Farm tools are instruments we use in the farm to aid us in farm work, thereby making it easy.
Such equipments include cutlass, wheel barrow hoe, shovel and axe.

The pick axe is made up of a long wooden handle with a double headed thick metal blade that is
attached to the handle through a loop.

The head of the pick axe is made up of two edges, one part of the end of the blade is pointed,
while the other end is flat and sharp edged. They are mainly used for breaking up of hard soil,
and digging up of roots and tree stumps.

When it is viewed, the hand fork, looks like the kitchen fork we eat with, just that it is a little bit
bigger, it has a short wooden or metal handle with four prongs. It is used in mixing manure into
the soil, for breaking the surface of the soil, so that air and water, can pass easily and it is also
used for the removal of weeds on the seed bed.

It is boat shaped or it is either curved sloop metal blade that is attached to a short wooden or
metal handle. When using it, you hold it with one hand. It helps in the transplanting of seedlings,
for the application of fertilizer and also for the application of manure to the soil, it helps in
loosening vegetable beds, it can also be used for light weeding, sampling or mixing up of soil
and digging holes for the planting of seeds.

The sickle has a curved metal blade that is fitted into a short wooden handle. The inner part of
the curved metal blade is very sharp while the other part, has a blunt edge.

To recognise a sickle when been viewed, it has a structure like that of a question mark (?). It used
in the plucking of fruits. This can only be possible, when it is tied to a long handle, it can also be
used to harvest cereals like rice, wheat barley because they possess thin stems. It can also be
used in the harvest of grasses.

It is made up of a thick heavy metal head that is fitted into a straight wooden or metal handle. At

the end of the thick heavy metal there is a prong which is used for the removal of nails. The
hammer can be used for driving nails into wooden structures whether in the farm or at home, it
can also be used to straighten damaged or bent components of either farm implements or our
home furnitures. It can also be used in the removal of nails from wood.

It is made up of a large head with a wooden handle that is similar to that of a hammer. The entire
body is made up of wood. It is solely used for the hitting of woods like pegs, so that they would
not be damaged in the process, when they are been hit into the ground.

The secateurs are made up of two metal blades of which one has a concave curve while the other
has a convex curve that are joined together at a point. It has two short metal handles with a
spring in between them when handling it; you handle with one hand, while the plant branch to be
cut is held with the other free hand.

To recognise the secateurs it looks like a pair of scissors. It is used for trimming flowers and the
pruning of the branches of shrubs and trees.

It is seen as a pair of an enlarged pair of scissors with two long blades, connected at a appoint by
a bolt and a nut of which the blades are sharpened at one edge not the two sides in other not to
injure some one.

The handle of the shears may be made of wood, metal, plastic or rubber. It is usually handled
with both hands. Shears are used to prune down trees or branches of shrubs, trimming of hedges
and trimming of Ornamental plants used in house decoration.

It is made up of galvanized iron which prevents it from rusting. Some are also made of very
synthetic rubber. The water watering can is made up of a tank, a handle and a spout. This spout is
long with a perforated metal sheet over its mouth which is referred to as the ROSE, but in case of
the rubber made watering can the mouth is covered by a rubber.

It is used to apply water to crops like seedlings in a nursery and vegetables. Some times it is used

in applying liquid fertilizers to crops as well as the watering of cement blocks used for the
constructions of structures and buildings.

The cutlass is one of the commonest used farm tools in Nigeria. They come in various shapes
and sizes. It is a flat long metal blade with a short wooden or plastic handle with one edge sharp
while the other is blunt.

They perform many functions. It is used for the clearing of bushes around your homes, for the
felling of big trees. It is used in harvesting crops like sugar cane, maize, cassava, yam and palm
nut fruits. It is also used in the planting of melon during the planting season, cutlass can also be
used for the transplanting of seedlings, weeding of crops, both in the digging of shallow holes
and used in the trimming and pruning of flowers.

Hoe comes in different types, which are used in Nigeria today. There is the West African hoe and
the Indian hoe. They both have metal blades with a wooden or metal blades.

Hoes are used in tilling the soil, harvesting of crops like cassava, sweet potato and cocoyam,
weeding between the rows of crops, digging of drains, making trenches and foundation of farm
houses, and the making of ridges and mounds.

The hoes all over the world perform the same function but we are going to differentiate them the
West African hoe is made of short curve handle while the Indian hoe has a long handle.

The West African hoe has a round metal blade while the Indian hoe has a rectangular metal
blade. The blade (metal) is attached to the handle with a prong while that of the Indian hoe is
attached to the handle with a hoop.

The spade is made up of a long rectangular flat blade which is attached to a fairly long
cylindrical handle that widens at the posterior end to form a triangular block with a D-shaped
whole for hand when used.

Spade is used for different proposes. It can be used for digging of holes and trenches around us,
for leveling the ground, for making seedbeds, ridges, mounds and heaps, transplanting of

seedlings like palm oil seedlings, turning the soil and the mixing of manures, light weeding in the
farm and at home, mixing of cement and concrete for farm and home structures and the digging
of foundations when constructing farm and home buildings.

Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem, Nimtree, and Indian Lilacis a tree in the mahogany
family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India and the
Indian subcontinent including Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It is typically grown
in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow in islands located in the
southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.
Acacia mangium is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, which is native to
northeastern Queensland in Australia, the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, Papua, and
the eastern Maluku Islands. Common names include Black Wattle, Hickory Wattle, Mangium,
and Forest Mangrove. Its uses include environmental management and wood.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima or Caballero, or Bulaklak ng Paraiso for its medical purposes and for
being one of the most graceful and colorful flowers. It is a species of flowering plant in the pea
family, Fabaceae, which is native to the tropics and subtropics of the Americas. It could be native
to the West Indies, but its exact origin is unknown due to widespread cultivation. Common
names for this species include Poinciana, Peacock Flower, Red Bird of Paradise, Mexican Bird
of Paradise, Dwarf Poinciana, Pride of Barbados, and flamboyant-de-jardin. The Hawaiian name
for this plant is ʻOhai Aliʻi
Kalachuche is a small, deciduous tree, 3 to 7 meters high, with a crooked trunk, smooth and
shining stems, succulent, with abundant sticky, milky latex. Bark has a smooth, papery outer
layer which is grey, shining, and constantly exfoliating in small flakes. Wood is yellowish-white
and soft. Branches are thick, fleshy, swollen and leafy at the tips. Leaves are crowded at the
terminal end of the branch, commonly oblong in shape, 20 to 40 centimeters long, 7 centimeters
wide, spirally arranged at the ends of the branches. Flowers are numerous, fragrant and large, the
upper portion whitish, while the inner lower portion yellow, 5 to 6 centimeters long. Fruits are
linear-oblong or ellipsoid follicles, with a pointed tip, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2
centimeters in diameters. Seeds are numerous and winged.
The tea plant is an evergreen of the Camellia family that is native to China, Tibet and northern
India. There are two main varieties of the tea plant. The small leaf variety, known as Camellia
sinensis, thrives in the cool, high mountain regions of central China and Japan. The broad leaf
variety, known as Camellia assamica, grows best in the moist, tropical climates found in
Northeast India and the Szechuan and Yunnan provinces of China. The plant produces dark
green, shiny leaves and small, white blossoms.
The cicadas or chicharra, are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera
(true bugs). They are in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha[a], along with smaller jumping bugs such
as leafhoppers and froghoppers. It is divided into the Tettigarctidae, with two species in
Australia, and Cicadidae, with more than 1,300 species described from around the world; many
undescribed species remain.

Row planting as applied in conventional horizontal farming or gardening is a system of growing
crops in linear pattern in at least one direction rather than planting without any distinct
arrangement. It is practiced in most crops whether direct seeded, transplanted, or grown from
vegetative planting materials, both in monocropping and multiple cropping.
Multiple row planting is a system of growing crops in blocks or strips of 2 or more rows. The
adjacent blocks are separated by a space which may remain vacant or planted to other crops. This
planting arrangement is common in multiple cropping in which two or more crops are grown in
the same piece of land. It is also employed in monocropping where an alley wide enough to
facilitate passage is needed.
Spatial arrangement or interow planting is the systematic apportioning of the farm area or any
growing surface for crop production. In multiple cropping by intercropping, the intercrop can be
planted in any of the following ways: (1) within the rows of the main crop, (2) between the rows
of the main crop, and (3) in replacement.
Function of Irrigation
Irrigation systems get water from the spigot to your lawn or garden without you having to carry
it in buckets. Overhead systems water large areas from above, while water-saving drip irrigation
systems deliver water at lower rates, allowing it to absorb into the soil where roots can use it.
Adding a timer to an irrigation system automates it so you don’t have to remember to turn it on
or off.
Carry Water
At their most basic, irrigation systems are made up of a series of rigid pipes or flexible tubing
that transport water. Overhead irrigation systems have rigid pipes buried underground, so you
don’t damage them when working in the yard. They are used to water large areas like lawns.
Drip irrigation systems use flexible tubing to carry water. They lay on top of the ground and are
staked in place. These systems are used to water vegetable gardens and mulched ornamental
Regulate Flow
Irrigation systems use valves to control how water travels through the network of piping. All
irrigation units are required to have a backflow preventer or anit-siphon valves that keep water
from flowing back into the main water line, where it can contaminate your home's water. Shutoff ball valves are located at the head of both drip and overhead systems so you can turn off the
water when you need to work on the system or repair it. Control valves on overhead irrigation
units allow you to create zones so you determine what portions of the yard receive water. They
are installed underground with only the top visible and sometimes colored to indicate if fresh or
reclaimed water is used in the system. Drip irrigation systems need a pressure-reducing valve so
the water pressure coming from the spigot won’t pop off the emitter heads.

Spread Water
The two main overhead sprinkler heads types are rotary, which throws water 25 to 60 feet, and
stationary, which pops out of the ground and sends mist 4 to 15 feet into ornamental beds. A drip
system uses emitters punched into the flexible tubing and placed at the base of each plant. The
emitter flow rate should be match to the plant and soil type so it delivers the right amount of
water for the plant. Bubbler emitters flow at a high rate and are used with plants that need to
develop deep roots, like shrubs, while drip emitters have a low flow at 1/2 to 10 gallons per hour
and work well with vegetables. Their low flow make it so water is not discharged onto the soil
between rows, reducing weed growth.
Control Where and When
A timer automates an irrigation system, telling it when to turn on and off so you don’t overwater.
Overhead irrigation systems use a multifunction timer called an irrigation controller. It
determines when the system turns on and off and how much water is sent to each zone. A rain
sensor signals the irrigation controller when it rains so the controller can turn of the water. Drip
irrigation systems use a timer that only turns the water on and off for the amount of time you set
Waste management is the precise name for the collection, transportation, disposal or recycling
and monitoring of waste. This term is assigned to the material, waste material that is produced
through human being activity. This material is managed to avoid its adverse effect over human
health and environment. Most of the time, waste is managed to get resources from it. The waste
to be managed includes all forms of matter i.e. gaseous, liquid, solid and radioactive matter.

Reducing the amount of waste you produce is the best way to help the environment. There are lots of
ways to do this. For example:

Buy products that don't have a lot of packaging. Some products are wrapped in many layers of
plastic and paperboard even though they don't need to be. You can also look for things that are
packed in materials that don't require a lot of energy or resources to produce. Some products will
put that information right on their labels.
Instead of buying something you're not going to use very often, see if you can borrow it from
someone you know.
Cars use up energy and cause pollution. Some ways to reduce the environmental damage
caused by cars include carpooling with friends, walking, taking the bus, or riding your bike
instead of driving.
Start a compost bin. Some people set aside a place in their yard where they can dispose of
certain food and plant materials. Over time, the materials will break down through a natural
process called decomposition. The compost is good for the soil in your yard and means that less
garbage will go to the landfill.
You can reduce waste by using a computer! Many newspapers and magazines are online now.
Instead of buying the paper versions, you can find them on the Internet. Also remember that you
should print out only what you need. Everything you print that you don't really need is a waste of
Save energy by turning off lights that you are not using.
Save water by turning off the faucet while you brush your teeth.
Lots of families receive a large amount of advertisements and other junk mail that they do not
want. You can stop the mailings and reduce waste by writing to the following address and
requesting that they take your name off of their distribution list:

Direct Marketing Association Mail Preference Service
P.O. Box 9008
Farmingdale, NY 11735-9008

Instead of throwing things away, try to find ways to use them again! For example:

Bring cloth sacks to the store with you instead of taking home new paper or plastic bags. You can
use these sacks again and again. You'll be saving some trees!
Plastic containers and reusable lunch bags are great ways to take your lunch to school without
creating waste.

Coffee cans, shoe boxes, margarine containers, and other types of containers people throw
away can be used to store things or can become fun arts and crafts projects. Use your
Don't throw out clothes, toys, furniture, and other things that you don't want anymore. Somebody
else can probably use them. You can bring them to a center that collects donations, give them to
friends, or even have a yard sale.
Use all writing paper on both sides.
Use paper grocery bags to make book covers rather than buying new ones.
Use silverware and dishes instead of disposable plastic utensils and plates.
Store food in reusable plastic containers.

Many of the things we use every day, like paper bags, soda cans, and milk cartons, are made out of
materials that can be recycled. Recycled items are put through a process that makes it possible to
create new products out of the materials from the old ones.
In addition to recycling the things you buy, you can help the environment by buying products that
contain recycled materials. Many brands of paper towels, garbage bags, greeting cards, and toilet
paper, to name a few examples, will tell you on their labels if they are made from recycled materials.
In some towns you can leave your recyclables in bins outside your home, and a truck will come and
collect them regularly. Other towns have recycling centers where you can drop off the materials
you've collected. Things like paper and plastic grocery bags, and plastic and aluminum cans and
bottles can often be brought to the grocery store for recycling. Whatever your system is, it's important
to remember to rinse out and sort your recyclables!

Formula of Trapezium
A= ( a+b ) h