting Data

10. You must use integers to define the number of rows and columns
of data defined in the 2D grid. To calculate
((Xmax - Xmin)/Xinc) + 1 = number of columns
((Ymax - Ymin)/Yinc) + 1 = number of rows

Click each input field and enter the number of grid columns or
rows.
11. Stratamodel must know how many lines are in the import grid
header, if it exists, so that it knows where to start reading actual
grid data. Stratamodel locates the first values of the data by
reading the first record after the header records.

Click the Enter Number of Header Lines in Grid(s) Files field and
enter the number of header records (number of lines of ASCII text
which is not considered raw data).
12. For Enter Grid(s) Data Format, Stratamodel uses the data format,
expressed as a standard FORTRAN statement, to locate and read
the z data correctly. Each grid file must have the same format.
Refer to “Creating Fortran Format Statements” on page 49 in
Introduction to Stratamodel for how to use the Create Fortran
Format window.

If your grid files have x and y data in addition to z data, that x, y
data can be skipped over during the import process by using the
appropriate format statement.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Limiting the Grids

You can limit ASCII grids you are importing by row and column or by
x and y values; and/or by z values. If your grids are very large or if you
have a specific area of interest to model, you may want to limit them as
they are imported.
Currently, Stratamodel can import grids up to 999 rows by 999
columns. Large grids demand much more of the hardware’s resources;
therefore, the smaller the grids the easier it is to manipulate the displays
and perform operations on the grids.

Row and Column Limits
If the row and column convention is used to limit incoming grids, the
limited grids may have different row and column values from the
originals. If, for example, the original grids are 400 rows by 300
columns and limits are set to read only columns 100 to 300 and rows 1
to 200 (lower-right portion of the grids), then the portions of the grids
that now remain are renumbered so that the lower left-hand corner is
row 1, column 1 and the rows and columns extend to 200.

Rows

Original Grid Size

Imported Grid Size

New Origin = 200
1

1
Old Origin

1

1

Columns

Therefore, if further limits were to be set in the Stratigraphic
Framework control file using row and column, the limits would be
based on row and column values between 1 and 200.
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Importing and Exporting Data

X, Y Limits
Limiting grids by x and y, on the other hand, maintains the original
values throughout. This method also limits the grid at grid rows and
columns even if the x and y value entered is not exactly at a grid node.
The resulting grid is always at least as large as the x and y value
entered.

Procedure
1.

Click the Limit the Grid(s) button.
The Import Grids Set Limits window appears.

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2.

Click Yes, limit data using following values.

3.

Click the appropriate fields and enter data for limiting your grids
by x, y values or rows and columns. You must be familiar with the
grid to enter meaningful values.

4.

Click OK.

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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing or Saving
1.

Once you finish entering all the parameters, click the Import
button (in Save and Execute) to import the grids or the Save button
(in Defer Execution) to store the control file for future use.
The Importing and Converting Grids dialog box displays a list of
the converted grids.

If the program encounters a formatting error, the following
message appears:
#281
Error occurred reading data from formatted file.
Probable causes:
(1) encountered data record with incorrect format
(2) format specified is incorrect
Error reading the following file:
filename

2.

If Stratamodel successfully imported the grid(s), the message
IMPORT FUNCTION IS COMPLETE appears.
To print the list, click the Print button.

Click OK when you finish reading the output.

You are finished importing grids. You can look at the grids you
imported by using Display SGM Internal Grid File. See “Displaying
Internal Grid Files” on page 70.
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Importing and Exporting Data

Importing Binary Grids
This menu item allows you to import Zycor MFD (.mfd) and Radian
CPS3 binary grids (.svs) and to convert them to Stratamodel’s .smg
binary files. Grids can be loaded from any directory, but it is preferable
to locate them in the project directory.

Beginning the Import
1.

Select Commands → Import Grids → Binary Grids
(Defer Execution or Save & Execute).

2.

Select or create a control file and click OK.
If the control file you selected upon entering the program was one
you created previously, the parameters in the Import Grids dialog
box will be those you previously set.
Use your information about the grids to complete the parameters
in the Import Grids dialog box.

3.

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Toggle to select the type of binary grid you wish to import. Do this
before selecting the grid file names.

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Selecting Files
Be sure you select the Binary Grid File Type before you click Enter
list of Binary Grid File Names, as the list of the grid file names
depends on the selected file type.
Click the Enter list of Grid File Names button to define which grids to
import. The grids should be in the project directory.
Use the filter to find the files if they are not in the project directory.
Selecting files works differently for importing MFDs or CPS3 files.
This is because an MFD can contain multiple files, while a CPS3 is
only one file.
Selecting MFDs
When selecting MFDs, you can either add all the files contained within
the MFD at once or you can unpack the MFD to look at its contents and
select the grids you want.
All at Once
If you know an MFD contains multiple grids and you want to import all
of them, follow these steps.
1.

Select a file from the Files list.

2.

Click the Get all Files in current directory button. When
prompted, verify that you want to add all the files.

Select the
file name.

Select Get all
Files.

Confirm.

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3.

If necessary, use the buttons below the Current list of File names
selected to delete files from the list.

4.

When you finish selecting MFD files, click OK to continue.

One at a Time
Follow these steps to add MFDs one at a time.
1.

Either select a file from the Files list and click List MFD button or
double-click the file in the Files list.

Click the file
name.

Click List
MFD.

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2.

This opens the Select MFD grids dialog box, showing you what
grids are within the MFD file.

Add the grids you want to import. Click the grids in the list, then
click Add or double-click a grid in the list. Double-clicking a grid
selects that grid, but close the Select MFD grids dialog box, and
clicking Add enables you to select multiple grids before you close
the dialog box.

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3.

If necessary, use the buttons below the Current list of File names
selected to delete files from the list.

4.

When you have selected all the files you want, click OK to
continue.

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Selecting CPS3 Grids
CPS3 files only contain one grid. To select a CPS3 grid, follow these
steps.
Naming CPS3 Grids
All CPS3 grids must have an .svs extension.

1.

Click the grid in the Files list, then click Add or double-click a file
in the list.

Click the file
name.

Click Add.

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2.

To delete files from the list, use the buttons below the Current list
of File names selected list.

3.

When you finish, click OK to continue.

Importing or Saving
1.

Once you are finished entering all the parameters, click the Import
button (in Save and Execute) to import the grids or the Save button
(in Defer Execution) to store your control file for future use.
The Importing and Converting Grids window displays the
converted grids.

If the program encounters a formatting error, the following
message appears:
#281
Error occurred reading data from formatted file.
Probable causes:
(1) encountered data record with incorrect format
(2) format specified is incorrect
Error reading the following file:
filename


2.

If the import is successful, the message IMPORT FUNCTION
IS COMPLETE appears.

Click OK when you finish reading the output.

You can look at the grids you imported by using Display SGM Internal
Grid File. See “Displaying Internal Grid Files” on page 70.

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Displaying Internal Grid Files
This option allows you to view or print the internal .smg grid files
Stratamodel created when importing your grid (.grd) files. Grid values
and header information are presented.
To view the binary grid files:
1.

Select Commands → Import Grid(s) → Display Stratamodel
Internal Grid File from the Import/Export Grids menu.
The Import Grids Display Grids window appears.

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2.

Click the Enter SGM grid file name button.

3.

Use the filter to select the grid file you want to display.

4.

Select the file you want to view and click OK.

5.

Stratamodel has a default FORTRAN statement (5(G13.6,1X))
that is automatically included in the Enter Grid(s) Data Format
input field.

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If you wish to display your data in the same format as in the
original ASCII grids, click the Enter Grid(s) Data Format button
to define the desired format. See “Creating Fortran Format
Statements” on page 49 in Introduction to Stratamodel for more
details about creating a FORTRAN format input file.

6.

Click OK after you enter the format.

7.

The NULL value for the grid can be reset to a different value, for
display purposes, by entering a floating point NULL value.
Stratamodel has a default NULL value of 1.0E+30. If you wish to
display your data with the same NULL value as your ASCII grids,
enter that null value.
Click in the NULL substituted in Stratamodel grid field and enter
the NULL value.

8.

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Click OK to display the file.

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The selected file is displayed in a General Editable Information
window.

Appearance of Grid
Stratamodel displays data as a column-oriented grid with the origin in the
lower left-hand corner. If your ASCII grids are not column oriented or if you
reversed the rows or columns, the displayed grid appears different than the
original ASCII grid.

Stratamodel displays the grids one at a time. Use the slider bars to
move the view of the file.
9.

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Click the Cancel button to continue.

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Exporting Grids
This section contains information on the following topics:

Reversing Grid Rows and Columns on Output — formats of
output grids

Exporting ASCII Grids — instructions for importing grids to
ASCII format

Exporting Binary Grids — instructions for exporting grids to
binary format

Reversing Grid Rows and Columns on Output
Stratamodel needs to know if your mapping package reads ASCII grid
files by row or column to export them correctly.
For more information, see “Stratamodel’s Treatment of Grids” on
page 46.

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Exporting ASCII Grids
The ASCII Export utility converts Stratamodel .sgm files to ASCII files
with a .grd extension.
To export .smg grids to ASCII format, follow these steps:
1.

Select Commands → Export Grid(s) → ASCII Grid(s)
(Defer Execution or Save & Execute).

2.

Select a control file or create a new one.
The Export Grids menu appears:

3.

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Click the Enter list of Grid File Names button.

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The Export Grids Control File — Grid Names dialog box appears:

4.

Use the filter to add the files you want to export to the list.

5.

Click OK once you have selected the files.

6.

The Column or Row oriented Output Grid Type buttons control
whether the grids to be exported are column-oriented or
row-oriented.

For Z-MAP Plus and Radian CPS grids, use a column-oriented
grid type.
If you have another gridding package, the discussion of grid types
in “Stratamodel’s Treatment of Grids” on page 46 will help you
determine if the grid types your mapping package uses are column
or row-oriented.
Select the output grid type by clicking the Column oriented
Output Grid Type or Row oriented Output Grid Type radio
button.

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7.

The defaults for Reverse/Do Not Reverse Grid Rows/Columns
on Output are set to accommodate Z-MAP Plus and Radian CPS
grids — Reverse Grid Rows/Do Not Reverse Grid Columns. If you
have another type of grid to export, see information on that
mapping package for the orientation of the grid. For more
information on reversing columns and grids, see “Grid Format” on
page 47.

8.

Enter Output Grid NULL Value accepts any value that conforms
to the FORTRAN format statement used in Input Grid Data
Format.

It allows you to set the null value to that used by your gridding
program. The value can be negative or positive. If an exponential
format was used in outputting the grids, then any large null value
can be referred to in exponential format here.
9.

Click the NULL value field and enter the grid NULL value.

10. Enter Output Grid(s) Data Format describes the data format of
the grid files to be output. Stratamodel accepts standard
FORTRAN format statements.
Format of Statement
The parentheses must be included in the field, for example, (10 F15.2).

All grid files using the same control file must have the same
format.
To change the statement, click the Enter Output Grid(s) Data
Format button and change the statement in the resulting dialog
box. See “Creating Fortran Format Statements” on page 49 in
Introduction to Stratamodel for more information on FORTRAN
format statements.

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11. If you wish to limit the extent of your grids, click the Limit Grids
button and provide the appropriate information. For more
information on setting limits, see “Setting Limits” on page 42 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.
12. Once you finish making selections, click the Export button (in
Save & Execute) to export the grids or on the Save button (in
Defer Execution) to save the parameters for the control file.

Exporting Binary Grids
You can export .smg grids to two binary formats:

MFD — the proprietary format used in Z-MAP Plus gridding
CPS — Radian’s proprietary format

When you export .smg files to CPS3 grids, they are written out in
binary format and appended with a .svs extension. Since the export
extensions are the same as the input grid extension, if you have CPS3
grids already existing in the project, you must rename the files when
you export so you do not overwrite your original grids.
On the other hand, if you export .smg files to Z-MAP Plus .mfd grids,
they are appended with the .mfd extension and a version number, so the
original grid is not overwritten.

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1.

Open Export Binary Grids using the following command:
Commands → Export Grids → Binary Grids (Defer Execution
or Save & Execute).

2.

Click Enter list of SGM Grid File Names to select the grid files
you wish to export. Use the file filter to select them. For
information on using file filters, see “Locating Files with a File
Filter” on page 35 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

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3.

Toggle the Binary Grid File Type button to your choice of grid
type

Selecting Zycor’s ZMAP for a Binary Grid File Type activates
the Z-MAP Plus MFD Output File button. This option allows
you to package more than one grid into an MFD.
Click Z-MAP Plus MFD Output File.
You can use the filter to select an MFD in a new location, or you
can select an MFD in your project directory. This MFD will hold
the grids you are exporting. Find the MFD with the filter and click
OK.
4.

Click Export (in Save and Execute) to export your grids or on
Save (in Defer Execution) to save the export control file.
A message window appears telling you of the progress of the
export. When the program is finished exporting, you can print the
contents of the window or cancel to remove the window.

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Loading LGC Seismic Data
Overview
You can use LGC Seismic Loading to import seismic data from a
Landmark 3DV or 2V2 file or from a SEGY file directly into an
attribute model as an attribute. The program assumes you are working
in an OpenWorks environment.
Open LGC Seismic Loading by selecting Commands →
LGC Seismic Loading or by using the icon shown at left.
The LGC Seismic Loading window is organized in three panels:
Destination, Velocity Model, and Seismic Source.

Destination

Velocity
Model

Seismic
Source

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Selecting the Seismic Source
The Seismic Source settings are different depending upon the type of
data you import. You can import data in 3DV, SEGY, or 2V2 formats.
Select the format from the Seismic Source menu on the left of the
bottom panel.

For 3DV Files

3DV is a Landmark format for 3D seismic data. To import 3DV data,
you must select the OpenWorks project that contains the data and the
data file. You have some control over which lines are imported into the
attribute model.
Stratamodel reads in the datum value from your SeisWorks project
automatically and places that value in the Datum field. However, the
datum for your Stratamodel projects and models can be different from
the datum used in the seismic files. Use the Datum field to manually
adjust the seismic datum before you import.
1.

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Click the Projects button to display a list of all the available 3DV
projects:

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2.

Select a project and click OK.

3.

Click 3DV File to list the files within the project that are available
for import. You can only import one 3DV file at once, because of
the file’s size and complexity.

4.

Select a file and click OK.

5.

Once you have selected a file, the Start Line and End Line fields
reflect information from the file. To limit the extent of the data to
be imported, enter values between the values listed.
Double-click the appropriate field and enter a new value.

For SEGY Files

SEGY is a very complex format that, although commonly used, has
many variations. Although the program can import SEGY data
correctly if the file’s header information is correct, in many cases it is
not. You must be familiar with the SEGY data to import it successfully
into the attribute model.

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Before you can load SEGY data you must know the answers to the
following questions:
Questions for Loading SEGY Data
The Landmark program segychk can provide the answers LGC Seismic Loading
needs to the following questions for data Landmark.tod format.

What is the file type?

What is the sample rate?

What is the number of samples per trace?

What is the data format?

Where are the line and trace numbers in the trace header and what are their
formats?

You can use a Landmark program called segychk to read information
from SEGY files in Landmark.tod format using some standard UNIX
commands. The program is described in detail in the SeisWorks
Desktop Utilities manual. segychk positions and dumps the records
from the tape or tape-on-disk file.
Loading SEGY without OpenWorks
Although LGC Seismic Loading assumes you are working in an OpenWorks
environment, it is possible to load SEGY files outside that environment. To do so,
you must set the following environment variables before starting up Stratamodel.
setenv ORACLE_HOME <any_path>
setenv ORACLE_SID <any_name>
Start up Stratamodel and open LGC Seismic Loading. You can then set the Seismic
Source to SEGY and use the filter to locate your SEGY files.

Choosing Whether to Accept Headers
LGC Seismic Loading reads the header parameters from the SEGY file
to understand how to import the file. However, sometimes the header
information is inaccurate. You must be familiar with your data to
change the header parameters.

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Select Accept SEGY Header Parameters if you are confident
that the information in the header is correct.

Select Change SEGY Header Parameters if the information is
incorrect. Selecting this option opens the Header Parameters for
SEGY dialog box. Click OK in this dialog box when you have set
the parameters you want to change.

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To change SEGY Headers, follow these steps:
1.

Enter the number of samples per trace. If you want to use the value
in the header, leave this field set at 0. For Sierra file types, you
must specify the number of samples per trace.

2.

Enter the sample rate. Leave this field set at 0 to use the header
value.

3.

Enter the maximum time value that you want to import. If you
want to use all the time values, leave this field set to 0. If you enter
a value that actually exceeds the maximum time in your data, the
results are the same but the conversion takes longer. This increased
time is caused by the program trying to convert the values for the
entire range of time specified.

4.

Select the format for the binary file from the menu or choose Get
from Header.






5.

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IBM Real (real numbers)
4 Byte Ints (integers)
IEEE Real
2 Byte Int
4 Byte/w Gain
2 Byte Float (floating-point numbers)
1 Byte Int

If you wish to change the values of the x, y’s by adding a constant
value, push the Bias X,Y’s button in. Make sure you enter values
in the X Bias and Y Bias fields.

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6.

Enter the distance to add to the x and y header values. The distance
is in feet or meters, depending on your project units.
Sometimes the x and y values in a file are scaled. In such cases, the
header contains a value that the x and y’s must be multiplied by to
be correct. Toggling Use Header Coordinate Scalar on instructs
the program to use this value.

Setting Other SEGY Parameters
Continue on to set the rest of the paramters for the SEGY data:
1.

The X, Y Header Position menu specifies which location the x
and y values were derived from.



2.

SEGY format varies considerably. Choose from the following
types of SEGY file types.



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AvgSource&Receiver — the values are an average obtained
from the source of the seismic vibration and the receiver that
recorded it. This setting is most common for Standard file
types.
Source — the values are read from the source of the vibration.
Charisma files generally use this location.
Receiver — the values are read from the receiver.
Remap X,Y — you must overwrite SEGY header parameters
using Samples Per Trace and Data Format if you intent to use
this option on a Sierra file.

Standard
Charisma
Sierra
Western

3.

Use File Name to select the name of the file to import. Click the
button and use the filter to find and select the file.

4.

If you wish to limit the number of traces imported, enter a value
into the First Trace and Last Trace fields.

For SeisWorks 3D data, this value should be a SeisWorks
in-line/crossline number.

For SeisWorks 2D data, it should be a shotpoint number.

For SEGY or ASCII data, it should be the sequential number of
the trace on the file.

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For 2V2 Data

2V2 is a Landmark format for 2D seismic data. Because 2D seismic
files are inherently much less complex than the other formats, you can
import more than one file at a time.
Stratamodel reads in the datum value from your SeisWorks project
automatically and places that value in the Datum field. However, the
datum for your Stratamodel projects and models can be different from
the datum for the seismic files. Use the Datum field to manually adjust
the seismic datum before you import.
Follow these instructions to set the parameters for importing 2V2 data.

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1.

Click the SeisWorks Projects button to display a list of all
SeisWorks 2V2 projects.

2.

Select a project from the list and click OK.

3.

Click the 2V2 File List button to pop up a list of all 2V2 files
within the selected project. Because 2V2 data is fairly simple in
format and the files tend to be smaller, you can select more than
one file for import.

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4.

Select the files you want to import, then click OK.

The Seismic Source panel lists all selections:

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Choosing the Velocity Model

The Velocity Model converts time data to depth. The velocity model
must be built in TDQ. You have three options for selecting a velocity
model:

Selecting OpenWorks for the Type of Velocity Model and
specifying a Velocity Model indicate that you want to use an
OpenWorks velocity model created in TDQ. This model must be
directly loaded into the Stratamodel model.

Selecting OpenWorks and not specifying a Velocity Model
indicate that your seismic data is already depth converted.

Selecting None indicates that your seismic data is being loaded
into a framework that is already structured in negative time.

1.

Use the Type of Velocity Model menu to specify whether you
need one or not.

2.

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If you want to use a TDQ velocity model or if your data has
already been converted to depth, you must specify
OpenWorks.

If your data is being loaded into a Stratamodel model that has
been built with gridded surfaces in a negative time structural
framework, you must select None.

If you selected OpenWorks for Type of Velocity Model and your
data must be depth converted, select a velocity model from the
OpenWorks database. Click the Velocity Models button and select
one from the resulting list.

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Selecting a Destination

The destination panel provides information about where the seismic
data will be loaded and how the attribute values will be calculated.
Use these instructions to choose a destination for the data.
1.

Click the Directory button to select the directory that contains
your Stratamodel project.

2.

Use the filter to locate and select the Stratamodel project directory,
then click OK.

3.

Click the Project button to select the appropriate Stratamodel
project from the resulting list.

4.

Click Version button to select the appropriate project version from
the resulting list.

5.

Use Attribute to Fill to select the attribute in which your seismic
data will be loaded. If you select an existing attribute field, the
program does not null out the values from the previous attribute.
1 Click Attribute to Fill.
2 Select a new or existing attribute from the list.
3 If you wish to rename the attribute, select the name in the
Selection field and enter a new name.
4 Click OK.

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5.

Because more than one trace can be anticipated to intersect each
cell, a method for calculating the value for the cell must be
specified. Do so by making a selection from the How to Select the
Best Trace within the Cell Footprints (Planar Trace Sampling)
menu:
Use Closest uses the trace closest to the center of the cell.
Use Numeric Mean calculates a simple numeric mean and
uses it for the cell value.

6.

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How to Resample Traces for Cell Composites in the Vertical
Stacks (Resampling for Vertical Cells) instructs the program on
how to determine composite values for cells are not intersected by
traces. A similar concept to this is the Sequence Crossing Value in
the well model. (For more information, see “Sequence Crossing
Value” on page 55 in Creating Models.)

Closest Value takes the trace value in the vertical stack closest
to the cell.

Interpolate Values calculates the values from surrounding
traces.

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Importing the Data
Click the Import Data button to import the seismic data. A status box
appears and reports the progress of the import. The status box contains
a Stop Import button you can use to stop the process at any time.

When the import process is complete, the status box reports it and the
Stop Import button changes to read Done. Click Done to close the
status box.

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Saving Parameters
To import a series of files with the same format and settings in different
Stratamodel sessions, use the File → Save Parameters button to avoid
resetting the parameters. Next time you bring up LGC Seismic
Loading, the module automatically resets to the saved parameters
unless you delete the parameter file. The file is located in your home
directory with the extension .params_file.

Exiting LGC Seismic Loading
Select Exit to close LGC Seismic Loading.

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Loading Culture Data from Z-MAP Plus
Overview
The Z-MAP Plus Culture Loader reads line-oriented files (lattice,
vertices, contour data, and fault files) that are members of a Z-MAP
Plus .MFD (master file directory, a storage device for many types of
Z-MAP files) file and converts them to culture files for use in
Stratamodel. The culture file can be associated with a grid or a fault
file.
You can use three different projection methods to correct the z values
stored with the line data.


You can preserve the original z values.
You can drape the line file onto a Z-MAP Plus grid, thereby
modifying the original z values.
You can flatten the culture file to a specified z value so that all z
values in the culture file take on the specified value.

For all projection methods you can apply a z bias, apply a z scale factor,
and associate a color.
You can load parameters that you have set for other culture data or save
parameters to a file.
Working with MFDs
A good practice is to check your data directory for a file with your MFD name and
the extension .lck or .LCK before using Z-MAP Plus Culture Loader. This is a lock
file for that MFD. If you are using an MFD in Z-MAP Plus or Contouring Assistant
that you simultaneously want to use with Stratamodel, make sure you have detached
the MFD from the other program before running Z-MAP Plus Culture Loader. If
you find a lock file and you are not running one of these other programs, it may be
left over from when a process was killed. Remove it with a UNIX rm command.

Graphics File Option not Usable
The Attach Graphics File option on the File menu is not functional.

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Selecting the Data and Associated Files

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1.

Select Global → Z-Map Plus Culture Loader.

2.

To load MFD files, you must first attach one or more master files
(MFDs).

Select File → Attach/Detach Master Files.

Use the Filter button or double-click a directory to list the
files.

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Select one or more .mfds or .MFDs from the Files list.

Click OK.

3.

Use the button with the three dots to the right of the Input Line file
field to select a file from the .mfd.

4.

From the Master Files list, select the MFD that holds your culture
data. (You can also double-click the MFD and go straight to
step 6.)
MFD Missing from Master Files List
If your MFD does not appear in the Master Files list, you may have a lock file
in your project directory. The lock file has the name of your MFD with the
extension .lck or .LCK. Remove it by using the Unix rm command.

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5.

Click the Filter button to list the files in the MFD.

6.

Click the file name in the List of Member Files to select it.

7.

Click OK. The name of the selected file appears in the field next to
Input Line file.

8.

Use the Associated Grid File button to select the grid that is
associated with the culture data. If you want to drape the data over
a grid, you must select a grid. No grid file is required if you want
to use a projection of None or Flattened.

9.

Select the MFD from the Master Files list.

10. Click the Filter button.
11. Select a grid file from the resulting list of member files.
12. Click OK.
13. Optional: To associate a fault file with the grid, select it using the
Assocated Fault File button. This field is not required.

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14. Optional: To change the name of the .clt file that will be output,
do the following. The default name is default.clt. The program
appends the .clt extension if you do not provide it. If you do enter
the extension, a second extension is not added.

Double-click the Output SGM File box.
Enter a new name.

Handling Z Values
To change the appearance of the culture data, select one of the
following options from the Projection Method menu.

Flattened — flattens culture data with varying z values. (You must
specify a Z value to flatten to.)

Draped — drapes the culture data over the grid. (You must specify
a grid.)

The default is None, specifying there will be no projection of the line
file’s z values. If you use this projection and do not select a z field, then
the z values are set to zero. If you want to preserve your z values, use a
projection of None and select the z field accordingly.

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Z field is important if you want to preserve your z values and you
are using a Projection of None. If your line file contains several
columns of z values, click the . . . button on the right to bring up a
dialog box showing you all the fields in the file. Select the z field
you want to preserve and click OK. If you do not select a value
and you have specified a Projection Method of None, the z values
are set to zero.

Enter the z value to use for flattenning the z field.

Bias suspends the culture data above the model. Enter a value for
the distance above or below the model you want to suspend the
data. (A positive value lays the culture data above, and a negative
value lays it below the model.)

Scale exaggerates the z values of the data. If your culture data z
values ranged from 0 to 20, for example, and you entered a value
of 2, the values would range from 0 to 40. The default setting is 1
for no exaggeration.

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Choosing a Color
If you are familiar with the color indexes (numbers that indicate a
color), you can enter a number to set the color for the culture data.
Otherwise, click the color square next to the Color field.
Click a color in the palette that appears.

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Saving and Loading Parameters
If you have saved parameters from a Defer Execution session or a
previous Save & Execute session, you can load them and use them.

Saving Parameters
Use this option to save parameters for reuse.
1.

Select File → Save Parameters.

2.

Use the filter to locate a directory in which to save the file.

3.

Type a name for the file in the Selection field (after the path). The
name must have the extension .nvp or .NVP.

4.

Click OK.

Loading Parameters
Use these steps to load saved parameters:

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1.

Select File → Load Parameters.

2.

Select the directory in which you saved the parameters (or enter
the directory path in the Filter box) and click the Filter button.

3.

Select the file name (with a .nvp extension) from the Files list.

4.

Click OK.

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Importing the Data

Click OK to convert the file and exit the Z-MAP Plus Culture
Loader.

Click Apply to load a series of files without closing the window.

Click Reset to return the window to its original settings.

Exiting Z-Map Plus Culture Loader
Select File → Exit to close Z-MAP Plus Culture Loader.

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Extracting and Loading Attributes
Overview
Use Attribute Extract/Load to extract data from SGM to use in other
programs or to load external data into an attribute model. Uses for
Attribute Extract/Load are:

Loading seismic or simulation data into the model for
visualization, correlation, or model operations

Extracting pseudo wells, pseudo logs, and surfaces from a model

Creating an empty attribute model to verify layering in the
stratigraphic framework model

Menu Options
This topic describes the function of the Attribute Extract/Load menu
options, in order as they appear (with the exception of Attribute Load
Grid).

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ATM Load from ASCII File — takes an ASCII file from outside
SGM and loads it into the attribute model. You can load one or
more than one attribute into the model at the same time.

Attribute Load Grid — loads any saved templates or .sgm grids
into an attribute model field. You can then use it for attribute
dependence or other model operations.

ATM Extract to ASCII File — extracts attributes from a
previously built model and puts them into an ASCII file for use in
other programs.

ATM Extract to Pseudo Log — positions a well at a proposed
location and extracts the information and all the attributes from the
model into an ASCII file. You can then incorporate the file back
into the well model for display or to reinterpolate the attribute
model.

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Attribute Extract Grid — extracts a grid from the stratigraphic
framework model. It creates a grid from either a specific layer or a
specific event. The extracted grid has the same dimensions as the
framework grids.

Get Adjacent Attributes — retrieves values from any of the six
cells adjacent to a selected field and stores them into new fields in
each cell. This function is useful for determining vertical and
lateral transmissibilities, as they can be easily calculated when all
the attributes reside in a cell.

Polygon to Grid — creates a grid that is delimited by a polygon.
Polygon to Grid is a step in the work flow for model limits, so it is
documented in another book in this set. See “Converting Polygon
to Grids” on page 122 in Manipulating Models for more
information.

VIP to SGM — extracts simulation attribute data from a VIP .vdb
database file and loads it into the attribute model for visualization
and comparison.

File Types
There are four file types available for loading data ASCII into or
extracting ASCII data from SGM. The file types are named SM1, SM2,
SM3, and SM4. SM1 and SM2 are identical and give the same results
in both Extract and Load.


Use SM1 and SM2 for loading interval data.
Use SM3 for loading a replicated SGM model
Use SM4 for loading point data.

See “Preparing Data for Use with AEL Modules” on page 62 in
Introduction to Stratamodel for an explanation of these file types.

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Loading Attribute Data from an ASCII File
Use ATM Load from ASCII File to load data from an ASCII file
created somewhere other than SGM into attribute model fields. You can
load one or more than one attribute field into the model at once.
The data must be in one of the formats explained in “File Types” on
page 101.
1.

Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
ATM Load from ASCII File.

2.

Click Input File to Load from to select the ASCII file that is a
source of your data. Use the file filter to locate the file.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Input File Type gives you four choices of formats for the input
file. Choose one from the menu.

For more information about the file types, review “File Types” on
page 101.
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5.

For SM4 input files only, you can choose to average points. If you
choose to average points, all points falling within a cell are
averaged; if you choose not to average points, only the last point
falling in the cell is used.

6.

The Input File Data Format option instructs the module in how to
interpret the data file. If you have picked the correct input file type
to correspond with your input file, AEL is fairly intelligent about
reading the file and ascertaining the correct format. However, files
that are not right-justified must be formatted in the Create Fortran
Format dialog box.
Whether your file is in the correct format or not, click Input File
Data Format.
AEL attempts to read the file. If it is unable to read it correctly, the
following error message appears along with the Create Fortran
Format dialog box.

In this case you must either correct your file or use the Create
Fortran Format dialog box to format the file.

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If AEL is able to read your format, the Create Fortran Format
dialog box appears. This allows you to check the Fortran format
statement or to examine the contents of the file.

This is a standard format dialog box that appears throughout SGM.
Instructions for creating a Fortran format appear in “Creating
Fortran Format Statements” on page 49 in Introduction to
Stratamodel.

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7.

In the Input File Null Value field, enter the value used for null in
your input file. Examples of typical null values are -99999,
999999, and 1.0E+31.

8.

If you want to limit the attribute fields you are loading, you can use
X,Y Limits when Loading. The default is not to limit. For
instructions, see “Setting Limits” on page 42 in Introduction to
Stratamodel.

9.

If you have a large input file or you only want to use part of it, you
can use Input File Record Limits to limit it.

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10. Use Attribute Fields to Load to tell AEL which attributes to load
and where to put them in the attribute model. This entry is
required.
When you select Attribute Fields to Load, two dialog boxes
appear: a standard list box and the New Item for Load Field dialog
box.

Use the Load Fields in Attribute Model dialog box to build a list of
attributes to load. To review how to create a list, see “Creating
Lists” on page 31 in Introduction to Stratamodel. Instructions on
the other dialog box follow.
11. Use Attribute Model Field to Load into to select an attribute
model field from the attribute model. You will load your attribute
data into this field.
1
2
3
4
5

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Click Attribute Model Field to Load into.
Select an active attribute to overwrite or an inactive attribute.
Click OK.
Enter a description into Change Attribute field description.
Click OK.

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6.

The file field is the field in the input file that contains the attribute
you want to load. Although x, y, and z information appear in the
file, the fields that hold that data are not considered in the
selection. So, entering 1 for Load File Field would select the first
attribute field that appears after the x, y, and z fields.
Enter a integer corresponding to the field occupied by the attribute
in the input file, not counting x, y, and z fields.

7.

For SM1 and SM2 formats only, select an option for calculating
the attribute data.

Continuous gives the thickest attribute more weight in
averaging, using the following formula:
1
Weighted Average = --- • Σ ( a ( n ) • t ( n ) )
L
Use this type of averaging to weight the influence of the
attribute according to its thickness in the layer.

8.

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Discrete detects the presence or absence of an attribute such as
facies, lithology, or perforation. The program computes this
value by checking for the most abundant attribute code within
each layer. The most abundant attribute code is then assigned
to the entire cell at the well.

Click Load from the Save & Execute window to load the data to
the attribute model. During the load, a message box appears and
informs you of the status of the load. Once the load is finished,
click Done to close the message box.

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Loading Grids into the Model
You can use Attribute Load Grid to load any saved template or
external .smg grid into one of the attribute fields. This data then can be
used for attribute dependence or for other model operations between
active attributes.
Attribute dependence requires that a template be loaded into both the
attribute model and the well model. (See Creating Models.) The well
model is loaded with the attribute dynamically in the attribute modeling
step. The attribute model must be loaded with a grid before the attribute
modeling step.
Alternatively, you may want to load a grid into the model even if you
do not intend to employ attribute-dependence interpolation. For
example, if you wanted to calculate volume in place within the area
occupying a lease boundary, you could create a discrete template that
outlines this area. You could then load this template into the attribute
model as an attribute and create a model operation that would calculate
the volume of oil in place inside the leased area.
Size of Grid to Load
If you plan to load a grid into the attribute model, it must have the same number of
rows and columns as the attribute model. If it does not, the load will not execute
successfully and a message will notify you. To correct the grid, resample it to match
the row and column limits in the attribute model, using StrataMap, Z-MAP Plus, or
an appropriate gridding package.

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Setting the Load Parameters
1.

Start Attribute Load Grid by selecting Commands →
Attribute Extract/Load → Attribute Load Grid from the main
menu. This opens a Geocellular Template Modeling dialog box.
Select Commands → Geocellular Template Modeling →
Attribute Load Grid (Defer Execution or Save & Execute).

2.

Choose the appropriate control file to open the interface.

Use the Load Template into Attribute window to set the
parameters for the template you will load.
3.

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Select the name of the grid to load using Template Grid Name.

Click the Template Grid Name button. A file selection box
appears listing all the grids available in the project.

Click a grid name in the Files list.

Click OK.

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4.

Use the Attribute Model Field to Load button to choose an
attribute model field into which you will load the template.

Click the Attribute Model Field to Load button. A list of
attributes appears:

Click Create Attr. to create a new attribute or on Select Attr.
to choose one to overwrite.
Optional: Enter a description of the attribute in the
Description box.
Check the Data Type for the type of attribute data and Default
Value to indicate the default null value.
Click the Create Attribute button to create the attribute.
If you have created all the attributes you want, click OK.




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5.

If you are loading your template to a specific layer or sequence in
the attribute model, What should be done with non-loaded cells
controls what will happen to that attribute field for the other layers
or sequences in the attribute model.

Retain values in all cells not loaded — keeps the values that
already exist in that attribute field.
Set all cells not loaded to NULL — sets the attribute field in
all cells except in the specific layer or sequence to null.

Consider these factors when you decide what to do:
• Does the attribute field contain any data you want to keep?
If the attribute field does not contain data you want to keep,
select Set all cells not loaded to NULL Otherwise, choose
Retain values in all cells not loaded.

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Is this the first template to be loaded?
If this is the first of multiple templates to be loaded, choose Set
all cells not loaded to NULL to erase all previous work.
If this is not the first of multiple templates, choose Retain
values in all cells not loaded to keep the values from
previously loaded templates.You can limit your template to
specific layers or sequences.

6.

Optional: To set limits for the template, click Limits loading
Template. (For instructions, see “Setting Limits” on page 42 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.)

7.

Click OK to add the template to the list.

8.

Optional: Add more templates by repeating steps 3 through 7.

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Loading or Saving the Template
When you have the templates listed, click Load to load the template (in
Save & Execute) or Save to save it (in Defer Execution).
If you are loading the template, Attribute Model Load processes each
template and then prints the information about it in the Load Templates
into ATM messages window. A confirmation message also appears.
Examples of the dialog box and confirmation message follow.

Once you confirm the load and it has successfully completed, you can
scroll through the information or print it.

Exiting Attribute Model Load
Exit Attribute Model Load by selecting Global →
Return to Main Menu from the Attribute Model Load main window.

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Extracting Attributes to an ASCII File
Use ATM Extract to ASCII File to extract specific attributes from the
attribute model and load them into an ASCII file. You can extract any
data field from the attribute model, header information or data.
1.

Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
ATM Extract to ASCII File.

2.

Select or create a file to write the attribute information into. Click
the Output File to Extract into button and choose a file or enter a
new filename in the file filter box. If you choose the name of an
existing file, it will be overwritten.

3.

Choose one of the four acceptable formats for the output file.

For more information about the file types, see “File Types” on
page 101.
4.

Output File Data Format brings up the standard Fortran
formatted file dialog box. Use the active parts of this dialog box to
describe the format. You must enter the number of values per line,
the number of digits per value, the number of digits after the
decimal, and the type of values in the file.
For information about using the Create Fortran Format dialog box,
see “Creating Fortran Format Statements” on page 49 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.

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5.

You can limit the attribute model you are extracting to specific
rows and columns, a specific layer, or a specific sequence. Click
Extraction Fields Limits. See “Setting Limits” on page 42 in
Introduction to Stratamodel for instructions on setting limits.

6.

Attribute Fields to Extract allows you to choose the attributes
you want to extract to the file. You can select header attributes or
data attributes.
Click Attribute Fields to Extract to display a standard
list-building dialog box and the Attribute List dialog box.

Use the Extract Fields from Attribute Model dialog box to build a
list of all the attributes you want to extract. To review the
instructions for building lists, see “Creating Lists” on page 31 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.

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7.

Choose the attribute for your list from the Attribute List dialog box
and click OK.

8.

Once you complete the required fields, click Extract to extract the
data. A message window appears and informs you about the
progress of the extraction. When the data is extracted, click Done
to close the message box.

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Extracting Attributes to a Pseudo Log
Use ATM Extract to Pseudo Log to position a pseudo well at a given
location by using a file to locate the well through the layers of the
stratigraphic framework model. ATM Extract to Pseudo Log then
extracts data from the attribute model for the pseudo well as it travels
through the layers. Finally, it writes the information into a pseudo log
file in ASCII format, which can be incorporated back into the well
model.
Prerequisite
To extract a pseudo log, you must already have built an ASCII file or pick file from
Show Displays with the x, y, and z values for the pseudo well bore as it travels
through the layers of your model.

Suppose, for example, you plan to drill a well and want to examine the
logs that would be available if you already had a well in that location.
You could extract a pseudo log along the x, y coordinates of the
proposed well to see the results.
Another use for an extracted pseudo log is to verify the results of the
attribute model if you are already fairly sure what the results should be
down the path of the pseudo well.

Formats for x, y, z Data
There are three available formats for the file that provides the
x, y, z location data for your pseudo well: PW1, PW2, and PW3. For
information on these formats, see “Preparing Data for Use with AEL
Modules” on page 62 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

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Extracting to a Pseudo Log
1.

Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
ATM Extract to Pseudo Log.

2.

In the Input Pseudo Log X, Y, Z File Extension field, enter the
extension for the file that contains the x, y, z locations for your
pseudo log. If you have pseudo well input files of different
formats, you must use a different extension for each file. Avoid
naming a pseudo log input file with any SGM extensions. See the
Appendix for a list of those extensions.

3.

For Output Pseudo Log File Extension, enter an extension for the
file that will contain your pseudo log.

4.

For Input File Type, choose the correct type for the file containing
your x, y, z location data. The input file for each pseudo log must
be in its own file.

See the section above, “Formats for x, y, z Data,” for information
about these formats.

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5.

For Input Z Type choose the correct type for your z values: depth
or elevation.

6.

Use Input Data Format for X,Y,Z to create the Fortran format.

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For information about using the Create Fortran Format dialog box,
see “Creating Fortran Format Statements” on page 49 in
Introduction to Stratamodel.
7.

Pick the attribute fields you want to extract from the attribute
model. Click Fields to Extract to display a standard list building
dialog box and the Attribute List dialog box.
For instructions about building a list, see “Creating Lists” on
page 31 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

8.

In the Attribute List dialog box, click an attribute to select it, then
click OK.

9.

Once the list is built, click OK in the Extract Pseudo Log from
Attribute Model dialog box.

10. Use the standard Fortran format dialog box to construct a format
statement for your output file. For instructions on how to use this
dialog box, see “Creating Fortran Format Statements” on page 49
in Introduction to Stratamodel.
11. Once you have filled out the dialog box, press the Extract button.
A message window appears to advise you of the progress of the
process. When the process is complete, click Done in the message
box to close it.

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Extracting an Attribute Grid
Use Attribute Extract Grid to extract a grid defined by the
atratigraphic framework model with values from the attribute model.
This could be a grid from a header attribute, such as for elevation of a
specific sequence or layer derived from the cell elevation header
attribute. It could also be a grid from a user-defined attribute such as
porosity for a given sequence or layer.
The grids you extract with Attribute Extract Grid are limited grids as
determined by the Stratigraphic Framework Model, not naive grids. For
more information about naive and limited grids, see “Grids” on page 4
in Creating Models.
1.

Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
Attribute Extract Grid. Two windows appear: a standard
list-building dialog box and the New Item for Attribute Extract
Grid dialog box.
Use the list dialog box to create a list of layers, events, and
sequences to extract. For more information on building lists, see
“Creating Lists” on page 31 in Introduction to Stratamodel.

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Use the New Item for Attribute Extract Grid dialog box to create
the items to be extracted as a grid.

2.

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Click the Attribute to Extract button and select the attribute you
want to use as a grid from the resulting list. Click OK.

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3.

Under What should be Extracted, click the appropriate button to
extract a layer, event, or sequence. Depending upon which button
you choose, selections for providing more information are
activated in the dialog box.

If you choose Layer Extract, the Layer to Extract slider is
activated. Slide the button to the layer you wish to extract.

If you choose Event Extract, the next panel of the dialog box,
which provides information about the event, is activated. When
you extract an event, you specify whether you want to view above
the event boundary or below it.

Use the Event to Extract slider to choose the event.
Toggle the Where to find Event Data button to Above Event
Boundary or Below Event Boundary.

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Choosing Sequence Extract activates the next panel of the
dialog box, where you provide information about the sequence
to be extracted.

Just as you would for an event, you must specify whether you
want to see above or below the sequence boundary.
Use the Sequence to Extract slider to choose the event.
Toggle the Where to find Sequence Data button to Above
Sequence Boundary or Below Sequence Boundary.

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4.

Press the Output Grid File Name button and enter a name for an
output grid in the Filter box. Click OK.

5.

Click OK in the New Item for Attribute Extract Grid dialog box to
add the item to the list.

6.

When you have finished building the list of items to extract as
grids, click Extract in the Attribute Extract Grid dialog box. A
message box appears and informs you of the extraction progress.
When the process is finished, click Done to close the message box.

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Getting Adjacent Attributes
Use Get Adjacent Attributes to retrieve values from a cell and any of
six adjacent cells and store them in new fields in each cell. This option
is useful for determining vertical and lateral transmissibilities, as they
can be calculated easily when all the attributes reside in a cell.

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1.

Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
Get Adjacent Attributes.

2.

Click Attribute Field of Interest to select an attribute to copy.
Select the attribute from the list and click OK.

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3.

Select the attributes where you will store data from the adjacent
cells. Click the button and choose an inactive attribute.
Selection

Meaning

Attribute Field for +Column store the data from the cell next to the one in
which the attribute appears (the next one in the
x direction)

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Attribute Field for -Column

store the data from the cell before the one in
which the specified attribute appears (the
previous one in the x direction)

Attribute Field for +Row

store the data from the cell in the same layer
that is the next one in the y direction from the
one in which the specified attribute appears

Attribute Field for -Row

store the data from the cell that is the previous
one in the y direction from the one in which the
specified attribute appears

Attribute Field for +Layer

store the data from the cell that is above the one
in which the specified attribute appears (the
next one in the z direction)

Attribute Field for -Layer

store the data from the cell below the one in
which the specified attribute appears (the
previous one in the z direction).

4.

You can limit the area from which you are getting attributes by
using the Beginning and Ending Column and Row sliders to set
specific rows and columns.

5.

Once you have made your selections, click the Store button to
store the attribute information in the selected attributes. A message
window appears advising you about the progress of the process.

6.

When the process is complete, click the Done button to close the
message box.

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VIP to SGM
Use VIP to SGM to take simulation data from the VIP reservoir
simulator and convers it for use in Stratamodel. This conversion
enables you to compare the upscaled version of the data created in the
VIP simulation with the finer resolution of the Stratamodel model. You
can then spot finer features of the subsurface that are important to the
simulation, but have been averaged out by the upscaling.
1.

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Select Commands → Attribute Extract/Load → VIP to SGM.

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2.

Click the Database button and select a .vdb file from the list. The
.vdb file is the “Study” created in VIP. Use the file filter to locate
your VIP directory if it is not the one already selected.

3.

Click the Case button and select the VIP case from the list. A case
is a realization that was run as part of a Study (referred to as a
simulation run in StrataSim documentation). Click OK. The case
is the particular simulation run.

4.

Click the Class button and select the array for the VIP data, then
click OK.

You may have data from the following classes:



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Calc class — holds the simulation model.
Init class — holds some of the data from the model plus
additional information needed for fluid flow calculations.
Recurr class — is the output from the fluid flow calculations.
Geogrid — is sometimes created as an early step in building
the simulation model. If you are changing the number of layers
between the geologic model and the simulation model and you
upscale in 3D, the geogrid data is written.

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5.

The SGM Model Limits panel shows the limit of the Stratamodel
model.

To limit the model so you can insert the data into specific areas of
the model, click the Change SGM Limits button. Use the sliders
to select the area where the VIP data will be imported.
6.

Indicate whether you want to create a culture topology file of the
VIP cells. If you select Yes, enter a name for the file.

7.

Select the VIP attributes to convert by clicking the Select
Attributes button.

8.

To run the conversion, click Apply. The Execution Status shows
the status of the conversion.

To close the dialog box, click Cancel.

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POSC RESCUE Export
Overview
The POSC RESCUE Export utility converts a Stratamodel 3D cellular
geomodel into the RESCUE model format. RESCUE is an acronym for
“REServoir Characterization Using Epicenter.” The RESCUE model
format was designed by the Rescue Project and was created to establish
an open standard for representing fine scale 3D earth models. RESCUE
models are often used for the purposes of upscaling and simulation.
This utility creates RESCUE V22 format models by default.k.
Your Stratamodel projects must be version R98 or later in order to
export to RESCUE format. R98 includes zone and fault-block
attributes which are needed for rescue exporting.
Learning More About RESCUE
The RESCUE model definition is a joint industry project originally managed by the
Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC). Detail information on the
Rescue Project may be found at the following internet web site:
http://www.posc.org/rescue.

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Translating Stratamodel Terminology to RESCUE Terminology
The POSC RESCUE model format uses different terminology to
describe the corresponding geologic model objects used in
Stratamodel. The diagram below illustrates the relationship of some of
the most important Stratamodel terms and RESCUE model terms
(italic, parenthesis):
Fault Block 2

Fault Block 1

(Block 2)

(Block 1)

Event Grid 6
(Horizon 3)

Sequence 3
(Block1-Unit3)

Sequence 6
(Block2-Unit3)

Event Grid 2
(Horizon 2)

Event Grid 5

Sequence 2
(Block1-Unit2)

Event Grid 1

Zone 2

Zone 2

Sequence 5

(Unit 2)

(Unit 2)

(Block2-Unit2)

(Horizon 1)

(Horizon 2)

Event Grid 4

Sequence 1
(Block1-Unit1)

Sequence 4
Event Grid 3

(Horizon 1)

(Block2-Unit1)

(Section 1)

Stratamodel Term
(RESCUE Term)

Horizon 1 = Event 1 + Event 4
Horizon 2 = Event 2 + Event 5
Horizon 3 = Event 6

Stratamodel Term

RESCUE Term

Fault Block

Block

Sequence

BlockUnit

Horizon Event Grid

Horizons (top or bottom of a zone)

Fault Event Grid

Section (Type: Fault)

Truncation Event Grid

Section (Type: Unconformity)

Zone

Unit

These objects are the main building blocks used for constructing both
types of models. This illustration is only a summary of the different
terms used by both models. To learn more details about the RESCUE
model terms, see the documentation at the www.posc.org/rescue
website.
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Using POSC RESCUE Export
Open RESCUE Export in one of two ways:

Use the Commands → Attribute Extract/Load →
POSC Rescue Export menu option

Launch it from the main icon window as illustrated below:

Attribute Extract/Load Icon

RESCUE Icon

Either command opens the POSC RESCUE Launcher dialog which
contains all the controls you need to export your model into the
RESCUE format:
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Each function in this dialog is described in more detail in the following
text.
Zones/Blocks Must be Defined
Before you can use the POSC RESCUE export facility, you need to define the zones
and blocks in the Stratamodel project you want to export. To define zones and
blocks, go to Show Displays’ Object Manager and use the Zones and Blocks tabs
to define these objects.

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Load Control File
RESCUE control files store parameter settings for RESCUE format so
you can reuse the settings in the future. These control files have a .prc
filename extension. The Load Control File field is not required. Control
files are created using the Save Cntrl-File button at the bottom of the
dialog.
If you have a control file and you want to load it for reuse, select the
Load Control File button, the Restore Control File Dialog appears:

Navigate your directory structure until the .prc file you want appears in
the right pane of this window. Highlight the file name and click OK.

Well Model
Click the Well Model button to display a list of all the well models in
the current project. Select a well model to convert and click OK.

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Project Axis Units

Highlight the type of units of measurement used in your current
Stratamodel project from this pull-down menu. The default is XYZ
Feet.

RESCUE Output File Type
You can produce either a Binary or an ASCII file when you execute this
facility. The Binary file type is often much smaller and is the default.

Sequence Block Grid
This field controls how 3D corner-point cell geometry is exported to a
RESCUE file. An IJK corner-point Block Grid is defined for each
exported sequence. The Block Grid can be defined explicitly or
implicitly. The cells in a Block Grid can be defined in three different
ways using the RESCUE Export facility:

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Implicit (Ref. Surfaces)
The Implicit method exports reference surfaces and layering
parameters. This type of grid information defers precise cell definition
(XYZ node values at each IJK location or cell corner) to the upscaling
or simulation applications that read the file. The reference information
this method exports includes:




Top horizon
Bottom horizon
Sequence Type (onlap, offlap, truncated, proportional, etc.)
Layer parameters such as thickness, offsets, number of layers, etc.
Any other required template or pattern surfaces

Because the Implicit method does not define the individual cell
geometry, this method exports a small, very portable file. For large
models or on machines with little RAM, this is the preferred method.
This setting is the default.

Explicit (Clip Layer Edges) and Explicit (Bend Layer Edges)
Both Explicit formats use Stratamodel framework cell geometry to
define each corner of each cell within the model and can consequently
produce very large files. The major difference between the two types of
Explicit methods is the way they deal with cell-fault intersections.
Explicit (Clip Layer Edges) clips the edges of each cell at each fault
intersection. Clipping layer edges gives a better visual result, but it can
produce a stair-step effect at the fault intersection. See the following
illustration for an example of the results of Explicit (Clip Layer Edges).
Explicit (Bend Layer Edges) uses curves to connect cell edges at fault
intersections. This method can produce a wrapped look in your model.
This method was used by several of the earliest upscaling applications
and is not the preferred method.

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See the following illustration for a comparison of the two methods.

Explicit (Clip Layer Edges)

Explicit (Bend Layer Edges)

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RESCUE Output K-Layer Trims
K-Layer trims describe the intersection of Stratamodel layer surfaces
against fault surfaces. These layer trimloops provide precise
intersection information for cells that are truncated against faults. This
field allows you to save K-Layer trimloops for future use if you choose
Yes. If you choose No, no trimloops are saved with the RESCUE
model. No is the default.
The extra information generated when you choose Yes requires a
significant increase in processing time and memory requirements. To
decide if trimloops are worth the extra storage and time, check the
upscaling or simulation application you use to see if that application
uses K-Layer trims.

Sequence Geobody Minimum Volume Tolerance
This field allows you to remove outliers or smaller, independent closed
Sequence volumes (i.e. sequence geobodies) from your model before
you export. Set the value to the minimum geobody volume you wish to
export. A setting of 500,000 eliminates all geobodies whose combined
cell rock volume is less than half a million.
TIP: Use Calculate Sequence Volume Attribute Button
The Calculate Sequence Volume Attribute button creates a
SeqVols_ProjectName.out file that lists the volumes in each closed,
independent Sequence volume. This can be helpful when determining the value for
the minimum tolerance.

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Attribute(s) to export
Use this field to control which cell attributes are exported to the
RESCUE model. Attributes are known as “Properties” in the RESCUE
model.
When you click the Attribute(s) to export button, the familiar Create/
Select dialog opens and displays a list of all the attributes in the current
project. You must associate each Statamodel attribute with a POSC
RESCUE property before you export any attributes to the new model.
To do this, follow these steps:
1.

Highlight an attribute from the Create/Select dialog.

2.

Click OK. The RESCUE Attribute Match dialog appears.
Generating the RESCUE Attribute Match List
The RESCUE Attribute Match list is an unofficial list of the types of
properties (or attributes) commonly used by programs that read RESCUE
files. You can edit this list in the rescue_property_file.dat ASCII
file. Find this file in the Stratamodel install directory on your system.

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3.

Highlight the attribute in the RESCUE Attribute Match dialog that
corresponds to the Stratamodel attribute you are exporting. Click
OK in the RESCUE Attribute Match dialog.

4.

Both dialogs close, and en entry appears in the Attributes to Export
field. This entry pairs the Stratamodel attribute with its matched
RESCUE attribute.

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To export more attributes, repeat the process for each one.
You can manage the Attributes to Export list using the Delete
Selected or Delete All buttons.
To export attributes, use these dialog boxes:

Highlight the Stratamodel Attribute to Export

Match the SGM Attribute to an Attribute
type on this list.

The results appear in the Attributes to export
field on the POSC RESCUE Export window.

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Blocks and Zones to Export
Use the Blocks/Zones to export field to control which Fault Blocks
and Zones in the current model you export.
Click the Blocks/Zones to export button to display the following
dialog box.

Highlight all the Fault Blocks and Zones you want to include in your
RESCUE model, and click OK. In our example, we will include Fault
Block 1 and Zones 1 and 2. The Select All Blocks, Unselect All
Blocks, Select All Zones, and Unselect All Zones buttons help you
manage large lists.

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Fault Polygons
Fault polygons (i.e. tiploops) are 3D closed polygons formed by joining
all the triangulated edges of gridded fault surfaces before any surface
extension or fill operation is performed. In other words, fault polygons
or tiploops are the XYZ outline of the original gridded faults before any
extensions were computed. Stratamodel requires that all fault surfaces
are extended; therefore the original surface boundaries are lost.
Reservoir Framework Builder or StrataMap Framework Builder can
generate fault polygons in Stratamodel culture file format (.clt) to be
exported to RESCUE format.

To assign culture files to fault events, use the Fault Polygons button.
When you click the Fault Polygons button the Fault Polygon
Assignment Dialog appears:

If you have an unassigned fault event, None appears to the right of the
fault name. You can use this dialog to assign the culture file (.clt) to the
correct fault event. To assign a culture file:

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1.

Highlight the fault event in the list of Items.

2.

Click the Set to CLT file button.

3.

Select the correct .clt file in the Get Fault Polygon Culture File
dialog box.

4.

Click OK.

As illustrated below, FAULT_003 is now linked to the culture file that
describes it:

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Export to File
Use this field to name the new RESCUE model file or select an existing
file name and overwrite it when you execute the export with the Export
Full Model button. This field is also used by the Export Attributes
button to update an exising RESCUE model.

Message Level
You can determine the level of detail you want to see in the error
messages by setting the Message Level to one of the following options:

POSC RESCUE Dialog Buttons
Calculate Sequence Volume Attribute
RESCUE Export calculates volume values for sequences in your model
on the fly. The Calculate Sequence Volume Attribute button outputs:

a log file (SeqVols_”project-name”.out) that lists the
volume for each closed and independent volume (geobody) in a
sequence

a Sequence Volume attribute

The information from the log file can be useful to help set the
Sequence Geobody Minimum Volume Tolerance field and eliminate
unwanted portions of a sequence.
Values for Sequence Volume Required Before Export
You must generate the Sequence Volume attribute before the RESCUE model can
be exported. This option must be executed at least once per project or after building
the initial Stratamodel framework before you export.

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Save Cntrl-File
Control files (Cntrl-File) contain the parameter settings for all fields
within the POSC RESCUE Export dialog. If you want to save your
settings to be recalled in the future, click this button and assign a name
to the new file.

Export Full Model
This command exports the Stratamodel model in the RESCUE V22
model format. You can create a new RESCUE model by entering a
name or overwrite an existing model by selecting the existing model
name.
Other RESCUE Formats
This utility exports the V22 format by default. You can save your model into the
V23, V24, or V25 formats using environmental variables. See Appendix B.
Environmental Variables of this book for more information.

Export Attributes
This command exports the attributes listed in the dialog to an existing
RESCUE model attribute list. The new attributes are appended to the
existing list using the attribute name and date.

Cancel
Closes the dialog without saving any settings and does not execute the
command.

Help
Opens text files written by the programmer to provide additional
information on the use of this dialog.

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Index
Importing and Exporting Data
Numerics
2V2 data
loading into Attribute Model 85-86
3DV data
loading into Attribute Model 80-81
A
alias
pick data 30, 31
pointsets 26
ASCII file
loading data
extracted from Attribute Model 112-114
into Attribute Model 102-106
selecting
to write attributes to 112
ASCII grids
exporting 74-77
importing 55-63
ATM Extract to Pseudo Log
Formats for x, y, z Data 115
ATM Load from ASCII File
Attribute Fields to Load 105-106
Input File Data Format 103-104
attribute dependence
using template for 107
Attribute Extract Grid
What should be Extracted 120-121
Attribute Extract/Load 100-123
ATM Extract to ASCII File 112-114
ATM Extract to Pseudo Log 115-117
ATM Load from ASCII File 102-106
Attribute Extract Grid 118-121
Get Adjacent Attributes 122-123
menu choices 100-101
Attribute Load Grid 107-111

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Attribute Model
extracting data from
to ASCII file 112-114
to pseudo log 115-117
loading data into
from ASCII file 102-106
attributes
extracting data from
to pseudo log 115-117
extracting from Attribute Model
to ASCII file 112-114
extracting from or loading into Attribute
Model 100-123
formats 101
loading a grid into 107-111
loading into model from ASCII file
102-106
loading with seismic data 79-91
choosing attribute 88
retrieving values from a cell and storing them
in new fields 122-123
average
data to be loaded into Attribute Model 106
points
when loading from ASCII file 103
B
binary grids
exporting 77-78
importing 64-69

Index

143

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Importing and Exporting Data

C

D

cells
calculating composite values in vertical
stacks
from seismic data 89
calculating values for
from seismic data 89
retrieving attributes from 122-123
specifying how to handle cells not loaded
with attribute 110
characters
use of restricted characters (importing well
data) 14
colors
for culture data 97
completion data
filters 36
pointset fields 40
contents
of Stratamodel manuals 2
continuous
averaging 106
conventions
in manuals 3
CPS3 grids
exporting 77
selecting for import 68-69
culture data
choosing color 97
converting for use in Stratamodel 92-99
draping over a grid 96
suspending over a model 96
curves
export to OpenWorks 18-21
select type 21

data
converting culture for use in Stratamodel
92-99
create pointsets from 5
duplicate
creating a pointset with 33
first and last resolution methods 43-44
method for resolving 32
exporting to OpenWorks 18-23
extracting from Attribute Model
to ASCII file 112-114
to pseudo log 115-117
forms
deterministic vs. nondeterministic 33-34
importing from OpenWorks
log curve 6-14
in pointset
select 30
loading into Attribute Model
from ASCII file 102-106
from seismic file 79-91
2V2 85-86
3DV 80-81
SEGY 81-84
OpenWorks
types that can be imported or exported 4
used to construct a pointset 38-43
depth
interval
bounding curve data by 11-12
when outside log values 11
measured, see MD
mode
for importing wells from OpenWorks 12
range
for importing well data 11
true vertical depth sub sea, see TVDSS

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Landmark

depth continued
true vertical, see TVD
type
for exporting curves to OpenWorks 23
units
for exporting curves to OpenWorks 21
for exporting grids to OpenWorks 23
for importing well data 10
in building pointsets 27
discrete
averaging 106
Display SGM Internal Grid File 70-72
Enter Grid(s) Data Format 70
Enter SGM Grid File Name 70
Null Substituted In SGM Grid 71
drape
culture data over a grid 96
DST/RFT
definition 35
filters 35
pointset fields 39
rules for determining first and last resolution
methods 44
duplicates
first and last resolution methods 43-44
method for resolution 32
resolve by filtering 33
E
Epicenter 127
examples
of grid formats 47-53
explicit cell geometry
bend layer edges 133
clip layer edges 133
export
ASCII grids 74-77
curves to OpenWorks 18-21
grids 46, 73-78
to POSC RESCUE model 127

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Importing and Exporting Data

Export ASCII Grids 74-77
Column oriented Output Grid Type 75
Do Not Reverse Grid Columns 76
Do Not Reverse Grid Rows 76
Enter list of Grid File Names 74
Enter Output Grid NULL Value 76
Enter Output Grid(s) Data Format 76
Export button 77
Reverse Grid Columns 76
Reverse Grid Rows 76
Row oriented Output Grid Type 75
Save button 77
Export Binary Grids 77-78
Binary Grid File Type Toggle 78
Enter list of SGM Grid File Names 77
Export button 78
Save button 78
Z-Map Plus MFD Output File 78
Export Curves to OW 18-21
Curve Correspondence 20
Curve Type 21
Depth Units 21
Well Correspondence 19
F
faults
creation options 30
filters 36
pointset fields 40
fields
to be exported in pointsets 30
filters
by date 37
for DST/RFT 35
for duplicate data 33-37
for paleo data 35
for strat unit attributes 35
for strat unit isochores 35
for well data 36
for well production data 36
flatten
culture data to a specified z value 96

Index

145

Landmark

formats
2V2 85-86
3DV 80-81
for extracting attributes to pseudo log 115
for grids
Fortran statement 60
for imported grids 47-53
examples 47-53
for importing well data 12
for pointsets 26
for seismic data loaded in Attribute Model
80
SEGY 81-84
G
geoname
for stratigraphic unit 31
Get Adjacent Attributes
Attribute Field for +Column 123
Attribute Field for +Layer 123
Attribute Field for +Row 123
Attribute Field for -Column 123
Attribute Field for -Layer 123
Attribute Field for -Row 123
grids
ASCII
exporting 74-77
importing 55-63
naming 55
associated with culture data 95
binary
exporting 77-78
importing 64-69
type 64
type to export 78
defined by an attribute
extracting from Stratigraphic Framework
Model 118-121
export to OpenWorks database 22-23
exporting 46, 73-78
format
to export 76
to import 47-53

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Importing and Exporting Data

grids continued
header lines 60
import from OpenWorks database 15-17
importing 45-69
increment 59
for importing 46
internal files
viewing 70-72
limiting 61-62
by row and column 61
by x and y 62
loading into Attribute Model 107-111
null value 58, 76
number of rows and columns 60
origin 59
resampling 46
reversing rows and columns
on output 73
rules for importing 46
selecting
ASCII files for export 75
ASCII files for import 57
binary files for export 77
binary files for import 65-69
CPS3 grids 68-69
MFDs 65-67
to be imported
parameters 54
type
column- or row-oriented 58, 75
H
header data
pointset fields 40
headers
filters 36

Index

146

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Importing and Exporting Data

I

L

import
ASCII grids 55-63
binary grids 64-69
grids 45-69
log curve data
from OpenWorks 6-14
pointsets and grids from OpenWorks 15-17
Import ASCII Grids 55-63
Enter Grid NULL Value 58
Enter list of Grid File Names 57
Enter Number of Grid(s) Columns 60
Enter Number of Grid(s) Rows 60
Enter Number of Header Lines In Grid(s)
Files 60
Enter X-Increment for Grid(s) 59
Enter X-Minimum (origin) for Grid(s) 59
Enter Y-Increment for Grid(s) 59
Enter Y-Minimum (origin) for Grid(s) 59
Import button 63
Limit the Grids 61
Save button 63
Import Binary Grids 64-69
Binary Grid File Type 64
Enter list of Binary Grid File Names 65-69
Import Wells and Curves from OW 6-14
Export Format 12
Export Format Options 13
Log Curves 9
Wells 8
interval
depth
for bounding curve data 11-12

layers
choosing to extract to grid 120
LGC Seismic Loading 79-91
destination for loaded data 88-89
exiting 91
Import Data 90
Seismic Source 80
Velocity Model 87
limit
area affected by template 110
area for retrieving attributes
by rows and columns 123
ASCII grids 61-62
attribute fields
when loading into Attribute Model 104
extracted Attribute Model data
when loading to ASCII file 113
grids
by rows and columns 61
by x and y 62
records
when loading attributes into model 104
location
mode for pointsets 31
log curves
importing from OpenWorks 6-14
selecting
for importing from OpenWorks 9

K
K-Layer trims 135

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Importing and Exporting Data

M

P

manuals
contents 2
conventions 3
MD (measured depth)
definition 12
MFDs
containing culture data
attaching 93
choosing a file from 94
converting 92-99
exporting 78
selecting for import 65-67
mode
depth mode for importing wells 12
model
POSC RESCUE 127
mouse buttons
selecting items with 3

paleo data
filters 35
pointset fields 38
rules for determining first and last resolution
method 44
parameters
for importing grids 54
saving parmaters for converting culture data
98
perforations
filters 36
pointset fields 40
Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation
(POSC) 127
picks
bounding
qualifiers for 29
creation options 30
distinguishing multiple due to reverse
faulting 29
features to include
when building pointsets 29
filters 36
pointset fields 41
Points and Grids
Depth Type 23
Depth Unit 23
exit 17
export data 22-23
Geo Name button 23
Geo Type 23
Get Grids List 16
Get Pointsets List 16
Grid File button 22
Grid Name button 23
import data 15-17
Map Data Set button 23
Show Export List button 23

N
name
pointsets 31
nulls
changing default value when importing well
data 14
filling between noncontiguous units 11
O
output
for pointsets 27

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Index

148

Landmark

Pointset Builder 24-44
Curve Thresholding 35
Depth Units 27
Duplicate Resolution Method 32
Elevation Type 36
Features to Include 29
File Identifier 32
Filter Results 29
Input Curve 35
Output Specifications 27
Output Stratigraphic Unit 31
Pointset Creation Option 30
Pointset Fields 30, 38-43
Pointset Name 31
Qualifiers to Include 29
X,Y Location Mode 31
pointsets
aliases 26
build from OpenWorks data 24-44
created by other Landmark products 24
definition 24
filters 33-37
format 26
import from OpenWorks database 15-17
procedure for building 27-32
selecting output 27
send to OpenWorks 27
send to RAVE 27
send to Stratamodel 27
with duplicate data 33
POSC RESCUE model
explicit
bend layer edges 133
clip layer edges 133
properties 136
sequence volume values 141
terminology 128
POSC RESCUE models
export to 127
pressure data
filters 36
pointset fields 39
pseudo log
extracting from Attribute Model 115-117

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Importing and Exporting Data

Q
qualifiers
for a unit’s bounding picks 29
R
range
of log curve to import 11
rules
for imported grids 46
S
SEGY data
loading into Attribute Model 81-84
seismic data
converting time to depth 87
loading into Attribute Model 79-91
2V2 85-86
3DV 80-81
SEGY 81-84
sequence block grid for POSC export 132
sequence volume values 141
sequences
choosing to extract to grid 121
SGM
internal grid file
displaying 70
strat unit attributes
definition 35
filters 35
pointset fields 38
strat unit isochores
creation options 30
definition 35
filters 35
pointset fields 38
Stratigraphic Framework Model
extracting data from
to grid 118-121
stratigraphic unit
definition
in DST/RFT 35

Index

149

Landmark

surface elevation
filters 36
pointset fields 41
T
templates
loading into Attribute Model 107-111
tiploops 139
total depth
filters 36
pointset fields 42
traces
values resampled for composites in vertical
stacks 89
trimloops 135
true vertical depth sub sea, see TVDSS
true vertical depth, see TVD
TVD/TVDSS
definitions 12
U
units
bounding curve data by
when importing from OpenWorks 11
bounding picks
qualifiers for 29
depth
for exporting curves to OpenWorks 21
for exporting grids to OpenWorks 23
for importing well data 10
in building pointsets 27
filling between noncontiguous units 11
for depth interval
when importing data from OpenWorks 12

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Importing and Exporting Data

V
velocity model
for LGC Seismic Loading 87
volume record data
filters 36
pointset fields 43
W
well data
completions
rules for resolution method order 44
filters 36
perforations
rules for resolution method order 44
pointset fields 40-42
pressure
rules for resolution method order 44
surface elevation
rules for resolution method order 44
test
rules for resolution method order 44
total depth
rules for resolution method order 44
Well Model
loading log curve data from OpenWorks 6
well pressure data
pointset fields 41
well production data
filters 36
pointset fields 43
volume record
pointset fields 43
rules for resolution method order 44
zones
pointset fields 43
rules for resolution method order 44
well production zones
filters 36
pointset fields 43
rules for resolution method order 44

Index

150

Landmark

Importing and Exporting Data

well sets
creating from OpenWorks curve data 14
well tests
filters 36
pointset fields 42
wells
basis for name when importing 13
data
log curves imported from OpenWorks
6-14
importing from OpenWorks
range to import 11
selecting 8
selecting depth units 10
pseudo
extracting attribute data for 115-117
with duplicates
in Point Set Builder 33
Z
z value
exaggerating
for culture data 96
using to flatten culture data 96
Z-MAP Plus Culture Loader 92-99
Associated Fault File 95
Associated Grid 95
Bias 96
Color 97
Load Parameters 98
Projection 96
Save Parameters 98
zone
in well production data 36

R2003.12

Index

151