StrataMap

User Guide

StrataMap User Guide
© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 162123

February 2004

© 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation
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Note
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Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

Contents

StrataMap User Guide
Introduction
Overview .............................................................................................................

1

Finding Information ...........................................................................................

3

Organization of the Guide ...........................................................................

3

Other Sources of Information .....................................................................

4

Using Help in StrataMap ..............................................................................

4

Selecting Topics at Startup ...................................................................

4

Getting System Messages .....................................................................

5

Getting Prompts ......................................................................................

5

Locating Help Topics .............................................................................

6

Help Available in Stratamodel .....................................................................

7

Conventions Used in This Guide ................................................................

7

Changes in StrataMap Option Names ........................................................

9

Starting and Exiting from StrataMap ...............................................................

12

Starting StrataMap .......................................................................................

12

Exiting from StrataMap ................................................................................

12

Managing Windows ...........................................................................................

13

Features of the StrataMap Window ............................................................

13

Menu Bar .................................................................................................

13

Tool Buttons ............................................................................................

15

MB3 Menu ................................................................................................

18

Status Area ..............................................................................................

20

Color -> Z Dialog Box ...................................................................................

21

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Managing Windows continued
Common Features of the Interface .............................................................

22

Resizing and Moving Windows .............................................................

22

Moving Windows ....................................................................................

23

Raising and Lowering Windows ............................................................

24

Activating Windows ................................................................................

24

Using Scroll Bars ....................................................................................

24

Working in a Dialog Box ..............................................................................

25

Using StrataMap with Other Stratamodel Applications .................................

27

Using PD to Exchange Surfaces .................................................................

28

Creating Surfaces
Overview .............................................................................................................

29

Gridding Concepts ............................................................................................

30

Pointsets .......................................................................................................

30

Grids ..............................................................................................................

31

Creating New Surfaces .....................................................................................

33

Specifying Formats ......................................................................................

33

Generic ....................................................................................................

34

X,Y,multZs ...............................................................................................

35

Lines ........................................................................................................

35

Contours ..................................................................................................

36

Seismic ....................................................................................................

36

Landmark DTS ........................................................................................

37

Geoq6/7 ....................................................................................................

37

ZMAP+ ......................................................................................................

37

Create Point Set ......................................................................................

37

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Creating Surfaces continued
Creating the Surface ....................................................................................

38

Creating Multiple Grids from the Same Source ........................................

41

Reviewing Data .............................................................................................

41

Saving Surfaces ...........................................................................................

43

Selecting an Existing Surface ..........................................................................

45

Using the Select Existing Surface Option .................................................

45

Alternate Ways to Select an Existing Surface ...........................................

46

Frameworks
Introduction ........................................................................................................

47

Understanding Stratamodel Frameworks .......................................................

48

Fault Extensions .....................................................................................

51

Editing Frameworks ...............................................................................

51

Tips for Creating Frameworks ...............................................................

52

Framework Workflows ......................................................................................

53

Overview of the Framework Workflows .....................................................

54

Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK ...........................................

54

Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK ..............................

54

Assign order and layering rules to Horizons .......................................

54

Partition Horizons into Fault blocks .....................................................

55

Adjust Horizons to match available well control .................................

56

Apply a Coverage Template to a Framework .......................................

56

Overview Steps for Building a Basic Framework .....................................

57

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Frameworks continued
Workflow 1: Initiating a New Framework ...................................................

59

Step 1: Preparing the Data and Starting the Workflow .......................

59

Step 2: Selecting the Initial Horizon Grid .............................................

60

Step 3: Selecting Additional Grids ........................................................

61

Step 4: Completing and Saving the Framework ..................................

63

Adding Grids to the Framework Later ..................................................

64

Deleting Grids from the Framework ......................................................

64

Workflow 2: Setting Up Faults as Boundaries ..........................................

65

Workflow 3: Specifying Ordering and Layering Attributes ......................

68

Workflow 4:
Partitioning Horizons into Fault Blocks and Cleaning Up Edges ............

73

Correcting Erase and Extend Results ........................................................

79

Fault Framework Sketch ...................................................................................

81

Displaying the Fault Framework Sketch Dialog Box ................................

82

Overview of the Fault Framework Sketch Dialog Box ..............................

83

Buttons ....................................................................................................

83

Display Area ............................................................................................

83

Setting Up Faults as Boundaries ................................................................

86

Ordering Fault Boundaries Manually ....................................................

86

Correcting Special Problems .................................................................

91

Insert Boundary Faults Menu Options ..................................................

92

Tracking Framework Events Status .................................................................

94

Framework Events Status Controls ...........................................................

95

Edge Column Options ............................................................................

95

Pointset to Link Button ..........................................................................

97

Display Buttons ......................................................................................

97

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Framework Events Status Controls continued
Adjust Button ..........................................................................................

98

Replace Button .......................................................................................

98

Event Name Fields ..................................................................................

99

Status Column Buttons ..........................................................................

99

Save Top Picks Button ........................................................................... 102
Save Tip Lines ......................................................................................... 103
Save Point Subsets Button .................................................................... 103
Select Subset Button .............................................................................. 104
Using the Framework Events Status Dialog Box ...................................... 105
Visible Quality Control ........................................................................... 105
Create a Subset of a Pointset ................................................................ 106
Edge Processing ..................................................................................... 107
Precisely Adjusting Surfaces to Pointsets ........................................... 108
Editing Framework Events ..................................................................... 109
Framework Operations ..................................................................................... 110
Perform Outstanding Changes ................................................................... 110
Creating a Custom Fault Block ................................................................... 111
Steps for Creating a Custom Fault Block ............................................. 112
Deleting a Custom Fault Block .............................................................. 114
Using the Erase & Extend Option ............................................................... 115
Using the Form Entire Horizon Option ....................................................... 116

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Gridding and Adding Data
Overview ............................................................................................................. 119
Creating, Recalculating, or Resampling Grids ............................................... 120
Steps for Gridding Revisited ....................................................................... 121
Gridding Methods ........................................................................................ 122
Global Solution ....................................................................................... 122
Radial Search — Random ...................................................................... 122
Radial Search — Clustered .................................................................... 122
Weighted Resampling ............................................................................ 122
Search Limits ................................................................................................ 123
Generating or Recalculating a Grid ............................................................ 124
Resampling Grids ........................................................................................ 129
Changing the Area of Interest .......................................................................... 130
Locking the Grid Definition (AOI) ..................................................................... 131
Adding Other Data Types ................................................................................. 132
Concepts for Working with Different Data Types ..................................... 132
Polygons .................................................................................................. 132
Faults ....................................................................................................... 133
Culture Data ............................................................................................ 133
Creating Polygons ....................................................................................... 134
Creating Faults ............................................................................................. 135
Creating and Applying Culture Data .......................................................... 137
Exporting the Display as an ASCII or CGM File ........................................ 137
Displaying Culture Data ......................................................................... 138

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Gridding and Adding Data: Adding Other Data Types continued
Creating Pointsets ....................................................................................... 138
Choosing the Source of Points ............................................................. 139
Creating Pointsets .................................................................................. 144
Creating Custom Shapes .................................................................................. 146
Linking Data to a Surface ................................................................................. 148
Linking to Data Points ................................................................................. 148
Linking to Faults .......................................................................................... 150
Linking a Surface to Fault Lines ........................................................... 150
Linking a Surface to a Fault Polygon .................................................... 151
Adjusting to Linked Data ............................................................................. 152
Changing the Interpolation Method ................................................................. 154

Setting Up Displays
Using Map View ................................................................................................. 156
Controlling Map Content ............................................................................. 156
Setting the Z Range and Increment ............................................................ 157
Locking the Surface Z Range ................................................................ 158
Controlling Contours, Faults, and Points .................................................. 160
Contours .................................................................................................. 160
Faults ....................................................................................................... 161
Points ....................................................................................................... 162
Displaying Culture Data ............................................................................... 163
Removing Culture Data .......................................................................... 163
Using the Map Magnifier .............................................................................. 164
Displaying the Current Status ..................................................................... 165

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Setting Up Displays continued
Using the Profile Display .................................................................................. 166
Setting Up the Profile Display ..................................................................... 166
Moving the Line of Section ......................................................................... 168
Rotating the Line of Section .................................................................. 169
Setting the Z Range for Profile Display ...................................................... 169
Displaying the Cursor Position ................................................................... 170
Using Profile Display in a Framework ........................................................ 170
Dynamic Profile Display .............................................................................. 170
Displaying View-Only Surfaces ........................................................................ 171
Viewing Point Data ............................................................................................ 174
Displaying Histograms ...................................................................................... 176
Setting Colors .................................................................................................... 178
Setting Up the Color Table .......................................................................... 178
Manipulating Colors and Z Range with the Colorbar ............................... 180

Surface Operations and Map Editing
Overview ............................................................................................................. 181
Performing Operations with Grids ................................................................... 182
Performing a Least Squares Fit of a Polynomial ...................................... 182
Performing Operations on a Single Surface .............................................. 184
Performing Operations on Two Surfaces .................................................. 186
Filling Voids ....................................................................................................... 190
Smoothing Surfaces .......................................................................................... 192
Editing Contours, Profiles, and Nodes ............................................................ 194
Editing Points .................................................................................................... 199

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Surface Operations and Map Editing continued
Inserting Faults, Polygons, and Boundaries .................................................. 203
Inserting Faults ............................................................................................ 203
Inserting Erasing Polygons ......................................................................... 205
Inserting Boundaries ................................................................................... 206

Appendix A. File Descriptions and Formats
Overview ............................................................................................................. 207
Point Datasets .................................................................................................... 208
Input Data Formats ...................................................................................... 209
Generic .................................................................................................... 209
XYZS ........................................................................................................ 210
Lines ........................................................................................................ 210
Contours .................................................................................................. 211
Seismic .................................................................................................... 211
Formats from Other Products ............................................................... 212
Formats Created in the Create Point Dataset Dialog Box ........................ 213
Same as Current Point File .................................................................... 213
Averaged from Current Points .............................................................. 214
Based on Surface Shape ........................................................................ 215
At Every Defined Grid Node ................................................................... 216
Along Contours Displayed ..................................................................... 217
At User Picked Points ............................................................................ 218
Along User Picked Lines ........................................................................ 219
Polygons Between Points ...................................................................... 220

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Appendix A. File Descriptions and Formats continued
Fault Datasets .................................................................................................... 221
Polygon Datasets .............................................................................................. 221
Culture Datasets ................................................................................................ 222
Grid Datasets ..................................................................................................... 223

Appendix B. StrataMap Approach to Gridding
Overview ............................................................................................................. 224
Gridding Stages ................................................................................................. 225
Primary Estimates ........................................................................................ 225
Global Solution ....................................................................................... 226
Radial Search - Random ........................................................................ 226
Radial Search - Clustered ...................................................................... 227
Weighted Resampling ............................................................................ 227
Secondary Estimates ................................................................................... 229
Smoothing .................................................................................................... 230

Index ....................................................................................................................

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Introduction
Overview
StrataMap is a mapping package that incorporates gridding,
contouring, and interactive editing. It is not meant to replace a
comprehensive mapping and map presentation program like Z-MAP
Plus. Instead, it is focused on those mapping capabilities needed to
create and edit components needed to build a valid 3D earth model,
such as those required by Stratamodel.
An extended license for StrataMap is available which includes
framework creation and editing capabilities in a graphic, easy-to-use
dialog that is very tightly integrated with all the other editing facilities
available in the standard StrataMap. Additionally, this license enables a
series of automated workflows to make framework creation even easier.
These extensions are collectively referred to as FWB (FrameWork
Building).
In StrataMap, each component that you generate is recognized as a
surface, which is a composite of a smooth interpolation of points within
specified boundaries. The boundaries are interior (faults) and exterior
(polygons and other surfaces). You can generate surfaces using well log
picks, contoured points, or interpreted 2D/3D seismic picks. When
used with Stratamodel, the primary source of input are .smg grids
which usually have no boundaries or points associated with them, but
are sufficient to provide the basis of framework components as needed
by Stratamodel.

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StrataMap offers you these features, all embedded in a
framework-enriched environment:

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Produces fast solutions of faulted or unfaulted data

Handles random or clustered data points

Provides a set of easy-to-use editors

Grids large data sets in seconds, allowing you to change your
geological interpretation rapidly

Allows you to modify edited surfaces using contours, profiles, or
data points

Provides surface-enhancing capabilities like smoothing, filling
voids, adding faults, and generating conformal surfaces

Allows you to modify entire maps or limited areas, based on
ellipses or polygons you define

Generates a profile (or cross section) between any two points on a
map and edits the map or a profile

Automatically extends surfaces specified as faults to cover the
entire AOI

Provides automatic enrichment of all displays when viewed within
a framework

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Finding Information
This topic describes the contents and organization of this guide, lists
other guides you may find helpful, and explains how to use the on-line
Help. A description of the conventions used in this guide is also
included.

Organization of the Guide
This guide contains information about the StrataMap option on the
Stratamodel menu (also part of Template Modeling and StrataMap).
The guide contains the following topics:

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Introduction — explains where to find information about
StrataMap and related products, what the guide conventions are,
how to use windows and other features in StrataMap, how to open
and close the product, and how concepts and terms are used.

Creating Surfaces and Surface Relationships — defines a
surface, tells how to create or select a surface from pointsets.

Frameworks and Surface Relationships — explains the
framework creation and management facility within StrataMap
and its extended features, FWB. You can use the Fault Framework
Sketch dialog box to define fault blocks in an interactive, graphic
view. You can use the Framework Events Status dialog box to
manage the framework you created in the Fault Framework Sketch
dialog box. This section also describes the automated workflows
provided to make framework building and editing easier.

Gridding and Adding Data — explains pointsets and grids,
describes how to grid a surface, and how to introduce different
data types into a map. It also explains how to perform some
operations with grids.

Setting Up Your Basemap — explains how to control the content
of the display, how to change the appearance of different features
on the display, and how to view different display types.

Editing Your Map — explains how to edit contours, profiles, and
points; how to insert faults, polygons, and boundaries; how to fill
voids created by nulls or faults; and how to smooth a surface.

Appendix A. File Descriptions and Formats — explains the
formats for all files that can be used or created by StrataMap.

Appendix B. StrataMap’s Approach to Gridding — explains in
detail the steps and algorithms that StrataMap uses in gridding.

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Other Sources of Information
For information on the other modules included in Stratamodel, see the
following Landmark guides.

Stratamodel guide set
StrataSim User/Reference Guide

For information on contouring, see Contouring Geologic Surfaces with
the Computer, by Thomas A. Jones, David E. Hamilton, and Carlton R.
Johnson.

Using Help in StrataMap
StrataMap provides on-line Help for you in three ways:

By clicking topics in the Help window.

By selecting options under Mode on the Help menu, you can
receive help messages automatically or upon request.

By selecting Prompt Mode, you can receive prompts for action
either in the status area or in dialog boxes.

By selecting Help from the Help menu, you can search for a
particular topic.

Selecting Topics at Startup
When you first start StrataMap, the following list of help topics appears
in the StrataMap window.

Click a topic to launch a workflow or display the release notes specific
to StrataMap.

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Getting System Messages
You can toggle the Mode option in the Help menu to On Request or
Automatic.

With Automatic selected, you get help messages for every button
or menu you select.

With On Request selected, you only receive a Help message when
you click the Help button at the bottom of a dialog box. This gives
you help on the last option selected.

Getting Prompts
Prompts are provided to offer instructions and guide you through many
operations. To change the way prompts appear, select Options →
Prompt Mode and toggle to the other Prompt Mode menu option. (The
option that is currently in use appears dimmed.)

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Logged (default setting) displays prompts in the status area at the
bottom of the StrataMap window.

Automatic causes a dialog box to appear automatically, which
contains the prompt text.

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Locating Help Topics
To search for help topics, select the Help option on the Help menu. The
HELP Review dialog box appears. To display a list of topics, click the
Major Topic arrow or Sub-topics arrow.

To choose a topic, select it from the list.
If the topic has subtopics available, a second list appears. Choose a
topic from the list.

Motif Window
Menu button

A message box appears with Help information for the topic. Use the
Motif window control menu or click OK in the HELP Review dialog to
close Help dialog boxes.

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Help Available in Stratamodel
To display the online guide for StrataMap from the Stratamodel main
menu, select Help → Online Manuals → StrataMap.

Conventions Used in This Guide
In this guide, certain conventions are used to explain how to access and
use various features of the program. A reference list follows.

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Menu Options

Menu options and button names appear in
boldface, for example, Select Existing
Framework.

OK

Click the indicated button, for example, OK.

Global → Exit

Menu paths are indicated by menu options in
bold, separated by arrows; in this example, you
select Global, then Exit.

Mouse Button
1, 2, or 3
(MB1, MB2, or
MB3)

Throughout the documentation you will see
instructions to use one of the three mouse
buttons. Typically, mouse button one is the left
button; two is in the center, and mouse button
three is on the right. However you can
reconfigure the mouse to reverse these
assignments; play with your mouse to explore
your mouse button configuration.

Return

Keys on the keyboard are capitalized.

Enter startow

Text that you are required to enter is printed in
a different typeface (Courier). Enter exactly
what you see.

Enter
projectname

A different typeface in italics (Courier
Italics) indicates that you are to supply
information. At this instruction for example,
you should enter the name of your project.

Click

Move the cursor to the option or object
specified and quickly press and release the
mouse button. Unless otherwise specified,
use MB1 (mouse button 1).

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Press and drag

Press the mouse button and continue to hold it
down while moving the cursor to the option
you want or to a new location in the graphic
display area; then release the button.

Highlight

Move the cursor to the name of the item you
wish to use and select it with the mouse.

Select

Move the cursor to the option or object you
want to select and click it.

Double-click

Click the mouse button twice rapidly without
moving the mouse. The first click highlights
the option, object, or text beneath the cursor;
the second click is equivalent to clicking the
OK button to accept the selection.

Triple-click

Click the mouse button three times rapidly
without moving the mouse to highlight a string
of text (more than one word) beneath the
cursor.

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Changes in StrataMap Option Names
If you last used StrataMap in it 2003.0 release, you will discover that in
release 2003.12, many of the options have moved to other menus or are
renamed. The following table is a guide to finding the 2003.0 options in
the 2003.12 StrataMap window.
2003.0 Option Name

2003.12 Option Name

File > Framework > Load SCF Control File

File > Select Existing Framework

File > Framework > Save Framework

File > Framework > Save Framework As

File > Setup Custom Fault Block

Operations > Framework Operations >
Setup Custom Fault Block

File > Display Only Surfaces

File > Setup Display Only Surfaces

File > Create New Surface From Point Set

File > Create New Surface From Point Set

File > Create New Surface, Same Source

File > Create New Surface From Point Set
Create New Surface, Same Source

File > Select Existing Surface

File > Select Existing Surface

File > Send Current Surface to ShowDisplays

Displays > 3D ShowDisplays link >
Send Current Surface to ShowDisplays

File > Save Current Surface As

File > Save Current Surface As

File > Single Surface Ops

Operations > Surface Operations >
Single Surface Operations

File > Dual Surface Ops

Operations > Surface Operations > Dual Surface Operations

File > Fit Least Squares Polynomial

Operations > Surface Operations >
Fit Least Squares Polynomial

File > Create > Points

File > Create > Point Set

File > Create > Polygon

File > Create > Polygon Boundary

File > Create > Faults

File > Create > Polygon/Vertical Faults

File > Export Display

Displays > Map Options > Export Map Display

File > Point Set Browser

Displays > Browse Point Set

File > Return to Main

File > Return to Initial State

File > Exit Program

File > Exit Program

Setup > Link to Show/Displays >
Connect to Show/Displays

Displays > 3D ShowDisplays link >
Connect to ShowDisplays

Setup > Link to Show/Displays > Connection Off

Displays > 3D ShowDisplays link > Turn Connection Off

Setup > Surface Specs > Recalculate Grid

Operations > Re-calculate Surface from Point Set

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2003.0 Option Name

2003.12 Option Name

Setup > Surface Specs > Customized Shape

Operations > Create Custom Shaped Surface

Setup > Surface Specs > Resample Grid

Operations > Resample Surface

Setup > Surface Specs > Subset AOI

Operations > Subset AOI from map

Setup > Surface Specs > Link/Associate > Data
Points

File > Attach Links to Surface >
Source Point Set and
Target Point Set

Setup > Surface Specs > Link/Associate > Fault File File > Attach Links to Surface >
Polygonal Fault Boundaries
Setup > Surface Specs > Link/Associate >
Polygon File

File > Attach Links to Surface >
Exterior Polygon Boundary

Setup > Displays > Z-Range, Increment

Displays > Set Z-Range, Increment

Setup > Displays > Contour Specs

Displays > Map Options > Select Map Content
Contour Presentation

Setup > Displays > Fault Specs

Displays > Map Options > Select Map Content
Fault Presentation

Setup > Displays > Point Specs

Displays > Map Options > Select Map Content
Point Presentation

Setup > Displays > Culture

Displays > Map Options > Select Culture Overlay

Setup > Displays > Profile

Displays > Profile / Cross-section

Setup > Displays > Faults map

Displays > Fault Framework Map

Setup > Displays > Position Reporter

Displays > Map Options > Position Reporter

Setup > Displays > Histograms

Displays > Histograms

Setup > Displays > Magnifier

Displays > Map Options > Magnifier

Setup > Interpolation > Linear

Options > Interpolation > Linear

Setup > Interpolation > Cubic

Options > Interpolation > Cubic

Setup > Prompt Mode > Logged

Options > Prompt Mode > Logged

Setup > Prompt Mode > Automatic

Options > Prompt Mode > Automatic

Setup > AOI Ranging > Adjust to Input

Options > AOI Ranging > Adjust to Input

Setup > AOI Ranging > Lock AOI and GINT

Options > AOI Ranging > Lock AOI and GINT

Setup > AOI Ranging > Lock AOI, GINT & Nulls

Options > AOI Ranging > Lock AOI, GINT & Coverage

Setup > Surface Z Ranging > Adjust to Input

Options > Surface Z Ranging > Adjust to Input

Setup > Surface Z Ranging >
Adjust to Input+Others

Options > Surface Z Ranging > Adjust to Input+Others

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2003.0 Option Name

2003.12 Option Name

Setup > Surface Z Ranging > Lock Z Range

Options > Surface Z Ranging > Lock Z Range

Setup > Profile Z Range > Same As Surface

Options > Profile Z Range > Same As Surface

Setup > Profile Z Range > Automatic

Options > Profile Z Range > Automatic

Edit > Surface Shaping

Editors > Surface Shaping

Edit > Points

Editors > Point Set Operations

Edit > Insert Faults

Editors > Insert Polygonal/Vertical Faults

Edit > Erase Polygonal Areas

Editors > Erase Polygonal Areas

Edit > Insert Boundaries

Editors > Insert Boundaries

Edit > Smooth Surface

Operations > Surface Operations > Smooth Surface

Edit > Fill Voids

Operations > Surface Operations > Fill undefined regions

Edit > Erase & Extend

Operations > Framework Operations >
Erase & Extend Edges

Edit > Adjust to Linked Point Set

Operations > Adjust Surface to Linked Point Set

Content

Displays > Map Options > Select Map Content

Colors

Displays > Coloring of Z-Range

Status

Status

Stop

Stop

Help > Mode > On Request

Help > Mode > On Request

Help > Mode > Automatic

Help > Mode > Automatic

Help > Help

Help > Help

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Starting and Exiting from StrataMap
This topic explains how to start and exit from StrataMap.
Truecolor, Pseudocolor, and Color Problems
By default, StrataMap first tries to use a color system called Truecolor, then
changes to Pseudocolor if Truecolor is not available. Each has its advantages and
disadvantages.
Using Truecolor can cause problems on some systems and it causes the image to
redraw when the color table is being manipulated. You can force StrataMap to use
Pseudocolor to eliminate these problems. To do so, set the COLORCHG
environment variable as follows:
setenv COLORCHG yes
Restart Stratamodel.
However, Pseudocolor sometimes fails if it runs out of colors. If it does so, it reports
an X error (. . . X_StoreColors) and StrataMap does not come up. To work around
this problem set the COLORCHG environment variable as follows:
setenv COLORCHG no
Restart Stratamodel.

Starting StrataMap
You can start StrataMap one either of these ways:

Select Commands → StrataMap Grid Editing from the
Stratamodel main menu.

Click the StrataMap Grid Editing icon on the icon interface.

The StrataMap main window offers a list of help topics until you select
a new or existing surface. The contour map of the surface appears.

Exiting from StrataMap
When you finish using StrataMap, select File → Return to Initial
State. If you made unsaved changes to the current surface or
framework, a message box appears and asks you if you want to save
them. Select Yes or No. The StrataMap window reappears in its initial
state. You are now ready to exit from StrataMap by selecting File →
Exit Program.

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Managing Windows
StrataMap uses a window manager called Motif and other features to
help you work easily with windows. This topic describes some features
of StrataMap windows, dialog boxes, and other parts of the interface.

Features of the StrataMap Window
This topic describes the StrataMap window features.

Menu Bar
The StrataMap window has a menu bar at the top, like other modules in
Stratamodel. Click a menu name on the menu bar and a drop-down
menu appears with a list of subsidiary options.
Menubar

The main menu options are described in other parts of this guide.
The appearance of the menu items on a drop-down menu indicates what
you can expect when you select an option.

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Arrows
An arrow ( )after a menu item — as in Create —indicates that a
cascading menu appears if you click the option.

Ellipses
Ellipses (...) after a menu option indicate that a dialog box appears if
you select the option (for example, Select Existing Framework ... , as
shown in the following example).

Option Name Only
Menu options with no punctuation — such as Save Surface — perform
the specified task immediately or put the program in the correct mode
for performing the specified task.

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Tool Buttons
Underneath the menu bar is a group of buttons that activate tools for
working in the map. This topic describes the most common tool
buttons. Buttons that appear for special uses are explained in context.

X,Y same
The X,Y same option equalizes the grid increment for the x and y axes.

Restore
Restore returns your map to its original state after panning or zooming.

Pt Zoom
Use the Point Zoom (Pt Zoom) option to zoom the display with a
specified point as the center.
To use the Pt Zoom option, follow these steps:

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Click the Pt Zoom button.

2.

Use a mouse button to pick the point that will be the center of the
zoomed display. Picking a point by using MB1 zooms the display
by a factor or 2. Use MB2 to zoom by a factor of 4, and MB3 to
zoom by a factor of 8.

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The display zooms around the selected point, enlarging the map
and placing the point in the center.

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Un zoom
The Un zoom option is active only if you have Pt Zoomed the display.
Click Un zoom to increase the viewing area by a factor of 4.

Pan
The Pan option is active only if the display has been zoomed. Pan
moves the picture in the direction of a selected point trying to maintain
a 50 percent overlap with previous view. Scales remain the same.

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1.

Click Pan.

2.

Select a point to move the picture toward.

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The picture adjusts by moving toward that point so that you can
see more of the map in the specified direction.

Original
Point

MB3 Menu
If you click MB3 with the cursor located anywhere on a map, a popup
menu appears with two options. Each option toggles with its opposite;
so the inactive option is always shown. Depending on the context, more
options may be available. In the following sample, Quick Contouring
is active, and the borders are turned on. The options are:

Normal Contouring or Quick Contouring
Turn Border Off or Turn Border On

MB3 activates
this menu.

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Normal/Quick Contouring
Normal Contouring and Quick Contouring control the interpolation
of the surface within grid cells. Quick provides less interpolation, and
is therefore faster. The inactive option is always the one displayed on
the MB3 menu.
Quick Contouring selected;
Normal Contouring available
on MB3 menu.

Normal Contouring selected;
Quick Contouring available
on MB3 menu.

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Turn Border Off/Turn Border On
Toggle between Turn Border On and Turn Border Off to place or
remove a border around the map. Borders include a title and labels on
the x, y axes.

Status Area
The status area at the bottom of the StrataMap window reports
information about the display and sometimes gives instructions for
your next action.

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Color -> Z Dialog Box
The Color -> Z dialog box appears whenever colors are used in the
main window. StrataMap can display from 20 to 100 colors; the 100
color maximum is set externally. The Color Bar displays the selected
color scale and shows you the color of the different z levels. You can
invert the colors by using the MB3 menu. Other options are also
available that provide a quick way to focus on subsets of the z range.

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Common Features of the Interface
The Motif window manager assures that certain features of the
StrataMap interface behave exactly like similar features throughout the
interface and throughout other products using Motif. Most Landmark
products are Motif compliant. This means that once you understand
how to use these features in one Landmark product, you can transfer
that knowledge to most other Landmark products. This topic describes
those features.
Resizing and Moving Windows
You can resize and move most StrataMap windows by using the
features in the following illustration.
Motif Window Menu Button

Title Bar

Minimize Button
Maximize
Button
Resize
Border
Handle

Motif
Window
Menu

Resize
Border
Handle

StrataMap Window Manager Features
The Motif Window Menu button opens a drop-down menu with options
that control the position and status of the entire window. You can use
either the menu options or the minimize and maximize buttons to resize
a window or an icon.

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To reduce a window to an icon, click the Minimize option or icon.

To restore an icon to a window, double-click the icon or press
MB3 on the icon to get the window menu and select the Maximize
icon.

To enlarge a window to the full size of the screen, click the
Maximize option or button.

To restore an enlarged window to its former size, click the
Maximize button again.

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To change the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a window,
place the cursor into the corner of a window. When the cursor
changes shape
, press MB1 and drag the window outline to
the size you want; then release the mouse button.

To change one dimension of a window, place the cursor on one
side of a window. When the cursor changes shape
, press
MB1and drag the window outline to the size you want; then
release the mouse button.

Moving Windows
You can move windows in three ways: by using the title bar, the
window frame, or the menu button.

Method 1: Moving the Window by Dragging the Title Bar
1.

Move the cursor into the title bar of the window.

2.

Press MB1and move the mouse (thus moving the window).

3.

When the window is positioned correctly, release the mouse
button.

Method 2: Moving the Window by Dragging the Window Frame
1.

Place the cursor anywhere on the window frame, press MB3 to
reveal a drop-down menu, and drag to Move.

2.

Move the mouse (thus moving the window).

3.

When you have the window positioned where you want it, click
any button.

Method 3: Moving the Window by Using the Move Menu Option

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Click MB1 on the Window Menu button in the top left corner.

2.

Select Move from the drop-down menu.

3.

Move the mouse (thus moving the window).

4.

When you have the window positioned where you want it, click
any button.

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Raising and Lowering Windows
As you work with the different modules in Stratamodel, you may have
several windows stacked on top of one another.

To raise a window (bring it to the front of all other windows), click
MB1 anywhere on its frame.

To lower a window (send it to the back of all other windows), click
MB3 anywhere on its frame and select Lower from the menu.

Activating Windows
A window must be “active” to receive input from the keyboard or
mouse. To make a window active, simply move the cursor into it. The
window frame will change to the color designated on your system for
active windows.

Using Scroll Bars
When the data displayed exceeds the window boundaries, you can use
scroll bars to move the focus of the display. Scroll bars appear on the
status area of the main window and on dialog boxes that contain lists.

Scroll
Bars

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You can move scroll bars in any of the following ways:

To move the scroll bar with a single smooth motion, click to grab
the scroll bar and slide it up or down.

To move the scroll bar by the width of one scroll bar, use MB1 to
click either side of the scroll bar. (The scroll bar moves one
increment with each click.)

To move the scroll bar in smaller increments, use MB1 to click
either arrow.

To center the scroll bar on a specified point, use MB2 to click a
point on either side of the scroll bar.

To move the scroll bar continuously, click and hold an arrow.

Working in a Dialog Box
StrataMap dialog boxes allow you to make selections in different ways,
depending upon the selection type. The different selection modes are
illustrated in the following dialog box:

List selector —
Displays a selection
list dialog box

Number selector
Toggle

Selection button

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Click the selection button to begin selecting an option in one of the
following different ways:

List Selector — Displays a selection list dialog box like the
following one:

Click a filename to select it and close the selection list dialog box.

Number Selector — You can specify a number by entering a
value or clicking the selection button to display a numeric
selection dialog box like the following one.

The numeric selection dialog box has the advantage of showing
you the minimum and maximum allowable choices. Use any of the
following methods to choose a number.
— Click the Minimum button to select that number.
— Click the Maximum button to select that number.
— Use the slider to select any other number.

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Toggle — Switches to a different option. Click the button until the
appropriate option appears.

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Using StrataMap with Other Stratamodel Applications
Reservoir modeling with Stratamodel involves a variety of data and
various skills. No two projects use the same steps, paths through the
applications, and techniques to build a model, even when they are using
the same data.
Building the stratigraphic framework is the most important step in any
modeling project. A vital part of that step is grid preparation. Although
you may have access to other mapping packages for creating your
initial (naive) gridded surfaces, it is important for grid manipulation to
be tightly integrated with the reservoir-modeling process. It is also
important that the correct rules for combining faults and horizons are
determined. StrataMap provides a context where both of these vital
steps in creating a framework are available together.
Grid manipulation options in Show Displays 3D mode and StrataMap
together provide valuable tools for generating and manipulating
gridded surfaces. You may find that you alternate between Stratamodel
and StrataMap to polish your framework of gridded surfaces. Using
these integrated modules decreases the time and effort spent in building
the stratigraphic framework on which Stratamodel modeling is based.
Although the primary focus for StrataMap is interpretive grid editing,
you will find it useful throughout a modeling project.
StrataMap fits into this process in several ways, including the following
ones:

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Grids that you have produced from attribute models can be read
into StrataMap, contoured, and displayed as easily as those that
you used to build the framework.

Any grid in StrataMap can be viewed in Show Displays. In
addition, StrataMap attempts to manage the context of the 3D view
offered by Show Displays. In this manner, StrataMap provides an
intelligent driver for Show Displays.

Surfaces are broadcast to Show Displays using the PD (Pointer
Dispatcher) linkage and broadcast menu items.

You can also export StrataMap surfaces as culture data to be used
as overlays or as metafiles to be plotted.

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Using PD to Exchange Surfaces
You can automatically send surfaces from StrataMap to the
Stratamodel Show Displays window using the Point Dispatcher (PD).
StrataMap No Longer Receives PD Input
The new framework-enhanced StrataMap is currently unable to receive Point
Dispatcher (PD) input. This precludes some old functionality but allows some new
enhanced management of the Stratamodel Show Displays view. The new
StrataMap functionality is designed to manage groups of surfaces which is typical
when working with frameworks and/or components of a proposed framework.

To initiate PD exchange and before you perform any other operations in
either program, follow these steps:
1.

To connect to Stratamodel, select Displays → 3D ShowDisplays
link → Connect to ShowDisplays in the StrataMap window.

2.

In Stratamodel’s Show Displays, select File → Connect
StrataMap.

Once both StrataMap and ShowDisplays have been connected,
StrataMap sends surfaces through PD to Show Displays. StrataMap
also clears all grids previously loaded into Show Displays whenever
you select a new framework or create a custom fault block (by selecting
Operations → Framework Operations → Setup Custom Fault
Block in the StrataMap window).

When you select a new framework in StrataMap, all previous grids
are removed from the Show Displays Object Manager list and
any faults associated with the new framework are displayed and
listed in Show Displays. StrataMap sends clipped versions of the
faults. No grids appear in Show Displays until you select one in
StrataMap.

If you create a custom fault block in StrataMap, all previous grids
are removed from the Show Displays Object Manager list and
only those faults specified as part of the fault block definition are
sent over. If you click the Cancel button in the Setup Custom Fault
Block dialog box, no faults are sent over. The current surface is
then sent to Stratamodel. The display is cleared, so you can focus
on a particular fault block.

For more information about PD, see the Stratamodel guide Creating
Displays.

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Creating Surfaces
Overview
Gridding is an interpolation technique for generating numerical models
of a surface. A grid is a structure to contain the results at an appropriate
resolution of x and y. These surfaces can be used to define the spatial
shapes needed for horizon and fault components and is also used to
hold distributions of geologic attributes such as porosity.
To create a grid, follow these steps:
1.

Supply data to be gridded (point data to define the surface) or a
source grid, such as an existing. smg file

2.

Define an area of interest (AOI) on the map. The AOI is typically a
subset of information taken from a larger source.

3.

Create a grid framework for mapping the data. This is called the
grid definition.

4.

If you are using point data, determine the best method for
generating grid values — the method that most accurately honors
the grid data. Use GLOBAL unless there are too many points.

5.

Finally, you may want to include additional data to define the
surface more accurately, such as faults and boundaries. If you are
building elements to use in a framework, this is never necessary.

This section describes the first step in the gridding process:

Gridding concepts (page 30)

Creating new surfaces from point data (page 33)

Saving surfaces (page 43)

Selecting existing surfaces (page 45)

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Gridding Concepts
Creating surfaces is the first step in gridding. You use sets of point data
(in .xyz files) to create surfaces, and use surfaces to create grids. This
topic explains how pointsets, surfaces, and grids relate to one another.

Pointsets
StrataMap employs the premise that you are creating or modifying a
surface to use, in the form of a grid, in other Stratamodel products. In
StrataMap, a surface comprises an initial grid and any subsequent data
linked to it, as well as any modifications made to it.
Mapping packages base gridding and editing upon pointsets, or
collections of data values. You use pointsets to create your surfaces and
to incorporate more information into interpreted surfaces. For example,
you can use pointsets to locate and set new values for back
interpolation of grids. To create pointsets, you can create .xyz files, use
the File → Create → Point Set option, or use the OpenWorks Pointset
Builder.
The topic “Creating New Surfaces” on page 33 describes how to create
surfaces from pointsets.
For information about creating additional pointsets to help refine a
surface, see “Creating Pointsets” on page 138.

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Grids
Gridding is a means of creating regularly sampled data (grid nodes)
from randomly distributed data such as tops elevations. You can then
use this grid for contouring, performing operations with other grids,
and so on. There are three general steps for defining a grid:

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1.

Define the area and data (from pointsets in the .xyz files) to map.

2.

Define the grid pattern (number of rows and columns whose
intersections determine the location of the grid nodes).

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3.

Calculate the values to be assigned to each grid node by applying a
gridding algorithm or method to the input data.

This topic covers the first of the three general gridding steps.

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Creating New Surfaces
When you first start StrataMap, you must select a surface to work on or
create a surface from point data. Until you have a surface to work on,
most of the options in StrataMap remain inactive. This topic covers
creating a surface from point data.

Specifying Formats
You can arrange the values for x, y, z data in point data files in any
order, but the format and content of the files must be described in a
separate file, called a data schema block (DSB).
The DSB file describes the format of the data file, contains information
about each field in the file, and permits quick data access. Once you
have described the file, thereby creating a .dsb file, subsequent
references to the input file are to the .dsb file, not to the .xyz file. The
.dsb filename is limited to 40 characters in length.
If you have not previously created a DSB file from the input data, you
must specify the format file type as the Record Layout value. If the
From DSB setup option is available, it is the default value.
You can select either Scan File or OW PointSet as the Record Layout
value. The OW PointSet setting obtains names and formatting
information from the headers in the selected .xyz file. The Scan File
setting supports several name layouts in either fixed or free-form
formats. Free-form format reads in data that is not in fixed format. It
can read free-format data, provided the data fields are delimited by
commas. Data can contain numerical as well as character data in any
order.
The available Record Layouts are:

generic

X,Y,multZs

lines

contours

seismic

Landmark DTS

Geoquest 6/7

ZMAP +

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Generic
You can use the generic format to read almost any data type. It is
particularly useful if the x and y values are not in columns 1 and 2,
because you can specify the fields for these values to occupy in the
current file.
The fields in this file are:
Fieldxx (float) or Labelxx (char) Fieldxx (float) and so on
No Blanks in Well Names
If you are inputting well data with blanks in the well name, StrataMap will read the
information after the blank as a second column, which means it will miss the
columns for x, y, and z data. To avoid this problem, do not put spaces in well names.

An example of a Generic file follows:

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W01

32000 87015 -7888 -8138 -8139 -8153 -8158 1.E30 -8210

W02

38600 87030 -8020 -8058 -8073 -8078 -8086 1.E30 -8137

W03

44000 86400 -7943 1.E30 -7957 -7958 -7970 1.E30 -8025

W04

48200 87060 -8003 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W05

30650 82200 -7918 -8003 -8013 -8038 -8048 -8103 1.E30

W06

35030 80901 -7905 1.E30 -7943 -7964 -7976 1.E30 -8027

W07

39476 80970 -7900 1.E30 -7928 -7935 -7949 1.E30 -8004

W08

44198 80910 -7998 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W09

33530 76230 -7879 1.E30 -7901 -7929 -7944 -8004 1.E30

W10

38024 76170 -7817 -7878 -7933 -7959 -7976 1.E30 -8032

W11

42440 76650 -8018 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W12

46955 76620 -7890 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W13

30350 71700 -7903 -7907 -7961 -7963 -7980 1.E30 -8033

W14

35195 71745 -7815 -7946 -7998 -8025 -8045 -8120 1.E30

W15

39650 71760 -7966 -7996 -8043 -8070 -8092 1.E30 -8153

W16

44180 71766 -7913 1.E30 -7925 -7928 -7951 1.E30 -8028

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X,Y,multZs
The X,Y,multZs format works with almost any data type with x and y in
columns 1 and 2. The remaining columns in the file, which can be in
any order, are considered z fields or labels. These files can have
multiple z fields. You can generate a file of this format from many
sources, including the File → Create → Point Set option in
StrataMap.
The fields in this .xyz file are in this order:
X (floating point), Y (floating point), Zxx (floating point), or
Labelxx (character)
These filenames are limited to a line length of 40 characters. This type
of filename must have an .xyz extension.
An example of an XYZS file follows:
29000 70000 -40
29000 80000 0
29000 90000 -50
40000 60000 -10
40000 70000 -60
40000 80000 -100
40000 90000 -180
36500 60000 55
30650 82200 55
33530 76230 60
35195 71745 75

Lines
Lines format contains x, y, z values and a line label. When this file is
read, StrataMap draws the values as connected line segments that can
be closed by repeating the first point as the last point in the line. The
file can contain additional z values and labels. Fields must follow this
order: X (float), Y (float), Z1 (float), Labelxx (char).
An example of Lines format follows:

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35007.94 81950.83 -7910

line 1

34896.08 79386.92 -7895

line 1

35045.23 73015.99 -7845

line 1

40377.43 68975.89 -8110

line 2

43062.18 75036.04 -8105

line 2

40638.45 82727.77 -7950

line 2

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Contours
Contours format is similar to Lines format in that it contains x, y, and z
values and a line identifier. In this case the file contains a contour
identifier, a line sequence number, the vertex location (x and y), and the
contour Z value. Fields must follow this order:
Contour (char), Seq# (int), X (float), Y (float), Z1 (float).
An example file might look like the following:
contour1 8 35007.94 81950.83 -7910
contour1 8 34896.08 79386.92 -7895
contour1 8 35045.23 73015.99 -7845
contour1 8 40377.43 68975.89 -8110
contour1 8 43062.18 75036.04 -8105

Seismic
Seismic format is for seismic shotpoints. The format assumes that each
record contains a line number, shotpoint number, X, Y, then a series of
horizon values (z1, z2). StrataMap displays this data as connected line
segments. Fields must follow this order:
ID (float), Seq# (float), X (float), Y (float), Zxx (float).
A sample file might look like the following:

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1

1

28568.4

76653.8

-7854.28

1

2

29344.8

76582.3

-7849.7

1

3

30121.2

76510.7

-7850.34

1

4

30897.6

76439.2

-7858.87

1

5

31674

76367.7

-7869.12

1

6

32450.4

76296.1

-7873.47

1

7

33226.8

76224.6

-7871.37

1

8

34003.2

76153.1

-7865.69

1

9

34779.6

76081.5

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Landmark DTS
The Landmark format expects data to be in Landmark’s DTS
interpretation output format from SeisWorks. If the data is in this
format, the program will read it correctly.
Geoq6/7
The Geoq6/7 format expects data to be in Geoquest’s IES Version 6
map interface format.
ZMAP+
The ZMAP+ format expects data in an ASCII file format exported from
Z-MAP Plus.
Create Point Set
You can use additional file formats you create with the File →
Create → Point Set option, as described in “Appendix A. File
Descriptions and Formats,” starting on page 207.

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Creating the Surface
You can create a new surface by selecting a point data set and a format,
which the program uses to create a grid. You can also use the New
Surface dialog box to change parameters for a surface that is already
gridded.
To create a surface, follow these steps:
1.

Select File → Create New Surface from Point Set in the
StrataMap window.
The Select Source Point Set dialog box and Select Point Set from
list dialog box appear.

2.

In the Select Point Set from list dialog box, select a filename from
the list.

3.

In the Select Source Point Set dialog box, click the Record
Layout button and select the appropriate format from the Record
Layout/Names dialog box that appears. (For information about the
file formats, see “Specifying Formats” on page 33.) If a .dsb file
has already been created for the file, select from DSB setup.
If you select a Record Layout option other than from DSB setup,
the Format Dataset and File Contents dialog boxes appear.

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4.

In the Format Dataset dialog box, specify these settings:
4a. To adjust the Format option, click the Format setting to
toggle it to Fixed for files whose fields are in columns or to
Free-form for files whose records are separated by commas.
4b. In the Format Dataset dialog box, if you select Generic as the
Record Layout setting, you must supply information about
the generic format so the program can understand the data
properly. Viewing the file in the File Contents dialog box helps
you do this. (For more information, see“Reviewing Data” on
page 41.) Use the following sample file for reference:
Enter a position for the X field. This is the number of the field
that contains the X data. The default value is 1. In the
following example, the X position is 2.
If you select Generic as the Record Layout type, once you
place the cursor in the Y field, the Y position is updated
automatically to the X position + 1. For other Record Layout
types, enter a position for the Y field. In the following
example, the Y position is 3.
X

Y

W01

32000 87015 -7888 -8138 -8139 -8153 -8158 1.E30 -8

W02

38600 87030 -8020 -8058 -8073 -8078 -8086 1.E30 -8

W03

44000 86400 -7943 1.E30 -7957 -7958 -7970 1.E30 -8

W04

48200 87060 -8003 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.

W05

30650 82200 -7918 -8003 -8013 -8038 -8048 -8103 1.

W06

35030 80901 -7905 1.E30 -7943 -7964 -7976 1.E30 -8

W07

39476 80970 -7900 1.E30 -7928 -7935 -7949 1.E30 -8

W08

44198 80910 -7998 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.

W09

33530 76230 -7879 1.E30 -7901 -7929 -7944 -8004 1.

W10

38024 76170 -7817 -7878 -7933 -7959 -7976 1.E30 -8

W11

A record is typically one line of an input file.

42440 76650

8018 1 E30 1 E30 1 E30 1 E30 1 E30 1

Rec.s/point indicates how many records or lines in an input
file constitute the information for one point of data. This value
cannot vary.

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4c. When you finish setting the parameters in the Format Dataset
dialog box, click OK. The dialog box closes and the Select
Source Point Set dialog box becomes active again.
5.

Optional: In the Source Point Set dialog box, set the Select Freq
button to read only part of the records. For example, if you specify
2, the program reads every other record.

6.

Optional: Use Qualify Z to set acceptable ranges for z values.
To do this, you must have already set acceptable ranges in the .dsb
file by using a text editor. Toggle the button to Yes to qualify the z
values. (For more information about this step, see “Formats
Created in the Create Point Dataset Dialog Box” on page 213.)

7.

Check the Faults Present field to see if faults are associated with
the surface. No action is necessary.

8.

Click OK in the Source Point Set dialog box. If the selected file
has more than one field for z data, a list of field names appears.

9.

If a list of z fields appears, click to select all the z fields to grid.

10. Clicking OK to create a new grid takes you directly into a gridding
step. (To get more information about gridding before you attempt
this step, see “Gridding and Adding Data” on page 119.)

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Creating Multiple Grids from the Same Source
If you have a pointset file with two or more columns of z values, and
you want to create another grid using a different z field, but not
changing any other parameters, you can easily do this.
1.

Select File → Create New Surface, Same Source.

2.

The Select Z Fields dialog box appears, just as it did in step 8
above. Turn off the z field you used previously and select the next z
field.

3.

Click OK to create the new surface.

Reviewing Data
To review the contents of a file, you can select Displays →
Browse Point Set. A File Contents dialog box similar to the following
one appears, along with the Points Browser dialog box.

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To see the definitions for the .dsb file, click the Show Definitions
button. Information like the following appears:

This table is linked to the current display. The table shows the current
Z column and highlights the point currently selected in the Map View
display. You can also select the current point by clicking MB1 with the
cursor located over the appropriate line in the data listing.
For more information about the File Contents and Points Browser
dialog boxes, see “Viewing Point Data,” starting on page 174.

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Saving Surfaces
Once you have created a surface or made changes to it, you can save it.
A unique name is assigned automatically to each surface created.
Save Grids for Use in Stratamodel
If you want to view and work with surfaces in Stratamodel, you must save them as
.smg files.

1.

Select File → Save Current Surface As.
The Grid SAVE dialog box appears.

2.

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Review the following settings and change them if necessary:

To change the surface name, enter a new name in the Grid
Name box or click the Grid Name arrow and select a name
from the list dialog box that appears.

To specify a title, enter text for the title in the Title Text box.
The title text appears in the Map View display (if you set the
Borders Annotated option to read Yes in the DISPLAY
Contents dialog box).

To change the storage format, click the Storage Format
arrow to select a format by toggling between the following
formats:
Stratamodel .smg format — (default setting) Standard
setting.
StrataMap surface format — Creates a set of files only for
use in StrataMap. The additional files are needed only if you
are creating faulted surfaces and want to retain the additional
detail the StrataMap format provides.
Stratamap surface format — Creates a file which is not
available for use in Stratamodel.

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Enable Auto-Save — To change the Auto-Save setting, click
the Enable Auto-Save arrow and toggle to the appropriate
setting: No or Yes. With the Enable Auto-Save option set to
Yes, whenever you load a new surface or framework, the
changes in the current surface are saved automatically. (No
confirmation box or Grid Save dialog box appears.)

Extent of Surface — Specifies the extent of the surface to be
saved: Native/unclipped (no clipping applied to surface),
Clipped (clipped surface saved), or Combined (combined
surfaces saved).
Type of Surface — To change the type of surface, click the
Type of Surface arrow to toggle to one of the following
settings:
Unrelated — Save the surface as unrelated to the current
framework.
Existing Member — Save the surface as an existing member
of the current framework.
New Horizon — Save the surface as a new horizon in the
current framework.
New Horizon, current block only — If a framework is
active, does not save copies of the surface for each fault block.
New Fault — Save the surface as a new fault in the current
framework.

3.

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Click OK.

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Selecting an Existing Surface
If you have an existing surface (with or without points), you can reload
it to restore the grid and the original pointset.

Using the Select Existing Surface Option
To load an existing surface by using the Select Existing Surface
option, follow these steps:
1.

Select File → Select Existing Surface in the StrataMap window.
The Surface Load dialog box appears, along with a list dialog box.

2.

Select the surface filename from the from the list dialog box.

3.

Format — If .srf formats are available (a format for StrataMap
grids), as well as .smg formats, select the appropriate format for
the surface. If only .smg formats are available, Stratamodel .smg
format appears in the Format field, and no selection button
appears.

4.

Click OK in the Surface Load dialog box.
The surface appears immediately in the Map View and Profile
Display. The associated colorbar appears in the Color -> Z dialog
box.

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Alternate Ways to Select an Existing Surface
If a framework is active, you can use the following alternate ways to
select a surface:



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If other surfaces are displayed and listed in the Color -> Z dialog
box, you can display them by clicking the surface names with
MB1.
If you select the Select Event option from the MB3 menu, you can
click any other surface displayed in Profile Display.
You can use the Display arrow in the Framework Events Status
dialog box to select an entry to display.
If the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is available, you can
focus on a fault or a fault block. Either choice causes an
appropriate grid to be loaded as the current one.

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Frameworks
Introduction
Related surfaces are grouped into frameworks to facilitate Stratamodel
modeling. To build, manipulate, edit, and view Stratamodel
frameworks, you can use the Operations → Framework Operations
menu options and the framework option buttons in the StrataMap
window. Many features described here are available without an FWB
license. The features that involve the Fault Framework Sketch dialog
box or the automated workflows are available only if you have an FWB
license.
If you select File → Select Existing Framework in the StrataMap
window, one or both of the following dialog boxes appear, which you
can use for framework construction and editing:

Framework Events Status dialog box — Make changes or
substitutions for one or more events, then save the framework.
(You can also modify framework events by using menu options.)

Fault Framework Sketch dialog box — Define fault relationships
and fault blocks by using a horizontal slice view. To define fault
blocks in this dialog box, you assign the faults in an appropriate
order as fault block boundaries. This dialog box appears if you
have an FWB license and if the framework you load contains
faults.
This section contains the following main topics:


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Understanding Stratamodel Frameworks —Basic concepts and
terminology for working with frameworks (page 48).
Framework Workflows —Using the workflows to build and
refine frameworks (page 53). (Requires a Framework Builder
license.)
Fault Framework Sketch — Using the interactive dialog box for
defining fault blocks (page 81). (Requires a Framework Builder
license.)
Tracking Framework Events Status — Using the dialog box for
managing and editing frameworks (page 94).
Framework Operations — Using the options in the Operations:
Framework Operations menu (page 110).

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Understanding Stratamodel Frameworks
Each framework is defined in a Stratamodel control file (.scf) that
contains a list of related surfaces used to create Stratamodel 3D models.
To build a framework, use the automated workflow buttons in the
StrataMap window.
A completed framework is the structured order of horizons divided into
unique events and ordered by fault blocks. In a framework fault block,
horizons are arranged by depth from deepest at the top to shallowest at
the bottom. Frameworks are essential for creating 3D models in
Stratamodel. The framework event order is important for building a
model that is accurate and stratigraphically correct. In the 2D world of
StrataMap, you can edit events and improve a framework by viewing
and changing the individual events. StrataMap focuses on one event at
a time, so you can use the Profile Display to see each event in cross
section and in the context of surrounding events. If you use the FWB
extended version of StrataMap, the term framework is also used to refer
to a less structured collection of horizons and faults that have not yet
been completed ordered and partitioned.
Events in a framework are defined as segments of horizons and
boundary faults. Each framework event has a unique name. The top of a
single, stratigraphic horizon can be divided into many events because
the same horizon appears in many fault blocks. For example, in the
following illustration, Formation A has two horizons (the top and
bottom markers) and is fractured into three fault blocks, so it contains
nine events.
Fault Block 1
Event 3

Fault Block 2

Fault Block 3
Event 9

Event 6

Formation A

Event 2
Event 8

Event 5
Event 1

Event 4

Event 7

Example of Fault Block and Event Relationship in a Framework

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In this very simple example, event 1 is an arbitrary horizon that serves
as the base of the model and is created automatically by StrataMap.
event 2 is the bottom horizon or surface for Formation A in fault
block 1. Event 3 is the top surface pick for Formation A in fault block 1.
Event 4 is the first fault, so it is the boundary that creates fault block 1.
Boundary faults are so called because they define the sides of fault
blocks. Events 5 and 6 constitute fault block 2 because they are
bounded by the fault events 4 and 7. Events 7, 8, and 9 define fault
block 3.
After you interpret fault relationships by using the Fault Framework
Sketch dialog box, framework events are listed in exact order from
shallowest to deepest in the Framework Events Status dialog box:
Horizon events in the
first Fault Block

In this example, H4 is the first event, and ZB2-EXT is the first fault.
Therefore every event between these two fields is in fault block 1. Each
event in a framework is assigned a unique fault block horizon name to
associate the appropriate piece of the original grid file to the fault
block.
AOI and Grid Increment Set by First Horizon File
Every file in a framework must share the same AOI and gridding increment. To
accomplish this, the first file you choose becomes the standard all other grids are
adjusted to meet. For this reason, you should choose a horizon with the appropriate
AOI and grid increment as the first framework grid file.

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If you select a horizon event by clicking its Display arrow in the
Framework Events Status dialog box, the event is displayed in the
viewing interfaces that are open. The following example shows a
horizon displayed in Map View using the appropriate faults to clip
boundaries.

Profile designator

The example shows a profile designator (described in “Using the
Profile Display” on page 166). Notice the horizon is clipped on two
sides by bounding faults.
For more information about using frameworks in Stratamodel, see the
“Stratigraphic Framework Model” section in Creating Models of the
Stratamodel online help library.

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Fault Extensions
In order to define fault blocks for Stratamodel, faults must be extended
to the edge of the AOI of the map. Extending the faults is done
automatically in StrataMap framework building. Extensions appear as
dashed lines:
Fault Defined
by Data

Computed Extension to Edge of AOI

Editing Frameworks
You can change the surface relationships in a framework by using the
Fault Framework Sketch dialog box or the Framework Events Status
dialog box.
Use the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box to select faults in an
appropriate order to define fault blocks. The faults you select become
boundaries of the fault blocks and divide the framework into events.
These events are listed in the Framework Events Status dialog box.
The Framework Events Status dialog box is an automated
environment for working with the files that make up a framework. This
dialog allows you to browse the surfaces in a framework and to work on
events individually or in groups. Use the Framework Events Status
dialog box to perform these operations as needed: inspect surfaces for
problems, substitute new surfaces in a fault block, tie surfaces to
marker picks, and perform smooth, edit or fill operations.
You can change individual framework events by using menu
commands. Even if you use menu commands to edit events in a
framework, the Framework Events Status dialog box tracks the
changes. As you review the functions of this dialog box, note the menu
options that also affect events.

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Tips for Creating Frameworks
These tips will help you get the most out of the framework building
tools:

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Work from the largest fault blocks to the smallest.

A fault block cannot be cut by others after it is inserted/ordered.
Exceptions to this can be generated using ADD above or below.

The Framework Events Status dialog box lists elements in order of
depth — from deepest at the top to the shallowest at the bottom.

When you first begin to use StrataMap, use the automated
workflows whenever possible. Using the workflows puts all the
boundary faults in the active fault block (blue area) into a
framework. This powerful feature can save you a lot of time.

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Framework Workflows
The StrataMap window contains six automated workflows you can use
to create and refine frameworks:

Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK
(described on page 54, with steps starting on page 59)

Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK
(described on page 54, with steps starting on page 65)

Assign order and layering rules to Horizons
(described on page 54, with steps starting on page 68)

Partition Horizons into Fault blocks
(described on page 55, with steps starting on page 73)

Adjust Horizons to match available well control
(described on page 56)

Apply a Coverage Template to a Framework
(described on page 56)

Links to these workflows appear as buttons in the StrataMap window.
You can redisplay the workflow buttons at any time by selecting File →
Return to Initial State in the StrataMap window.

Build and Export
a Framework
Optional

The blue workflow buttons are standard steps for building and
exporting a framework. Yellow workflow buttons are optional steps for
enhancing the interpretation. You can select the workflow buttons any
number of times.

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Overview of the Framework Workflows
Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK
The first step in creating a usable framework for a dataset is to initiate a
new, unstructured framework. Use the Initiation/loading of a NEW
FRAMEWORK workflow to accomplish this step (as described
starting on page 59).
In this workflow, you identify the grids in the framework. At this point
the framework is unstructured — it is just a collection of horizon and
fault grids. You can use the remaining workflows and associated
operations to add structure to the framework until it is organized
enough to build geologically correct maps and models. You improve
the loose topology of the initial, unstructured framework until it has the
tight topology of a completed framework.
Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK
In the Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK workflow,
the program divides the framework into fault blocks by selecting the
faults that serve as the fault block boundaries.
Before you run the workflow, inspect the framework’s faults to see if
they require preparatory editing. For example, you should perform
preparatory editing on scissor faults, crossing faults, and faults that are
almost coincident when extended. If the fault boundary ordering this
workflow produces are not optimum, you can discard the results and
manually order the faults as boundaries.
The steps for using the Assign fault relationships within a
FRAMEWORK workflow are described starting on page 65.
Assign order and layering rules to Horizons
Use the Assign order and layering rules to Horizons workflow to
specify the order of the horizons in the framework, indicate which
horizons clip other horizons, and define the way the intervals between
horizons are filled with cell layers. You can also set these horizon
attributes by using the Framework Events Status dialog box, but the
workflow is a much more direct way to accomplish this task.
The steps for using the Assign fault relationships within a
FRAMEWORK workflow are described starting on page 68.

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Partition Horizons into Fault blocks
Once you create and refine a framework with the first three workflows,
you can use the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks workflow to
introduce throw to the framework and perform edge processing to clean
up areas around faults.
Throw — Throw is introduced across faults between adjacent fault
blocks, but only in the locations that contained the original faults. To
achieve this end, the nodes along the extended perimeters of the fault
blocks are frozen and used as additional control points for recalculating
other grid nodes in the fault block.
Edge Processing — The edge processing recalculates the grid for each
fault block that contains a horizon. You can control the area affected by
edge processing by setting these values:

the vertical displacement of the horizon from the fault and
the horizontal distance from the point at which the fault intersects
with the horizon

Once an edge region is removed, it is recomputed from the part of the
horizon that remains in the fault block.
Grid Recalculation — If points are associated with the horizon, the
points in each fault block boundary are used to recalculate the entire
grid for the block. This is the preferred method. You can eliminate
points that are close to the fault boundaries by using the vertical
displacement parameter for edge processing. To prevent grids from
being recalculated from points, specify a non-zero horizontal distance
for edge processing. At this point, you can specify whether to use
points. If points are available, they are used for the calculation unless
you instruct the program to exclude them.
The steps for using the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks workflow
are described starting on page 73.

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Adjust Horizons to match available well control
The Adjust Horizons to match available well control workflow is an
optional workflow that uses well pick values to compute adjustments
for horizons in fault blocks that contain one or more wells.
As input for this workflow, specify a framework and pointsets that
contain horizon picks from wells.
If the available well horizon picks are very sparse, the adjustments can
occur before you partition the framework into fault blocks. If this is the
case, DO NOT recalculate grids from points in the Partition Horizons
into Fault blocks workflow. This is important primarily because the
points associated with the grids now represent only the wells — they
are not the original points used to calculate the grid (such as seismic
data that gave the grid shape).
The well control adjustments are also performed first if the adjustments
are very large, since no adjustments are performed along the boundary
extensions. Artificial effects occur if well control adjustments cause the
horizon values to move considerably, and the framework contains faults
whose boundary extension values remain frozen.
Apply a Coverage Template to a Framework
You typically use the optional Apply a Coverage Template to a
Framework workflow after all the other workflows, just before you use
the resulting framework to build a model.
This workflow modifies all the framework grids to match coverage to a
template grid. As the template grid, you specify an input grid whose
non-null coverage represents the area you want to use for restricting the
model.
In addition to restricting the grids, the workflow also fills in any
missing nodes that may exist in a framework grid. (Missing nodes can
be filled only in horizon grids, since faults are completely filled
initially.)

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Overview Steps for Building a Basic Framework
The following steps are a basic outline for using the four main
workflows to build a framework.
Start StrataMap (pg 12).
Workflow 1:
Create an initial,
unstructured
framework.

Click the Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK button in the
StrataMap window (pg 59).
Specify the framework’s first horizon in the Surface Load dialog box, set the
Type to New Horizon, then click the Initiate Framework button (pg 60).
Specify the remaining horizons and faults for the framework (pg 61), and
save the initial framework (pg 63).

In the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, inspect the framework faults
and perform any preparatory editing needed (for example, to correct
scissor faults, crossing faults, and coincident faults) (pg 65).
Workflow 2:
Create an ordered
framework from an
unstructured one.

Click the Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK button in
the StrataMap window (pg 65) and select an unstructured framework,
such as the framework you created in the first workflow.

In the Map View display, check the results of the automated fault ordering
(pg 66).

Accept the automatic fault
ordering (pg 67).

OR

Discard the automatic fault
ordering (pg 67).
Order the faults into boundaries
manually (pg 86).

Save the ordered framework (pg 67).

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Workflow 3:
Create a layered
framework from an
ordered one.

StrataMap User Guide

Click the Assign order and layering rules to Horizons button in the
StrataMap window (pg 68) and select the ordered framework you created
in the second workflow (an ordered framework).
For each horizon and fault in the framework, specify the order,
interface type, and layering attributes (pg 70).
Save the layered framework (pg 72).

Workflow 4:
Create a completed
framework from an
layered one.

Click the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks button in the StrataMap
window (pg 73) and select the layered framework you created in the third
workflow (an ordered, layered framework).
Check the settings for cleaning up the surface edges around faults.
If necessary, change the current fault block (pg 74).
Change settings as needed in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box to
improve the edge cleanup (pg 75).

Check the effect of the settings for all the framework horizons and faults
(pg 78).

Apply the settings to all framework horizons
and save the finished framework (pg 78).

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Workflow 1: Initiating a New Framework
The first step in creating a usable framework for a dataset is to initiate a
new, unstructured framework. To accomplish this task, use the
Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK workflow as described
in the following main steps:
1.

Prepare the framework data and start the workflow (next topic).

2.

Select the initial horizon grid (page 60).

3.

Select the other horizon and fault grids in the frameworks
(page 61).

4.

Finish the workflow and save the initial framework (page 63).

Step 1: Preparing the Data and Starting the Workflow
1.

Before you begin to build a new framework, you must prepare an
appropriate set of horizons and faults, which are each represented
by a grid stored in the project folder in .smg format.

2.

Click the Initiation/loading of a NEW FRAMEWORK button in
the StrataMap window.
The Surface Load dialog box appears, along with a list selection
dialog box and prompt box to guide you through this step.

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Step 2: Selecting the Initial Horizon Grid
Set the values for the initial horizon grid:
1.

Surface Name — In the selection list dialog box, click the
filename for the first horizon grid you want in the framework. The
first horizon grid you select is used to determine the area of
interest (AOI) and resolution of all the subsequent grids you add to
the framework. The additional grids are resampled to match the
first one, and new versions of the grids are created.
The selection list dialog box closes and the selected grid name
appears as the Surface Name value in the Surface Load dialog
box.

2.

Format — Typically you do not need to select the file format. If
you have grids in the project folder that are not in .smg format,
make sure Stratamodel .smg format is the Format value.

3.

Type — For the first horizon grid, you do not need to set any other
parameter values. The Type value is pre-set to New Horizon. (If
you have selected a fault as the first grid, cancel out of the
workflow and begin again.)

4.

Click the Initiate Framework button in the Surface Load dialog
box.
The Surface Load dialog box closes momentarily, then reappears
so you can use it to load the next grid. The selection list dialog box
and prompt box also reappear, along with Map View and Profile
Display, the Color -> Z dialog box, and the Framework Events
Status dialog box.

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Step 3: Selecting Additional Grids
Repeat the previous step to load each additional horizon grid and fault
grid you want to add to the framework. You can add grids individually
or as a batch. You can also review grids before you add them.
Reviewing Grids
To review a grid before adding it to the framework, select a grid
filename from the selection list dialog box, then click the Review
button in the Surface Load dialog box.
Adding Grids Individually
1.

Type — Click the Type arrow and select one of the following
values:
• New Horizon — Include the next grid as a horizon.
• New Fault — Include the next grid as a fault.
• Assign Later — Include the next grid with no specified type.
If you select this option, a follow-up MAP dialog box appears
and asks for the specification

2.

Surface Name — Select the next grid from the list selection
dialog box. The horizon or fault grid is added to the framework as
specified. If the project folder contains additions .smg files, the
Surface Load dialog box closes momentarily and the other relevant
dialog boxes are updated. As soon as you add a fault to the
framework, the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box appears.
Fault Coverage and Gaps
Fault coverage should be somewhat representative of actual faulted zones —
for example, the fault coverage should not extend over the entire AOI.
Horizons can have gaps in faulted regions or not have gaps. Gaps for faulted
regions are recommended, but are not essential.

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Adding the Remaining Grids in a Batch
To add all of the remaining grids in the project folder, follow these
steps:
1.

2.
3.

Type — Select one of the following type values:
• Assign Later — To set the type values for each grid
individually, set the Type value to Assign Later.
• New Horizon — To set all the remaining grids to be horizons,
select New Horizon.
• New Fault — To set all the remaining grids to be faults, select
New Fault.
Select the Select all of the above option at the bottom of the
selection list dialog box.
If you set the program to add all the remaining grids as either
horizons or faults, the MAP dialog box appears as described in
step 1 on page 63.
If you set the Type value to Assign Later, a series of MAP dialog
boxes appear and ask you to specify the type for each grid.

4.

Click the Add N as a new Horizon or Add N as a new Fault
button in the MAP dialog box.
Each time you click the Add N as a new Horizon or Add N as a
new Fault button, the grid is added to the framework as specified.
The MAP dialog box closes momentarily, and the other relevant
dialog boxes are updated.

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Step 4: Completing and Saving the Framework
To complete and save the framework, follow these steps:
1.

Click the Complete button in the Surface Load dialog box.
The MAP dialog box appears with the following options:

2.

Select one of the MAP dialog box buttons:

YES, I am finished for now — Exit from the workflow and
proceed to the dialog box for saving the new framework.

NO, I need to add some more — Return to the Surface Load
dialog box to add more grids to the framework.

3.

Terminate Workflow — Exit from the workflow and discard
the new framework.
If you click the YES, I am finished for now button, the SCF Save
dialog box appears along with a selection list dialog box.

The selection list dialog box contains the frameworks that
currently exist in the project folder.

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4.

5.

Specify the following values:

SCF Name — To change the default name for the workflow
(Initial), enter a new name in the SCF Name box. To overwrite
an existing workflow, select a name from the selection list
dialog box.

Format — Make sure the Format value is set to Stratamap scf
format.

Model Top and Model Bottom — These values report the
framework volume of interest (VOI) — the top and base
elevations of the 3D model framework. These limits become
useful once the framework is eventually converted into a
Stratamodel control file and you view the file in Stratamodel.

Click OK to save the framework and close the dialog box, or click
Cancel to close the dialog box without saving the framework.
At this point the framework is unstructured — it is just a collection
of horizon and fault grids. Use the remaining workflows to add
structure to the framework until it is organized enough to build
geologically correct maps and models.

Adding Grids to the Framework Later
To add grids to the framework later, you can use the standard
StrataMap commands to select and save grids.
Deleting Grids from the Framework
To delete a grid from the framework at any time, follow these steps:
1.

In the Framework Events Status dialog box, click the Status
column button for the grid (called N in this example).
The Attributes of N dialog box appears.

2.

In the Attributes of N dialog box, set the Flag for Delete value to
read Yes, then click OK.
The grid is set to be deleted the next time you save the framework
(File → Framework → Save Framework As).

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Workflow 2: Setting Up Faults as Boundaries
In the Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK workflow,
the program divides the framework into fault blocks by selecting the
faults that serve as the fault block boundaries.
In some cases, faults require editing before they are ready to produce
optimum results in the Assign fault relationships within a
FRAMEWORK workflow. Before you run the workflow, inspect the
framework’s faults to see if they require preparatory editing. For
example, you should perform preparatory editing on scissor faults,
crossing faults, and faults that are almost coincident when extended.
The fault boundary ordering this workflow produces is not always
optimum. After the workflow runs, Map View shows the structured
fault framework that results, and you can accept or discard it. Instead of
using the workflow results, you can manually order the faults as
boundaries.
To use the Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK workflow,
follow these steps:
1.

Use the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box to examine the faults
in the framework. If the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is not
already open, display it by loading the initial framework you plan
to use. (Select File → Select Existing Framework.)
Before you run this workflow, inspect the framework faults to see
if they require preparatory editing— for example, check for scissor
faults, crossing faults, and faults that are almost coincident when
extended. To edit faults, you can use the CHANGE EXTENSION
SHAPE, SPLIT A FAULT, and MERGE A FAULT options in
the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box (as described in
“Correcting Special Problems” on page 91).

2.

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Click the Assign fault relationships within a FRAMEWORK
button in the StrataMap window (the second workflow button).

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The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box appears, along with
a list selection dialog box and prompt box to guide you through
this step.

3.

Scenario Name — In the selection list dialog box, click the
filename for the framework you want to use as input. Select a
framework file that contains a loose topology, such as a framework
you created with the first workflow — the Initiation/loading of a
NEW FRAMEWORK workflow.
The following events occur in succession:

4.

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The selection list dialog box closes, and the selected workflow
is set as the Scenario Name value in the Setup Scenario/Auto
Framing dialog box.

The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box closes as the
program divides the framework into fault blocks — using
internal logic to select faults as the fault block boundaries.

These displays and dialog boxes appear: Map View, Profile
Display, Color -> Z, and Fault Framework Sketch. The Fault
Framework Sketch dialog box shows the fault blocks and fault
block boundaries created automatically.

The MAP dialog box appears, along with a prompt box to
guide you through this step.

In Map View, examine the structured fault framework that results.
The fault block boundaries the program chooses may not be
optimum.

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5.

In the MAP dialog box, click one of the following buttons:

Yes, I would like to save it as is — Accept the results of the
workflow, and keep the structured fault framework that
resulted.

No, I need to change ordering — Discard the results of the
workflow and manually order the faults as boundaries. Manual
ordering consists of iteratively selecting a fault that splits the
current fault block in two. After each selection, the program
selects one of the fault blocks as the current fault block. You
continue by selecting another fault to divide the current fault
block. (For more information about manual ordering, see
“Ordering Fault Boundaries Manually” on page 86.)


6.

Terminate Workflow — Close the MAP dialog and terminate
the workflow without saving any changes.
Yes — If you select the Yes, I would like to save it as is button in
the MAP dialog box, the SCF Save dialog box appears.

Use the SCF Save dialog box to save the workflow as described in
the step on page 63. For the Assign fault relationships within a
FRAMEWORK workflow, the default output name is ORDERED.
It is a good idea to use a name that identifies the workflow as one
that has been ordered into fault blocks.
No — If you click the No, I need to change ordering button in
the MAP dialog box, the MAP dialog box closes, but the other
displays and dialog boxes remain visible. The prompt box is
updated with new information to guide you through the remainder
of the workflow.

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Workflow 3: Specifying Ordering and Layering Attributes
Use the Assign order and layering rules to Horizons workflow to
specify the order of the horizons in the framework, indicate which
horizons clip other horizons, and define the way the intervals between
horizons is filled with cell layers.
You can use this workflow to review and change the current settings for
the horizons in any framework, one at a time. The horizons appear in
the current order (top-to-bottom). You can also use the Framework
Events Status dialog box to review and change these horizon attributes.
Use of Layering Information
Layering information is not currently used in StrataMap, but is conveyed to
Stratamodel, which uses it to construct cells between the horizons.

To use the Assign order and layering rules to Horizons workflow,
follow these steps:
1.

Click the Assign order and layering rules to Horizons button in
the StrataMap window (the third workflow button).

The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box appears, along with
a selection list dialog box and a prompt box with instructions to
guide you through this step.

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2.

Scenario Name — In the selection list dialog box, click the name
of the framework you want to use as input. Select a framework that
has been ordered into fault blocks, such as a framework you
ordered with the second workflow (the Assign fault relationships
within a FRAMEWORK workflow) or an initial framework you
manually ordered into fault blocks.
The following events occur in succession:

The selection list dialog box closes, and the selected workflow
is set as the Scenario Name value in the Setup Scenario/Auto
Framing dialog box.

The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box closes and a
progress report appears.

The Attributes of Horizon N dialog box appears, where N is the
name of the first horizon in the framework.

You use this dialog box to specify attributes for the named
horizon — its position relative to the other horizons, the layering
method and pattern to use, as well as the number and thickness of
layers between this horizon and the next horizon.
The horizon whose attributes you are editing is named in the
Horizon Name field at the top of the dialog box.

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3.

In the Attributes of Horizon N dialog box, specify the following
settings for the named horizon:

Order is Below

If you click the Order is Below arrow in the Attributes of
Horizon N dialog box, a selection list dialog box appears,
which you use to specify whether the horizon is at the top of
the framework (Top) or to specify which horizon is
immediately above the named horizon.

Proportional

Interface Type — If you click the Interface Type arrow in
the Attributes of Horizon N dialog box, a selection list dialog
box appears, which you use to specify the type of the horizon.
Use this setting to designate the interface as Unassigned (the
default setting — an unspecified type of horizon),
Unconformity, (a horizon that clips depositional horizons) or
Depositional (a horizon that is clipped by unconformities).
Layering Method
If you click the Layering Method arrow in the Attributes of
Horizon N dialog box, a selection list dialog box appears,
which you use to specify the method for drawing layer pattern
lines relative to the horizon. (The example shows the options
available if you click the Layering Method arrow for a horizon
whose Interface Type value is Depositional.)
— Proportional — Set layer pattern lines to be proportional
within the interval between the upper and lower bounding
horizons.

Onlap

— Onlap — Set layer pattern lines as onlap strata to the
specified horizon.
— Truncated — Set layer pattern lines to be truncated by the
upper horizon.

Truncated

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— User Pattern — Set layer pattern lines to follow the pattern
of the file specified as the Pattern value.

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thickness

If you click the thickness arrow in the Attributes of Horizon N
dialog box, the Layer Thicknesses dialog box appears, which
you use to specify the allowed range for the thickness of layer
pattern lines. Select a value in any of these ways:
• Drag the slider to the appropriate value.
• Click the Minimum or Maximum button to select the
value displayed.
• Click the PrevValues button and select one of the
previously specified values from the drop-down list.
Once you release the mouse button from dragging the slider,
you the Minimum or Maximum button, or you select one of
the PrevValues list items, the Layer Thicknesses dialog box
closes and the specified value appears as the thickness value in
the Attributes of Horizon N dialog box.
The thickness option is available for all Layering Method
values except Proportional.

no. layers

If the Layering Method is set to Proportional, specify the
number of layer lines between the current horizon and the next
one. To specify this value, click the no. layers arrow. In the
dialog box that appears, drag the slider, click the Minimum
button or Maximum button, or select a value from the
PrevValues list (as described for the thickness value).
The no. layers option is available only if the Layering Method
value is set to Proportional.

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4.

Pattern — If the Layering Method is set to User Pattern, click
the Pattern arrow and specify the pattern grid for the layer
pattern lines by selecting a filename from the selection list
dialog box that appears. The specified file defines the geology
needed for the layer lines. (The Pattern value is used only if the
Layering Method value is set to User Pattern.)

When you finish specifying order and layering properties for the
named horizon, click Ok in the Attributes of Horizon N dialog
box.
The Attributes of Horizon N dialog box reappears with the settings
for the next horizon in the framework.

5.

Repeat step step 3 and step 4 until you have reviewed and updated
the ordering and layering settings for all the framework’s horizons.
Once you click the Ok button in the Attributes of Horizon N dialog
box for the last horizon, the SCF Save dialog box appears, along
with a selection list dialog box.

6.

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Use the SCF Save dialog box to save the workflow as described in
the step on page 63. For the Assign order and layering rules to
Horizons workflow, the default output name is Layered. It is a
good idea to use a name that identifies the workflow as one whose
horizons have been layered.

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Workflow 4:
Partitioning Horizons into Fault Blocks and Cleaning Up Edges
Use the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks workflow to introduce
throw to the framework and perform any edge processing needed. The
edge processing cleans up problem areas around faults, recalculating
the grid for each fault block that contains a horizon. This part of the
workflow is similar to an automated Erase & Extend operation.
As input for this workflow, select a framework that has ordered faults
and horizons (such as a framework you developed with the first three
workflows).
Throw is introduced across faults between adjacent fault blocks, but
only in the locations that contained the original faults. Edge processing
removes part of the existing grid near all real fault boundaries. You
control the area affected by edge processing by specifying a horizontal
and vertical reach for the processing area. Once an edge region is
removed, it is recomputed from the part of the horizon that remains in
the fault block. You can prevent points along the faults from being used
for grid recalculation.
To use the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks workflow, follow these
steps:
1.

Click the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks button in the
StrataMap window (the fourth workflow button).

The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box appears, along with
a selection list dialog box and a prompt box with instructions to
guide you through this step.

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2.

Scenario Name — In the selection list dialog box, click the name
of the framework you want to use as input. Select a framework
with tight topology that need final cleanup, such as a framework
you developed with the fist three workflows.
The following events occur in succession:

The selection list dialog box closes, and the selected workflow
is set as the Scenario Name value in the Setup Scenario/Auto
Framing dialog box.

The Setup Scenario/Auto Framing dialog box closes and a
progress report appears.

Map View, Profile Display, the Color -> Z dialog box, and the
Framework Events Status dialog box appear and display events
in the selected framework.
The Surface Edge Replace dialog box appears.

You use the Surface Edge Replace dialog box to specify the edge
processing settings that define the area around all the fault/horizon
intersections in the framework.
3.

Optional: Changing Focus — To change focus to a different
horizon or fault block, complete these steps:
3a. Click Cancel in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box, then
refocus the display, as described in the following example.
3b. Select Displays → Fault Framework Map in the StrataMap
window to display the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box.
3c. In the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, click the Select a
Fault Block button.
3d. In the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, click the fault block
that interests you as the current fault block.
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, Map View, and
Profile Display are updated. The MAP dialog box appears with
the following options:

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3e. Click the Try same entry with different parameters button.
The MAP dialog box closes, the displays are updated, and the
Surface Edge Replace dialog box reappears.
4.

Using the Profile Display or other displays as a guide, set the
following values in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box:

Dz to Erase Within — Specifies the vertical distance to erase
from the fault line, expressed in map units (such as feet or
meters). The default value is 0.
To change this value, enter a new value, then press Return (or
Enter). The display updates immediately.
It is a good idea to specify a small number of feet or meters for
the Dz to Erase Within value. (If you leave this value at 0 and
the horizons do not have any fault gaps, you must set the
Distance to Erase (edges) value at a large enough value to
encompass the greatest fault displacement in the framework.)
If points are associated with the horizon, the preferred method
is for the points in each fault block boundary to be used for
recalculating the entire grid for the block. You can use the
Dz to Erase Within value to prevent points that are close to the
fault boundaries from being used for grid recalculation.
Example 1 (page 77) shows the effect of leaving the Dz to
Erase Within value at 0. Example 2 shows the effect of
increasing this value to 5.

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Distance to Erase (edges) — Specifies the horizontal distance
to erase from the fault line, expressed in map units (such as
feet or meters). The default value is twice the grid interval.
Check the displays to make sure the Distance to Erase (edges)
value is set low enough to avoid erasing valuable data.

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To change this value, enter a new value, then press Return (or
Enter). The display updates immediately. The preferred
method is to recalculate grids from the available points. To
prevent grids from being recalculated from points, specify a
non-zero Distance to Erase (edges) value.
Example 1 (page 77) shows the effect of a very large Distance
to Erase (edges) value. Example 2 shows the effect of reducing
the value.

Distance to Extend — Specifies the area in which the
program replaces grid values based on the remaining node
values. The default value is twice the default Distance to Erase
(edges) value. This value is ignored if you set the Final Surface
Fill value to Yes.
If the Final Surface Fill value is set to No, make the distance
large enough to extend results sufficiently through the fault to
form a good intersection, and to allow for isopach calculations
with horizons above and below the one you are extending.

Final Surface Fill — Sets the program to fill the grid all the
way to the edge of the model (Yes) or fill only within the area
defined by the Distance to Extend value (No, the default
setting). To use the output in Stratamodel, you must set this
value to Yes.
Using Points for Grid Recalculation
If you plan to use the Adjust Horizons to match available well control
workflow and have a very low number of well picks for computing horizon
adjustments, DO NOT allow the program to use points for recalculating grids
in the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks workflow. This is important
primarily because the calculation can occur before compartmentalization, and
the points associated with the grids now represent only the wells — they are
not the original points used to calculate the grid.

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Example 1: Default Values — The following example shows
faults and horizons in the Profile Display, and the currently defined
erasure area boundaries appear as dotted lines. The default Surface
Edge Replace values are used, so you see only the boundaries
created by the Distance to Erase (edges) value. The Dz to Erase
Within value is set to 0, so it creates no erasure area.

Dotted line shows
current boundary of
the area to erase
Fault f3c

Example 2: Revised Values — In the following example, the
Dz to Erase Within value is increased to 5, which causes a second
dotted outline to appear in the Profile Display. The Distance to
Erase (edges) value is reduced, which causes the corresponding
erasure boundary to move closer to the fault displayed.

Updated erasure
boundaries defined
by the Dz to Erase
Within and Distance
to Erase (edges)
values

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5.

When you are satisfied with the results of the Surface Edge
Replace settings for the current fault block, check the effects of the
settings for the other fault blocks:
Click the Cancel button in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box.
The MAP dialog box appears with the following options:

6.

Click the Try parameters on a different entry button. The MAP
dialog box closes.

7.

Display the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, if it is not already
visible, and select another fault block in the framework (as
described in the optional step step 3 on page 74).
The MAP dialog box reappears.

8.

Continue to check the results by repeating steps step 3 through
step 6 until you are satisfied that the Surface Edge Replace dialog
box values are likely produce the best results throughout the
framework.
Once you complete and save this workflow, you can edit surfaces
manually to correct any remaining problems. (For information
about this process, see the next topic.)

9.

When you finish checking the results, click OK in the Surface
Edge Replace dialog box or click the Apply erase/extend to all
entries button in the MAP dialog box.
The program performs the erase and extend operation for all the
framework’s faults and horizons, and a progress report appears as
the framework components are updated. When the erase and
extend operations are complete, the SCF Save dialog box appears,
along with a selection list dialog box.

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10. Use the SCF Save dialog box to save the workflow as described in
the step on page 63. For the Partition Horizons into Fault blocks
workflow, the default output name is Partitioned. It is a good idea
to use a name that identifies the workflow as one whose horizons
have been partitioned.

Correcting Erase and Extend Results
After you create and refine a framework by using the first four
workflows, you may find that problem edges remain. You can use the
following guideline steps to edit these horizons and faults.
1.

Load the framework:
Select File → Select Existing Framework in the StrataMap
window. Use the Setup Scenario/Auto Framing and selection list
dialog boxes that appear for loading the framework that contains
the problem — a framework you created and refined by using the
first four workflows.
Map View, Profile Display, the Color -> Z dialog box, and the
Framework Events Status dialog box appear and show elements in
the selected framework.

2.

Select a horizon to display:
In the Framework Events Status dialog box, click the Display
arrow for the horizon you want to display.
The horizon appears in the available displays, and the selected row
in the Framework Events Status dialog box turns green.

3.

Form an entire horizon:
Select Operations → Framework Operations → Form Entire
Horizon in the StrataMap window.
The display is updated in Map View, Profile Display, and the Fault
Framework Sketch dialog box (if it is open).

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4.

Zoom into the problem area:
In the Profile Display, zoom into the problem area. Click the
Zoom Z range button, click one edge of the z range you want to
see, drag to the other edge of the range, and click.
The selected z range enlarges to fill the Profile Display.

5.

Select a fault block:
In the Profile Display, click MB3 and select the Select Fault
Block option from the MB3 menu that appears. Click the fault
block that contains the problem.
The selected fault block becomes the current fault block and the
display is updated in Map View, Profile Display, and the Fault
Framework Sketch dialog box (if it is open).

6.

Zoom into the problem area:
In the Profile Display, zoom into the problem area, as you did in
step 4.

7.

Set up the type of editing to perform:
Select Editors → Surface Shaping in the StrataMap window. In
the Surface Editor dialog box that appears, set the Type of Input
value to Profile Points. Leave the Surface Editor dialog box open.
(For more information about the Surface Editor dialog box, see
“Editing Contours, Profiles, and Nodes,” starting on page 194.)
The editing area appears in Map View as an ellipse.

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8.

Define the editing area:
In Map View, use the buttons at the top of the dialog box or the
MB3 menu options to move or enlarge the editing ellipse so the
problem area is accessible in the Profile Display.

9.

Edit the horizon or contour lines:
In the Profile Display, enter points to reshape the horizon (within
the editing ellipse). If you set the Type of Input to Contour Points
in the Surface Editor dialog box, add contour points in Map View.

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Fault Framework Sketch
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is intended to facilitate
framework construction. You can use this powerful dialog box to assign
fault relationships by using a visual, interactive sketch. Each action you
take in the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is also reflected in the
Framework Events Status dialog box if appropriate.

ZB2 is the
currently active
fault block.
The currently
active fault block
is always blue!

ZB2 in
Framework
Events Status

Dynamically Linked Dialog Boxes

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Displaying the Fault Framework Sketch Dialog Box
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box appears automatically if you
load an initial, unstructured framework that contains faults (by
selecting File →Select Existing Framework) or you build a new
framework and begin adding fault grids to it.
You can also display the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box by
following these steps:
1.

Display a fault grid in StrataMap: Select File →Select Existing
Surface, then select a fault grid from the selection list dialog box
that appears.

2.

Select Displays →Fault Framework Map in the StrataMap
window.
The Setup Fault Map Display dialog box appears.

3.

Specify the display values you want to use for the Fault
Framework Sketch dialog box, then click OK. (For information
about setting the Dip value, see “Dip Indicators” on page 85.)
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box appears.

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Overview of the Fault Framework Sketch Dialog Box
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is deceptively simple
considering how powerful it is. There are only two major elements in
the dialog box: the buttons and the display area.
Buttons
The most powerful controls in the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box
are the Mouse Button 3 (MB3) menu options. However, shortcut
buttons also appear at the top of the dialog box. These buttons change
values depending on the status of the fault assignment and the current
mode: Insert Boundary Faults or Assign Fault Relationships.
To switch between modes, use the following commands:
To switch modes

Use MB3 menu option

Boundary Faults to Assign Fault Relationships

Assign Fault Relationships

Assign Fault Relationships to Boundary Faults

Return to Previous Menu

Display Area
The 2D display has many features including color-coded fault blocks,
color-coded faults, a moveable cross section line giving the user access
to a vertical view of the model, dip indicators, and context-sensitive
MB3 menus.
Color Coded Fault Blocks
As you create fault blocks, they are automatically color coded to make
it easier to distinguish which blocks have been defined.
Blue is Always the Currently Active Fault Block
The blue area is always the currently active fault block. As you select faults, you
can select them only in the blue area. To change the active fault block, use the Select
a Fault Block button or the MB3 menu Select a Fault Block option.

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Color Coded Faults
The faults are color coded as follows:

White Solid — Selected, unassigned fault

Brown Solid — Unselected, unassigned fault

Black Solid — Assigned fault. This fault is defined as a boundary
of a fault block, and has been put in the correct order with all other
Assigned faults. These are unassigned faults that have been
INSERTED or ADDED.

White Dash — The extensions needed to complete each fault. The
extensions are estimated automatically. The fault blocks are
calculated along the extensions for Stratamodel 3D models.

Red Solid — Highlights the fault displayed in Map View. Red
Dashed occurs along portions clipped if the current fault is a
boundary.

Blue Solid — Indicates portions of the faults that are clipped
based on relationships that you define or automatically assigned
relationships.

Moveable Cross Section Display
The interactive cross section display shows you fault and horizon
relationships in a vertical slice. This is a great help when making final
edits to your grids. To use this feature, follow these steps:

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1.

Click MB2 once near the center of the cross section line. The
shape of the cross section designator changes to a simple line.

2.

Drag the line with the cursor. Watch the Profile Display change as
you move the line.

3.

When you are finished, click MB1 to return to the normal Cross
Section line with an arrow.

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Dip Indicators
In the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, you can use ticks or
contours to indicate dip direction. By default, dip is indicated with
ticks.

Dip Ticks

Dip Contours

To change the dip indicator, select Displays → Fault Framework
Map. In the Setup Fault Map Display dialog box that appears, toggle
the Dip Indication arrow.

Mouse Button 3 (MB3) Menus
The MB3 menus in the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box are context
sensitive — their options change based on the current status. Each
menu option is described in detail in the topics that follow. Options in
the Insert Boundary Faults mode are overviewed in the table starting on
page 92.

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Setting Up Faults as Boundaries
To properly compartmentalize a geologic three-dimensional space into
the regions commonly referred to as fault blocks, you must establish the
appropriate relationships between the faults in the framework. To
completely bound the fault blocks, you must extend each fault across
the full range of the framework. As faults are assigned their appropriate
relationships to other faults, they are called boundaries in order to
clarify the more important role they play in later procedures.
Faults are automatically extended to cover the framework limits, and
the resulting surface is stored in a grid file with the same name as the
fault, with -EXT appended to the root name. These are the faults used as
boundaries if you insert faults as a boundaries in the current fault block.
For many cases, a workflow is available that appropriately orders all
faults in a framework into a set of boundaries. In some cases the
workflow does not give you the best results, and it is preferable to order
the faults as boundaries manually (as described in the next topic). If the
fault set has certain types of problems, you can use special options to
correct them, either before you run the workflow or during manual
ordering (as described on page 91).
Ordering Fault Boundaries Manually
The Fault Framework Sketch dialog box displays a horizontal slice of a
model showing the original faults, their dip, and (optionally) their
extensions. To optimize the view of fault relationships, you can move
the horizontal position of the slice by using the color bar or the Profile
Display. Sometimes you need to view more than one position to
determine which fault should clip another fault. In manual ordering, it
is critical to make this determination correctly.
All the options described in the following steps are accessible through
the MB3 menu. If the Button 1 => INSERT Fault button appears at
the top of the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, and you select the
Button 1 => INSERT Fault option from the MB3 menu, any MB1
click is interpreted as a command to insert a fault.

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Steps for Inserting Faults as Boundaries
You insert faults in the display area in order of dominance, beginning
with the most important boundary fault and working until all faults are
selected.
To manually order faults as boundaries, follow these steps:
1.

If the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box is not already open,
display it by selecting Displays → Fault Framework Map in the
StrataMap window.

2.

Switch to Insert Boundary Faults mode (if necessary) by
performing either of these actions:
• Click the button at the top left corner of the dialog box until it
reads Button 1 => INSERT Fault.

Click MB3 and select Button 1 => INSERT Fault from the
menu that appears. The button at the top left corner of the
dialog box changes to match the selected mode.

Button 1 toggles
between three
values.

3.

Insert Faults becomes the default mode for MB1.
Select the first fault to insert by clicking the fault with MB1.
For the first fault, select a major fault—one that is not clipped or
terminated by other faults. It is standard practice to start with the
major fault that comes closest to splitting the fault population in
half, but this is not required. If you have multiple major faults, you
can use any one of them.

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As soon as you insert the fault, the fault display is redrawn
immediately with two fault blocks displayed in different
background colors. The light blue block is the current fault block.
Any remaining fault that enters the region appears in white, even if
most of the fault lies outside the region. All highlighted faults are
now available for insertion as boundaries.

As you select faults, the Framework Events Status dialog box is
updated automatically.
4.

Insert another major fault, one that is not clipped by any of the
remaining faults.
As you continue to insert faults, this fault is clipped by the
boundaries that define its fault block. The fault block is divided
into two pieces, one of which becomes the new current fault block.

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5.

Continue to insert faults as boundaries until all the faults are
boundaries. A completed example follows:

MB1 toggles between
three values:
Insert Fault
De-Select Fault
Label Fault

The program facilitates the process in the following ways:

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The fault block with the most unassigned faults is automatically
chosen as the next current fault block.
Once the appropriate order in the current block becomes obvious,
use the INSERT ALL SELECTED FAULTS option that appears
as the last option in the selection list dialog box.
If a fault block contains only two faults, as soon as you pick one of
them, the other fault is placed in the appropriate new block
automatically.

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Clearing Fault Selections
To clear a fault selection, follow these steps:
1.

2.

Switch to Deselect Faults mode (if necessary) by performing
either of these actions:

Click the button at the top left corner of the Fault Framework
Sketch dialog box until it reads Button 1 => De-Select Fault.

Click MB3 and select Button 1 => De-Select Fault from the
menu that appears. The button at the top left corner of the
dialog box changes to match the selected mode.

Use MB1 to click the faults in the active fault block you want to
deselect. As long as you do not change modes, you can continue to
deselect faults by clicking them.

Adding Labels to Faults
To add labels to faults, follow these steps:
1.

2.

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Switch to Label Faults mode (if necessary) by performing either of
these actions:

Click the button at the top left corner of the Fault Framework
Sketch dialog box until it reads Button 1 => Label Fault.

Click MB3 and select Button 1 => Label Fault from the menu
that appears. The button at the top left corner of the dialog box
changes to match the selected mode.

Use MB1 to click each fault in the active fault block you want to
label. You can label a fault only once.

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Correcting Special Problems
Once you inspect the initial fault arrangement, you may decide to use
one of the special options, which help you eliminate problems from
these types of fault arrangements:

parallel faults with intersecting or closely approaching extensions

scissor faults or circular fault relationships

fragmentary faults that can be combined to reduce the number of
fault blocks
You can use the special options before you run the workflow or during
manual ordering. The options are available only if you select the
FOCUS ON A FAULT option, then select a single fault. Any faults
that touch the selected fault are highlighted in white. All faults are
available for selection in the following options.

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CHANGE EXTENSION SHAPE initiates a workflow-like
sequence that displays the Points Editor with the original portion
of the fault locked down. You can change the extension shape by
using standard point editing tools and by using a special command
for entering a new point from the fault display. You typically use
this option if two faults are roughly parallel and have extensions
that intersect or come very close to one another. The resulting thin
slivers of space can cause problems in some modeling software.

SPLIT A FAULT divides a selected fault into two pieces, one
above and one below the current fault. The split faults are named
automatically by adding xA and xB to the root name of the original
fault. This operation is useful for scissor faults, and in rare cases of
complex geology that produce circular fault relationships. Once
you split a fault, you can insert the resulting fault pieces into
different fault blocks to obtain the correct relationships.

MERGE A FAULT blends a selected fault with the current fault
to form a new fault with a composite name. Make sure the two
faults have the same dip and are well aligned. The faults can
overlap slightly or have a gap between them.If the overlap is
extensive, however, you may need to perform some manual
processing before the merge operation. Use editing and Multi-Grid
commands for these cases. Merging faults helps simplify a
framework if you can combine a group of faults into a single
boundary, thereby creating fewer fault blocks and possibly
avoiding thin slices in the resulting model.

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Insert Boundary Faults Menu Options
MB3 menus in the Fault Framework Sketch dialog box change
dynamically — depending on context. The following table defines
all the possible MB3 menu options for Insert Boundary Faults
mode.
Menu Option

Definition

Determines the command performed
each time you click MB1:
Button 1 => Label Fault

Adds a label to selected fault(s). The label is derived from the grid name.

Button 1 => INSERT Fault

Use MB1 to insert a Boundary fault

Button 1 => De-Select Fault

Use MB1 to deselect a fault or faults

Select a fault block

Click this menu option or the button at the top of the screen; then click in
the fault block you wish to make active. The currently active fault block
appears in blue.

Focus on a fault

Click this button or MB3 menu option; then click the fault you want to
study. The background turns grey and highlights the fault you select to
focus on in red. That fault is displayed in Map View and can be edited
with the Editor menu commands. To continue working, click the Select
a fault block button again and click in the area you want to activate.

Split fault

Use this option to divide a selected fault into two pieces, one above and
one below the current fault. This operation is useful for scissor faults and
in rare cases of complex geology that produce circular fault relationships.
(For more information, see page 91.)

Merge faults

Use this option to blend a selected fault with the current one to form a
new fault with a composite name. Make sure the two faults have the same
dip and are well aligned. The faults can overlap slightly or have a gap
between them.If the overlap is extensive, you may need to perform some
manual processing before the merge operation. Merging faults helps
simplify a framework if you can combine a group of faults into a single
boundary, thereby creating fewer fault blocks and possibly avoiding thin
slices in the resulting model. (For more information, see page 91.)

Modify Extension

Use this option to initiate a workflow-like sequence that displays the
Points Editor with the original portion of the fault locked down. Change
the extension shape by using standard point editing tools or by using a
special command for entering a new point from the fault display. This
option is useful if two faults are roughly parallel and have extensions that
intersect or come very close to one another. (For more information, see
page 91.)

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De-select all Minor faults

Minor faults are faults that do not clip any other fault. This option turns
all minor faults that have been selected brown and deselects them. This is
a good way to divide the model into major components; it allows you to
further refine the model in portions.

De-select a Fault

Click this menu option or the button above the display; then click the
fault whose selection you want to clear.

Restore De-selected Fault

Reverses the De-select a Fault menu command.

REMOVE a Boundary Fault

Click this menu option or the button above the display; then click the
boundary fault you want to remove from your framework.

LABEL selected Fault

Allows you to place labels on the faults in the display area. Click near the
fault and a small label appears to tell you the name of the fault.

INSERT fault as BOUNDARY

Inserts a bounding fault into your framework. A boundary fault defines a
fault block.

ADD fault as BASE BOUNDARY

Inserts selected fault below all others in the framework; thus indicating it
is the deepest fault.Rarely used except in very complicated scenarios.

ADD fault as TOP BOUNDARY

Inserts selected fault above all others in shallowest fault.Rarely used
except in very complicated scenarios.

INSERT ALL selected faults

Orders all faults in the active (blue) area and inserts them into the
framework. Use this option to have the program compute the most likely
relationships.

UNDO the last INSERT

Use this menu option to reverse the last Insert command. This rewrites
the framework status and removes the fault.

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Tracking Framework Events Status
If you select File → Select Existing Framework in the StrataMap
window, the Framework Events Status dialog box appears. This dialog
box tracks changes and edits to each surface (event) in the current
framework. Most of the controls for working with frameworks are
available in this dialog box:

Framework Events Status Dialog Box

You can use the Framework Events Status dialog box to specify settings
for each surface in the framework without processing the changes
immediately. You can use several functions (such as the buttons in the
Adjust or Edge columns) to set the program to process changes in a
batch for groups of events (by selecting either of these options in the
StrataMap window: File → Save Framework As or Operations →
Framework Operations → Perform Outstanding Changes).
The active event is highlighted in green.

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Use the Framework Events Status dialog box to perform these tasks:








browse the events of a framework by displaying them in context
monitor the Status report to tell which events have been processed
and which ones need reprocessing.
assign appropriate clipping planes to each surface automatically
automate the setup of other surfaces in the same fault block
maintain an automatic history of work performed during a session
toggle option to save tops picks, tip lines (for use with POSC
RESCUE models), and point subsets
designate future processes to be run on a group or batch of events
assign edge clean-up
assign pointset marker picks used to tie horizons.

Framework Events Status Controls
Before you begin to use the Framework Events Status dialog box, you
must designate an active framework. All .smg grid files associated with
the framework (.scf control file) should also be available.
The following topics describe the settings you can manipulate in this
dialog box.
Edge Column Options
In the Framework Events Status dialog box, each event’s setting in the
Edge column determines how edges adjacent to faults are mapped. You
can use the Edge column settings and the Set Erase Parms option to
clean up the ragged areas in maps that sometimes appear near fault
boundaries. You can specify the Edge column setting for individual
events, or specify edge settings for all the events in the current
framework.
Setting Edge Options for All Events

To specify batch edge settings for all the events in the current
framework, use the Set Erase Parms button at the top left corner of the
Framework Events Status dialog box. Depending on the current setting,
the button reads Set Erase Parms, Set All, or Unset All.

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The Set Erase Parms button options are:

Unset All — If you select the Unset All option, each button in the
Edge column is to read None (default setting).

Set All — If you select the Set All option, each button in the Edge
column is to read Ers (erase). The program is set to apply the
erasure settings currently specified in the Surface Edge Replace
dialog box. If you have not displayed this dialog box previously,
selecting Set All for the first time causes the dialog box to appear.

Set Erase Parms — If you select the Set Erase Parms option, the
Surface Edge Replace dialog box appears. Use this dialog box to
set the distance to erase and to extend the selected events along
edges for all the events whose Edge column button reads Ers. (For
more information about this dialog box, see “Edge Processing” on
page 107.)

Significance of the Edge Column Settings

None — (default setting) The event edges are not erased.

Ers — The event edges are erased and the area is refilled with
extensions of the remaining portion of grid. Selecting Ers in the
Edge column or selecting the Set Erase Parms option is
equivalent to selecting Operations → Framework Operations →
Erase & Extend Edges in the StrataMap window. All of these
selections display the Surface Edge Replace dialog box.

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Pointset to Link Button

Use the Pointset to Link button in the Framework Events Status dialog
box to adjust calculated and existing grids to conform to a specified
pointset. In this example, wells / Horz4 is the specified pointset. The
pointset name is wells, and Horz4 is the name of the surface (or z field).
You can also link to a pointset by using the File → Attach Links to
Surface → Source Point Set option, followed by the Operations →
Adjust Surface to Linked Pointset option.
For more information, see “Create a Subset of a Pointset” on page 106.
Display Buttons
The Display buttons are located to the far left of each event in the
Framework Events Status dialog box. If you click an event’s Display
button, the event appears in the StrataMap window display area.
Blue (event before horizon order is assigned — becomes green
once horizon order is assigned)
Black outline (most recently selected Display button)
White (fault that is not a boundary — becomes gold if fault is
assigned as a fault block boundary)

You can use the Display buttons to apply changes to one surface while
leaving the other surfaces unaffected. If you select an event’s Display
button, the event’s fields are also highlighted in green, indicating that
the event is the currently selected one.
Executing Commands by Clicking the Display Button
If you click the Display button for an event, all the currently specified operations
associated with the event are executed.

Clicking a Display button is equivalent to selecting File → Select
Existing Surface in the StrataMap window, followed by processing
options such as the following:

File → Attach Links to Surface or

Operations → Framework Operations → Erase & Extend
Edges

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Adjust Button
The Adjust column buttons in the Framework Events Status dialog box
indicate whether each event has been linked or adjusted to the surface
specified by the Pointset to Link -> setting when you update and save
the edited framework.

The Adjust column button can be set to the following possible options:

None — (default setting) The event will not be adjusted to a
pointset.

Lnk’d — The event is linked to a pointset, and the event is
adjusted to the pointset if you save or execute updates on the
framework (for example, by clicking the event’s Display button or
selecting File → Save Framework As in the StrataMap window
or Operations → Framework Operations → Perform
Outstanding Changes).

Adj’d — The currently displayed event has been adjusted to the
specified linked pointset, but the adjustment has not been saved.

Replace Button
Use the Replace column buttons in the Framework Events Status dialog
box to switch one of the framework events for a new event. If you click
an event’s Replace button, a list dialog box appears, which you use to
select the substitute event. The Replace buttons are very helpful for
experimenting with different scenarios.

Replace Column
Buttons

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Event Name Fields
The Event Name fields in the Framework Events Status dialog box
report the names of the surfaces and faults in the current framework.
Each line is considered an event in the framework. The event name
highlighted in green is the currently active event. If all event field
names begin with the same word(s), the repeated text is replaced with
an asterisk (*) to save space.

Status Column Buttons
The Status column buttons in the Framework Events Status dialog box
show each event’s queued changes. The Status column buttons are
located immediately to the right of each Event Name field.

The Status fields are maintained automatically. If you click a Status
button, a dialog box appears, which shows the current attributes of the
corresponding horizon or fault. The dialog box that appears is
context-sensitive, and contains options appropriate to the event type.
Saving the framework resets all Status column buttons to read No
Changes.

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Attributes of Horizon Dialog Box
If you click the Status column button for a horizon event in the
Framework Events Status dialog box, the Attributes of Horizon N
appears. You can use this dialog box to change certain attributes for the
named horizon — the horizon’s position relative to the other horizons,
the layering method and pattern to use, as well as the number and
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Horizon Name — Displays the name of the horizon whose
attributes you are changing. This field cannot be edited.

Order is Below — Reports the order of the horizon relative to
other horizons. To edit this value, you must run the Assign order
and layering rules to Horizons workflow. (See step 3 on page 70.)

Interface Type — Controls whether the named horizon clips or is
clipped by other horizons. Use this setting to designate the
interface as Unassigned (the default setting), Unconformity, (a
horizon that clips depositional horizons) or Depositional (a
horizon that is clipped by unconformities).

Layering Method — Defines how layers are formed and layer
pattern lines are drawn, such as: Onlap, Truncated, Conformal, or
Proportional. Some of the following fields are active only if a
certain Layering Method value is specified. (For more information,
see page 70.)

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Number of Layers — If the Layering Method value is
Proportional, sets the number of proportional layers. Not used if
any other Layering Method value is selected. (For more
information, see page 71.)
— Thickness — Controls spacing between layers for all
Layering Method values except Proportional. (For more
information, see page 71.)
— Pattern — If the Layering Method is set to User Pattern,
click the Pattern arrow and specify the patterngrid for the
layer lines by selecting a filename from the selection list
dialog box that appears. The specified file defines the geology
needed for the layer lines. (The Pattern value is used only if
the Layering Method value is set to User Pattern.)

Flag for Delete — To delete events from the framework, set this
value to Yes. The flagged event is deleted if the framework is
saved.

Attributes of Fault Dialog Box
If you click the Status column button for a fault event in the Framework
Events Status dialog box, the Attributes of Fault N appears. You can use
this dialog box to change the attributes described in this topic.


Clipped if Above — Sets the upper boundary from a list of the
faults in the current framework.
Clipped if Below — Sets the lower boundary from a list of the
faults in the current framework. This feature is rarely used.
Unassigned Fault
If the fault is unassigned, Clipped if Above and Clipped if Below can occur
multiple times.

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Flag for Delete — To delete events from the framework, set this
value to Yes. The flagged event is deleted if the framework is
saved.

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Faults Not Used as Boundaries
Note that faults that are not used as boundaries in StrataMap will not be visible in
Stratamodel.

Save Top Picks Button

Tops files (.tops) associate well picks to grid values. When you link a
framework event to a pointset that contains well data, you can use the
Save Top Picks command to create a new FrameworkName.tops file.
Tops files contain the following fields: WELL ID, linked z field, and
event number for each event.
Tops files are used in Stratamodel’s Well Model module to tie log
intervals to the correct events.
Linked File Must Include a Well ID
In the linked input file pointset (Pointset to Link field), a Well ID field is required
for this feature to operate correctly. The Well ID should also be the same name as
the Well ID in the Stratamodel SM1 well file.

To create the new tops file, toggle the value of the Save Tops Picks
field to YES. The .tops file is created for all elements that have been
linked to a pointset when you save the framework.
The Difference Between Tops Files and Point Subset Files
Tops files contain well ID, the z field adapted to conform to the top pick, and the
event number. Point subsets (created when the Save Point Subsets button is set to
YES) contain x,y, and z fields for the selected events. Both of these commands only
work on events that have been linked to a pointset. Each command creates its new
file when the entire framework is saved.

If you have an active framework, the File → Save Current Surface As
command also offers the option to save a .tops file.

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Save Tip Lines
The default value for the Save Tip Lines value is No. If you set the
value to Yes, the program saves the original edges of the fault polygon
before the extensions were added. If you decide to export the model to
POSC RESCUE format, you must have these preserved tip lines. Tip
lines are saved in an .clt (Stratamodel culture format) file. (To learn
more about Stratamodel POSC RESCUE export, see the section about
POSC in Importing and Exporting Data.)
Save Point Subsets Button

The Save Point Subsets button indicates whether you want to save the
subset of points used in each fault block to a unique file. The new files
containing only the points used in a fault block are named
FaultBlockName.xyz.
The default is No. Press the button to toggle to a Yes value. To see how
this feature is used, see “Create a Subset of a Pointset” on page 106.
This is a global switch that saves all surfaces that have a pointset linked
to them when the framework is saved.
If you set the Save Points value to Yes, you can perform the same
action manually by using the File → Save Current Surface as option
in the StrataMap window.

Save Points
option toggles
between No
(default value)
and Yes

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Select Subset Button

Use the Select Subset button in the lower right corner of the
Framework Events Status dialog box to display a subset of the
framework’s events or close the dialog box.
To select a subset of events for display or close the dialog box, click the
Select Subset button and select one of the options from the drop-down
list.







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Select Subset — Displays the Select Subset option list.
Select ALL ENTRIES — Displays all of the current framework’s
events in the Framework Events Status dialog box.
Select FAULTS only — Displays only the faults of the current
framework.
Select HORIZONS only — Displays only the horizons (surfaces)
of the current framework.
Select Current BLOCK — Displays only the events associated
with the current fault block.
Select Current HORIZON — Displays only the currently
selected horizon.
Put Entire Menu Away — Closes the Framework Events Status
dialog box. (To redisplay it, select the Status menu option in the
StrataMap window.)

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Using the Framework Events Status Dialog Box
The Framework Events Status dialog box is designed to simplify the
task of editing and managing the events of a framework. Some ways to
use this feature to improve control of framework events are described in
the following topics.
Visible Quality Control
As you browse framework events, problems in the framework are easier
to identify and fix. For example:

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Any time you load a new event into the framework (by using the
Replace button) the new event is automatically incorporated into
the framework. This makes it easy to view the new event in its
framework context. Since all the properties of the appropriate fault
block are seen in the display, it is the easiest way to get a visual
check on the effect of boundaries, neighboring surfaces and
clipping surfaces on each event.

The Profile Display (accessible by selecting Displays → Profile/
cross-section) contains vital information about each event of the
framework. The Profile Display has context information about
each surface viewed. This is primarily helpful when you work with
framework relationships. By sequentially viewing profiles of the
framework events, you get feedback about the framework’s
validity. (For more information, see “Using the Profile Display” on
page 166.)

The Form Entire Horizon option displays the entire horizon
across all fault blocks in Map View.

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Create a Subset of a Pointset
Each pointset contains all the points associated with a surface. The
pointset data file has no knowledge of which points fall in which fault
block of the model. In the Framework Events Status dialog box, you
can adjust one or more surfaces to a pointset, then save the subset of
relevant points to a file.
To create a subset of a pointset, follow these steps:

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1.

Select the pointset you wish to use to adjust the horizon with the
Pointset to Link button. A file list appears. Select the filename of
the pointset you wish to use.

2.

Select the event(s) to be adjusted to the pointset with the Adjust
button beside each event.

3.

Set the Save Point Subset selector to Yes.

4.

To adjust the specified events and create new point subset files,
select File → Save Framework As in the StrataMap window. The
new files are automatically named to match their associated
surfaces (for example, FaultBlock.xyz).

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Edge Processing
Erasing Edges Manually
In many maps, surface areas near fault boundaries appear ragged. This
is typically caused by grid nodes that are on the wrong side of the fault.
To clean up ragged areas around faults, follow these steps:
1.

Click the button at the top left corner of the Framework Events
Status dialog box and select Set Erase Parms from the drop-down
list that appears. Depending on the current setting, the button reads
Set Erase Parms, Set All, or Unset All.

The Surface Edge Replace dialog box appears, which you use to
set the edge distance to erase.

2.

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Set the following values in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box:

Dz to Erase Within and Distance to Erase (edges) — Specify
values to determine the width of the corridor around the
horizon’s perimeter that you want to erase. The program
displays the grid and shows how much area will be erased if
you perform the operation with the current settings.

Distance to Extend — As you erase an edge, you also erase
everything outside of the current fault block. Specify the
Distance to Extend value to determine how much
extrapolation to perform around the remaining (original)
portion of the horizon.

Final Surface Fill — If this is the final operation before
forming the framework for use in Stratamodel, set the Final
Surface Fill value to Yes to ensure all grid nodes are
calculated.

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3.

Click OK in the Surface Edge Replace dialog box. The dialog box
closes and your settings are saved.

4.

Edge column buttons — In the Framework Events Status dialog
box, set the Edge column buttons associated with the problem
events to read Ers (erase). With the Set Erase Parms option set,
the Edge column buttons toggle between Ers and None.

5.

To erase the edges of all the selected events, select File → Save
Framework As.
To see the effect on a single event in the StrataMap window click
the Display column arrow in the event’s row.

Precisely Adjusting Surfaces to Pointsets
Many file operations were once needed to precisely tie events or
surfaces to pointsets or picks. The Framework Events Status dialog box
makes this task easy.
To tie the well picks for a surface that spans a variety of fault blocks to
each fault block, follow these steps:

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1.

Create or import a pointset data file that contains the fields x, y, and
z. The pointset file may also contain a Well ID field if you extract it
from OpenWorks, but this field is not necessary in order to tie
events to horizons in the framework.

2.

Attach the data file to all events of the appropriate horizon. To do
this, select the Pointset to Link button. A list of files appears.
Designate the appropriate pointset file from the file list.

3.

Designate the z field you want to link to the surface.

4.

Click OK.

5.

Select the Adjust button next to each event you want to link to the
pointset.

6.

Update the framework by selecting File → Save Framework As
or Operations → Framework Operations → Perform
Outstanding Changes in the StrataMap window. All the events
you specified with the Adjust button are updated automatically.

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Editing Framework Events
To improve the appearance of a horizon or event of the framework,
follow these steps:
1.

Choose the event you want to edit. To do this in the Framework
Events Status dialog box, click the Display button associated with
an event. A white box appears around the Display button and the
Event Name field is highlighted.

2.

Use the appropriate option from the Editor menu to edit the
horizon. As you edit, the Status button reads “Changes in
Progress.”

As you edit

The changes are not saved in the framework or in the event’s file until
you select the File → Save Current Surface As option in the
StrataMap window or save the entire framework by selecting File →
Save Framework As.
If you try to move to another event without saving, the following
confirmation message appears.

You cannot move to edit or view another event until you answer the
confirmation message “Do you wish to save current REVISED
Surface?”

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Framework Operations
This topic describes the options in the Operations: Framework
Operations menu:

Perform Outstanding Changes — Perform all the changes you
have specified in the Framework Events Status dialog box (next
topic).

Creating a Custom Fault Block — Create a custom fault block
and specify a reference surface, so calculations can be made for
isochores (page 111).

Using the Erase & Extend Option — Clean up horizon edge data
near faults by erasing areas of data and recomputing it (page 115).

Using the Form Entire Horizon Option — Creates a composite
horizon of all the horizons in the project folder that have the same
name, and selects this horizon as the current one (page 116).

Perform Outstanding Changes
If you select Operations → Framework Operations →
Perform Outstanding Changes in the StrataMap window, all the
changes you have specified in the Framework Events Status dialog box
are performed. This option does not affect any other changes you may
have specified in other locations.

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Creating a Custom Fault Block
Clipping boundaries are automatically set up each time you select an
event. You can use a custom fault block to specify a reference surface
and force grid calculations to be performed in isopach mode (that is, by
using the difference between the original surface and the specified
reference surface). This enables you to grid and edit the isopach.
You can also use a custom fault block to experiment while you have a
framework loaded. The custom fault block prevents the framework
from overwriting the data whenever you display another horizon or
fault.
Once you specify a reference surface, the program calculates the
difference between the original surface and the reference surface. You
can choose to view the isopach (Differences) or the original surface
(Normal). With a reference surface specified, all surface operations are
performed based on the difference between the reference surface and
the current surface. The program displays data by either adding in the
reference surface or not, depending upon whether you are viewing the
original surface or the isopach.
Subsetting Points into Fault Blocks
Points that are outside of the clipping surfaces are stripped of their z values, which
automates the process of separating point data into fault blocks. If you specify a
reference surface, the value of the surface is calculated at each point and subtracted
from the z value of the current surface. If the reference surface has a null value at
that point, the z value is stripped.

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Steps for Creating a Custom Fault Block
To specify a reference surface, follow these steps:
1.

Select Operations → Framework Operations → Setup Custom
Fault Block.
The Setup Custom Fault Block dialog box appears.

2.

Optional: Specify a name for the fault block by entering a name in
the Block Name box. This saves your specifications in a file. All
subsequent references to the same fault block derive the specified
references.

3.

Optional: Choose faults (or surfaces) to use as clipping surfaces
above or below the current surface. You can have a maximum of
five upper clipping events and five lower clipping events. To
specify a clipping event, click the arrow buttons next to the Upper
Clip or Lower Clip options, and select the event from the list
dialog box that appears.
Event Lists
Only the most recent version of each event is listed. If two or more events have
identical names (except for the version number), the older versions of the
event are not listed.

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4.

Optional: To change the clipping setting, click the Apply Clips
arrow button and toggle between No Clipping (the default setting,
which does not apply clipping) and Automatic or All Clipped
(which both apply clipping).

5.

Optional: To use a reference surface for shaping, click the
Reference arrow button and select a reference surface from the
selection list dialog box that appears.

6.

If you specify a reference surface, select a display mode for it by
clicking the Display Mode arrow button and selecting one of the
following options. With a reference surface specified, interpolation
and editing are performed by using the difference between the
reference surface and the current surface.

Normal — Display the current surface as it is.

7.

Differences — Display the isopach — the differences between
the current surface you will choose and the specified reference
surface.
Click OK.
The dialog box closes, and the current framework is set up with the
new specifications. Map View and Profile Display are updated
automatically.

8.

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Select a surface to display the surface and its framework. You can
select the surface by using any of these options:
• Click the Select Event button in the Profile Display dialog
box, then click the surface.
• Click a surface in the list at the bottom of the Color -> Z dialog
box.
• Click the Display arrow for the surface in the Framework
Events Status dialog box.
• Select File → Select Existing Surface in the StrataMap
window, then select the surface from the selection list dialog
box that appears.
The following examples show a clipped and unclipped surface in
Map View and Profile Display.

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Current Surface. The arrow points to the
fault profile. In Map View, extra contour
lines show the fault contours as it
intersects other layers.

Clipped Surface

9.

To save the clipped surface, select File → Save Current Surface
As in the StrataMap window. The Grid SAVE dialog box appears,
which you use to save the surface.
To save a custom fault block, you must use the name of the
original fault block. Once you save the custom fault block, it is
loaded whenever you select an event from the fault block,
regardless of which framework is loaded at the time.
If you load an event from a different fault block, the focus is reset
to the other fault block automatically.

Deleting a Custom Fault Block
To delete a custom fault block, reselect Operations → Framework
Operations → Setup Custom Fault Block. In the Setup Custom Fault
Block dialog box that appears, set the clipping surfaces to None or
click the Cancel button to clear all the clipping events.

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Using the Erase & Extend Option
If you have noisy edge data, especially near a fault, you can use the
Erase & Extend Edges option to replace the noisy data with a smooth
extrapolation from grid nodes farther away from the edges. The
program erases the grid values near the fault edges for a specified
distance, then extends the surface based on the remaining node values.
To use the Erase & Extend Edges option, follow these steps:
1.

Select Operations → Framework Operations → Erase &
Extend Edges in the StrataMap window.
The Surface Edge Replace dialog box appears.

2.

Dz to Erase Within — Specifies the vertical distance to erase
from the fault lines, expressed in map units (such as feet or
meters). The default value is 0. To change this value, enter a new
value, then press Return (or Enter). The display updates
immediately.
It is a good idea to specify a small number of feet or meters for the
Dz to Erase Within value. (If you leave this value at 0 and the
horizons do not have any fault gaps, you must set the Distance to
Erase (edges) value at a large enough value to encompass the
greatest fault displacement in the framework.)

3.

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Distance to Erase (edges) — Specifies the horizontal distance to
erase from the fault line, expressed in map units (such as feet or
meters). The default value is twice the grid interval. Check the
displays to make sure the Distance to Erase (edges) value is set
low enough to avoid erasing valuable data. To change this value,
enter a new value, then press Return (or Enter). The display
updates immediately.

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4.

Distance to Extend — Specifies the area in which the program
replaces grid values based on the remaining node values. The
default value is twice the default Distance to Erase (edges) value.
This value is ignored if you set the Final Surface Fill value to Yes.
If the Final Surface Fill value is set to No, make the distance large
enough to extend results sufficiently through the fault to form a
good intersection, and to allow for isopach calculations with
horizons above and below the one you are extending.

5.

Final Surface Fill — Sets the program to fill the grid all the way
to the edge of the model (Yes) or fill only within the area defined
by the Distance to Extend value (No, the default setting). To use
the output in Stratamodel, you must set this value to Yes.

6.

Click OK.

Using the Form Entire Horizon Option
Use the Form Entire Horizon option to create a composite of all
surfaces that share the same horizon name, and make that surface the
active surface. Once this composite is made, the program displays the
entire horizon across all fault blocks in Map View. It is practical to use
the Form Entire Horizon option only if you use an appropriate,
consistent naming convention for all associated events. This option
works with any mix of unassigned faults and inserted boundaries.
To use the Form Entire Horizon option, select Operations →
Framework Operations → Form Entire Horizon in the StrataMap
window.

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Note the following examples:
Map View typically
displays a single
surface or fault
block.

After the Form
Entire Horizon
operation, Map
View displays the
surface across all
fault blocks.

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After you use the Form Entire Horizons option, the Profile Display
also reveals information across the faults:

Profile Display Before Form Horizons

Profile Display After Form Horizons
Setting Up Framework Views
For information about viewing framework events in Map View, Profile Display, or
other viewing interfaces, see “Setting Up Displays,” starting on page 155.

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Gridding and Adding Data
Overview
StrataMap works with gridded surfaces associated with other data
types. The data can be a variety of types, generated from a number of
places — from StrataMap, proprietary databases, other vendors, and
other Stratamodel products. You can use data from different sources
because StrataMap has a very flexible data entry system.
When you display surfaces that have many data points, you are
automatically put into gridding mode. Also, adding point data
sometimes puts you into gridding mode. At other times you may want
to regrid after adding data or otherwise changing a surface. Once you
have created grids or generated data files from associated point data,
fault data, polygons, and culture data, you can use them in Stratamodel.
This section covers the following subjects:









Gridding concepts (page 120), gridding methods (page 122), and
search limits (page 123)
Creating grids or recalculating existing ones (page 124)
Resampling grids (page 129)
Changing the AOI (page 130)
Locking a grid definition for other grids (page 131)
Working with different data types (page 132)
Creating polygons (page 134), faults (page 135), and culture data
(page 137) and relating these elements to a surface
Creating and incorporating points (page 138)
Creating a customized shape (page 146)
Linking grids to data points (page 148), faults (page 150), and
polygons (page 151) and adjusting to linked data (page 152)

For information about performing grid operations, and editing maps,
see “Surface Operations and Map Editing,” starting on page 181.

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Creating, Recalculating, or Resampling Grids
If you create a surface that has a small number of data points, the
gridding parameters are defined automatically. To change the grid
definition, you can then use Recalculate Grid to reset these options. If
the surface has a large number of data points, you enter gridding mode
as soon as you create the surface. Certain other activities, such as
adding or creating some pointset types, also send you directly into
gridding mode.
If you create a grid with a large number of points or recalculate a grid,
you must set the following parameters:


area of interest (AOI)
grid pattern (rows, columns, and interval)
gridding method

Default values are provided for these settings based on calculations
from the input data. You can change the settings in gridding mode.
To set some grid parameters to match other grids, you can use the
Resample Grid option.

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Steps for Gridding Revisited
“Gridding Concepts” on page 30 describes the three main steps in
gridding. The previous section describes how to perform the first step,
creating a surface from data points. This topic explains how to perform
the last two gridding steps.
Step 2: Define the grid pattern (number of rows and columns whose
intersections determine the location of the grid nodes).

Step 3: Calculate the values to be assigned to each grid node by
applying a gridding algorithm or method to the input data.

Before you can perform those steps, you must understand gridding
methods and search limits.

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Gridding Methods
Gridding methods specify how the primary grid estimates are
calculated. By default, the program chooses a gridding method based
on the data, but you may want to choose another gridding method based
on the spatial organization of the data. Some methods are faster and
therefore are appropriate for large, complex datasets. Other methods
are more appropriate for sparse or noisy data.
This topic provides a short description of the StrataMap gridding
methods. For more information, see “Appendix B. StrataMap Approach
to Gridding” on page 224.
Global Solution
The Global Solution uses an approximation for generating a minimum
curvature solution. This method quickly produces attractive surfaces,
although it works best with small datasets (less than 1,000 points) that
do not contain discontinuities (faults). If used with a large dataset, this
method may average z values excessively.
Radial Search — Random
This method uses an algorithm that performs a radial search for random
data points. This is a good method to choose for large datasets with or
without discontinuities. It is not a good choice for noisy data, as it may
produce spurious results.
Radial Search — Clustered
This method uses an algorithm that performs a radial search for
clustered or linear data. As compared to the random radial search, it
makes an additional effort to minimize the effect of noisy or tightly
distributed data by averaging the values before primary gridding.
Therefore, it is best suited for randomly distributed, noisy data with or
without discontinuities.
Weighted Resampling
This method uses a weighted algorithm. It is good for getting a quick
look at data. It works quickly with large datasets because it does not
attempt any interpolation or gradient estimation.

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Search Limits
StrataMap uses a primary and a secondary search limit to search for
data points to be used in computing a grid node value. Although
StrataMap figures both these limits based on the data, you can change
them to see how they affect the data. The primary search radius (called
Search Radius) should be at least as large as the largest spacing
between points. The default is one-fourth the length of the larger of the
x and y axes.
The Secondary Search Radius is used to control how far away a
solution target can be from a control point and still be used. At least one
control point must be found in the secondary search radius before a
calculation is attempted. The default value for the Secondary Search
Radius is one half the Search Radius.
Search Radius

Node

Secondary
Search Radius
Node Receives Null Value

Node Is Calculated Normally

Performance Considerations
Search radius calculations slow down when dealing with pointsets that
contain 800 points or more.

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Generating or Recalculating a Grid
Follow these instructions to generate a grid or to recalculate an existing
grid. Remember that StrataMap has already examined the data and
presented you with some choices. Use these instructions to change the
gridding parameters or to recalculate the grid.
The Recalculate Grid option is active only if you have points displayed
in Map View (for example, if you created a surface by selecting File →
Create New Surface From Point Set and still have the surface
displayed).
To recalculate a grid created from a pointset, display a surface that is
created from a pointset, then follow these steps:

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1.

Select Operations → Recalculate Surface from Point Set.
The Grid/Surface Generation dialog box appears.

2.

Method — Select a method for the gridding solution. (For a brief
explanation of the Method values, see “Gridding Methods” on
page 122.)

3.

Optional: Interval-x and Interval-y — To change the grid
interval, enter an interval value and press Return, or click the
arrow and use the slider in the dialog box that appears. Changing
the Interval-x value automatically changes the Interval-y value.

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4.

Optional: No. Nodes — The number of nodes is calculated
automatically, based on the grid interval and size. You should not
have to change this value. If you decrease the No. Nodes value,
however, the x and y intervals increase correspondingly to make
sure the specified number of nodes is not exceeded.

5.

Faults — If faults are present in the grid, you can use the
following values in the Grid/Surface Generation dialog box for
using fault information when estimating the surface.

Ignore — Grid the data points exactly as if no faults were
present.

Apply Originals — During the gridding process, use the faults
defined in the gridname.fal file (where gridname is the name of
the current grid).

Apply/smooth — Smooth the fault by fitting a spline curve to
the points, then applying them to the grid.


6.

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Use Current — Use previously applied faults plus any edited
faults.
Optional: Boundary — You can use the Boundary value to
subset the grid. Select the name of the polygon to use as a
boundary for the surface. The default setting, XY Limits, displays
all the data. (For information about creating polygons, see
“Creating Polygons” on page 134.)

7.

Smooth — Use the Smooth value to indicate the number of
smoothing passes to apply, using the minimum curvature filters.
(For information about smoothing, see “Appendix B. StrataMap
Approach to Gridding” on page 224.)

8.

Pre-Average — Use the Pre-Average value to degrade clustered
or over-sampled data to make the data look more evenly
distributed over a surface.

Minimum — Resamples points that are in 1/10th of the grid
interval to each other to an average z value and x, y location.

Normal — Averages points that are in 1/4th of the grid
interval.

Heavy — Averages points in the same grid interval.

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Custom — Performs selected averaging as a percentage of the
grid interval. If you select Custom, the Custom Averaging
dialog box appears.

Specify the following values, then click OK.
Distance (% interval) — Set the distance as a percentage of
the interval. This is the distance between points that
determines whether closely set points are averaged to a single
representative point.
Z resolution — Set a limit to the Z resolution. This value is
designed to preserve spikes in clustered data. Z values that are
outside the specified resolution are not averaged unless it is
absolutely necessary. Instead, these points are preserved by
themselves for the grid initialization dataset. The remaining
points that fall within the specified distance are averaged. The
units are the same as the data.
Maximum No. Points — Set the maximum number of points.
Other parameter values relax as averaging continues to
produce no more than this number of points. The program
performs most efficiently when the grid initialization dataset
has less than 800 points. This parameter forces the
pre-averaging process to loop and incrementally open up the
distance parameter until the required number of points are
resolved.

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9.

Z Limiting — In the Grid/Surface Generation dialog box, specify
whether to limit z values (Limit Difference) or not limit them (No
Limitations). If you set the Z Limiting value to Limit Difference,
the surface’s current values appear in the minimum and maximum
boxes.

Optional: Enter new values in the minimum and maximum boxes.
You can select values outside the minimum and maximum z value.
10. Optional: Detail Grid Specifications — To review and adjust
detailed grid parameters settings, click the Detail Grid
Specifications button. The Grid Specifications dialog box appears.

10a. Optional: Xmin, Ymin, Xmax, and Ymax — To limit the
information that appears in the grid, change the Xmin, Ymin,
Xmax, and Ymax values. When you first display the Grid
Specifications dialog box, these fields reflect information
calculated from the input data. The Xmin, Ymin, Xmax, and
Ymax are the x and y minimums and maximums from the
dataset.

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10b. Optional: No. Columns and No. Rows — To change the
number of grid nodes and the map’s AOI, enter or select new
values for the number of rows and columns. The default
number of rows and columns is derived from the extent of the
x and y axes and their increments. These fields determine the
number of grid nodes. (The number of nodes appears at the
bottom of the dialog box.)
10c. Optional: Search Radius — To change the Search Radius,
enter a value or select a value from the number selector. The
default value is the one-fourth the larger of the x and y axes.
(For more information, see “Search Limits” on page 123.)
You can also set the Search Radius value by double-clicking
a point on the map. Distance between points is posted to the
menu.
10d. Optional: Secondary Search Radius — To control the
distance used for interpolation, change the Secondary Search
Radius value (as described on page 123). The default value is
half of the Search Radius value.
10e. Click OK to return to close the Grid Specifications dialog
box and return to the Grid/Surface Generation dialog box.
11. Click OK in the Grid/Surface Generation dialog box.
The program recalculates the grid and the result appears in Map
View.
Stopping the Gridding Operation
To stop an ongoing gridding operation, select the Stop option in the StrataMap
window menu bar.

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Resampling Grids
You can modify the gridding parameters and resample the grid.
Resampling is useful if you have grids whose grid interval does not
match. This functionality is invoked automatically whenever it is
needed if surfaces are displayed and the AOI is locked (that is, the
Options → AOI Ranging value is set to Lock AOI and GINT or
Lock AOI, GINT & Coverage).

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1.

Select Operations → Resample Surface in the StrataMap
window. The Grid Re-Configure dialog box appears.

2.

The X minimum, Y minimum, X maximum, and Y maximum
values are the values from the dataset. To limit the AOI
represented by the grid, change these values.

3.

Optional: To change the number of grid nodes and the map’s AOI,
enter or select new values for the number of rows and columns.
The default number of rows and columns is derived from the
extent of the x and y axes and their increments. These fields
determine the number of grid nodes. (The number of nodes
appears below the Y Interval box.)

4.

Optional: Enter a new interval for the x and y axes.

5.

If a bounding polygon is available, you can use the Boundary
option to subset the grid. Enter the name of the polygon to use as a
boundary for the surface. The default setting, XY Limits, displays
all the data.

6.

Click OK to resample the grid.

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Changing the Area of Interest
You can limit the grid’s x and y extent without regridding by using the
Subset AOI from map option. Once you graphically select a subset, it
is clipped to the new area. To restore the grid to its original AOI, you
must reopen the grid or create the surface again. (Alternatively, you can
use the zoom options to temporarily subset the visible AOI.)
1.

Select Operations → Subset AOI from map in the StrataMap
window.

2.

In Map View, click the location for the corner of the new AOI
rectangle.

3.

Click to place the opposite corner. The Map View display is
updated to show the new AOI.
Original Map

Subsetted Map

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Locking the Grid Definition (AOI)
The program typically refocuses each time you select a surface or load
a framework. You can manually control the grid definition (AOI) and
the surface z range by locking them by selecting the appropriate Option
menu options. (For information about locking the surface z range, see
page 158.)
If you are working in a project where the grids must match in all
dimensions, such as building grids for a stratigraphic framework
model, you can lock the grid definition and apply it to subsequent grids
that you open while the lock is on. The locking mode is in effect until
you deactivate it or return to Adjust to Input. Until then, grids will be
resampled to the locked grid’s AOI.
Select one of these options from the Options → AOI Ranging menu in
the StrataMap window. (The currently selected option appears
dimmed.)

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Adjust to Input — (default setting) Uses the input data to
determine the x and y extent and interval. Use this option to turn
off grid locking mode.

Lock AOI and GINT — Locks the AOI, x and y extents, and the
grid interval.

Lock AOI, GINT & Coverage — Locks the AOI, x and y extents,
the grid interval, and null values. Use this option to ensure that
consistent null patterns for all grids are used for constructing a
stratigraphic framework model in Stratamodel. Alternately, you
can use a workflow for this purpose just before you create a final
version of a framework.

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Adding Other Data Types
You can add polygons, faults, culture data, and pointsets to grids.

Concepts for Working with Different Data Types
This topic describes the different data types you can associate with
grids.
Polygons
A polygon is a series of points with connecting lines. The lines must be
explicitly closed to work properly in StrataMap. Closing the polygon
connects the first point to the last point picked. You use polygons to
erase areas of the map or to construct boundaries.
You can use polygon erasing to reset grid nodes values inside or outside
the polygon to null. Once you erase (blank) an area, it is no longer
associated with the grid, but it can be used in other operations (such as
Fill Voids).
Polygon boundaries clip the grid nodes to the interior or exterior of the
polygon. StrataMap attempts to honor the surface up to the edge of the
boundary. The polygon is linked to the grid for the remainder of the
session, so the nulled area is not available for subsequent gridding.
For more information about polygons, see “Creating Polygons” on
page 134. For information about boundaries and blanking polygons,
see “Inserting Faults, Polygons, and Boundaries” on page 203.

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Faults
You can input faults or create them as vertical or polygonal. A vertical
fault is a line of discontinuity with vertical displacement. A fault
polygon indicates a region of displacement with an undetermined
interior.
Using Fault Polygons with Other StrataModel Modules
If you plan to use fault polygons with other Stratamodel modules, you should fill
them, as unfilled fault polygons may give unexpected results.
You should also create a fault plane grid to represent the fault in the 3D model.

For more information about filling polygons, see “Controlling Map
Content” on page 156.
Culture Data
You can use culture data, such as lease data or contours from other
surfaces, to overlay surfaces. The overlay does not affect the surface
shape. You can use your own data or create culture data by exporting
contours to generate .clt files.
For more information about culture data, see “Creating and Applying
Culture Data” on page 137.

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Creating Polygons
You can use polygons to restrict data points when you create a grid. For
example, you can generate a grid of the points in a given polygon.
You can create polygons that act as boundaries, or erase values inside
or outside of polygons. This topic explains how to create polygons that
you can use later during grid recalculation or resampling. (For
information about how to limit a grid by using a polygon, see step 6 on
page 125.)
Each polygon you draw must be stored in a separate gridname.pol file.
Each time you want to draw a new polygon, select the File →
Create → Polygon Boundary option.
To create a polygon, follow these steps:

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1.

Select File → Create → Polygon Boundary in the StrataMap
window. The Polygon Create dialog box appears with a temporary
name for the polygon.

2.

Polygon Name — To change the default name of the polygon,
enter a new name in the Polygon Name box. To overwrite an
existing polygon, click the Polygon Name arrow and select a
name from the selection list dialog box that appears.

3.

Click OK. The program switches to Polygon Creation mode.

4.

In the Map View display, click with MB1 to place each point in the
polygon boundary.

5.

When you finish defining the polygon boundary, click MB3 and
select Close Polygon from the MB3 menu.

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Creating Faults
You can use the Faults Create dialog box to create faults that are saved
with an .fal extension and are associated with the current surface. You
can add vertical faults or fault polygons to the current interpretation.
To create temporary faults that are only present during the current
session, use the Editors → Insert Polygonal/Vertical Faults option.
To create polygonal or vertical faults for the current surface, follow
these steps:
1.

Select File → Create → Polygon/Vertical Faults.
The Faults Create dialog box appears.

Associating Faults with Surfaces
To associate a fault with its surface for later interpretation, you must give the
fault the same root name as the surface .xyz file. For example, if the surface is
named TopA.xyz, you must name the fault TopA. (the extension .fal is
appended automatically.)
To create more than one fault for the same fault file, repeat step 4 for all faults
before you select Complete from the MB3 menu.

2.

To change the default name for the fault, enter a new name in the
Faults Name box. To overwrite an existing fault file that is
associated with the current surface, click the Faults Name arrow
and select a name from the selection list dialog box that appears.

3.

Click OK in the Faults Create dialog box.
The Faults Create dialog box closes and the Map View display box
switches to Create Faults mode.

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4.

Begin digitizing the fault by completing one of these tasks:

Vertical Fault — Click the MB3 button somewhere in the
Map View display and select POLYGON from the MB3
menu. (This toggles Map View to Vertical Fault mode.) Use
MB1 to click the locations of the points in the fault line. When
you reach the last point in the fault line, click MB3 and select
End Fault from the MB3 menu. To delete the fault at this
point, select Delete Fault from the MB3 menu.

5.

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Fault Polygon — Use MB1 to click the vertices of the fault
polygon. When you reach the last vertex, click MB3 and select
Close Polygon from the MB3 menu. To delete the fault
polygon at this point, select Delete Polygon from the MB3
menu.
When you finish digitizing fault polygons or vertical faults, select
Complete from the MB3 menu or click the Complete button at the
top of the Map View display.

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Creating and Applying Culture Data
You can add culture data, such as lease lines or contours from another
surface, as overlays to the map. You can also export surfaces as contour
lines in culture files or as metafiles. This topic explains how to export
and import culture data.

Exporting the Display as an ASCII or CGM File
You can export the current Map View surface’s contours, colorfill, and
point symbols to an ASCII culture data file as an overlay or to a CGM
metafile for plotting.
To export the culture data from the current surface as an ASCII or
CGM file, follow these steps:
1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Export Map Display in the
StrataMap window. The Export Display dialog box appears, along
with a selection list dialog box.

2.

In the Select Class of Output to form dialog box, select the file type
for the output.
• CGM Metafile generates a metafile for plotting.
• Culture Data exports the contours as culture data. This is the
option to use for the purposes of this topic.
Optional: To change the default filename for the output, enter a
new name in the Output Name box. To overwrite an existing file
in the current project folder, click the Output Name arrow. In the
selection list dialog box that appears, click the name of the file you
want to overwrite.

3.

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4.

If you are exporting a metafile, you have the option to change the
Map Scale value. This value is expressed as map units per inch
(typically feet or meters per inch).

5.

Click OK in the Export Display dialog box. The dialog box closes,
and the contours and colorfill are exported to the specified file.

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Displaying Culture Data
You can display culture data, such as lease lines or contours from
another surface, as an overlay in Map View. You can control the color
of the culture data displayed.
To display culture data from a file, select Displays → Map Options →
Select Culture Overlay in the StrataMap window. Use the Culture File
to read dialog box that appears for specifying the culture file and
display color. (For more information about displaying or removing a
culture data overlay, see page 163.)

Creating Pointsets
In addition to using points to create surfaces, you also use them to
adjust data and export information about the data to other products. By
using the File → Create → Point Set option, you can generate various
pointset types from the current surface.
Adding point data to the surface can help validate the gridding
parameters (using an error map or histogram), apply data to another
surface, or generate point files that you can use in another application.
StrataMap gives you flexibility in the source of the points you generate.
The results of the point-creation activities are written to an .xyz file. If
you have back-interpolated values, the original points occupy the X, Y,
and Z1 fields in this file, the back-interpolated Z value occupies field
Z2, and the residual (calculated by Z3 = Z1 - Z2) is stored in Z3.
Format and names are saved in the .dsb file.
This topic explains how to specify the points you will create and how to
create the different pointset types.

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Choosing the Source of Points
You can generate pointsets from one of the following sources:







same as current dataset (if points already exist)
averaged from current points (if points already exist)
based on the surface shape
at defined grid nodes
along contours displayed
at user-picked points
along user-picked lines
polygons between contours

This topic explains these sources in more detail.
Same as Current Dataset
If you already have a pointset associated with the current surface, you
can specify that you want the output points to be at the same locations.
This file contains the back-interpolated values and error values as
described above.

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Averaged from Current Points
Once you have created a pointset, you can generate another pointset
that is averaged. This option simplifies the pointset by coalescing
points that are close together and that share the same z value. If you
have a great many points, this option simplifies the gridding process
and enables you to perform point edits more effectively. This is the
same algorithm used in Custom Pre-Averaging in the gridding
procedure.
Original
Pointset

Averaged
Pointset

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Based on the Surface Shape
This option creates points at selected grid nodes, depending on the
number of points you have entered and the surface shape. In areas
where the surface is more complex, the data points are denser. If you
use this option, Capture Edges Better generates a border of control
points just inside the edge of the surface coverage. This ensures better
fit around the perimeter. This option is used primarily for extending
faults.

At Every Defined Grid Node
If you want to use data as a grid in another application, this is an
appropriate option. It generates point data for every grid node that is
not null, including active boundaries. The .xyz file contains the point
data and column and row information for each node.

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Along Contours Displayed
This is an appropriate option for using contour data in another
application. It creates a file that contains the points that comprise the
contours in the active surface. Each output file contains a contour ID, a
sequence number, and the x, y, and z values in the format described in
“Contours” on page 36.

At User Picked Points
If you want to save specific points from the map area, you can use this
option to pick them. Once you have selected the option, you are asked
to pick the points, and the map data is resampled at the selected points.
This option’s output file contains x, y, and back-interpolated z values.

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Along User Picked LInes
You can create contour lines and save the points along the lines. The
digitized data points are resampled in such a way that additional points
are interpolated at an interval of half a grid increment along the line and
are written to the output file. The output file is in the same format as
contour data. (For more information about the output file and contour
data file format, see “Contours” on page 36.)

Polygons Between Contours
You can create a set of polygons that replicate a picture. You would not
want to grid this surface because it contains a large number of points,
but creating these points also creates an ASCII file that exactly
represents the picture.

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Creating Pointsets
Use the following steps to create the pointset types described in the
previous topics. Some options may not be available, depending the
specified Location to output.
1.

Select File → Create → Point Set.
The Create Point Dataset dialog box and a selection list dialog box
appear.

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2.

Dataset name — Choose a name from the selection list dialog box
or enter a new one.

3.

Recompute Surface — Choose whether to recompute the current
surface. If you choose Yes, as soon as you make selections and
click OK, gridding starts. If you choose No, the point file is
created in your project directory without affecting the current grid
or display.

4.

Locations to output — Specify the Locations to output, as
discussed previously.

5.

Optional: Approx. No. of Points — To specify a maximum
number of points for the output, enter a value in the Approx. No.
of Points box. The program outputs no more than the specified
number of points.

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6.

Optional: Capture edges better — Use Capture edges better
with the Based on Surface Shape location, with surfaces that do
not cover the entire area or with surfaces that contain faults or
boundaries. When Yes is selected, the program uses internal
algorithms to sample the edges more accurately.

7.

Optional: Maximum Z error — If you have used one of the
auto-sampling methods for creating points, use Maximum Z
Error to control the maximum difference in z between the current
pointset and the pointset to be generated. For example in an
averaged pointset, only the points whose recorded value are within
the Maximum Z Error (in map units) of the value predicted by the
surface are output.

8.

Click OK.

9.

At this point, for any but the two user-defined location types, if
you specified Yes for Replace Surface, the program prompts you
with dialog boxes to begin the gridding process. (For more
information about gridding, see “Creating, Recalculating, or
Resampling Grids” on page 120.)
If, however, you chose At user picked points or Along user
picked lines for Locations to output, you must add the points or
lines by clicking their locations.

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When you complete a line, select End Line from the MB3
menu. Continue to digitize until you have completed all the
lines. To delete lines, select Del Line.

When you finish digitizing points or lines, select Complete
from the MB3 menu.

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Creating Custom Shapes
If your surface is based on very few control points and you have an idea
about the sort of structure used for sampling the points, you can use the
Customized Shape option to create and manipulate a conformal surface
based on an initial pivot or focus point and a certain class of structure.
This point is set to either the minimum or maximum z value in the
control points (depending upon the selected underlying shape). You can
manipulate this reference surface by adding points to form a curve that
is used as the basis of the conformal surface and by modifying the scale
or slope of the variation in the reference surface. You can create one of
five surface types, identified by the underlying conformal surface (for
example, the underlying surface for the planar type is a plane):

planar

ridge

trough

anticline

syncline
Changes you make in the dialog boxes are reflected immediately in the
map view. The dynamic update helps you construct a shape that
conforms to your requirements.

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To create a custom shape, follow these steps:
1.

Make sure you already have a pointset and a grid set up.

2.

Select Operations → Create Custom Shaped Surface in the
StrataMap window. The Create Stereotype Surfaces and General
Desired Shape dialog boxes appear:

The Profile Displaydialog box also appears with some points
indicated along the profile. You can alter the surface profile by
clicking in the Profile Display.

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3.

Select the underlying shape from the General Desired Shape list.
The Map View display is immediately updated to reflect the
selection.

4.

Optional: Change the slope (in degrees).

5.

Optional: Change the direction of the shape (expressed in
degrees, where 0 is equal to north). Alternatively, you can change
the shape’s direction by adding another control point.

6.

Once you are satisfied with the shape, click OK to close the Create
Stereotype Surfaces dialog box.

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Linking Data to a Surface
You can link the current surface to other data, such as well data, fault
files, and polygons. Linking ties the different types of information into
the grid. Once these points are linked, you can display them on the
map, adjust the surface to the linked data, or compare the residual error
values between the original points and the linked points.
Linking Restriction
Data you link must be contained within the grid’s x, y range.

Linking to Data Points
If you are linking points to post the data on the surface, do not save the
surface — a grid saved with linked data points is no longer tied to its
original points. The Select Point Dataset dialog box works exactly like
the New Surface dialog box.
To link to data points, follow these steps:

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1.

Select File → Attach Links to Surface → Source Point Set in
the StrataMap window.
The Select Source Point Set dialog box appears, along with a
selection list dialog box.

2.

In the selection list dialog box, select the name of the pointset file
(an .xyz, .dat, or .DAT file) you want to link with the current grid.

3.

Click the Record Layout arrow and use the selection list dialog
box that appears for specifying the file record format. If the file has
an associated .dsb file, use DSBSetup. (To review the use of field
names, see “Specifying Formats” on page 33.)

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4.

If you set the Record Layout value to OW Pointset or Generic, the
Format Dataset and File Contents dialog boxes appear. In the
Format Dataset dialog box, specify whether the Format is Fixed
or Free-form. Fixed separates fields in a record with a space.
Free-form separates them with a comma.

5.

If you select Generic as the Field Names type, you must provide
information about the generic format so the program can
understand the data properly. Viewing the file in the File Contents
dialog box helps you do this. (For more information,
see“Reviewing Data” on page 41.) Use the sample file that follows
for reference:
• Enter a position for the X field. This is the number of the field
that has the X data. The default value is 1. In the following
example, the X position is 2.
• Enter a position for the Y field, unless you are using the
Generic format. (With the Generic format selected, once you
enter a value for X, the program automatically updates the Y
position to the X position + 1.) In the following example, the Y
position is 3.
X

Y

W01

32000 87015 -7888 -8138 -8139 -8153 -8158 1.E30 -8210

W02

38600 87030 -8020 -8058 -8073 -8078 -8086 1.E30 -8137

W03

44000 86400 -7943 1.E30 -7957 -7958 -7970 1.E30 -8025

W04

48200 87060 -8003 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W05

30650 82200 -7918 -8003 -8013 -8038 -8048 -8103 1.E30

W06

35030 80901 -7905 1.E30 -7943 -7964 -7976 1.E30 -8027

W07

39476 80970 -7900 1.E30 -7928 -7935 -7949 1.E30 -8004

W08

44198 80910 -7998 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W09

33530 76230

7879 1 E30

7901

7929

7944

8004 1 E30


6.

7.

A record is typically one line of an input file.
Rec.s/point indicates how many records or lines are in an input
file constitute the information for one point of data. This
cannot vary.
If the file has more than one possible field for the z data, specify
the z field to use by clicking the Z Field arrow and selecting a z
field from the selection list dialog box that appears.
Click OK.

To unlink points, select None for the filename and click OK.

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Linking to Faults
Linking a fault to a surface immediately inserts the specified fault file
boundaries into the surface. Surface values are not modified, except
that the area inside polygon boundaries is blanked. After the link, if you
have a pointset associated with the grid, you can regrid with the faults
included so the fault is included in surface calculations.
Linking a Surface to Fault Lines
To link a surface to fault lines, follow these steps:
1.

Select File → Attach Links to Surface → Polygonal Fault
Boundaries in the StrataMap window.
To link the surface to a fault polygon, select File → Attach Links
to Surface → Exterior Polygon Boundary in the StrataMap
window.
The Insert Faults dialog box appears, along with a selection list
dialog box.

2.

In the selection list dialog box, select the name of the fault file you
want to link.
The selection list dialog box closes, and the selected name appears
in the Fault Name box of the Insert Faults dialog box.

3.

Click OK.

To unlink a fault, select None in the selection list dialog box, and click
OK.

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Linking a Surface to a Fault Polygon
If you link a grid to a polygon, an external boundary around the
polygon is immediately applied.
To link a surface to a fault polygon, follow these steps:
1.

Select File → Attach Links to Surface → Exterior Polygon
Boundary in the StrataMap window.
The Set Polygon Boundary dialog box appears, along with a
selection list dialog box.

2.

In the selection list dialog box, select the name of the fault file you
want to link.
The selection list dialog box closes, and the selected name appears
in the Polygon Name box of the Insert Faults dialog box.

3.

Click OK.

To unlink a fault polygon, select None in the selection list dialog box,
and click OK.

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Adjusting to Linked Data
Grids generated in StrataMap are linked by default to the data file from
which they were built. You also can assign or reassign the data and
z field that are associated with a given grid. Explicit control over the
linked point file provides several advantages, such as posting any of the
z fields contained in the linked data file on the map or automatically
adjusting to linked data.
The technique StrataMap uses for adjustment is discussed in detail in
Jones, Hamilton, and Johnson, Contouring Geologic Surfaces with the
Computer. StrataMap adjusts to linked data in the following manner:
1.

StrataMap generates surface z values at the respective point
locations (back interpolates).

2.

It calculates the difference between the generated z value and the
original linked z-field value. This difference is called the residual
value. (For instructions about plotting a histogram of the residual
value difference, see “Displaying Histograms” on page 176.)

3.

StrataMap calculates an average residual value and applies it to
8 ring points positioned around the map and outside the AOI.

4.

These ring points are used along with the residual point values to
create a residual grid. The ring points help prevent any wild
extrapolation close to grid limits.

5.

The residual grid is then added to the initial grid to create the final
adjusted grid.

The adjusted grid contains much of the form and structure of the initial
grid but honors the data values of the linked z field at the data point
locations. This adjustment process underlies conformable mapping.
The major difference is that in StrataMap you perform this in two steps:

Use Link/Associate to define the linked data file and the z field (as
described on step 1 on page 148).

Use the Operations → Adjust Surface to Linked Point Set
option to adjust the data.
Another Method
Another method of adjusting to linked data is to use Set Custom Fault Block to set
up a reference surface, then input and grid the points as usual.

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Inability to Edit After Adjusting to Linked Data
After you adjust a grid to linked data, you cannot edit the grid. The adjustment
honors the new data points produced by linking the data.

To perform the adjustment, follow these steps:
1.

Select Operations → Adjust Surface to Linked Point Set in the
StrataMap window.

2.

Select a method of adjustment. You can apply the adjustment
globally or locally. If you pick Global Adjust, click OK;
otherwise, go on to step 3.

3.

If you are doing a local update, define a distance from the linked
data to adjust.
Use Recommendation
Defining a distance is only recommended if the pointset contains more than
1000 points.

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4.

If you are doing a local adjustment, assign an initial grid weight.
This setting weights the initial grid value against the value of
residual control points. A weight of 1 gives equal weighting to the
initial grid value and the control points. A weight of .001 gives the
new point a weight of 1,000 times that of the initial grid value.

5.

Click OK.

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Changing the Interpolation Method
You can use either the linear or cubic method to generate surfaces.
These methods differ in how the system computes the surface between
grid node values. Linear is a straight-line function that uses only the
surrounding four node values, where cubic is a curved, smoother
representation that is determined by the node values and an estimate of
the gradient at each node.
The differences between these methods are very slight. In some cases
of using the cubic method, the gridding algorithms create slight
differences between the original surface and a back-interpolated
surface. It could also cause a problem in Stratamodel’s Show Displays
with logs being on the wrong side of a sequence. Using the linear
approach should reduce this problem.
To change the interpolation setting, select Options → Interpolation,
and select the Linear or Cubic option. (The currently selected option
appears dimmed.)

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Setting Up Displays
This section covers the following topics:

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Using Map View (page 156) — View data in standard map
orientation
— Controlling Map Content (page 156)
— Setting the Z Range and Increment (page 157)
— Controlling Contours, Faults, and Points (page 160)
— Displaying Culture Data (page 163)
— Using the Map Magnifier (page 164)
— Displaying the Current Status (page 165)

Using the Profile Display (page 166) — View surfaces in profile
or cross section
— Setting Up the Profile Display (page 166)
— Moving the Line of Section (page 168)
— Setting the Z Range for Profile Display (page 169)
— Displaying the Cursor Position (page 170)
— Using Profile Display in a Framework (page 170)
— Dynamic Profile Display (page 170)

Displaying View-Only Surfaces (page 171) — View surfaces as
overlays on the current surface in Map View or Profile Display.

Viewing Point Data (page 174) — View pointset data in the File
Contents dialog box.

Displaying Histograms (page 176) — View histograms that plot
the frequencies of original z values or of the differences between
the surface and original z values.

Setting Colors (page 178) — Create custom color tables for
displaying contours and use the Color -> Z dialog box to change
the color display range, switch the current surface, and move the
reference z value.
— Setting Up the Color Table (page 178)
— Manipulating Colors and Z Range with the Colorbar
(page 180)

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Using Map View
Use the Map View display to view data in standard map orientation.

Controlling Map Content
A good way to begin setting up the map is to select the items to appear.
To select the items to appear in Map View, follow these steps:
1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Select Map Content in the
StrataMap window or click the Change Content button in the
Map View dialog box.
The DISPLAY Contents dialog box appears:

2.

Set the content by using the following options:
Feature

Options

Comments

Background
Fill

No
Yes

Creates a gray-scale effect.
Colorfills the contours.

Points

None
Black
White
Colored
Values

Contours

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None
Black
Colored
Annotate
d

Posts points in color indicating value.
Good for gray-scale displays.
Displays values for a limited number of
points.

Posts same color as contour.
Posts at major interval.

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Feature

Options

Comments

Grid Visible

No
Yes
Colored

Use with no colorfill.

Borders
Annotated

3.

No
Yes

Border appears as a plain line.
Grid value annotations appear outside
border.

Click OK in the DISPLAY Contents dialog box to close the dialog
box and set the contents of the display as specified.

Setting the Z Range and Increment
You can control the range of z values displayed and the increment of
z values. Changing the range and increment of z values also controls the
color scale, which by default displays higher z values in red and deeper
z values in blue.
To set the z range displayed and the increment of z values, follow these
steps:

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1.

Select Displays → Set Z-Range, Increment in the StrataMap
window.
The Grid/Surface DISPLAY dialog box appears.

2.

Optional: Z increment — To change the z increment (or contour
interval), enter a new value in the Z increment box, expressed in
feet.

3.

Optional: Major Frequency — To change the frequency of the
major contours, enter a new value in the Major Frequency box. For
example, if the Major Frequency value is 5, one major contour
appears in every five contours. If the Z increment (interval) value
is set at 20, major contours appear every 100 feet. Only the major
contours are annotated. (For information about annotating
contours, see “Contours” on page 160.)

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If there are not enough colors in the colorbar to label all contours,
then major contours signal a color change. The color of the major
contour matches the color shown in the colorbar (displayed in the
Color -> Z dialog box).
4.

Z minimum — To control the minimum z value displayed in the
map, enter a value in the Z minimum box. Contours appear at
every contour interval starting at the minimum value. (The
minimum possible value appears in the number selector dialog
box, which you can display by clicking the arrow.) If the z range is
not locked, the default value is the minimum z value for the current
framework (or the current horizon, if no framework is active).

5.

Z Maximum — To control the maximum z value displayed in the
map, enter a value in the Z Maximum box. (The maximum
possible value appears in the number selector dialog box, which
you can display by clicking the arrow.) If the z range is not locked,
the default value is the maximum z value for the current
framework (or the current horizon, if no framework is active).

6.

Click OK to set the values and close the dialog box. The updates
take effect immediately.

Locking the Surface Z Range
If you have a wide range of z values, you can lock the z range to the
current value, and apply the range to all subsequent displays.
Select Options → Surface Z Ranging in the StrataMap window and
select one of the following options:

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Adjust to Input — (default setting) Uses the current surface
values to determine the display’s z range. Use this setting to turn
off z locking.

Lock Z Range — Locks the z range to the range currently
displayed, so subsequent grids may be set to the value of the
minimum or maximum if they exceed the range.

Adjust to Input+Others — Uses the values of the current surface
and any Display Only surfaces to determine the display’s z range.

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Surface A

Surface B

Surface A with z range
locked to Surface B

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Controlling Contours, Faults, and Points
This topic explains how to control the appearance of contours, faults,
and points.
Contours
You can control the appearance of contours, their labeling, spacing, and
smoothing.
To specify contouring values, follow these steps:
1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Select Map Content —
Contour Presentation in the StrataMap window.
The Contour Controls dialog box appears.

2.

Color & style — Specify the color and style of contours. Click the
arrow and select one of the following options from the drop-down
list:

None — No contours appear.

Black — Contours appear in black.

Colored — Contours match colors from colorbar.

Annotated — Activates the other options in the Contour
Controls dialog box.
If you select Annotated, the other options in the dialog box are
activated, and you continue with the remainder of the steps. If you
select another option, skip to the final step.

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3.

No. Decimals — If the Color & style value is set to Annotated,
use the No. Decimals box to specify the number of digits that
appear after the decimal point in contour labels.

4.

Gradient ticks — If the Color & style value is set to Annotated,
click the Gradient ticks arrow to toggle between values that
specify the presence and direction of gradient ticks. You can
choose none, Up, or Down. Up draws the tick so that it points to
the higher level contours, Down draws the tick toward deeper
levels.

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5.

Smoothing — If the Color & style value is set to Annotated, click
the Smoothing arrow to toggle between values that specify the
amount of smoothing for contours: none, Normal, or Heavy.

6.

Click OK to close the dialog box and apply the settings.

Faults
You can specify how faults lines and polygons appear when 2D faults
are embedded in a surface during gridding. These settings do not affect
the display of fault surfaces as used in frameworks.
To specify the display settings for faults lines and polygons, follow
these steps:

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1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Select Map Content —
Fault Presentation in the StrataMap window.
The Fault Display Options dialog box appears.

2.

Perimeters — Select Originals to display the perimeter of the
fault or None to remove the fault from the display. If you select
None, the other options in the dialog box are not activated.

3.

Interior — Select Filled or Empty to specify whether faults are
filled.

4.

Throw Ticks — Click the Throw Ticks button and select None,
Up, or Down from the drop-down list. This option displays four
rectangular gray tabs along the up-thrown or down-thrown side of
the well. (Direction depends on whether the z values are in depth
or elevation.) Throw ticks are not displayed unless the fault is
linked to the grid.

5.

Click OK to apply your choices and close the dialog box.

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Points
If you display a surface created from a pointset in Map View, you can
control the color, size, and labeling of points. To specify point
presentation values, follow these steps:
1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Select Map Content —
Point Presentation in the StrataMap window. The Point
Annotation Controls dialog box appears.

2.

Symbol Color — Specify whether to display point symbols and
the symbol color: None, Black or White.

3.

Size — Specify the point symbol size: Small, Large, or
Automatic.

4.

Label Value — Specify the label type for points. You can choose
None, X, Y, Z, or AbsError.
AbsError (Absolute Error) displays the difference between the
surface and the original data points. You can use AbsError to
validate how accurately grids honor the pointset.
Choosing a label type activates the other options in the box. If you
do not want to label the points, click OK; otherwise, continue with
the rest of the steps.

5.

No. Decimals — If you are labeling the points, enter the number
of digits to follow the decimal in the No. Decimals box.

6.

Optional: Max Posted — To limit the number of labels posted,
enter a number in the Max Posted box. To avoid overposting, use
the Max Posted option and zoom in close to the feature you want
to show.

7.

Click OK to apply your choices and close the dialog box.

Changing the Number of Posted Labels
If you change the number of posted labels, the change does not appear in Map View
until you click the Restore tool button.

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Displaying Culture Data
You can display culture data, such as lease lines or contours from
another surface, as an overlay in Map View. You can control the color
of the culture data displayed.
To display culture data from a file, follow these steps:
1.

Select Displays → Map Options → Select Culture Overlay in
the StrataMap window. The Culture File to read dialog box
appears, along with a selection list dialog box.

2.

In the selection list dialog box, click the filename of the culture file
you want to load.

3.

Choose a color for the data to display. The colors are automatically
derived from the culture file.

4.

Click OK in the Culture File to read dialog box.

Contours with Lease Data Overlay
Removing Culture Data
To remove culture data from the Map View display, select Displays →
Map Options → Select Culture Overlay in the StrataMap window
again and select the None option in the selection list dialog box. Click
OK in the Culture File to read dialog box.
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Using the Map Magnifier
You can use the Map Magnifier to view an enlarged area of the Map
View display without resizing the entire display. You can move the
window around by clicking the map display. (This option is available
only if you have data displayed in Map View.)
To display the Map Magnifier, select Displays → Map Options →
Magnifier in the StrataMap window.

The Map Magnifier box appears immediately, and an outline appears in
the Map View display to show which area is magnified. The profile
(cross section) line is set to intersect the magnifier area diagonally.
To move the magnified area (and profile line), click the center point for
the new location in the Map View display. The Map Magnifier and
Profile Display are updated immediately.
To zoom in or out, click the Zoom In or Zoom Out buttons in the Map
Magnifier box.
To close the Map Magnifier box, double-click the Motif window button
at the top left corner.

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Displaying the Current Status
You can display an information box that reports details about the
current status of the data displayed in Map View and Profile Display.
To display the Current Status information box, select the Status menu
option in the StrataMap window menu bar.
The Current Status information box appears.

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Using the Profile Display
Setting up a framework for a surface requires an intimate knowledge of
the project, and viewing surfaces in profile together can help you make
meaningful choices. You can use the Profile/Cross-section feature to
set up a Profile Display of the current surface that you can use for
performing operations and editing.

Setting Up the Profile Display
To set up the Profile Display view, follow these steps:

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1.

Display a surface.

2.

Select Displays → Profile/Cross-section in the StrataMap
window.
The Establish Profile dialog box appears.

3.

Optional: Use the Max Projection option to control the width of
the line of section (LOS), expressed in map units. (The LOS
determines which data appears in the Profile Display.) The width
you specify in the Max Projection value determines which data
appears around the LOS. To change the value, enter a new number
or click the arrow. In the dialog box that appears, use the slider to
select a value.

4.

Optional: Use the Z range expansion value to control the range
of z values to be displayed. This is useful for modifying or adding
points beyond the current range of values. The default is 0, or no
expansion; a range of 100 would expand the current range between
minimum and maximum z values by 100%.

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5.

By default, the Display Range value is set to expand the range of
the z field to include the value of neighboring z fields. For
example, suppose the z field value is present between 200 and 400
in the active event, but due to faulting that same surface appears
between 400 and 800 in neighboring events. The default setting
displays the surface at all depths.
The other option is to limit z field values to only the values present
in the displayed event. So if the surface is found only between 200
and 400 in the displayed event, the profile displays the z field only
if it is between 200 and 400.

6.

Click OK.
The Profile Display dialog box appears with the specified settings
(or is updated, if it is already open).

Profile Display

Map View

Line of Section

Profile Color Legend — Color -> Z

Example: Surface Displayed in Map View and Profile Display

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Moving the Line of Section
You can stretch or move the line of section (LOS). You can also rotate
the line of section (page 169).
To stretch or move the LOS, use one of these methods:

Click near the center of the LOS to move the entire line. This
method gives you a fly-though view of the profile as you move the
LOS. This can be helpful for finding problem areas in the model.

Use MB2 to click near one end of the LOS, then move the end of
the LOS to the new location and click MB1 to place it. You can
move the other end in the same way.

Click MB2.

Move and place with MB1.

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You can use an alternate mode to generate a dynamic Profile Display
while the line of section is moved. The Profile Display is activated
whenever you click MB2 near the center of the line segment. After you
release MB2, the line moves with the cursor until you disconnect by
clicking MB1. All movements of the line of section generate new
displays in the Profile Display dialog box, creating a fly-through effect.
Rotating the Line of Section
To rotate the LOS, click MB3 in Profile Display and select Rotate from
the MB3 menu. With Profile Display in Rotate mode, you can rotate the
LOS around its center point.

Setting the Z Range for Profile Display
Use the Profile Z Range options to control the vertical scale and
exaggeration in Profile Display.
To change the vertical scale and exaggeration in Profile Display, select
Options → Profile Z Range and select the menu option that does not
appear dimmed. (The current setting appears dimmed.)

Same As Surface uses the z minimum and maximum values of the
entire surface to limit the vertical axis. No matter which line of
section you use, the scale and exaggeration remain the same.

Automatic uses the z minimum and maximum along the current
profile to set the vertical axis, which usually provides a better
degree of detail.

Same as Surface

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Displaying the Cursor Position
You can use the Position Report to constantly display the cursor
position in Map View and Profile Display, and report the x, y, z values at
the cursor location.
To display the cursor position, select Displays → Map Options →
Position Reporter in the StrataMap window. The Position Report
information box appears immediately.

Distance and direction values are updated dynamically as you move the
mouse. The x, y, and z values are updated if you click MB1.
If you have the Position Report displayed, you can use the point
information to update fields that require x, y, z values. Enter an x, y, or z
in the field, and the value for that position is posted.

Using Profile Display in a Framework
If you are working in a framework, the Color -> Z dialog box shows a
color-coded key for the surfaces related to the active surface. The
profile appears along a line of section as above, but the colorbar in the
Color -> Z dialog box reports the name of related horizons from the
fault block defined by the framework.

Dynamic Profile Display
To see a dynamic Profile Display by using the line of section in the
Fault Framework Sketch dialog box, follow these steps:

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1.

Click the Line of Section arrow near the center of the line with
MB2. The line changes shape to a simple line with no arrow.

2.

Move the line through the faulted framework to view areas of
interest. As you move, you can clearly see the intersections of
horizons and faults in the Profile Display. This feature is very
handy for editing a framework.

3.

To release the roving line, click MB1. The arrow returns to normal.

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Displaying View-Only Surfaces
You can easily display other surfaces as overlays on the current
surfaces, but you cannot edit the overlays. Overlaying surfaces gives
you a quick look at how the surfaces might look if you include them in
a framework.
The Display Only Surfaces list is usually set up automatically
whenever a framework is active. On rare occasions you may have need
to modify the list manually.
To modify the Display Only Surfaces list manually, follow these steps:
1.

Select File → Display Only Surfaces.
The Select Displayables dialog box appears.

Automatic Setup of Display Only Surfaces
Display Only surfaces are typically set up automatically as you select events
in the fault block. If the current event is an unassigned fault, other faults that
touch it are set to appear. If you select a boundary fault, horizons from both
sides are set up to appear, so you can see attributes such as throw.
Since these values are usually set up automatically, so the most common use
of this dialog box is to remove surfaces from display.

2.

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Optional: To change the display range, click the Display Range
arrow and toggle between these values:

Clip to current z range — (default setting) Clip the display
to the current z range.

Expand Z to include all — Expand the z range to include all
the surfaces.

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3.

If the Display Range value is set to Clip to current Z range, use
the Clip Extension box to enter a value to specify the amount of
space beyond the z range to extend the display.

4.

Optional: Set the following display values:

5.

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Contour Others — Hide (No) or display (Yes, default value)
all the fault blocks other than the current fault block.

Draw Intersects — Display (Yes, default value) or hide (No)
the points at which horizons intersect. You typically set this
value to Yes unless you are comparing multiple versions of the
same horizon.

Format — This option is available only if the project folder
contains grids saved with more than one format, such as .smg
grids and .gti grids. If the option is active, select the format
you are using. The selection list dialog boxes are filtered to
display only the selected type of grid.

Horizon, Blue — A Horizon, Blue line appears for each
horizon included in the current framework. To switch the
horizon for another horizon, click the arrow button. In the
selection list dialog box that appears, select the replacement
horizon. To delete the horizon, select None from the list.

Fault, White — A Fault, White line appears for each fault
included in the current framework. To switch the fault for
another one, click the arrow button. In the list dialog box that
appears, select the replacement fault. To delete the fault,
select None from the list.

Black Line — To display one of the framework events as a
black line, click the Black Line arrow. In the selection list
dialog box that appears, select the filename of the horizon,
fault, or .smg-format attribute data you want to display in
black.

Click OK to show the updated surfaces and faults in the Map View
and Profile Display.

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The first image in the following example shows a surface using a
Profile Display without any other reference surfaces. The second image
shows two additional surfaces as reference horizons.

Original Surface

Second Surface
Third Surface

Profile Display and Display Only Surfaces

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Viewing Point Data
If you display points in the Map View display or create a new surface
from a pointset, you can use the Points Browser to view the pointset
data. The data appears as a table that reflects the order and structure of
the pointset’s original file format. The the current pointset is identified
and tied to the current map display in the following ways:


The column of data that represents the z value linked to the current
display is outlined in red.
For each point that has a z value, a color block is placed in front of
the line that indicates the z value. This readily reveals anomalous
values for some pointsets.
The point that is highlighted in red in the Map View is the point
closest to the most recent MB1 click.
If you click a line of the listing with MB1, the line is selected as
the current point in both the Map View and the Listing.

To view pointset data, follow these steps:
1.

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Select Displays → Browse Point Set. The Points Browser and
File Contents dialog boxes appear.

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The only control in the Points Browser dialog box is the Browsing
Area. The rest of the fields show information about the chosen
points.
2.

Ellipse or Entire Map is set for the Browsing Area based on the
number of points in the current pointset. The points for the
specified area appear in the File Contents display.

Ellipse — A large default ellipse is set up by default. To
change the ellipse size or shape, select Define New Area
from the MB3 menu.
To create an ellipsoidal area, next pick a point at the center of
the area you want to browse.
Drag the cursor to designate a radius in one direction, then in
the other direction. When you move in the second direction,
an ellipse appears:

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Polygon — Digitizes a polygon around the selected area.
When you are through, choose Close to close the polygon.

3.

Select a point on the map to browse. The File Contents display
scrolls to the point data for that point and the point row turns red.
You can move the browsing area by selecting another point. You
can also click a line to select a point.

4.

If you selected Ellipse as a Browsing Area, and want to choose
another ellipse, click MB3 anywhere in the Map View display and
select New Area, then repeat step 2 through 3.

5.

Click OK in the Point Browser dialog box to close both dialog
boxes.

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Displaying Histograms
You can display a histogram for a z value that shows the frequencies of
the original z value or plots the differences between the surface and the
original z value.
To display a histogram, follow these steps:

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1.

Select Displays → Histograms in the StrataMap window.
The Histogram Options dialog box appears.

2.

Select the type of histogram:

Orig Values — Plots original values.

Differences — Plots the differences between the surface and
the original values.

3.

Specify the z value to use as a source. (Z may be the only available
source.)

4.

Enter or select a number for the maximum amount of difference
you want to display.

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5.

Click OK.
The histogram appears —either in the Distribution of Z Values
box, if you choose to display the original values or the Z Values Surface box, if you choose to display the differences between the
z value and the surface. The following examples show both types
of histograms.
Original

Differences

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Setting Colors
You can use the default color display, or create custom color tables for
displaying contours. You can save the color table color descriptions and
reuse them. You can also manipulate the color bar directly to make
some changes.

Setting Up the Color Table
To set up a color table, follow these steps:

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1.

Select Displays → Coloring of Z-Range in the StrataMap
window.
The Color Table Setup dialog box appears.

2.

If you have already created a color table, you can choose the name
of the table by clicking the Color Table Name button and
selecting it from the list. If you are creating a table, enter a name in
the Color Table name box. If you name the color table to match a
z name, like DEPTH or TIME, that table is recalled automatically
whenever a surface is loaded that has the z field of that name.

3.

Specify the No. of Colors value. You can have a minimum of 4
and a maximum of 40. The number of colors combined with the
number of shades should relate to the number of contours being
generated. If they do not, the program will change either the
number of shades or the number of colors to accommodate the
number of contour levels.

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4.

Choose a Method of Blending.

Direct Mix — Simulates pouring colors into a bucket to mix
them. If you chose direct mix and green and yellow for your
minimum and maximum colors, for example, you would get
mixed shades from green to yellow.

B->G->Y->R — Begins with the color specified as the
maximum and shades through blue, green, yellow, and red to
the color specified as the minimum.

R->Y->G->B — Reverses the order of shading.

5.

Choose a color for Color at Minimum Z. This is the color to
reflect the deepest z value.

6.

Choose a color for Color at Maximum Z. This is the color to
reflect the highest z value.

7.

You can choose the value (light or dark) of the colors from the
Color Shades option. You have the following choices:




VERYDARK
DARK
VIVID
LIGHT
PASTEL

8.

Use No. of Shades/color to control the shading between colors.
For example, if you chose 3 and one of your colors was red, the red
z values would appear in 3 shades of red. The number of shades
you can select depends upon your method of blending and the
colors you chose for minimum and maximum. As mentioned
previously, the number of colors combined with the number of
shades should relate to the number of contours being generated. If
they do not, the program will change either the number of shades
or the number of colors to accommodate the number of contour
levels.

9.

Use Shade to determine the color the specified colors in the color
table will shade toward. For example, gray will shade colors in the
same ranges successively grayer. This option is only available if
you have more than one shade per color.

10. Click OK when you are satisfied with the color table. If you
specified a new table name, the table is saved at this time.

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Manipulating Colors and Z Range with the Colorbar
You can graphically change the display ranges of the colorbar by using
the Reset Z and Z Zoom options from the MB3 menu. The current
colorbar appears in the Color -> Z dialog box and affects all active
displays.
The colorbar also serves as a legend to indicate which Display Only
surfaces are active. You can click these surfaces with MB1 to select a
different surface as the current surface. This navigation aid is
particularly helpful for working with frameworks.
You can use the Change Ref option on the MB3 menu to activate
movement of the reference z value. (This option is active only if a
framework is active and the Fault Sketch View is available.) The
reference z value appears on the colorbar as a light overlay line at the
appropriate z value. To place the line at a new z position, click the new
position with MB1. The Fault Sketch View is redrawn at the new z
reference value.
To invert the colorbar, click the colorbar with MB3, then select the
Invert option from the MB3 menu.

Press MB3, then
select Invert from
the menu.

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Surface Operations and Map Editing
Overview
You often need to edit a contour map to correct errors introduced
during data input and gridding. For example, if a z field has a bad value
in the data file, the contour map made from the z field may exhibit the
error. You often see errors if contours cluster around bad data values,
creating bulls eyes that highlight the problem. Bulls eyes can also
identify x and y coordinate errors. If a bulls eye appears in maps for all
of the z fields, investigate the data point location.
You can also edit to incorporate data into or remove it from the surface
definition. For example, you may want to insert faults or smooth the
grid to define the surface more accurately.
This section describes how to perform these tasks:

Edit contours, profiles, and nodes (page 194).

Edit points (page 199).

Insert faults, polygons, and boundaries (page 203).

Fill voids (page 190).

Smooth the surface (page 192).

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Performing Operations with Grids
Once you create grids, you can perform operations on grids:


Perform a least squares fit of a polynomial (next topic).
Alter a single grid by performing many operations on it
(page 184).
Create a grid by performing several operations on dual grids
(page 186).

Performing a Least Squares Fit of a Polynomial
You can perform a least squares fit of a polynomial function of x and y
to a set of points to extract trends from datasets. You can fit
polynomials in x and y to either the grid nodes or the points from which
they were derived. Using nodes assures more reliable results, since
there is no possibility of the trend diverging wildly where no data
points are specified.
To perform a least squares fit of a polynomial for a grid, follow these
steps:
1.

Select Operations → Surface Operations → Fit Least Squares
Polynomial in the StrataMap window.
The Polynomial Fit dialog box appears. (The Source of Control
field appears in the dialog box only if points are posted.)

2.

Click the Order of Polynomial arrow.
The Select Parameter Order of P dialog box appears.

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3.

Use the Select Parameter Order of P dialog box to select an order
for the polynomial.
The order defines the highest power of x and y allowed and
therefore, the shape allowed in the function.
Order set to 1 is a plane ( z = a + bx + cy ).
Order set to 3 is bicubic (z = a + bx + cy + dxy + exy 2 . . .).
The higher the order, the better the trend function fits the data.

4.

To change the type of output, click the Type of Output arrow and
toggle between the following values:

Replace replaces the current surface with its trend.

Residual replaces the current surface with the residual —
or differences between the trend and the surface.

5.

If points are posted, you can change the source of control by
clicking the Source of Control arrow, and toggling between the
Grid Nodes and Random Points value. Grid nodes tends to give
better results because it avoids wild excursions in the resulting
function. If you do not have points available, the polynomial fit
uses grid nodes.

6.

Click OK.
The surface is regridded. A message box appears and shows the
results.

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Performing Operations on a Single Surface
You can use the Single Surface Operations dialog box to perform the
following operations on a single surface.
Operation

Description

Enter as Constant

Add Constant N

Adds a constant to the surface

The constant

Multiply by N

Multiplies the surface by a
constant

The constant

Raise to Nth Power

Raises the surface to a power

The power

Take Nth Root

Takes the nth root of the surface

The power of the root

Take Logarithm

Takes the logarithm of the
surface

The base

Compute Sine

Computes the sine of the
surface

Nothing

Compute Cosine

Computes the cosine of the
surface

Nothing

Compute Azimuth
from

Determines the direction of the
maximum gradient relative to a
specified direction

A direction, measured
in degrees, where 0 is
north

Compute Gradient

Computes the absolute
maximum gradient at each node

Nothing

Compute
curvature

Computes the curvature of the
surface

Nothing

Normalize to

Normalizes values from 0 to 1

Leave at 1

To perform a single surface operation, follow these steps:

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1.

Select the surface you want to change.

2.

Select Operations → Surface Operations → Single Surface
Operations in the StrataMap window.

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The Single Surface Operations dialog box appears, along with a
selection list dialog box of available operations.

3.

Select an operation from the selection list dialog box.
The selection list dialog box closes. In the Single Surface
Operations dialog box, the Function and Constant values reflect
the selected function.

4.

Optional: To change the default constant value, enter a new value
in the Constant box.

5.

Click OK.
The program performs the operation on the current surface and the
surface display is updated automatically in the Map View, Profile
Display, and (possibly) Fault Framework Sketch dialog box.

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Performing Operations on Two Surfaces
In the Dual Grid Operations dialog box, you can perform any of the
following operations to combine two surfaces (grids), creating a third
grid as output:

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Plus — Add two grids together and output the sum.

Minus — Subtract two grids and output the difference.

Times — Multiply two grids and output the result.

Divided By — Divide one grid by another and output the result.

Blended with — Combine two grids, treating overlap as a blend
based on distance from the edge.

Maxed with — Use the greater of the two values found in the
input grids.

Min ed below — Use the lesser of the two values found in the
input grids.

Merged with — Combine two grids as in the Blended with option,
except it is assumed the second grid is completely contained in the
first grid. The second grid is used exclusively in the overlap region
except for a smoothing that occurs around the perimeter.

Erased below — Erase the first grid whenever it is below the
second grid.

Erased Above — Erase the first grid whenever it is above the
second grid.

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To perform a dual surface operation, follow these steps:
1.

Select Operations → Surface Operations → Dual Surface
Operations in the StrataMap window.
The Dual Grid Operations dialog box appears, along with a
selection list dialog box:

2.

Select the second surface from the Select Operand B from list
dialog box.

3.

Optional: To change the first surface for the operation, click the
Surface A arrow and select a surface filename from the selection
list that appears.

4.

Optional: To switch to another operation, click the Operation
arrow.
A list dialog box appears, which you use to select one of the
following operations.

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Plus — Add two grids together and output the sum.

Minus — Subtract two grids and output the difference.

Times — Multiply two grids and output the result.

Divided By — Divide one grid by another and output the
result.

Blended with — Combine two grids, treating overlap as a
blend based on distance from the edge.

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5.

Merged with — Combine two grids as in the Blended with
option, except it is assumed the second grid is completely
contained in the first grid. The second grid is used exclusively
in the overlap region except for a smoothing that occurs
around the perimeter.

Maxed with — Use the greater of the two values found in the
input grids.

Min ed below — Use the lesser of the two values found in the
input grids.

Erased below — Erase the first grid whenever it is below the
second grid.

Erased Above — Erase the first grid whenever it is above the
second grid.

If necessary, click the Format arrow and select Stratamodel .smg
format from the list dialog box that appears. (If no other types of
grids are in the current project folder, no list selection dialog box
appears.)
The list dialog boxes for Surface A and Surface B change to list
only the .smg grids in the current project folder.

6.

Optional: To change the second surface for the operation, click
the Surface B arrow and select a surface filename from the
selection list that appears.

7.

Click OK.
The program performs the grid operation and the results appear in
the Map View, Profile Display, and (possibly) the Fault Framework
Sketch dialog box. See the following examples.

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Surface A

Surface B

The output surface
shows differences
between surfaces
A and B.

You can select another surface and save the surface you created with a
unique name so the original grid is not overwritten.

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Filling Voids
The initial grid may contain null areas on the edge of the AOI, holes in
the grid, or faults that you want to fill. You can complete the grid
interpolation out to a specified distance by using the Fill undefined
regions option. The resulting grid will be a reasonably shaped
interpolation between the known points. This function does not refer to
the original data points, but uses the existing grid nodes as input. If you
use a large Distance to fill and the Final Fill value, you can make sure
all nodes have values.
Filling Voids Takes Time
Filling voids can be time consuming.

1.

Select Operations → Surface Operations → Fill undefined
regions in the StrataMap window.

2.

Select Yes or No for Fill Surface Voids. If you wish to fill faults
without filling the surface, choose No. This ensures that no
changes are made except inside the fault.

3.

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If you chose No, go to step 5.

If you chose Yes, continue on with the rest of the steps.

Enter a number between 1 and 5 for Max. No Empty Octants.
This number, combined with the Distance to Fill, describes how
the program will search from a node to fill the voids. Together the
two options define a search radius divided into octants. If you
selected 5 for the maximum number of empty octants, for
example, and if there were 6 empty octants around a node, the
node would be set to null.

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4.

Enter a number that indicates how far from a node the program
will search for a value. To ensure that all nulls are filled, use a
large number.

5.

Choose whether to fill the final surface. Choose Yes to ensure that
all nodes have a value. You should probably only apply Final Fill if
a previous attempt to fill voids without it failed to fill all the nodes.
Surface with
Voids

Voids Filled

6.

Fill Faults only appears if faults are present. Choose Yes or No.
If you choose Yes, the program computes a value for the nodes in
the fault.

7.

Click OK.

If Fill Voids Leaves Empty Corners
If initial attempts to fill voids leave empty corners, try relaxing the number of empty
octants and filling again. Final Fill will also fill in the corners.

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Smoothing Surfaces
In addition to being able to smooth initial grids, you can apply
smoothing later. StrataMap takes an iterative approach to smoothing.
To apply smoothing, follow these steps:
1.

Select Operations → Surface Operations → Smooth Surface in
the StrataMap window.
The Smoothing Filter Selection dialog box appears.

2.

Choose the type of smoothing to apply:


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Minimum Curvature — attempts to minimize the curvature
of the grid at each point. This is the most natural smoothing.
Gradient Smoother — smooths the overall gradient of the
grid.
Averaging — calculates an average of the area around a point
to find a new value for the point.

3.

Enter a number to indicate how many smoothing passes should be
performed. Each pass increases the effective length of the filter by
one grid interval.

4.

Specify the way control points are treated.

Freeze at Points — honors any data points you have loaded.
The surface is smoothed but is not changed near the control
points.

None — may not closely honor the data points.

5.

Click OK.

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Original
Surface

Minimum
Curvature

Gradient
Smoother

Averaging

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Editing Contours, Profiles, and Nodes
You can interactively change the shape of contour points or segments in
Map View, to redraw the shape of surface features. In Profile Display,
you can edit a surface profile, and edit or delete nodes.
You can specify the area of the grid affected by the edits: applying them
to the whole map or drawing inside ellipses or polygons. When you
apply edits to an area, a portion of the grid outside the update area is
also affected to smooth the results of the editing.
To cancel edits, click Cancel in the Surface Editor dialog box.
To use the Surface Editor, follow these steps:
1.

Select Editors → Surface Shaping in the StrataMap window.

2.

Select a Type of Input: Contour Segments, Contour Points,
Profile Segments, Profile Points, Patch, Node Edit, or Node
Erase.
Patch fills in nulled areas by interpolating the edge of an update
region (always defined by an ellipse) into the interior. This is the
only option that fills in null values. In general, it is best to use
small elliptical areas to avoid excessive filling or destruction of
real data.

3.

Select an Update Area: Entire Map, Ellipse, or Polygon. Select
the update area in the Map View display, even when you edit
profiles. The profile is set up automatically based on the selected
area.

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Entire Map — Updates may affect the contouring throughout
the map. If you are using the entire map for an update area,
pick a focus point for edits, then go to the next step. Entire
Map is only available if you have less than 400 points and no
polygon faults.

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Ellipse — To use the Ellipse, pick a point at center of the area
you want to update.
Click to pick a radius in one direction, then in the other
direction. When you move in the second direction, an ellipse
appears that you can adjust until you click the mouse button.

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Polygon— Digitizes a polygon around the selected area.
When you are through, choose Close from the MB3 menu to
close the polygon.

4.

Choose whether to ignore or include control points. If you choose
Include, the program uses the original control points plus any that
you added during editing. This is almost always the best choice. In
rare cases the control points may be too bad to use. In these cases,
be sure to use a small update area.

5.

Edit contour points or segments by clicking to place points or
segments. To edit profiles, use the tool buttons in the Profile
Display dialog box. The z value of the contour you are editing
appears in the Current Z value field.

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Use the following MB3 menu options to help you edit:

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Option

Purpose

Instructions

Re Calc

Recalculates the update
area

Select the menu item.

Rep Last

Repeats the last activity

Click the menu option, then repeat
previous activity.

Perform
Update

Updates the edited area
to show edits without
regridding

Edit a profile, then click the button.

Change
Zvalue

Changes to different
contour

Select menu item and select
another contour, or enter a z value
in the Current Z value field.

Delete
Contour

Deletes the contour
edits you just made

Select menu item and re-enter the
contour.

Move Area

Moves the update area
while keeping the same
specifications

Select menu item and click in
another area of the map.

New Area

Allows you to select a
new update area

Select menu item and select a new
ellipse or polygon.

Undo Last
Update

Undoes the previous
update

Select menu item.

Setup new
profile

Opens a new Profile
Display

Select menu item.

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Choose the Update Area
(Ellipsoidal in this example)

Digitize a New Contour

Update the
Contour

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Select Profile Points.
Choose the Update
Area.
Use MB1 to change the
position of the profile
area.

Select a point for a
new profile.

The display is updated automatically.

Select Profile Segments.
Choose the Update Area
by picking a center point
and a point on each side.
Digitize a new
profile.

To display the changes, select
Perform Update from the MB3 menu.

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6.

For options that do not update automatically, you can see the
results of editing by selecting Perform Update from the MB3
menu.

7.

When you finish editing, click OK.

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Editing Points
You can add, delete, move, or change raw data points. Since these
changes are applied to the grid but not to the input file, you can alter the
surface quickly without a lot of work. Each time you change a point in
the update area, the application automatically regrids the surface, so
you can view your changes immediately. If the effect is undesired, you
can back out of the last change or cancel all changes and restore your
display to the original surface.
To edit points display a surface that contains points, then follow these
steps:
1.

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Select Editors → Point Set Operations in the StrataMap window.
The Point Operations dialog box appears.

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2.

Choose an Update Area: Entire Map or Ellipse. You choose the
update area in Map View, even if you are editing in Profile Display.

Entire Map — Changes may affect the whole map. Pick a
focus point for updates, then go to the next step. This is only
available if the pointset contains less than 400 points.

Ellipse — Pick a point at the center of the area you want to
update. Pick a radius in one direction, then in the other
direction. When you move in the second direction, an ellipse
appears:

Use of Control Points shows you that StrataMap always uses your
original control points plus any that you have added during
your editing.
3.

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Click a point in the update area you want to edit. The update
region moves to place the selected point at its center.

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4.

Edit points by selecting an action from the tool buttons or the MB3
menu. The z value of the contour you are editing appears in the
Current Z Value field. The value of the nearest point appears in
Nearest Point Z.

Use the following special MB3 menu options to help you edit:

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Option

Purpose

Instructions

Recalculate Area

Regrids the upgrade
area

Select the option from the menu.

Add New Point

Adds a point to the
surface

Click a place in the update area,
then select Add New Point from
the pop-up menu. Enter a z value
in the dialog box that appears.

Delete Point

Deletes the contour
edits you just made

Click a point, then select Delete
Point from the pop-up menu.

Move Point

Enables you to
move the update
area

Click a point, then select Move
Point from the pop-up menu.
Click a location for the point.

Change Zvalue

Changes z value of
point

Enter a z value in the Current Z
value box. Press Return with the
cursor in the box.

Delete all

Deletes the point

Click a point, then select Delete
all from the pop-up menu.

Setup New Area

Selects a new area
for operations.

Select Sample new area from
the pop-up menu and select new
points for the search radius.

Undo Changes

Restores the display
to its state before
changes.

Select Undo changes from the
pop-up menu.

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Pick a point to update.
Select Change Zvalue.

Enter a new
number in the
Current z Value
field and
recalculate the
area.

5.

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When you finish editing, click OK to close the Point Operations
dialog box and apply the edits, or click Cancel to close the Point
Operations dialog box and restore the surface to its previous
condition.

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Inserting Faults, Polygons, and Boundaries
The section “Gridding and Adding Data,” starting on page 119,
describes how to create faults and polygons and add them to the
definition of a surface by linking them. You can also add faults,
polygons, and boundaries during editing. The difference is that faults,
polygons, and boundaries you add during editing are not saved in
separate files from the surface, but are incorporated into the surface. If
you then save the surface as a Stratamodel grid (.smg) file, the lines are
not saved with the grid. If, on the other hand, you save the surface as a
StrataMap file (.srf) file, the digitized lines are saved.
Inserting faults, polygons, and boundaries is useful if they are unique to
the surface. Using this method is also useful for experimenting with
different faults and boundaries, and it is the only way to introduce
interior polygons and boundaries.

Inserting Faults
To insert faults you must first have a pointset available. Because the
fault is associated with a pointset, inserted faults recalculate the shape
of the surface.
1.

Make sure the input points are available.

2.

Select Editors → Insert Polygonal/Vertical Faults in the
StrataMap window.
The Fault Editor dialog box appears.

3.

For Type of Input, select Fault Polygons or Vertical Faults.

4.

Choose Ellipse or Polygon for the Update Area.

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If you are using an Ellipse for an update area, pick a point at
center of the area you want to update.

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Pick a radius in one direction, then in the other direction. As
you move in the second direction, an ellipse appears.

If you are using a polygon for an update area, create a
polygon around the selected area. When you are through,
choose Close to close the polygon.

5.

Digitize points for the fault polygon or vertical fault. Shape fault
polygons like a lens, with two distinct endpoints. If one fault
intersects another, the truncated fault polygon should have a blunt
end inside the polygon that truncates it.

6.

If you are digitizing a fault polygon, select Close from the MB3
menu. If you are digitizing a vertical fault, select End Seq.

.

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7.

Click OK to save the edits or Cancel to restore the surface to its
original state.

Inserting Erasing Polygons
An erasing polygon adds clipping polygons to a surface by setting the
area inside or outside the polygon to null. However, erasing polygons
do not affect any area of the grid outside the polygon. You can fill the
area that is nulled when you recalculate or fill the grid. Then you can
use the inserted polygons to clip the surface. Since erasing polygons
deal with grid nodes, the edges of the polygon will not be smooth.
To insert an erasing polygon, follow these steps:

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1.

Select Editors → Erase Polygonal Areas in the StrataMap
window. The Polygon Erasures dialog box appears.

2.

For Type of Input, choose Erase Interior to erase inside the
polygon or Erase Exterior to erase outside the polygon.

3.

Digitize the points of the polygon.

4.

Close the polygon by selecting Close from the MB3 menu. The
grid nodes inside or outside the polygon are erased.

5.

Click OK to save the edits or click Cancel to close the dialog box
with saving the edits.

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Inserting Boundaries
Use the Insert Boundaries option to add blanking polygons to the
surface or to fill a bounded polygon with nulls or a z value. Boundaries
insert a crisper line than polygons, but like polygons, inserted
boundaries do not affect the surface outside the boundary like a fault.
The area nulled by the insertion cannot be filled when the grid is
recalculated or filled. This is a useful feature if you are creating faults
that are not filled with z values.
To use the Insert Boundaries option, display a surface, then follow
these steps:

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1.

Select Editors → Insert Boundaries in the StrataMap window.
The Insert Boundaries dialog box appears.

2.

For Type of Input select one of the following:

Exterior bound — blanks the surface outside the boundary

Interior bound — blanks the surface inside the boundary

Filled Polygon — works like Interior bound except the last
side of the polygon is omitted, and a specified z value from
the menu is used to fill the interior. You must enter the z value
to use before you digitize the polygon.

Vertical Breaks — breaks the surface like a vertical fault

3.

Digitize the boundary.

4.

Click Close in the MB3 menu to end polygons or End Seq to end
a vertical break.

5.

When you finish inserting boundaries, click OK to keep them or
click Cancel to exit without saving changes.

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Appendix A.
File Descriptions and Formats
Overview
This appendix describes the formats and use of some of the files for
reading and writing data in StrataMap. The appendix covers the
following topics:

input and output files for point datasets

fault datasets

polygon datasets

culture datasets

grid datasets

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Point Datasets
You can arrange the values for x, y, z data in point data files in any
order, but the format and content of the files must be described in a
separate file, called a data schema block (DSB). Lines in a DSB file
have a maximum length of 40 characters.
The .dsb file describes the format of the data file, contains information
about each field in the file, and permits quick data access. Once you
have described the file, thereby creating a .dsb file, subsequent
references to the input file are to the .dsb file, not the .xyz file. Both files
must exist in the same project directory.
The .dsb file is automatically created if you select New Surface for an
input data file.
This topic describes input data formats and the pointset formats you
can specify in the Create Point Dataset dialog box in StrataMap
(described on page 138).

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Input Data Formats
This topic covers the following forms of input data. This information
also appears in “Specifying Formats” on page 33.

Generic

XYZS

Contours

Lines

Seismic
Generic
You can use the Generic format to read almost any data type. It is
particularly useful if the X and Y values are not in columns 1 and 2,
because StrataMap allows you to specify which field these values
occupy in the current file. The Field Name type can also read in data
that is not in fixed format. It can read free-format data if data fields are
delimited by commas. Data can contain numerical as well as character
data in any order.
The fields in this file are: Fieldxx (float), Labelxx (char)
An example of a Generic file follows:

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W01

32000 87015 -7888 -8138 -8139 -8153 -8158 1.E30 -8210

W02

38600 87030 -8020 -8058 -8073 -8078 -8086 1.E30 -8137

W03

44000 86400 -7943 1.E30 -7957 -7958 -7970 1.E30 -8025

W04

48200 87060 -8003 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W05

30650 82200 -7918 -8003 -8013 -8038 -8048 -8103 1.E30

W06

35030 80901 -7905 1.E30 -7943 -7964 -7976 1.E30 -8027

W07

39476 80970 -7900 1.E30 -7928 -7935 -7949 1.E30 -8004

W08

44198 80910 -7998 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W09

33530 76230 -7879 1.E30 -7901 -7929 -7944 -8004 1.E30

W10

38024 76170 -7817 -7878 -7933 -7959 -7976 1.E30 -8032

W11

42440 76650 -8018 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W12

46955 76620 -7890 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30 1.E30

W13

30350 71700 -7903 -7907 -7961 -7963 -7980 1.E30 -8033

W14

35195 71745 -7815 -7946 -7998 -8025 -8045 -8120 1.E30

W15

39650 71760 -7966 -7996 -8043 -8070 -8092 1.E30 -8153

W16

44180 71766 -7913 1.E30 -7925 -7928 -7951 1.E30 -8028

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XYZS
XYZS format can read almost any data type with x and y in columns 1
and 2. The remaining columns in the file, which can be in any order, are
considered Z fields or labels. You can generate a file of this format from
many sources, including the Create Point Dataset dialog box in
StrataMap.
The limit to the line length of this file type is 40 characters, and it must
have an .xyz extension.
The fields in this file are:
X (float), Y (float), Zxx (float), Labelxx (char)
Here is an example of an XYZS file:
29000 70000 -40
29000 80000 0
29000 90000 -50
40000 60000 -10
40000 70000 -60
40000 80000 -100
40000 90000 -180
36500 60000 55
30650 82200 55
33530 76230 60
35195 71745 75

Lines
Lines format contains x, y, z values and a line identifier. When this file
is read, StrataMap draws the values as connected line segments that can
be closed by repeating the first point as the last point in the line. The
file can contain additional z values and labels. Fields must have the
following order: X (float), Y (float), Z1 (float), Labelxx (char)
An example file in Lines format follows:
35007.94 81950.83 -7910 line 1
34896.08 79386.92 -7895 line 2
35045.23 73015.99 -7845 line 3
40377.43 68975.89 -8110 line 4
43062.18 75036.04 -8105 line 5
40638.45 82727.77 -7950 line 6
35007.94 81950.83 -7910 line 7

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Contours
Contours format is similar to Lines format in that it contains x, y, and z
values and a line identifier. In this case the file contains a contour
identifier, a line sequence number, the vertex location (x and y), and the
contour Z value. Fields must follow this order:
Contour (char), Seq# (int), X (float), Y (float), Z1 (float).
An example file might look like the following:
contour1 8 35007.94 81950.83 -7910
contour1 8 34896.08 79386.92 -7895
contour1 8 35045.23 73015.99 -7845
contour1 8 40377.43 68975.89 -8110
contour1 8 43062.18 75036.04 -8105
contour1 8 40638.45 82727.77 -7950

Seismic
Seismic format is for seismic shotpoints. The format assumes that each
record contains a line number, shotpoint number, X, Y, then a series of
horizon values (z1, z2). StrataMap displays this data as connected line
segments. Fields must have the following order:
ID (float), Seq# (float), X (float), Y (float), Zxx (float).
A sample file might look like the following:

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1

1

28568.4

76653.8

-7854.28

1

2

29344.8

76582.3

-7849.7

1

3

30121.2

76510.7

-7850.34

1

4

30897.6

76439.2

-7858.87

1

5

31674

76367.7

-7869.12

1

6

32450.4

76296.1

-7873.47

1

7

33226.8

76224.6

-7871.37

1

8

34003.2

76153.1

-7865.69

1

9

34779.6

76081.5

-7861.56

1

10

35556

76010

-7862.79

1

11

36353.9

76099.1

-7869.66

1

12

37151.8

76188.3

-7884.27

1

13

37949.6

76277.4

-7900.59

1

14

38747.5

76366.6

-7920.2

1

15

39545.4

76455.7

-7939.65

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1

16

40343.3

76544.8

-7958.58

1

17

41141.1

76634

-7976.08

1

18

41939

76723.1

-7989.75

1

19

42736.9

76812.3

-8000.9

1

20

43534.8

76901.4

-8004.77

1

21

44348.9

76830.7

-8004.16

1

22

45163.1

76759.9

-7995.45

1

23

45977.2

76689.2

-7984.82

1

24

46791.4

76618.4

-7972.85

1

25

47605.6

76547.7

-7960.99

1

26

48419.7

76476.9

-7950.88

1

27

49233.9

76406.2

-7941.26

2

1

29113.5

81754.7

-7917.49

2

2

28518.8

82250

-7919.28

2

3

29291.9

82096.5

-7920.61

2

4

30065

81942.9

-7919.2

2

5

30838.1

81789.4

-7916.33

2

6

31611.2

81635.9

-7912.88

2

7

32384.3

81482.4

-7909.6

Formats from Other Products
StrataMap accepts the following formats from other products:

Landmark’s DTS interpretation output format from SeisWorks

Geoquest’s IES Version 6 map interface format

Sierra Geophysics’ file format number 50

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Formats Created in the Create Point Dataset Dialog Box
The files you can generate by using the Create Point Dataset dialog box
have specific formats and .dsb file descriptions. Each format is
described in the following topic.
Limiting z Values
If you want to limit acceptable z values to a certain minimum, maximum, or range,
you can preset these values into the .dsb file before bringing the surface into
StrataMap. Modify the zmin and zmax values on the “Define Z” lines.

Same as Current Point File
The output file for Same as Current Point File contains current pointset
locations (the locations of the created pointset plus any additional
points). Sample .xyz and .dsb files follow.
X

Y

Z

Back-interpolated Z Residua

25000.0000

71250.0000

18.3378

25000.0000

72500.0000

5.365

26250.0000

58750.0000

25.9177

25.375

-0.5427

26250.0000

61250.0000

40.3273

39.67303

-0.65427

26250.0000

63750.0000

47.0096

47.05434

0.04474

26250.0000

66250.0000

57.7706

57.66439

-0.10621

26250.0000

68750.0000

66.1416

65.31746

-0.82414

Sample .xyz File
temp39.xyz

801

5 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1

2

DEFINE

X

25000

47500

500

60

2

11

DEFINE

Y

57500

90000

1000

60

13

13

DEFINE

Z

0.6889179.0188

5

84

26

11

DEFINE

Znew

3.57772164.4351

2

95

37

11

DEFINE

Zdiff

-0.89184 0.93312

0.05

65

48

11

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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Averaged from Current Points
Averaged from Current Points produces an .xyz file that contains
selected points. The file is derived from an original pointset by
coalescing points that are close together and share the same z values.
X
25000.0000

Y
Z
63750.0000 -7905.5645

25000.0000

61250.0000 -7924.2544

26250.0000

63750.0000

25000.0000

60000.0000 -7936.0234

26250.0000

62500.0000 -7938.3647

26250.0000

61250.0000 -7947.6455

25000.0000

58750.0000 -7949.5234

-7929.917

Sample .xyz File
temp41.xyz

801

3 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1 2

DEFINE X

25000

50000

500

DEFINE Y

57500

90000

1000

60 13 13

10

50 26 11

DEFINE Z

-8167.14-7578.26

60

2 11

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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Based on Surface Shape
Based on Surface Shape produces an .xyz file that contains selected grid
nodes. The nodes written to the file depend on the approximate number
of points entered and the surface shape. Where the surface shape is
more complex, a denser sampling of points appears, depending upon a
target number of approximate points and an internal algorithm that
determines the locations and number of points necessary to reproduce
the current surface.
X

Y

Z

22375.0000

60375.0000

-7899.5459

22375.0000

64125.0000

-7872.0029

22375.0000

66625.0000

-7864.7949

22375.0000

67875.0000

-7865.1265

22375.0000

71625.0000

-7883.1104

22375.0000

75375.0000

-7922.5811

Sample .xyz File
temp42.xyz

801

3 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1 2

DEFINE

X

22375

51125

500

60

2

11

DEFINE

Y

54125

90375

1000

60

13

13

DEFINE

Z

-8167.55-7551.16

10

50

26

13

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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At Every Defined Grid Node
The output file for At Every Defined Grid Node contains the locations
of the points and the grid nodes.
X
20875.0000

Y
52250.0000

Z
-7960.4839

Column Row
1
1

22125.0000

52250.0000

-7971.9087

2

1

23375.0000

52250.0000

-7984.6572

3

1

24625.0000

52250.0000

-7998.5195

4

1

25875.0000

52250.0000

-8013.2026

5

1

27125.0000

52250.0000

-8028.3311

6

1

28375.0000

52250.0000

-8043.4292

7

1

29625.0000

52250.0000

-8057.8423

8

1

Sample .xyz File
temp43.xyz

801

5 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1 2

DEFINE X

20875

53375

1000

60

DEFINE Y

52250

93500

1000

60 13 13

-8166.12-7502.75

10

50 26 13

DEFINE Z

2 11

DEFINE

i

1

27

10

3

39

6

DEFINE

j

1

34

10

3

45

5

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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Along Contours Displayed
The output file for Along Contours displayed contains points along the
contours. Each record contains a contour ID, a sequence number, and
the x, y, z values.
Contour ID

Seq. #

X

Y

Z

-8160-2

1

35500

58859.2

-8160

-8160-2

2

35413.6

58937.5

-8160

-8160-2

3

34732.3

60187.5

-8160

-8160-2

4

35123.3

61437.5

-8160

-8160-2

5

35500

61975.5

-8160

-8160-2

6

36498.1

61437.5

-8160

-8160-2

7

36750

60884.4

-8160

Sample .xyz File
temp44.xyz

80

5 0 1 0 1Contours from grid
DEFINE

3 4

CONTOUR LABEL

DEFINE SEQNO
DEFINE X
DEFINE Y
DEFINE Z

-8

1

8

1

4 10

4

54250

1250

60 15

7

50187.5 95187.5

1250

60 23

7

20

51 31

6

COUNT

1
19250

-8160

53

-7500

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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At User Picked Points
The output file for this method is a simple x, y, z location, where z is the
back-interpolated value.
X

Y

Back-interpolated Z

29544.49

85708.97

-8149.39

37883.48

83228.05

-7937.73

44391.95

71205.16

-7807.49

41900.42

65002.86

-8004.86

28019.07

71014.31

-7932.82

Sample .xyz File
temp47.xyz

801

3 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1 2

DEFINE X

22985.1744391.95

500

60

4 12

DEFINE Y

54602.185708.97

1000

60 20 12

DEFINE Z

-8162.37-7807.49

10

50 36 12

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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Along User Picked Lines
This output file contains identifying information for the line as well as
the x, y, z information.
Line ID Seq. #

X

Y

Z

1

1

20789.2

88088.27

-8225.3

1

2

22081.32

85973.31

-8192.13

1

3

23373.44

83858.36

-8153.74

1

4

24665.56

81743.41

-8108.84

1

5

25957.69

79628.45

-8059.28

1

6

27249.81

77513.5

-8013.42

1

7

28541.93

75398.55

-7973.32

Sample .xyz File
temp48.xyz

801

5 0 1 2 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

3 4

DEFINE

Ident

1

4

10

2

2

4

DEFINE

Seq

1

18

10

3

6

5

DEFINE X

19797.67 49848.5

1000

60 15 12

DEFINE Y

52134.0693011.93

1000

60 31 12

DEFINE Z

-8243.87-7787.35

10

50 47 12

ENDDEF

Sample ..dsb File

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Polygons Between Points
This output file contains identifying information for the points that
comprise each polygon, as well as the x, y, and z information.
Polygon
Pt.

X

Y

-54-1

2

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-1

3

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-1

4

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-2

1

29040

0

-53.6

-54-2

2

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-2

3

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-2

4

29480

0

-53.5

-54-2

5

29040

0

-53.6

-54-3

1

29480

0

-53.5

-54-3

2

29040

1320

-53.5

-54-3

3

30360

0

-53.3

-54-3

4

29480

0

-53.5

-53-4

1

30360

0

-53.3

-53-4

2

30360

1320

-53.2

Label

Z

Sample .xyz File
3 0 0 0 1Generated with GTEDIT V2

1 2

DEFINE

X

1101.91 60880.7

1000

60

4

12

DEFINE

Y

6880.7258056.11

1000

60

20

12

DEFINE

Z

-58.1052-49.7878

0.2

85

35

13

ENDDEF

Sample .dsb File

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Fault Datasets
For fault data to be properly accessed by StrataMap, the fault file must
have the same name as its associated.xyz file, with an .fal extension. At
this time, StrataMap supports the following sources for fault files:

Landmark .dts files

Geoquest type 9 records

Generic format of x, y pairs separated by a blank
The following format is used for both input and output of faults.
39783.9 72528.95 DOWN
46542.37 81256.68 UP
47521.19 78584.92
39783.9 72528.95

Sample .fal File

Polygon Datasets
Any polygon data that is to be read by StrataMap must be in its own
file, one polygon per file, and must have a .pol extension. A polygon
file consists simply of x, y pairs. You can create polygons by using an
editor or by using Create Polygons in StrataMap.
33071.52 72844.02
36700.23 76016.43
38966.25 84958.95
43605.49 86085.39
39563.38 84269.3
36715.54 74729.07
33071.52 72844.02

Sample .pol File

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Culture Datasets
Culture data is input with the format used in GTM, with a .clt
extension. Contours can be exported as culture data in this format and
used as overlays for the current surface. Culture data format indicates
separate lines and contains the x, y, z values for the lines.
LINE 39705.63 90419.5 -8060
40145.98 89352.91 -8060
41255.66 89384.73 -8060
41797.83 90419.5 -8060

;

LINE 38624.42 90419.5 -8040
38827.34 89419.5 -8040
39311.92 88494.9 -8040
40221.5 88095.78 -8040
41249.66 88394.41 -8040
42238.47 89399.16 -8040
42955.57 90419.5 -8040

;

LINE 37839.11 90419.5 -8020
38008.01 89419.5 -8020
38253.6 88503.41 -8020
39174.27 87387.86 -8020
40221.5 87203.39 -8020
40797.16 87419.5 -8020
41221.5 87566.9 -8020
42199.97 88441.38 -8020
43019.2 89419.5 -8020
43221.5 89683.19 -8020
44093.95 90419.5 -8020

;

Sample .clt File

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Grid Datasets
Grids that are used and created by StrataMap can be in .smg format or
.srf format. The .smg format grids can be used in other Stratamodel
products; .srf grids are for internal StrataMap use.
Grids saved in .smg format maintain the effect of any faults and
boundaries that have been applied but do not carry the data with them.
Grids saved in .srf format, on the other hand, retain the grids and any
other data associated with them.
Both Stratamodel (.smg) and StrataMap (.srf) grids are in binary
format.

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Appendix B.
StrataMap Approach to Gridding
Overview
Gridding is the application of an algorithm that interpolates a set of
z values located at random x, y positions onto a specified set of x, y
locations that correspond to rows and columns of a matrix (a grid).
Values in this grid can be interpolated in various manners, but most
methods attempt to assign values that represent samples on some
unknown function Z of x, y that approaches the known observed z value
of the random points used to compute them. The methods used in
StrataMap differ primarily in the way that these grid node values are
assigned in the immediate neighborhood of the random input points.
There are three steps involved in generating values at grid nodes:


Primary Estimates
Secondary Estimates
Smoothing

The main differences between gridding methods are in the Primary
Estimates, where different data distributions require different
algorithms and rules.
This appendix covers the three gridding stages used by StrataMap,
including the gridding methods used in making estimates.

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Gridding Stages
This topic covers the three steps involved in generating grid nodes:

Primary estimates

Secondary estimates

Smoothing

Primary Estimates
In the first step for determining z values, the program uses the selected
gridding method to estimate an appropriate z value at grid nodes that is
very close to any one of the random points used for input. Because all
other grid nodes result from these initial values, this is a critical step.
How well these primary estimates reflect the information contained in
the random points determines the quality of the entire gridding process.
StrataMap gives you a choice of the following gridding methods during
the primary estimates stage:



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Global solution
Radial search - random
Radial search - clustered
Weighted resampling

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Global Solution
Global Solution is the fastest algorithm for pointsets of 500 or less and
provides an excellent, quick solution for pointsets of less than 1000.
Global Solution uses a close relative of the bi-harmonic equation
solution to compute a set of equations that directly calculate a function
that passes through each input point. For pointsets of less than 1000
points without any associated boundaries or faults, one set of equations
is determined for the whole map. For larger datasets or datasets with
boundaries or faults, Global Solution is slower than the other methods,
because it may perform a solution at each grid node.
The Global Solution uses a radial search method similar to that used in
Radial Search - Random (explained next) except that it uses all
neighbors to find a solution and more nodes are assigned a value. This
gives a better estimate at the primary nodes and at some secondary
nodes that are nearby. Little or no averaging occurs before grid
assignment because of the high-order surface in use.
Using Global Solution, because it computes a value at all grid nodes,
makes secondary estimates unnecessary; hence its speed for smaller
datasets.
Radial Search - Random
The Radial Search - Random method works well on most datasets
except those that are tightly clustered with some noise or error present.
In these cases, you can obtain better results using the clustered method.
Use Radial Search - Random on large datasets or sets that have
boundaries or faults for quicker processing than the Global Solution.
For this method only a minimum of spatial averaging is employed on
the points: only points closer than 0.1 times the grid spacing are
averaged together. The resulting points are organized into search bins.
Each point is taken as a search origin and a collection of neighbors is
formed by taking the two nearest points in each octant. A least-squares
fit of a plane that passes through the origin point is determined and used
to assign any adjacent grid nodes that are within about one grid interval
from the origin. This process repeats until all input points have been
used as an origin. Depending upon the point distribution, averaging
may occur during this process since the same grid nodes can be
assigned values multiple times.

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Radial Search - Clustered
This method is similar to Radial Search - Random, but it is
specifically designed to minimize the effects of data that are noisy or
positioned very close together. This method employs some averaging of
the point data to avoid excessive gradient extrapolation. If other
methods produce many anomalies adjacent to cluster of points, you
should use this method.
More averaging is applied using Clustered than Random. All points
that are within 0.5 times a grid interval are averaged before gridding.
The other difference between Clustered and Random occurs after
neighbors are collected. Instead of attempting to force a plane through
the center point, all points within a grid interval are ignored except the
center point, and a least-squares fit to a plane is performed. So, the
node values assigned are a projection of the background gradient rather
than any local gradient implied by close neighbors. More averaging is
usually applied at the grid nodes with resulting desirable effect.
Weighted Resampling
Weighted Resampling was introduced shortly after 3D seismic data
became a part of computer mapping. In 3D data, the number of input
points usually far exceeds the resolution of any grid you may wish to
compute for modeling or contouring. In StrataMap, initial estimates are
performed very quickly using this method, and if input coverage is
complete, secondary estimates are not needed.
This method weights the data for each grid node near an input point by
combining the input points with weights that are inversely proportional
to the distance from the node. Only points that are within one grid node
are used to compute a given node. So, each input point contributes to
the values of about five nodes, making this method very effective with
sparse datasets. With sparse data, all points become the location of flat
spots, usually a local minima or maxima.

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Global Solution

Radial Search - Random

Radial Search - Clustered

Weighted
Resampling

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StrataMap User Guide

Secondary Estimates
In most gridding procedures, the second stage is to calculate Z
estimates at any grid nodes not assigned a value during the Primary
Estimates stage. The Global Solution, applied to less than 1000 points,
computes a value at all grid nodes. Therefore, this method does not
need to perform Secondary Estimates. Neither does Weighted
Resampling if it provides a value at all nodes.
Secondary Estimates are formed only at those nodes that qualify based
on their distance from a primary estimate and the distribution of any
surrounding nodes that have been assigned values. Surrounding points
are located within the specified radius from the point to be calculated.
Distance to nearest neighbor can also be specified to get the desired
results.
Distance has the major effect on the coverage generated. Using a small
distance, equal to the grid interval, avoids the calculation of Secondary
Estimates.
The number of empty octants allowed also has a major effect on the
resulting coverage. Allowing empty octants of 4 or 5 permits
extrapolation beyond the limits of the coverage area.
Each qualified node is calculated by fitting the surrounding valued
nodes to a plane then weighting all points by their relative distance
from the node to be calculated. This process is stabilized by computing
nodes adjacent to a node that already has a value. Multiple passes over
the entire grid range expand the number of grid values about the
primary estimates robustly.

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Appendix B. StrataMap Approach to Gridding: Gridding Stages

229

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StrataMap User Guide

Smoothing
Smoothing can be applied as a separate step or as part of the initial grid
calculation. If smoothing is applied during grid calculation, only the
Secondary Estimates are affected.
Smoothing during gridding is employed as a number of passes applying
a very short filter designed to adjust any points that do not conform to
the minimum-curvature model. This recursive, numerical solution to
the bi-harmonic equation converges slowly but usually gives good
results in about ten passes.
StrataMap provides three more methods for smoothing as a separate
step. See “Smoothing Surfaces” on page 192.

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Appendix B. StrataMap Approach to Gridding: Gridding Stages

230

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StrataMap User Guide

Index
StrataMap User Guide
A
AbsError (Absolute Error) option
labeling error for map points 162
activating
windows 24
active event
highlighting indicator 94
active surfaces
switching in Color -> Z dialog 180
adding
blanking polygons 206
border elements with MB3 option 20
constant to surface 184
culture data to map 137
data to map 203-206
faults to map 203-205
points to surface 201
Adjust column
Framework Events Status dialog 98
Adjust to Surface to Linked Point Set option
153
Along Contours Displayed option
file formats/sample files 217
output point location 142
Along User Picked Lines option
output file formats 219
output point location 143
annotating
contours: selecting options 160
points in map 162
AOI
AOI Ranging options (Options) 131
Subset AOI from map option 130
area
Recalculate Area option (MB3) 201
area of interest
see: AOI

R2003.12

ASCII files
exporting contours/colorfill as 137
At Every Defined Grid Node option
output file formats 216
output point location 141
At User Picked Points option
output file formats 218
output point location 142
attaching
Attach Links to Surface options 148-149
Automatic mode for Help, described 5
Averaged from Current Points option
output file formats 214
output point location 140
B
background fill
setting (Map View) 156
Based on Surface Shape
format/sample files 215
output point location 141
basemaps
editing 181-206
blanking polygons
adding (Insert Boundaries) 206
borders
adding/deleting elements (MB3) 20
boundaries
boundary faults briefly described 49
faults not used as boundaries 102
Insert Boundaries option 206
merging faults into one boundary 91
using to subset recalculated grid 125
Browse Point Set option (Displays) 174-175

Index

231

Landmark

buttons
Pan 17
Pt Zoom 15
Restore 15
Show Definitions 41
Un zoom 17
X,Y same 15
C
CGMs
exporting map contours/colorfill as 137
Change Ref option (MB3 menu)
changing z reference on colorbar 180
Change Zvalue option (MB3 menu) 201
changing
Change Content button (Map View) 156
CHANGE EXTENSION SHAPE (faults)
91
circular faults
splitting 91
clipping
boundaries set up for surfaces 111-114
surface with erasing polygon 205
closing
Close option (MB3 menu) 195
StrataMap 12
Color -> Z dialog box
described 21
color scale
changing (Set Z-Range, Increment) 157
shown in Color Bar 21
color tables
creating custom color table 178-179
colorbar
changing display range/ref. z value 180
Color -> Z dialog box described 21
COLORCHG environment variable
using to resolve color problems 12

R2003.12

StrataMap User Guide

colors 178-180
applying to contours 160
changing colorbar display range 180
setting for points in map 162
setting points/background color (Map View)
156
using COLORCHG variable for problems
12
connecting
Connect to ShowDisplays option 28
constant
adding to/multiplying by surface 184
Contour Presentation option (Displays: Map
Options) 160
contours
adding to map from another surface 137
dip indicators (Fault Framework Sketch) 85
displaying (Map View) 156
editing points 194-198
exporting as culture data 137
setting color/style/annotation 160
setting interval/frequency 157
Contours file format 211
Contours Record Layout format, described 36
control files
.scf files used to store frameworks 48
conventions for documentation 7
Create Point Dataset dialog
output file formats 213-220
creating
Create Custom Shaped Surface option 146
culture data 137
custom color table 178-179
custom fault block 111-114
grids from same source 41
pointsets 144-145
pointsets: choosing a source 138-143
polygonal/vertical faults 135
polygons 134
surface from pointset 38-40
surfaces: introduction 29-41

Index

232

Landmark

cubic interpolation
setting the program to use 154
culture data
creating 137
described 133
displaying 163
exporting 137
formats 222
overlaying on map 163
removing from display 163
Current Status information box 165
cursor position
reporting 170
customizing
color table 178-179
Create Custom Shaped Surface option 146
D
data
culture data, input/output formats 222
fault data input/output format 221
grid formats 223
polygon format 221
removing noisy data 115
data files
formats 207-223
decimal places
setting for contour labels 160
setting for point labels 162
deleting
border elements with MB3 option 20
custom fault block 114
lines (while creating pointset) 145
points 201
polygons: effect of 132
depth
Change Zvalue option (MB3 menu) 201

R2003.12

StrataMap User Guide

dialog boxes
DISPLAY Contents 156
Establish Profile dialog box 166
Fault Editor 203-205
Fault Framework Sketch 81-93
Framework Events Status 94-109
Point Operations 199-202
Setup Custom Fault Block 111-114
Surface Edge Replace 115
dip
indicators (Fault Framework Sketch) 85
Display button
Framework Events Status dialog 97
Display Only Surfaces option (File) 171-173
displaying
composite horizons 116
Framework Events Status dialog 94
prompts automatically or in status area 5
displays
setting up 155-180
Displays menu
Browse Point Set option 174-175
Coloring of Z-Range option 178-179
Histograms option 176-177
Profile View/Cross-section option 166-170
Set Z-Range, Increment option 157
Displays: 3D ShowDisplays link menu
Connect to ShowDisplays 28
Displays: Map Options menu
Contour Presentation option 160
Export Map Display option 137
Fault Presentation option 161
Magnifier option 164
Point Presentation option 162
Points Presentation option 162
Position Reporter option 170
Select Culture Overlay option 163
Select Map Content option 156
distance
effect on estimates in gridding 229
reporting (Map View) 170

Index

233

Landmark

dividing
SPLIT A FAULT option 91
document conventions 7
documentation, organization of 3
DSB file
purpose/format 33
dsb files
pointset output 213-220
purpose of pointset .dsb file 208
sample: Along Contours Displayed 217
sample: Along User Picked Lines 219
sample: At Every Defined Grid Node 216
sample: At User Picked Points option 218
sample: Averaged from Current Points 214
sample: Based on Surface Shape 215
sample: Polygons Between Points 220
sample: Same as Current Point File 213
Dual Surface Operations option
Operations: Surface Operations 186-189
E
Edge column
Framework Events Status (described) 95-96
edges
erasing event edges 107-108
editing
basemap 181-206
contours/nodes/profiles/surfaces 194-198
events in framework 109
points 199-202
points: MB3 menu options 201
Editors menu
Erase Polygonal Areas option 205
Insert Boundaries option 206
Insert Polygonal/Vertical Faults 203-205
Point Set Operations option 199-202
Surface Shaping option 194-198
ending
End Line option (MB3 menu) 145
environment variables
COLORCHG 12

R2003.12

StrataMap User Guide

erasing
Erase & Extend Edges option 115
event edges (Framework Events Status)
107-108
inside polygonal area 205
error
displaying error value for points in map 162
events
defining in a framework 49
displaying composite horizons 116
editing in framework 109
fault block & event relationships 48
Framework Events Status dialog 94-109
items listed in event lists 112
linking grids to pointsets 97
names of (Framework Events Status) 99
replacing (Framework Events Status) 98
status of (Framework Events Status) 99
exaggeration
vertical exaggeration (Profile Display) 169
exiting
from StrataMap 12
exporting
Export Map Display option 137
extensions
changing fault extension shape 91
F
fault blocks
creating custom fault block 111-114
deleting custom fault block 114
fault boundaries
cleaning up ragged edges 107-108
Fault Framework Sketch dialog 81-93
correcting special problems 91
displaying 82
overview of elements 83-85

Index

234

Landmark

fault polygons
linking to grids 151
unlinking from grids 151
faults
changing extension shape 91
creating 135
described 133
display settings: gridding 161
dividing into two pieces 91
fault block & event relationships 48
input and output data formats 221
inserting fault lines/polygons 203-205
items listed in event lists 112
linking fault lines to grids 150
merging 91
not used as boundaries 102
reason for filling 133
removing noise 115
unlinking fault lines from grids 150
File Contents information box
Point Browser option 174-175
file formats
for fault data 221
from Create Point Dataset dialog 213-220
File menu
Create New Surface from Point Set 38-40
Create New Surface, Same Source option 41
Exit from Program option 12
Return to Initial State option 12
Save Current Surface As option 43
Save Framework As option 106
Select Existing Surface option 45
Setup Display Only Surfaces 171-173
File: Attach Links to Surface menu
Exterior Polygon Boundary option 151
Polygonal Fault Boundaries option 150
Source Point Set option 148-149
File: Create menu
Point Set option 144-145
Polygon Boundary option 134
Polygon/Vertical Faults option 135

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StrataMap User Guide

files
descriptions 207-223
File Contents dialog box 41
formats 207-223
filling
fault polygons in grid 161
faults (reason for filling) 133
Fill undefined regions option 190-191
Fit Least Squares Polynomial option
Operations: Surface Operations 182-183
FOCUS ON A FAULT option
Fault Framework Sketch dialog 91
formats
Based on Surface Shape 215
Contours 211
for culture data 222
for data files 207-223
for grids 223
for points being input 209-212
for polygon data 221
Generic 209
Lines 210
Polygons Between Points 220
Same as Current Point File 213
Seismic 211
XYZS 210
fragmentary faults
merging 91
reducing 91
Framework Events Status dialog box
Adjust column described 98
Display buttons described 97
Edge column described 95-96
Event Name column described 99
Pointset to Link button 97
Replace column described 98
Status column described 99
using to erase edges 107-108
FrameworkName.tops file
creating 102

Index

235

Landmark

frameworks 47-173
boundary faults defined 49
defined 48
edges: erasing 107-108
editing events 109
editing manually 51
event edges: options 95-96
Form Horizon button 116
Framework Events Status dialog 94-109
introduction 47
linking grids to pointsets 97
saving 106
switching active surfaces via colorbar 180
using Profile Display with 170
freezing
event edges (Framework Events Status)
95-96
frequency
changing frequency of contours 157
G
Generic file format 209
generic Record Layout format, described 34
Global Solution
algorithm 226
in secondary estimates 229
Global Solution gridding method 122
gradient ticks
setting for contours 160
grid definition
locking AOI 131
grid increment
equalizing (X,Y same button) 15
grid nodes
primary estimates for values 225-228
secondary estimates for values 229
smoothing in generating values 230
grid operations 182-189
Dual Surface Operations option 186-189
Fit Least Squares Polynomial 182-183
Single Surface Operations 184-185

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StrataMap User Guide

gridding 119-129
basic steps 31-32
data points search limits described 123
defined 29
display settings for fault lines/polygons 161
display settings for pointsets 162
gridding methods 122
how pointsets, surfaces & grids relate 30-32
locking/unlocking z values 158-159
node values: overview of generating 224
node values: primary estimates 225-228
node values: secondary estimates 229
node values: smoothing 230
stopping ongoing operation 128
StrataMap’s approach 224-230
gridding methods 224-230
Global Solution, described 226
Radial Search-Clustered, described 227
Radial Search-Random, described 226
sample results 228
Weighted Resampling, described 227
grids
adjusting to linked data 152-153
formats 223
Grid Re-Configure dialog box 129
linking data to 148-153
linking fault lines to 150
linking fault polygons to 151
linking points to 148-149
locking/unlocking AOI, xy range, nulls 131
recalculating from pointset 124-128
relation to pointsets & grids 30
Single Surface Operations option 184-185
smoothing 192-193
subsetting recalculated grid (Boundary) 125
unlinking points from 149

Index

236

Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

H

L

Help
displaying 4
selecting Help topics to display 4
setting Automatic/On Request mode 5
Help option (Help menu)
searching for help topics 6
hiding
culture data from display 163
faults in grid 161
points in map 162
histograms
displaying for z values 176-177
horizons
items listed in event lists 112
Resample Surface option 129
viewing composite horizons 116

labeling
contours: selecting options 160
points in map 162
lease lines
adding to map 137
line of section
moving/stretching in Profile Display 168
rotating in Profile Display 169
linear interpolation
setting the program to use 154
Lines
format/sample file 210
lines
deleting (while creating pointset) 145
Lines Record Layout format, described 35
linked data
adjusting grids to 152-153
linking
data to grids 148-153
fault lines to grids 150
fault polygons to grids 151
grid to pointset 97
points to grids 148-149
locking
grid definition (AOI)/x,y range/nulls 131
z values 158-159
logging
prompt information 5
LOS (line of section)
moving/stretching 168
rotating 169
lowering
windows 24

I
icons
Minimize/Maximize 22
information
locating information in this guide 3
other sources of information 4
inserting
data into map 203-206
faults 203-205
Insert Boundaries option (Editors) 206
instructions
displayed in status area 20
interface
common features 22-25
Interpolation options (Options menu)
setting Linear or Cubic 154
intervals
setting for contours 157
introduction to StrataMap 1-28
inverting
colorbar via MB3 Invert option 180

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Index

237

Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

M

N

magnifying
using the Map Magnifier (Map View) 164
Map View
adding faults 203-205
displaying cursor position 170
displaying status of data displayed 165
editing points 199-202
setting contents of 156
specifying contents/colors of 156
using the Map Magnifier 164
maps
exporting contours/colorfill as CGMs 137
Maximize button/option 22
MB3 menu
Add New Point option 201
Change Zvalue option 201
Close option 195
colorbar options 180
Del Line/End Line options 145
Delete Point option 201
Move Point option 201
options in Surface Editor 196
Quick/Normal Contouring options 19
Recalculate Area option 201
Turn Border On/Off options 20
menu bar
StrataMap window menu bar described 13
merging
MERGE A FAULT option 91
Minimize button/option 22
moving
LOS (line of section) 168
points (MB3 menu option) 201
scroll bars 24
windows 23
multiplying
surface by a constant 184

nodes
editing 194-198
Normal Contouring option
MB3 menu 19
null values
locking/unlocking for grids 131
numbers
selecting 26

R2003.12

O
On Request mode for Help, described 5
Operations menu
Adjust to Surface to Linked Point Set 153
Create Custom Shaped Surface option 146
Re-calculate Surface from Point Set
124-128
Resample Surface option 129
Subset AOI from map option 130
Operations: Framework Operations menu
Erase & Extend Edges option 115
Setup Custom Fault Block option 111-114
Operations: Surface Operations menu
Dual Surface Operations option 186-189
Fill undefined regions option 190-191
Fit Least Squares Polynomial 182-183
Single Surface Operations option 184-185
Smooth Surface option 192-193
Options: AOI Ranging menu 131
Options: Interpolation menu
Linear/Cubic options 154
Options: Profile Z Range menu
Same As Surface/Automatic options 169
Options: Prompt Mode menu options 5
Options: Surface Z Ranging menu 158-159
organization of guide 3
output files
formats (Create Point Dataset) 213-220

Index

238

Landmark

overlaying
culture data on map 163
overlays
viewing surfaces as 171-173
overposting
using Max Posted option (map points) 162
P
panning
Pan button 17
restoring original display (Restore) 15
parallel faults
correcting 91
PD
sending surfaces to Show Displays 28
picks
associating well picks with surfaces 108
Save Top Picks button 102
plotting
exporting display as CGM 137
points
adding/deleting/moving (MB3) 201
displaying (DISPLAY Contents dialog) 156
editing 199-202
exporting point symbols to a file 137
formats 208-219
input data formats 209-212
viewing data (Point Browser) 174-175
pointsets
creating 144-145
creating subsets of 106
creating surface from 38-40
creating: choosing a source 138-143
display settings for gridding 162
editing points 199-202
formats of output files 213-220
linking to grids 148-149
Pointset to Link button 97
recalculating grid from pointset 124-128
relation to surfaces & grids 30
selecting sources of 139-143
unlinking from grids 149

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StrataMap User Guide

polygons
adding blanking polygons 206
creating 134
creating polygon faults 135
described 132
displaying fault polygons for gridding 161
formats 221
inserting erasing polygon 205
Polygons Between Points
formats/sample files 220
polynomials
Least Squares Fit Polynomial option 182
Position Report
using to display cursor position 170
primary estimates
generating grid node values 225-228
Global Solution 226
Radial Search-Clustered gridding 227
Radial Search-Random gridding 226
Profile Display
adding faults 203-205
displaying cursor position 170
displaying status of data displayed 165
editing 194-198
editing points 199-202
moving/stretching a line of section 168
rotating a line of section 169
setting up display options 166
setting z range/vertical exaggeration 169
using in frameworks 170
Profile View/Cross-section option (Displays)
166-170
prompts
location for displaying instructions 5
Pseudocolor mode, described 12
Pt Zoom button 15

Index

239

Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

Q

S

Quick Contouring option
MB3 menu 19

Same as Current Point File
format/sample files 213
save
surface formats 203
surfaces 43
saving
Save Current Surface As option 43
Save Framework As option (File) 106
Save Top Picks button 102
scf files
used to store frameworks 48
scissor faults
correcting 91
scroll bars
using 24
search limits
search for data points described 123
secondary estimates
generating grid node values 229
Seismic file format 211
Seismic Record Layout format, described 36
Select Source Point Set dialog box 38-40
selecting
numbers 26
Select Existing Surface option (File) 45
surface: alternate ways 46
Setup Custom Fault Block option
Framework Operations 111-114
Setup Fault Map Display dialog box
displaying 82
shapes
creating custom 146
Show Definitions button 41
Show Displays window
sending surfaces with PD 28
Single Surface Operations option
Operations: Surface Operations menu
184-185
sizing
points in Map View 162
SM1 files
requirement for matching well ID 102

R
Radial Search
Random 226
Radial Search - Clustered gridding
described 122
Radial Search - Random gridding described
122
Radial Search Clustered gridding algorithm
227
raising
windows 24
Recalculate Grid option
use described 120
recalculating
Recalculate Area option (MB3) 201
recalculating grid from pointset 124-128
Record Layout formats
Contours 36
generic 34
Geoq67 37
Landmark DTS 37
Lines 35
Seismic 36
X,Y,multZs 35
ZMAP+ 37
replacing
events (Framework Events Status) 98
resampling
Resample Grid option: use described 120
Resample Surface option (Operations) 129
resizing
windows 22-23
Restore button 15
Return to Initial State option (File) 12
reviewing
pointset file contents 174-175
rotating
LOS (line of section) 169

R2003.12

Index

240

Landmark

smoothing
setting for contours 160
step in generating grid node values 230
surfaces 192-193
sources
fault data sources supported 221
for generating pointsets 139-143
SPLIT A FAULT option
Fault Framework Sketch dialog 91
starting
StrataMap 12
status
Framework Events Status dialog 94-109
Status menu option 165
status area
described 20
setting prompts to appear 5
Stop menu option 128
StrataMap
exiting from 12
starting 12
using with other applications 27-137
StrataMap window
features 13-26
Stratamodel
inability to see nonboundary faults 102
stretching
LOS (line of section) 168
subsetting
Subset AOI from map option 130
Surface Edge Replace dialog box
displaying 96
using 107-108
Surface Editor
MB3 menu options 196
Surface Z Ranging options 158-159

R2003.12

StrataMap User Guide

surfaces
adding/deleting/moving points (MB3) 201
alternate ways to select existing surface 46
associating well picks with surfaces 108
clipping boundaries 111-114
clipping with erasing polygon 205
creating custom 146
creating from files with multiple z fields 41
creating from pointset 38-40
defined 1
editing profiles 194-198
filling voids 190-191
formats 33-37
grouped into frameworks 47-173
introduction to creating 29-41
linking fault lines to 150
linking fault polygons to 151
linking to data points 148-149
recalculating grid from pointset 124-128
relation to pointsets & grids 30
Resample Surface option 129
saved in different formats 203
saving 43
Select Existing Surface option (File) 45
sending to Show Displays by using PD 28
smoothing 192-193
viewing as overlays 171-173
viewing in profile 166-170

Index

241

Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

T

V

throw
setting throw tick direction for faults 161
ticks
dip indicators (Fault Framework Sketch) 85
setting gradient ticks for contours 160
setting throw tick direction for faults 161
titles
adding/deleting with MB3 options 20
toggling options, described 26
tool buttons 15-18
tops files
used to associate picks/grid values 102
trends
extracting from dataset 182
troubleshooting
display color problems 12
overposting points in map 162
unfilled faults 133
Truecolor mode
used by default 12

vertical exaggeration 169
vertical faults
creating 135
views
Display Only Surfaces 171-173
Point Browser 174-175
Position Report 170
Profile Display 166-170
voids
filling 190-191

U
Un zoom button 17
unlinking
fault lines from grids 150
fault polygons from grids 151
points from grids 149
unlocking
grid definition (AOI)/x,y range/nulls 131
z values 158-159
updating
events w/ Display button 97
selecting update area (Point Ops) 200
selecting update area (Surface Editor) 194

R2003.12

W
Weighted Resampling gridding method,
described 122
well IDs
requirement for matching 102
windows
activating 24
moving 23
raising/lowering 24
resizing 22-23
workflows
overview steps for main workflows 57
X
x,y axes labels
adding/deleting with MB3 options 20
x,y range
locking/unlocking for grids 131
X,Y same button 15
X,Y,multZs Record Layout format 35

Index

242

Landmark

StrataMap User Guide

xyz files
pointset output 213-220
sample (Polygons Between Points) 220
sample: Along Contours Displayed 217
sample: Along User Picked Lines 219
sample: At Every Defined Grid Node 216
sample: At User Picked Points 218
sample: Averaged from Current Points 214
sample: Based on Surface Shape 215
sample: Same as Current Point File 213
XYZS
format/sample file 210
Z
z fields
creating surfaces from multiple z fields 41
z increment
Set Z-Range, Increment option 157
z range
Set Z-Range, Increment option 157
setting for Profile Display 169
setting up color table for 178-179
z values
Change Zvalue option (MB3 menu) 201
changing reference on colorbar 180
displaying histograms for 176-177
locking/unlocking 158-159
shown by color in Color -> Z dialog 21
viewing in editor 195, 201
zooming
from a center point 15
in the Map Magnifier 164
restoring original display (Restore) 15
Un zoom option 17

R2003.12

Index

243