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Car
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other types of motorized vehicles, see Motor vehicle. For the 2006 Disney fi
lm, see Cars (film). For other uses, see Car, Automobile, and Cars.
Car
Cars driving on an expressway.jpeg
Modern cars and trucks driving on an expressway.
Classification Vehicle
Industry
Various
Application
Transportation
Fuel source
Gasoline, Diesel, Electric, Hydrogen, Solar energy
Powered Yes
Self-propelled Yes
Wheels 3 4
Axles 1 2
Inventor
Ferdinand Verbiest (invented first toy-sized model); Karl Benz (
generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern car)[1]
Modern car, a BMW E90 (2004-2013)
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a pro
duct of the automotive industry. Most definitions of the term specify that cars
are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people,
to typically have four wheels with tyres, and to be constructed principally for
the transport of people rather than goods.[2][3] The year 1886 is regarded as t
he birth year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built t
he Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the early
20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 19
08 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were ra
pidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn
carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and o
ther parts of the world.
Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and
safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional featu
res and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more com
plex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation syst
ems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an
internal combustion engine, fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as p
etrol) or diesel. Both fuels cause air pollution and are also blamed for contrib
uting to climate change and global warming.[4] Vehicles using alternative fuels
such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining
popularity in some countries. Electric cars, which were invented early in the h
istory of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008.
There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs of car usage include the cost
of: acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs
and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and
insurance.[5] The costs to society of car use include: maintaining roads, land
use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, and disposing o
f the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cau
se of injury-related deaths worldwide.[6]
The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and c
onvenience.[7] The societal benefits may include: economic benefits, such as job
and wealth creation from car production, sales and maintenance, transportation
provision, society well-being derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and
revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move f
lexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of soci
eties.[8] It was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 b
illion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986.[9] The numbers are increasing
rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.[10

however. was formerly a common way to refer to cars in English. It literally means "sel f-propelled car". but that is now considered archaic. such as a cart. or wagon. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. he created a steam-powered tricycle. carriage. The Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which also used the word Karr. In turn. from Old North French).[16] The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek wor d autós (a?t??). sel f-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769. and is attested from 189 5. It remains a chiefly Nort h American usage.1 Autonomous car 12. handicapped by problems with water supply and main .[24] His inventions were.[22] Cugnot's 1771 fardier à vapeur. and is the usual formal name for cars in British English. like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic".[11 ][12] It originally referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle.[3] "Autocar" is a variant that is also attested from 1895. and was replaced by "motor car".[15] The term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built. the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain. meaning "self". meaning "movable".[18] An abbreviated form.[13][14] "Motor car" is attested from 1895.[19][20] History Main article: History of the automobile The first working steam-powered vehicle was designed and most likely built by Ferdin and Verbiest. "auto". or the Middle English word carre (meaning cart. and was first adopted by the Automobi le Club of Great Britain in 1897.[23] He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army.] Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Mass production 4 Fuel and propulsion technologies 5 User interface 6 Lighting 7 Weight 8 Seating and body style 9 Safety 10 Costs and benefits 11 Environmental impact 12 Emerging car technologies 12. one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh (and Gaelic) where 'Car llusg' (a drag cart or sledge) and 'car rhyfel' (war chariot) still survive. these originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic chari ot). Paris Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first full-scale.2 Open source development 13 Industry 14 Alternatives to the car 15 Other meanings 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links Etymology The word "car" is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("w heeled vehicle"). a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. as preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers. It entered the English language from French.[7][21][22] It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever b uilt. and the Latin word mobilis.[17] Over time. The word is still used in some compound formations in American English. but is now considered old-fashioned.

Bertha Benz. first built in 1885 and awa rded the patent for the concept In 1879. Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern car. the wife of Karl Benz. Benz & Cie. finely crushed coal dust an d resin that were mixed with oil. Emile Roger of France. Wilhelm May bach. and steam rollers. and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the histor y of the car. Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was probably the world 's first internal combustion engine (which they called a Pyréolophore). either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann.[25] Coincidentally. Germany. Sent iment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. The Niépces' Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycop odium powder (dried spores of the Lycopodium plant). By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler an d Maybach. The first motor car in central Europe and one of the first factory-made cars in the world. when his first fourwheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. i n 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own 'de Rivaz inter nal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be po wered by such an engine. but often treated separately from the development of true cars. French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-whee led car powered by electricity at the International Exposition of Electricity. Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated h is Puffing Devil road locomotive. c alled boxermotor. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19 th century. Benz & Cie. whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen an d oxygen.. Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine. and about 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893. undertook the first road trip by car. In August 18 88 Bertha Benz. and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile. to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention.[1] In November 1881. P aris. Benz was granted a patent for his first engine. was produced by Czech company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau (later renamed t o Tatra) in 1897. including steam cars.[24] In 1801. the Präsident automobil. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pre ssure for long periods. where they set u ..taining steam pressure. became a joint-stock company. which they retrofitted with a n engine of their design. believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle. and sold their first car in 1892 under the brand name Daimler.[25] Neither design was very successful. Because France was more open to the early cars. because of its size. already producing Benz engines under license. steam buses. who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by internal combustion engines. It was a hor se-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer. which was founded in 1883).[26] Karl Benz. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Samuel Morey. initially more wer e built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. In 1807. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion e ngine feasible for powering a vehicle.[1] A photograph of the original Benz Patent-Motorwagen. During the last years of the nineteenth century. He was awarded the patent for its invention as of his applic ation on 29 January 1886 (under the auspices of his major company. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on 3 July 1886. the first long distance car driver in the world In 1896. s uch as Samuel Brown. the inventor of the modern car Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler. as was the case with others. which had been designed in 1878. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885 in Mannheim. and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time. Benz was the largest car company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and. but they c hose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. phaetons. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) in Cannstatt in 1 890. now added the Benz car to his line of products.

and sales and they advertise d or marketed their car models jointly. Lawson in 1896. and they bore the name Daimler. development of cars in the United States. German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". His patent was challenged by H enry Ford and others. After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application. with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.[30] In Britain. Two years later. New York. and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades.[3 1] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain a s having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894[32] followed b y Frederick William Lanchester in 1895.p shop after disputes with their backers.160) for a two-stroke car engine. in 1924 th ey signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest. when economic condit ions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War. Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929. subsidiary of a long-established wagon and coach manufacturer. Lawson's company made its first car in 1897. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz compan y. Selden applied for a p atent for an car in 1879. but the dire ctors of DMG refused to consider it initially. there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying deg rees of success. They never worked together. after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. in 1902. In 1890. as a brand honoring the most importa nt model of the DMG cars. more than enco uraged. and so laid the foundation of the automotive industry in Franc e. valid until the year 2000. on Taylor Street in Me tro Center Springfield. the first running. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a busines s of his own. Patent 549. which hindered. and at times his two sons al so participated in the management of the company. but these were both one-offs. the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Merce des-35 hp. Benz & Cie. In 1897. Maybach and the Daimler team see m to have been unaware of each other's early work.[1] Steam-. Émile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines. although keeping their respective brands . along with the Benz name. with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860. and overturned in 1911. but finished 6 days after the winning cyclist. Daimler and Maybach were no longe r part of DMG. Benz.66 and commenced sales of electric vehicles in 1902 and gasoline vehicles in 1904. In 1893. b y the time of the merger of the two companies. he built the first diesel engine. Selden was granted a United States patent ( U. On 28 June 1926.[32] The fi rst production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Company. baptizing all of its cars Mercedes Benz. gasoline-powered American car was built and road-tes ted by the Duryea brothers of Springfield. The first design for an American car with a gasoline internal combustion engine was made in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester. electr ic-. In 1891. Charles Terront.[32] In 1892. Negotiations between the two comp anies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and. production.100 km (1.S. purchasing. They were attached to the first Paris Brest Paris bicycle race. which generated 35 hp. a compan y founded by Harry J.[27][28] The Studebaker Automobile Company. a new model DMG car was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine. Auguste Doriot and his Peugeot colleague Louis Rigoulot completed th e longest trip by a petrol-powered vehicle when their self-designed and built Da imler powered Peugeot Type 3 completed 2. started to build cars in 1897[ 29]:p. on 5 November 1895. Massachusetts. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with . Maybach designed an engine named Daiml er-Mercedes that was placed in a specially ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek.300 miles) from Valentigney t o Paris and Brest and back again. Both enter prises standardized design. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for J ellinek to race and market in his country. The first public run o f the Duryea Motor Wagon took place on 21 September 1893.

" and was copied by most major industries. roof. an assembly line worker could bu y a Model T with four months' pay. The assembly line f orced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions which led t o more output per worker while other countries were using less productive method s. As a result. and wi th the Great Depression. forcing the com pany to drop the variety of colors available before 1913. Cole. for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910 1911). Citroen was the first native European manufactu rer to adopt the production method. or Premier.[33] This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford. Dorris.the conventional piston and crankshaft design. much fas ter than previous methods. or risk going broke. It was Alfred P. had disappeared. s o marketing plans often have heavily influenced car design. 250 companies which did not. Chevrolet shared hood. in 1802. by 1930. beginning in 1913 with the worl d's first moving assembly line for cars at the Highland Park Ford Plant. corporate powertrains and shared platforms (with interchan geable brakes. due in part to the hundreds of s mall manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Michigan and based upon stationary assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills. Mass production See also: Automotive industry Ransom E.[34] It was so successful. increasing productivity eightfold. called the General Motors Companion Make Program. nearly all cars have been mass-produced to meet market needs. while using less m anpower (from 12. so that buyers could "move up" as their fortunes improved. doors. such as Apperson. Reflecting the rapid pace of change. only Mazda's version of the Wank el engine has had more than very limited success. makes shared parts with one another so larg er production volume resulted in lower costs for each price range. Ford Denmark 1 923. could not manage: of some two hu ndred American car makers in existence in 1920. Soon. Haynes. Olds The large-scale. and even companies with decades of production. independent suspension. Massachusetts.[34] In Europe much the same would happen. Ford Germany 1925. suspension.[34] Development of automotive technology was rapid.[34] In 1914. Key developments inc luded electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering . "any color as long as it's black".[34] Portrait of Henry Ford (ca. Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen-minute intervals.S. Even so. pa int became a bottleneck. and four-w heel brakes. Ford Model T. by Thomas Blanchard in 1821. LaSalles. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism. sold by Cadillac. by the 1990s. and other parts) were common. production-line manufacturing of affordable cars was debuted by Ransom Olds in 1901 at his Oldsmobile factory located in Lansing. In the automotive industry. and windows with P ontiac. only major mak ers could afford high costs. 1927 Since the 1920s. until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926. The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. and quickly spread world wide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911. For example. Only Japan Black would dry fast enough. Slo an who established the idea of different makes of cars produced by one company. companies had to have assembly lines. by 1940. in the 1950s. 1919) Ford's complex safety procedures especially assigning each worker to a specific lo cation instead of allowing them to roam about dramatically reduced the rate of inj ury. its success was dominating. in the 1930s. used cheaper mechanical parts made by Oldsmobile. in 1921. only 17 of those were left. at the Springfield Armory in Springfield. England.5-man-hours to 1 hour 33 minutes). This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark. only 43 survived in 1930. Morris set up its production line at Cowle . The assembly line style of mas s production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.

Oil consumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been abundantly pushed by car growth. passenger comfort and safety. The lever on the left of the steering column is for ignition timing. and soon outsold Ford. and a crank instead of an electric starter. fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. had gone under. soon m aking Opel the top car builder in Germany. making them more complex. as a result of having been broken up under keiretsu legislation. Suzuki. Subaru was formed from a conglomerate of six companies who band ed together as Fuji Heavy Industries. Wrigley (gearboxes).[34] Germany's first mass-manufactured car. in a manual transmi ssion car. a shift lever or stick for changing gears. between them and other cheap cars in reply such as Renau lt's 10CV and Peugeot's 5CV. Toyota. coming to cars in 1919. Since the car was first invented. all cars once had a manual controls for the choke valve. Nissan.[34] In Japan. plug-i n electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. ignition timing. Most British small-car assemblers. a clutch pedal). Controls are evolving in resp onse to new technologies. For example. normally operated by a combination of the use of feet and hands. Exa . Citroen did the same in France. such as the location for the accele rator and brake.[4] Rapidly increasing oil prices. and others could not compete. for instance. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles. its controls have become fewer and simpler thr ough automation. came off the line at Russelsheim in 1924. and occasionall y by voice on 2000s-era cars.000 cars in 1925. like Isuzu building the Wolseley A-9 in 192 2. the O pel 4PS Laubfrosch (Tree Frog). and the vehicles were sm all. Mazda. from Abbey to Xtra. they produced 550.y in 1924. or were the result of partnering with European companies. The BRIC countries are adding to this consumption. Fuel and propulsion technologies The Nissan Leaf is an all-electric car launched in December 2010 See also: Alternative fuel vehicle Most cars in use today are propelled by an internal combustion engine. clutch. in December 2009 China was briefly the largest car market. like Daihatsu. and a num ber of buttons and dials for turning on lights.[35] User interface See also: Car controls In the Ford Model T the left-side hand lever sets the rear wheel parking brakes and puts the transmission in neutral. as well as competitors. Cars are equipped with controls used for driving. Modern cars' controls are now standardised. and Honda began as companies producing non-automotive products before the war. the 1985 2003 oil glut even fuelled the sales of low-economy vehicles in OECD countries. pedals fo r operating the brakes and controlling the car's speed (and. buying Hotchkiss (engines). Morris had 41% of total British car production. switching to car production d uring the 1950s. Mitsubishi was also partnered with Fiat and built the Mitsubishi Model A base d on a Fiat vehicle. The lever to the right controls the thrott le. These controls include a steering wheel. such as Wolseley: in 1925. ventilation and other functions. Howe ver new controls have also been added to vehicles. Only a handful of companines were producing vehicles in limited numbers. an d Osberton (radiators). while beginning in 1923 to follow Ford's pract ice of vertical integration. concerns about oil dependen ce. tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions a re propelling work on alternative power systems for cars. car production was very limited before World War II. Hurtu . The lef t foot pedal changes the two forward gears while the centre pedal controls rever se. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining pop ularity in some countries. and Mors. The right pedal is the brake. for example the electric car and the integration of mo bile communications. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change a nd global warming.5% of the market. with 37. but this was not always the case. and three-wheeled for commercial uses.

e. Some vehicle s also have a trunk light and. hatchback. average [car] weight dropped from 1. and an avera ge weight of 500 kg (1. but more dange rous for other vehicles and road users. with more weight resulting in increased fuel consum ption and decreased performance. Low speed vehicle and Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions Result of a serious car accident Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. more rarely. bu t they nevertheless demonstrate the amount by which car weights could still be r educed.461 kg (3. from an accident perspective. up to a fuel use of 2560 km/l). the sedan/saloon. likely in response to rising gasoline prices" and new fuel efficiency standards. sid e marker lights) to increase the visibility of the car. and "more-powerful if more-efficient engines. red brake lights to indicate when the brakes are applied. SUVs and e xtended-length SUVs like the Suburban.[38] The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance.[37] The average new car weighed 1. Lighting Main article: Automotive lighting LED daytime running lights on an Audi A4 Cars are typically fitted with multiple types of lights.464 kg (4. white-coloured reverse lights to illuminate the area behind the car (and indicate that the dri ver will be or is reversing). although 4-seater cars are more common). an engine compartment light.100 lb) has been said to be well achievable. sports cars are most often designed with only two seats. "from 1975 to 1980. and minivan. in the 2010s. due to modern steel safety cage s. Interior lights on the c eiling of the car are usually fitted for the driver and passengers.300 kg (7. Safety Main articles: Car safety. An other trend is the replacement of physical knob and switches for secondary contr ols with touchscreen controls such as BMW's iDrive and Ford's MyFord Touch. Full-size cars and large sport utility vehicles can often carry six. and on some vehicles. cars have increasingly replaced these phys ical linkages with electronic controls. global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars. daytime running lights. . Anot her change is that while early cars' pedals were physically linked to the brake mechanism and throttle. and in car entertainment.[39] In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon. These include headlight s.228 lb). Traffic accident. The differing nee ds for passenger capacity and their luggage or cargo space has resulted in the a vailability of a large variety of body styles to meet individual consumer requir ements that include. Weight A Chevrolet Suburban extended-length SUV weighs 3. and the subsequent lower fuel use (i. Heavier cars include full-size cars. which are used to illuminate the way ahead and make the car visible to other users.818 kg (4.84 2 to 1. s even. or more occupants depending on the arrangement of the seats. average car weights of 45 kg (99 lb ) have also been achieved.[40][41] These cars are only single-seaters (still fal ling within the definition of a car. in some jurisdictions. According to research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge . additional lights (e. amber turn signal lights to indicate the turn intentions of the driver..mples include air conditioning. often with four or five seat s.[ 42] Seating and body style See also: Car body style Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants. station wagon/es tate.009 lb) in 2010.200 lb) (gross weigh t)[36] In the United States. so that the vehicle can be used at night."[38] Hea vier cars are safer for the driver. among others. anti-lock brakes. airbags. navigation systems.060 to 3. 221 lb) in 1987 but 1.g. In the other hand. Cars with five seats typically seat two passengers in the front and three in the rear.

6 L/ 100 km. Light truck standards have changed more frequently.2 miles per US gallon (10.[5] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives. and many manufacturers now re port on the environmental performance of their factories. parking fees.[8] Environmental impact See also: Exhaust gas Vehicles in use per country from 2001 to 2007. which reduce the likelihood of a head-on-collision (as compared with an intersection). etc. can be bala nced against the value of the benefits to society that car use generates.[50] Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient. [49] Many governments are using fiscal policies (such as road tax or the US gas guzzler tax) to influence vehicle purchase decisions. and roundabouts. Ireland. such as the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests. The so cietal benefits may include: economy benefits. and revenue generation from the ta x opportunities. air pollution. On average. with a low CO2 figure ofte n resulting in reduced taxation.7 mpg-imp) in 2007. drinking and driving and text ing and driving) and make road design more safe by adding features such as speed bumps. hence less polluting. car designs (e. federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debat ed regularly.g. which reduce vehicle speed. The United States Environmental Protection Agency states that the average vehicle emits 8.[7] During t he 1920s. transportation provision.[51] In the Unit ed States Congress.6 L/100 km. World map of passenger cars per 1000 people While there are different types of fuel that may power cars. most rely on gasoli ne or diesel. public health.[46] Worldwide. and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution. land use. Costs and benefits Main articles: Economics of car usage. re pairs and auto maintenance. and the v alue of the benefits perceived and real of vehicle usage. 26. and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life.0 mpg-imp) standard set in 1985.180 grams of carbon dioxide. plus they had a private space to snuggle up close at the end of the night."[48] Similarly the costs to society of encompassing car use. today's cars are about 75 percent recyclable. and insurance. mobility. speeding.5 miles per US gallon (8.[43] and Henry Bliss one of the United States' first pedestrian car casualties in 1899 in New York City.. The average vehicle running on diesel fuel will emit 10. smaller. health care.) . in part due to efforts by the go vernment to implement safety features in cars (e. depreciation. fuel.887 grams of carbon dioxide per gallon of gasoline.[44] There are now standard tests for sa fety in new cars. The benefits may inclu de on-demand transportation. including energy usage . which may include those of: maintaining roads. and were set at 22.[6] Mary Ward became one of the first documented car fatalities in 1869 in Parso nstown. seat belts. passenger car standards have not risen above the 27. 33. which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle. Car costs and Effects of the car on socie ties Road congestion is an issue in many major cities. cars had another benefit: "[c]ouples finally had a way to head off on unchaperoned dates.. driving time.[52] The manufacture of vehicles is resource intensive.g. hybrid veh icles) and the development of alternative fuels. taxe s. such as job and wealth creation. of car production and maintenance. more fuel-efficient cars. road traffic is becoming ever safer. reduce unsafe driving practices (e. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies. (pictured is Chang'an Avenue i n Beijing)[47] The costs of car usage. High fuel taxes may provide a s trong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter. air bags. road congestion. independence and convenience. society wellbeing d erived from leisure and travel opportunities.g. It shows the significant growth i n BRIC.[45] and insuranceindustry-backed tests by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). or to not drive.

travel. already exist in proto type (such as the Google driverless car). fiberglass. Autonomous car Main article: Autonomous car A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car Fully autonomous vehicles.[60][61] Open source development Main article: Open source car There have been several projects aiming to develop a car on the principles of op en design. and are expected to be commercially av ailable around 2020. Brussels was considered Europe's most congested city in 2011 according to TomT om. DUIs would no longer exist. Growth in the popularity of vehicles and commuting has led to traffic congestion .org)[62] and c. buses and cars) is a major contri butor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. d riverless electric vehicles in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reali ty for work. hydrogen cars. waste and water consumption.[59] This would be possible if a lmost all private cars requiring drivers.[58] and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liqu id nitrogen. Children could be chauffeured in supervised safety.000 lives could be saved each year in the US alone. and 41.[54] Transportation (of all types including trucks. Please help improve th is article by adding citations to reliable sources. Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells. through car share and carpoo l schemes. on a pay-as-you-go basis. would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near c onstant use. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the p articular need a bus could come for a group of people. Telematics technology is allowing more and m ore people to share cars. battery electric vehicles.[64] Industry . which in turn can le ad to increased risk of a variety of diseases. More recent road developments are including significant environmental mit igations in their designs such as green bridges to allow wildlife crossings. Arth. New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duralumin. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. (June 2010) Car propulsion technologies that are under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids.[63] None of the projects have reached significant success in terms of d eveloping a car as a whole both from hardware and software perspective and no ma ss production ready open-source based design have been introduced as of late 200 9. and carbon nanotubes. and creating wildlife corridors.. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). therefore encourag ing more travel by car resulting in inactivity and obesity. Unsourced material may be ch allenged and removed.[53] The growth in popularity of the car allowed cities to sprawl. a limousine could come for a special night out.[55] Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by cars via habitat destruction and pollution. biofuels. Riversimple (through 40fires. Over the lifetime of the average car the "loss of habitat potent ial" may be over 50. and pleasure could reduce the world's 800 million vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades.000 sq ft) based on primary production correlati ons. The projects include OScar.[57] Emerging car technologies This section needs additional citations for verification. Stirling engines. referred to as roa dkill. Communication is also evolving due to connected car systems.000 m2 (540. also known as driverless cars. which are not in use and parked 90% of the time. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathin g unhealthy air.n. and va rious alternative fuels. Some car hacking through on-board diagnostics (OBD) has been done so far.mm. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has worsened over the last decade. and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street fo r one person. carbon fiber.[56] Animals are also killed every year on roads by cars.

[77] Additional indiv idual modes of transport. affecting the health of populations. and del ivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments.4 million in the Middle East and 1. Russia. 19. including Copenhagen and Amsterdam.4 million in the USA and Cana da.[79] See also Portal icon Cars portal Main article: Outline of automobiles Car costs Car classification Carfree city . About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. consuming excessive energy.000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. and sells the world's motor vehicles.9 million new cars were sold worldwide: 22. such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alter native to cars if they prove to be socially accepted. with the loss of another 200. trolleybuses. trains. in the US. th ere were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007.000.[73] Alternatives to the car Main article: Alternatives to car use The Vélib' in Paris is the largest bikesharing system outside of China[74] Established alternatives for some aspects of car use include public transit such as buses.[10] In the o pinion of some.[67][68][69] The sustainable transport moveme nt focuses on solutions to these problems. In 2008. are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in consumer buying habits. markets. more than 70 million motor vehicles. China 2009 sales had incr eased to 13. 21. Many of the se negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars. The industry is also facing increasing e xternal competition from the public transport sector. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular. tramways light rail. China. Similar pro grams have been experimented with in a number of US Cities. in the US and Europe.4 million in Latin America. 2. Of the major markets. In 2008. some car-sharing services have exper ienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 200 7.000 jobs in the sector.[76] Bike-share systems have bee n tried in some European cities. this resulted in China beco ming the largest car producer and market in the world. including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.[71] Combined with robust growth in China.[72] Since then however. they burn over 260 billion US gallons (980.6 million. manufactures. 4. urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsusta inable. Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth. in 2009. and walk ing. subways. These locomotive cars were often used on subu rban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems. even in China and other BRIC countries. with rapidly rising oil prices. as consumers re-evaluate t heir private vehicle usage.000 jobs lost this decade . a significant increase from one million of domestic car s ales in 2000. develops.4 million in Africa. while thos e in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly.4 million in the Asia-Pacific Region.[75] For example.Main article: Automotive industry A car being assembled in a factory The automotive industry designs.[78] Other meanings The term motorcar has formerly also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. industries such as the automotive indus try.[70] Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years. The numbers are increasing rapidly. on top of the 560.[65] In 2007.9 million in E urope. a total of 71. especially in China and India. Around the world.[66] The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant. th e automotive production is again falling. Services like car sharing offering a residents to "share" a vehicle rather th an own a car in already congested neighborhoods. cycling.

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