IONOSPHERIC TOTAL ELECTRON CONTENT

DISTURBANCES OBSERVED BEFORE EARTHQUAKES:
AT TASHKENT AND KITAB GNSS STATIONS
Husan Eshquvatov
Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute
Institute of Nuclear Physics
Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, 18-22 May 2015

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP)

United Nations

Krasnoyarsk, 18-22 May 2015

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Outline

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Introduction

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP)

United Nations

Krasnoyarsk, 18-22 May 2015

2 / 27

Outline

1

Introduction

2

TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP)

United Nations

Krasnoyarsk, 18-22 May 2015

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18-22 May 2015 2 / 27 .Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis 4 Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 2 / 27 .

Introduction Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis 4 Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 3 / 27 .

18-22 May 2015 4 / 27 .Introduction GNSS ground stations Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

18-22 May 2015 5 / 27 .Introduction Tashkent GNSS station Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

18-22 May 2015 6 / 27 .Introduction Kitab GNSS station Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis 4 Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 7 / 27 .

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. GPS measurements use time delay between radio signals at two frequencies. 18-22 May 2015 8 / 27 .TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations Satellite Ionospheric Delay Effect of ionospheric refraction.

iono i 40.TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations TEC extraction Each satellite transmits two carrier electromagnetic waves with frequencies.6MHz Pseudorange. L1 = 1575. TEC = Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) L21 · L22 (P1 40.3 TEC L2i Total Electron Content (TEC).3 L21 L22 United Nations P2 ) Krasnoyarsk. Pi = ⇢ + c dtrec dt sat + iono i trop + Effect of F-layer of ionosphere with thickness 870 km. 18-22 May 2015 9 / 27 . both in the L-band.42MHz and L2 = 1227.3 = 2 Li Zzsat N(z)dz = zrec 40.

TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations Receiver Independent EXchange (RINEX) FORMAT Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 10 / 27 .

TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) Slant TEC is extracted from pseudoranges P1 and P2 The STEC is expressed in Total Electron Content Units (TECU): TECU=1016 electrons per m2 Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 11 / 27 .

18-22 May 2015 12 / 27 . sin z 0 = sin z VTEC cos z 0 RE + H United Nations Krasnoyarsk.TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations How to Convert STEC in to VTEC ? STEC vs VTEC The VTEC is estimated at each Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) from the ionospheric mapping function F (z 0 ) according to figure: F (z 0 ) = Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) STEC 1 RE = .

Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis 4 Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 13 / 27 .

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Recent Earthquake Observations A map for Tashkent and Kitab GNSS stations during January 2011 and April 2015. Blue stars indicate positions of GNSS stations in Tashkent and Kitab. 18-22 May 2015 14 / 27 . Red circle indicates the position of earthquake epicenter.

1 5.119N 39.4 5.D-3.8 Precursors D-2 D-2.279N 42.0 earthquakes during 2011-2015 with identified Seismo-Ionospheric TEC precursors.1 5.931N 26.082N 36.147N Lon 72.698E 67.D-5 Krasnoyarsk.8 6.708E 77.4 7.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis The parameters of M>5.248N 36.219E 79.151N 36.751E 70.605N 40.6 5.875E 71.920E 71.254E 66.D-4 D-4 D-8 D-2 D-2.D-3 D-8 D-3.7 7.432N 36.2 6.518N 40.707E United Nations M 6.105N 36.502N 37.1 5.316E 70.368E 69.345E 65.7 5.500E 70.D-5 D-2 X D-1.581E 84.951N 36.556N 28.454N 42.426E 69.D-7 X D-3 D-6 D-4.6 5. EQ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Y 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 2014 2014 2014 2015 M 01 03 07 06 07 07 09 01 03 05 09 06 11 11 04 Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) D 24 21 19 11 12 19 25 28 11 26 24 14 14 22 25 Lat 38.717E 77. 18-22 May 2015 15 / 27 .7 5.2 5.7 5.

P character denotes the precursor day. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 16 / 27 .Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Kitab GNSS station: January 24.1 EQ on 24-Jan-2011 in comparison with the monthly mean. 2011 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for Tajikistan M=6.

7 EQ on 11-June-2012 in comparison with the monthly mean.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Tashkent GNSS station: June 11 . 18-22 May 2015 17 / 27 . P character denotes the precursor day. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 2012 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Tashkent for Afghanistan M=5.

Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Kitab GNSS station: January 28 . 18-22 May 2015 18 / 27 . Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.1 EQ on 28-January-2013 in comparison with the monthly mean. 2013 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for Kazakhstan M=6. P character denotes the precursor day.

7 EQ on 26-May-2013 in comparison with the monthly mean. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Kitab GNSS station: May 26. P character denotes the precursor day. 2013 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for Uzbekistan M=5. 18-22 May 2015 19 / 27 .

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 20 / 27 .Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Kitab GNSS station: November 22 . P character denotes the precursor day. 2014 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for EQ on 22-November-2014 in comparison with the monthly mean.

18-22 May 2015 21 / 27 .Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Solar Flares What is the Solar Flares? Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

2014 Classification of Solar flare А(1-9)=(1-9)·10-8 Wt/м2 В(1-9) =(1-9)·10-7 Wt/м2 С(1-9) =(1-9)·10-6 Wt/м2 М(1-9)=(1-9)·10-5 Wt/м2 Х(1-n) =(1-n)·10-4 Wt/м2 Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 22 / 27 .Results obtained from GNSS data analysis X Solar Flare: March 29.

18-22 May 2015 23 / 27 . including Solar flare. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis X Solar Flare: March 29. 2014 Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for 16 consecutive days.

2015 (Nepal Earthquake) Vertical and Differential TEC variations above Kitab for Nepal M=7. P character denotes the precursor day. 18-22 May 2015 24 / 27 . Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.Results obtained from GNSS data analysis Kitab GNSS station: April 25 .8 EQ on 25-April-2015 in comparison with the monthly mean.

18-22 May 2015 25 / 27 .Conclusion Outline 1 Introduction 2 TEC extraction from GNSS data at Tashkent and Kitab stations 3 Results obtained from GNSS data analysis 4 Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.

18-22 May 2015 26 / 27 . Studied anomalous TEC signals and significant correlation in time between these TEC anomalies and the occurrence of the local earthquakes. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. Monitoring of variation of F-layer of ionosphere over Tashkent and Kitab Preliminary data on effect of ionospheric disturbances caused by seismic activity on radio wave propagation in F-layer of ionosphere The correctness of applied method of TEC extraction from GNSS data is confirmed by the sharp increase of TEC during the Solar flare of 29-March-2014. In general the anomalies occurred 1-8 days before the earthquakes as precursors.Conclusion Conclusion Ionospheric data in F-layer obtained on ground based navigation stations in Tashkent and Kitab are used for analysis of earthquake precursors.

Monitoring of variation of F-layer of ionosphere over Tashkent and Kitab Preliminary data on effect of ionospheric disturbances caused by seismic activity on radio wave propagation in F-layer of ionosphere The correctness of applied method of TEC extraction from GNSS data is confirmed by the sharp increase of TEC during the Solar flare of 29-March-2014. Studied anomalous TEC signals and significant correlation in time between these TEC anomalies and the occurrence of the local earthquakes. In general the anomalies occurred 1-8 days before the earthquakes as precursors. 18-22 May 2015 26 / 27 . Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.Conclusion Conclusion Ionospheric data in F-layer obtained on ground based navigation stations in Tashkent and Kitab are used for analysis of earthquake precursors.

Studied anomalous TEC signals and significant correlation in time between these TEC anomalies and the occurrence of the local earthquakes. In general the anomalies occurred 1-8 days before the earthquakes as precursors.Conclusion Conclusion Ionospheric data in F-layer obtained on ground based navigation stations in Tashkent and Kitab are used for analysis of earthquake precursors. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. 18-22 May 2015 26 / 27 . Monitoring of variation of F-layer of ionosphere over Tashkent and Kitab Preliminary data on effect of ionospheric disturbances caused by seismic activity on radio wave propagation in F-layer of ionosphere The correctness of applied method of TEC extraction from GNSS data is confirmed by the sharp increase of TEC during the Solar flare of 29-March-2014.

18-22 May 2015 26 / 27 . Studied anomalous TEC signals and significant correlation in time between these TEC anomalies and the occurrence of the local earthquakes. Monitoring of variation of F-layer of ionosphere over Tashkent and Kitab Preliminary data on effect of ionospheric disturbances caused by seismic activity on radio wave propagation in F-layer of ionosphere The correctness of applied method of TEC extraction from GNSS data is confirmed by the sharp increase of TEC during the Solar flare of 29-March-2014. Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. In general the anomalies occurred 1-8 days before the earthquakes as precursors.Conclusion Conclusion Ionospheric data in F-layer obtained on ground based navigation stations in Tashkent and Kitab are used for analysis of earthquake precursors.

Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk. In general the anomalies occurred 1-8 days before the earthquakes as precursors. Studied anomalous TEC signals and significant correlation in time between these TEC anomalies and the occurrence of the local earthquakes. 18-22 May 2015 26 / 27 .Conclusion Conclusion Ionospheric data in F-layer obtained on ground based navigation stations in Tashkent and Kitab are used for analysis of earthquake precursors. Monitoring of variation of F-layer of ionosphere over Tashkent and Kitab Preliminary data on effect of ionospheric disturbances caused by seismic activity on radio wave propagation in F-layer of ionosphere The correctness of applied method of TEC extraction from GNSS data is confirmed by the sharp increase of TEC during the Solar flare of 29-March-2014.

18-22 May 2015 27 / 27 .Conclusion Husan Eshquvatov (UBAI/INP) United Nations Krasnoyarsk.