Chapter 2
Technology and Innovation
Md Hafiz Selamat

Chapter Objectives

Explain innovation and its importance to


Identify the different type of innovation;


Differentiate between innovation and invention;


Explore the the world innovation landscape;


Understand the innovation success & failures;


Explain the failure in innovation;


Identify the five steps in the creative process

method or device The process of making improvements by introducing something new The process of translating new ideas into tangible product The successful exploitation of new ideas A creative idea that is realized Change that creates a new dimension of performance .Innovation • • • • • • A new idea.

Types of Innovation Services Supply Chain Product Business Model Substancial Types of Innovation Marketing Financial Process Organisational .

market entry or monetization .Innovation vs Invention • Invention is the first occurrence of an idea for a new product or process • Innovation is the first attempt to carry it out into practice. • Actualization or realization of an invention whether it be a societal benefit. commercialization.

Invention vs Innovation .

Airbus. Honda. Apple. Presper Eckert Dell. RIM. etc Computer J.Innovation vs Invention Products Inventor Innovator Car Karl Benz Toyota. Ford. etc . etc Telephone Alexander Graham Bell Samsung. IBM. Apple. etc Aircraft Wright Brothers Boeing.

Iceland 10. Norway 17. Singapore 2. UK 9. Korea 15. Luxembourg 16. Canada 7. Finland 4. USA 6. Israel 13. Denmark 5. New Zealand 14. Hong Kong 3. Sweden 1. Switzerland . Netherland 8. Germany 11. Ireland 12. Japan 19.Global Innovation Index (2011) 20. Austria 18.

PG&E 6. Sportify 14. Cisco 16. Google 3. Disney 19. Wallmart 8. BYD 15. Neflix 11. GE 18.Fast Company Most Innovative Company 2010 20. Facebook . Huawei 4. HP 9. Apple 2. Nike 12. Amazon 1. Hulu 10. Novartis 7. First Solar 5. Intel 13. IBM 17.

Occupy Movement 6. Square 4. Southern New Hempshire University 11. Solarcity 9. Apple . Amazon 3. Airbnb 18. Tesla Motors 12. Google 2. Patagonia 13. NFL 14. HBO 10. Greenbox 16. Life Technologies 8. Twitter 5. Tencent 7.Fast Company Most Innovative Company 2012 20. 72andSunny 19. Facebook 1. National Marrow Program 15. Jawbone 17.

Innovation Success .

Innovation Success .

Innovation Success .

Innovation Success .

Apple Greatest Innovation .

there was the creation of the iTunes that enabled listeners to integrate with their iPod. Also. elegant ergonomics and ease of use. It is the combination of all these elements that made the iPod truly innovative” .Innovation Success – The I Era “What made the iPod truly innovative was its combination of aesthetic design.

Innovation Success .

Computerworld says it flopped partially because of its high price ($700 or more). Apple debuted this PDA device in 1993.Innovation Failure – Apple Newton Arguably ahead of its time. The Newton faded away in 1998. bulkiness and the inaccuracy of the handwriting recognition. but chartered the course for the Palm Pilot in the late 90's and the popular BlackBerry & iPhone today. .

Pepsi AM was not successful. and they want to drink it all day long. Well. . Pepsi came up with the brilliant plan to cater to the breakfast cola drinker. when it comes to cola. Apparently.Innovation Failure – Pepsi Am and Crystal In the late 1980s. the consumers know what they want -they want it brown. it must be a natural substitute for coffee. under the assumption that because Pepsi contained caffeine. and neither was Pepsi's later foray into clear cola. you know what they say about assumptions . Crystal Pepsi.but needless to say.

That was the problem the company faced when they tried to launch an aspirin. . The aspirin? Not so much. Their first brand extension. UltraStrength Ben-Gay. was essentially the same product as the original and was very successful.Innovation Failure – Aspirin Ben-Gay cream is great for topically relieving aches and pains. But the idea of swallowing Ben-Gay? Not so appealing.

The beginning of another millennium is a pretty big deal. .Innovation Failure – Millenium Dome The concept behind the Millennium Dome wasn't one was interested in going. so why not celebrate it in a very expensive new building at the exact location where the millennium began? Only one problem -.

Innovation Success or Failure? .

Failure in Innovation – Nokia N-Gage .

Why N-Gage Failed? .

Why N-Gage Failed? .

Common Causes of Innovation Failure .

• Creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation Creativity is necessary but not sufficient condition for the innovation • . innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas.How to Promote Innovation? • All innovation begins with creative ideas ….

Innovation and Creativity • Creativity – coming up with ideas – displayed by individuals • Innovation – bringing the ideas to life – occurs in the organisational and societal context. .

as shown on the next slide. at least in part.Creativity • … is the process of generating a novel or useful ideas • Opportunity recognition may be. . the creative process can be broken down into five stages. a creative process • For an individual.

Steps to Generate Creative Ideas .

. Innovation ranking – nations and companies. 5. Innovation and creativity. 3. 7.Summary 1. 2. How to promote innovation. 6. Five steps in the creative process. What is innovation and its importance to entrepreneurship. 8. How innovation succeed & fails. 4. Innovation vs invention. Different type of innovation.