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NASA

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Z

TECHNICAL

NOTE

D-882

i)
,

TN

!

STRESS

CONCENTRATIONS

IN

FILAMENTARY

STRUCTURES

i

By

John

Langley
Langley

NATIONAL
WASHINGTON

AERONAUTICS

M.

Hedgepeth

Research
Field,

AND

Center
Va.

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION
May

1961

,

r

"_

D-882

/

t_

(•

IA

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND

TECHNICAL

STRESS

NOTE

CONCENTRATIONS
By

IN

John

SPACE

M.

ADMINISTRATION

D- 882

FILAMENTARY

STRUCTURES

Hedgepeth

SUMMARY

Theoretical
sheet

of

analyses

parallel

are

filaments

made

which

of

the

carry

normal

in a matrix
which
carries
only
shear.
infinity
is assumed
and small-deflection
Static
and dynamic
stress-concentration
ments
being
broken
dynamic
overshoot
dynamic-response
broken
filaments

are determined.
resulting
when

the

is

obtained

distributions
loads

In

all cases,
elasticity
factors
due

Particular
filaments

factor
increases
from
is increased
from one

dynamic-response
factor
the filament
sheet.

stress

a

are

hole

is

a

imbedded

uniform
loading
at
theory
is used.
to one or more
fila-

attention
is
are suddenly

1.15 to 1.27
to infinity.

when

and

in

as
A

paid
the
broken.

The

the number
of
somewhat
lower

suddenly

caused

in

INTRODUCTION

or

Structures
fabricated
from
plied
are becoming
prevalent

fine filaments
that
are
in flight
applications.

wound,
Many

woven,
solid-

propellant
rocket-motor
cases,
for instance,
are being
constructed
by
winding
resin-coated
glass
filaments
on a mandrel.
The high-strength
glass
filaments
carry
the pressurization
loads
and the resin
forms
a
matrix

which

produces

a unitized

efficient

material.

tions
make
use of the good
foldability
of coated
large,
low-density
structures
into
small
volumes
by mechanical
means
or inflation
is desired.

Other

applica-

fabrics
to package
until
their
erection

One of the necessary
factors
in the rational
design
of any structure
is a knowledge
of the behavior
of stresses
in the neighborhood
of
discontinuities
such as holes
and reinforcements.
Whereas
much
information
is available
about
stress
concentration
in materials
which
can
be
of

considered
filamentary
Whenever

stress,
through
rium.

as continuums,
configurations.
one

or

more

little

fibers

is

is

known

suddenly

about

broken

such

in

stress

a

fabric

behavior

under

the load
in the broken
fiber
or fibers
must
be transferred
the matrix
to the adjacent
fibers
in order
to restore
equilibOf interest
is not only
the resulting
static
stress
state
but

2
also the dynamic overshoot which occurs during the transient phase. Both
of these results are obtained in this paper for several types of "cutouts"
in the simple case of an infinite
flat sheet of parallel
filaments
stressed in uniform tension along the direction
of the filaments.
The model treated is that which is commonin shear-lag analyses;
that is, it is composedof tension-carrying
elements connected by purely
shear-carrying material.
The static problem is solved first
and the
details of the dynamic analysis are relegated to the appendix. The
results are essentially
exact within the framework of small-deflection
elasticity
theory.
SYMBOLS
a,b

major

d

filament

EA

extensional

Gh

shear

Kc

stress-concentration

factor

for

a

Ke

stress-concentration

factor

for

an

stress-concentration

factor

for

r

load

in

for

m

mass

per

n_m

indexes

P

applied

force

Pn

load

nth

Pn

dimensionless

r

number

R( )

real

and

minor

axes

ellipse

spacing
stiffness

stiffness

in

of

nth

part

length

on

a

filament

matrix

filament

at

broken

nth

filaments

variable

filament

hole

elliptical

broken

with

filament

in

circular

influence-function

associated

each

load

of

the

filament

unit

of

of

of

a

hole

filaments

solution

filament

infinity

i' . ._ elliptical v2: + _x 2 solution parallel to filaments coordinates ) 8y2 an asterisk denotes Laplace transform in time ANALYSIS The configuration with the coordinate and by a constant distance upward.3 S Laplace t time U transform displacement n U variable of nth filament dimensionless displacement dimensionless displacement Z_ of nth filament L _i:_ 1 _ O displacement filament for influence-function X coordinate parallel Y coordinate normal Z complex _c dynamic-response factor for a circular hole _r dynamic-response factor for filaments 8 transform :2 :F of nth to filaments to filaments variable r broken variable dimensionless coordinate (l dimensionless stress T dimensionless time cp. The coordinate under consideration is shown in figure i together notation systems. The filaments are separated and are numbered from -_ to _ from the bottom along the filaments is denoted by x and the " .

t).i conditions filament. called the Pn(X. per unit length at that filament.O) = P: o 1 at J . t) For x uniform large. Thus 0 or n _ approaches r) f the = p the (4) following initial conditions (_) Pn(X'O) aUn-(x. for filaments. the force in force which is denoted pn(±_. broken r The (2) at x = 0 m and the broken filaments. remainder are 0_n <= r . (n < each filament as p.t) = 0 (0 _ n _ r - I) f (3) un(0. nth the the ax-- assumption with the the the EA a2un + Gh where the associated (I) ax shear nth 0 and i are shear l)st stiffness of then filathe requires a2un = m at2 has been made that the mass nth filament is concentrated filaments The (n + filament + shown intact. In denote the broken and shown general.t) are For the required: = 0 time-dependent problem. applied of course.4 displacement by of Un(X. extensional length I - in Un)/d Equilibrium of stiffness the bay of between where an Gh element is of In figure i. let appropriate boundary are: h Pn(O.t) at location force and in the is given in Pn = EA- x nth and time filament terms of t is given (positive un in ten- by Bun where EA force per ment is is the unit Gh(un+ matrix. sion) is the nth filament Similarly.

o) : o J displacements are related (9) by (lO) . let n (6) L i< x i = _ t=m From tion these equations is obtained: the 1" following partial-differential--difference _2U n _2U n --b_2 + with boundary Un+ I - 2U n + initial Un_ I (7) bT2 conditions Un(O./. 5 Nondimensionalization / In order to obtain a convenient form Pn = PPn un =P_U for the problem._): 0 (n < Pn(O. T) (0 <: n <= Pn(_+% and equa- T) = 0 0 or r - n _ i) r) (8) = 1 conditions A Pn(_. :3 .O) The dimensionless forces and = i I bun b-C (_. :.:_'.: _"i. :']'.

by Ln(_) and Vn(_). J of m. approach is Consider a all filaments the zeroeth at x = 0 of and displacements of influence functions can then lem in the following manner: they be apply convenient filament but the filament a to for unit neither sheet which zeroeth one amount.6 Solution The equation conditions ary conditions at Pn this difficulty. solely.in which end of that is.hand side set equal to zero and boundary (8). all the other filaments. following technique. m _ -- Ln_m(_) Um(O Vn-m(_) Um(O) ) oo O0 Un(_) : _ + _ m__ But boundary conditions (8) _ yield _ first r-1 m=O (11) r-1 Un(_) = _ + /___ Vn-m(_) Um(O) m=O since Um(O) = 0 for other values r-i 0 = 1 + . and second Ln_m(O) Urn(O) (0 <= n <r= - i) m=O which is the specification of the boundary conditions on the loads. The solution is complicated by the fact that the bound- nor no of Displace 0 and the tain zero displacement the resulting forces are mixed. superposed to obtain the Un overcoming has are I main- and denote This set actual prob- OO = 1 Pn(_) + _ /. L (12) 5 0 2 . /. x = The Influence-function applied edge load intact. Static Problem boundary-value problem for static loading is constituted by (7) with the right.

8) = _ n=or. of as the set of however.2Vn + Vn_l = 0 be (13) L 1 _5 with the conditions 0 2 Vn(O) : 1 (n = 0) Vn(O) : 0 (n / O) (14) dVn dq.(_)--0 In order to solve this problem. e -in8 (15) oo inversely. influence r equations back the in Ln for values functions the equations Ln. Determination for _ > 0 stated be and First.e) summing (14) yields 7 (18) (_. let OO V(_.- must The r unknowns (ll) be problem to yield determined. Vn(_) /.e): o . can + vn+l.7 Equations Um(0). multiplying equation (13) by e -in8 4 sin 2 Similar treatment of the boundary and eV=o = 1 over all n gives (17) conditions V(o.e) einede 2x Then. Vn(_ ) _ 1 (16) V(_. the They entire (12) can constitute a solved substituted solution.

results substitution into This process are given in has the . necessary For since in the terms of present attention purposes_ will be Weber however_ centered on functions the of reduction Ln(O ) .8 The solution satisfying equations (17) _ V=e Thus.L which nary can be expressed argument. filaments symmetry.o24/429 and factor.dVn (0) imagi- 1 is 5 not ¢ which d_ is given simply by Ln(O ) = 4 (20) (4n 2that Stress-concentration the maximum force adjacent for r virtue to the broken of factors. from equation and (18) is -21sin--_ I_ (16) Vn (_) = i cos /0 _ n0 e-2_sin_ Bessel and de (19) . is Thus_ given the by problem intact stress-concentration Pr(O) which Lr_m(O) Um(O) equals indicates filament factor P_I(O) Kr by Now.Inspection of the occurs at _ = 0 in the first broken ones. r-i Pr(O) = i + _ (21) m=O Solution of equations equation (21) yields been carried out for following the an (12) for the Um(O) stress-concentration r of i to 6 and the table r Kr i 2 4/3 3 4 5 6 64/35 8/5 128/63 512/231 1.

and dynamic stress-concentration because of overshoot. The simple and are similar r = 3. Factor is defined stress. the decays in is carried away = i and r = 2 one-degree-of-freedom principal result to be extracted The dynamic_response maximum filaments stress are given factor and the static in the following existence _r upper for the of limit is shown greater increasing an is apparent discussed stress-concentration a few system. more complicated and are timewise variation of the of calculation upper limit on the the next section. the oscillatio:_ component appearing in the is the largest one. The in figure 2 for I. As can an be seen value. as the energy oscillations for r to those of from oscillation a figure that OF 2. L i Solution of Dynamic taken of Problem 5 0 2 If a Laplace transform is the time-dependent equation (eq. (8)). 2. between and 3 broken . from equaof in RESULTS cycles For to factor the steady-state by wave motion. its correctto its validity for all r. table: Values as the for i_ ratio 2. In all cases.Inspection of these values K r Although ness for values that they can be 4 6 8 (2r + 2) 3 • 5 • 7 (2r + i) written as (22) = this result has not the first six values of show been established lends credence in general. tions are similar in form to the static equations and approach can be are considerably resulting used for their solution. the first peak the stress at this peak determines the factor Solutions because of This DISCUSSION exhibits resulting same type The details of the solutions contained in appendix A. an apparent second-mode history. numbers of broken filaments were not obtained difficulty differential the the dynamic time of analysis. (7)) and boundary conditions (eq. the value dynamic overshoot and is the the Dynamic-Response the the to infinity are fairly is more complex. and 3 broken filaments.

_ i 10 The dynamic overshoot of broken filaments. to be the highest r _r 1 1. This can be seen. from These the ends figure 3 together regimes are very any greater '" Vt . limiting case itself in appendix has been the greater the difis readily amenable B.r 2 which order is obtained difference either by in equation direct derivation or by (7) with its appropriate replacing the derivative second- equivalent. the stress tance from the end dynamic problem. discontinuities the varying as the inverse of the slit. Only the first two with the eventual static value. . but the analysis The stringer stiffness in is for and is treated of broken of broken filaments. and finite shear stiffness.27 mr- are for shown in subsequent not contribute factor is slope. ficulty to the of an infinite number greater the number solution. difficult stresses.15 2 1. infinite extensional stiffness the transverse direction. Its governed by the nondimensionalized differential equation behavior v2U _ (23) _. As is well-known_ this procedure leads to an infinite stress-concentration factor in the static problem. The stress strength arise from C exhibits discontinuities in the reflection of waves issuing to obtain and The resulting should be an upper regimes Results apparently would dynamic-response _ which power of similarly the in disthe Thus_ the dynamic behavior can be studied by finding the strength or magnitude of the stress singularity central result of appendix B is shown in figure 3As of the slit. one-half behaves limit on = 1. £" .19 3 i. analysis in appendix B deals with the so-called continuous sheet which is an orthotropic mediumwith finite extensional in the longitudinal direction. " . The breaking of an infinite number of filaments is accomplished by placing a finite-length slit in the sheet. 20 thus apparently The overshoot in the limit as increases with can therefore be the number of increasing reasonably number expected broken filaments filaments. . Results noted. the variation of with time.- As approaches infinity.{.

These factors should increase overshoot act to the reduce the dynamic relative actuality. a stringer sheet with an hole that transforms into a circle in the nondimensional The the acting results highest in the derived in this dynamic-response neighborhood of REMARKS paper lead to the factor applicable suddenly induced apparent to the discontinuities This value was obtained for the case of a long slit in packed filaments. large may follow Hooke's law very well. the static problem is variety of hole shapes for a stringer tical shapes. 2. The analysis is given also of the the elliptical hole in the nondimensional coordinate system to equation (23). Of interest also is the case in which a hole is punched out of the material. conclusion stresses to a decrease the small-deflection 1. only slits have been treated. For example. into analysis was a hole based can on be expected elastic. and fiber straightening. derived in a large for ellipappendix C e (24) L i where 5 sions of pertaining elliptical . The resulting the slit. to the possible In view effects of sheets usually have and. problem variation is dynamic-response is _c which is considerably less than = 1. filamentary through the thickness is sheet of filaments stress concentrations overshoot. the matrix or the large nonlinear effects in the form of plastic defordeflections. whereas the fila- and. the dynamic in appendix C and the 4. In of filaments ments themselves weave introduces mations. dynamic future . Because of the usefulness of conformal mapping techniques.0 e is coordinate ratio between the transverse system has a static Kc with factor longitudinal dimen- time is shown in figure factor of boundary. Either reducing the number of broken opening response The the slit factor. factor = 1 + analyzed In is for particular. the stress-concentration to be Ke easily sheet.08 that for CONCLUDING that and stress-concentration In this latter case of a circular tractable.In the foregoing sections. closely or dynamic- theory of a two-dimensional a large number medium. smallness these other of not the factors._" ii Hole in a stringer sheet. the of at least.27.

1961. 20.12 theoretical work on lyzing better models this subject of various Langley Research Center. Space March Administration. would seem to be best devoted to types of filamentary construction. and Va. ana- .. National Aeronautics Langley Field.

13 APPENDIX DYNAMIC h v•i- • .s) m=O from which the following equations are obtained r-i 0=_+ 1 L*_m(O.s) m=O (A3) r-i U_(_. denoted taking by transforms yields L 1 --+Un+ I. be Then.s) = _ + Vn_m(_.:i BEHAVIOR OF SHEET A WITH SUDDENLY time of BROKEN FILAMENTS / Let U_(_.s) U_n(O.O) 0 or (O<=n<=r n >= r) - i) (Ae) s (9) the condition on Pn has been converted = _. can be made of the unit loads and displacements solution to in the form write the solution r-1 P_(_.(2+ +Un_ i =-s_ (_) 2 U*(O.T) variable. s ) (0 <= n <= r - i) (A4) .s ) I_(O.s) of the Laplace where equations s (7) transform is and the in transform (8) Un(_. use transformed conditions Un(_. m=0 s ) Urn(O.s) = 0 (n < s) =o _ where to for in the initial condition Again.s) = _ + Ln_m(_.

: (A6) '/ _i ¸ '.e) (Ag) einede -/[ (A7) become. after multiplying by e -in8 and . s) m=0 The transform filaments As of is the set before.s) =1 (n = Vn(O .. s) = F + Lr_m(0.. v_(_.(2+ s2)v_ + N__ = o and the conditions v_(o. intact S) be can filament determined.s) this transformed -_n for factor (_.s) load. the r broken trans- is r-i P*(0.s)= 0 In order to solve these equations. Also.s.< and :• !2= /_ v-'_(_.e) = I Vn(_'s) e-ine n=or.s) satisfies (A6) _2 + %+1 . inversely.14 and from formed which load in the unknown the first _(0. where V*(_. . . s) U*(0. stress-concentration equal to L_(_. s) = (n _ O) 0 0) (A7) _n (_.s. let 0O (AS) _(_.s)= Then equations summing.

. \Lo + L1/ _(s) : _ -_ L0 where.._ ¸_ 15 _2V* (4 sin 2 e + s2)_-_ = o _2 (_o) %'_(0. stringers. the functional .i . -_ + LoL 2 .. 2.s. and 3 broken yields l * Lq[ (A_4b) K_(s)= .e) The solution for _>0 L 1 _5 0 is V*=e which = o -_4sin 2 e+s2 2 _ (All) yields 2 _i/4sin 2 8 :Vn( _.2L I dependence indicated 1 in equation (AI3) • .s) 1 or. is omitted.s ) - the 70 s2 fo _ I 1 x cos ne 4 sin 2 _e + s2 de Solving equations (A4) and substituting into transform of the stress-concentration factor. e) = l _v (oo. this procedure (AI3) equation (A5) gives For l. cos nee ' _ + de (AZ2) finally Ln(O. for brevity. s." : ' i: i' .

can be The form of the in the sequel. elliptic is integrals modulus k= These elliptic integrals modulus also guided the But the square root essentially as need not extend a branch cut The in s to Since Kr have can be along no zeros contour C branch points of conformal equation the (AI3) imaginary integral integrand closed 4 for large values infinity and L_ inversion the 1+ have choice Kr(m ) = except around axis 1 thought of Therefore. K*(s)eSmds Jordan's possibly infinity the be of s. F_ Kr(m) A so to variable points complete and inversion the complex branch s closed-form that suitable a series is as = evaluation evaluation 1 2-_ of is _ _C * Kr(s)eSmds this integral desirable. made single between p/7+i_ _7-i_° -2i as behaving the branch valued by and cuts placing 2i. s) each complex as a study can be of shows s-plane.0. side denominators the and of integral shrunk path to the Thus. One is probably method impossible which is very follows: Let S This maps the entire of the unit circle. mapping used on on branch lemma the the and branch left-hand cut.) is satisfies around can at k = ±i.16 take The task the inverse requires Ln remains evaluate transform integration in therefore. necessary. = Z - 1 Z s-plane outside the The counterclockwise branch cut into contour around the the interior branch . Such (Actually. _ with to of the L_(0. the cut. in a function equations functions that written as L_ of study the has terms (AI4). of and. a of of This of behavior of s at s = ±2i.

. eo = Cn zn n=-oo _ path dz of even expansion i the singularity. L 1 . z2) Z + n k=O 5 where is the binomial Making number. Ln(0.2A 17 cut maps into a clockwise contour just inside the unit circle. Furthermore.. involves finding the coefficient of part only _+ 1 within by the residue _Sg] The y essential is therefore given simply The determination of this the gives (AI9) .. It negative If even the bracketed involves po_ers in the expansion Z2 __ i e can be positive e i i _ (A_8) integration except -7 of The determined of T powers the value of Kr(_) other from of z. z) which the is unit - expandable circle. part equations So must only be (A17) the sought.. Z . in i _ _ J0 _l cos a power - 2z2cos n0 series e + z4 z in z d0 that is convergent inside Thus.i) z 2 z2+l 7e residue of the integrand at z = 0. the change of variable Kr(T ) = The at integrand the has origin no which 1 zeroeth power K singularities i_' an of z in the series for and (A14).

18 there results CO = -i C n = J0(2T) + 2J2(2T)+ • • • + 2Jn_2(2T ) + Jn(2T) . of the series gives the results is obtained and the results are L i 5 0 2 .4.i (n = 2.6. .) m where Jn Proper plotted in quite is the Bessel function of manipulation and evaluation figure 2. Good convergence accurate. the first kind.

The problem as stated is in exactly the same mathematical form as the problem of determining the perturbation velocity potential in steady supersonic flow (with Math number of _) over a thin rectangular wing (of span 2) with a very long chord. Finally.y. The time coordinate T corresponds to the coordinate in the stream direction and the x and y coordinates correspond to the coordinates in the crossflow plane.y. the use of an analogy to obtain the stress behavior near the ends of the sllt is more convenient. This method obtains the upwash velocities in terms of explicit quadratures which are expressible in terms of tabulated functions for the regions close to the leading edge.o)= o _T (BS) _--_ (o.19 APPENDIX The DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR required stress B OF A SUDDENLY distribution SLI_I_ED STRINGER SHEET can be written _U = 1 + 8x where u satisfies the following dimensionless V2u- ••i_2 (B1) boundary-value problem 82u (B2) 8T 2 u(x.y plane and approaches except zero on the slit at infinity.O)= _u (x. Rather than solve this boundary-value problem directly. . that of Eward in reference i is particularly applicable. the stresses along the y-axis are the same as the upwash velocities in the tip regions in the plane of the wing.T)=-i _x (-i < y < i) J Also. running u is regular from y = -i everywhere to y = 1 in the x. Zero time is equivalent to the leading edge of the wing which has a constant slope of -1 in the stream direction.y. The existence of this analogy allows the use of the well developed methods of supersonic wing theory.

< 4) K Z(v) is Jacobi's The results are plotted in figure 3. snv where zeta (2 < i. the maximum value of C is reached at T = 2. neighborhood of tedious The the analysis tip y _ c(T__) + o(1) where C(T) is the strength of the singularity (s4) and is 2 C(T) = i given by (o < I. 2. The asymptotic value for large T is obtained from the solution of the static problem: V2u =0 bu (O. Jacobi's elliptic (See ref.y.< 2) =: (BS) c(_) where K ond kind _2 and with and the The quantity E are modulus primes refer v is complete to elliptic functions determined of from snv is function. As can be seen. Finally.T) =-1 (-I < y < l) .) the the integrals of the first and sec- comodulus equation = IT+ 2T 2 sine.2O The and actual only shows is of the detailed resulting that the the form analysis by formulas stress at the of Eward's interest y-axis in the method are is somewhat given here.

_ the stress at the y-axis is 5 (_(O.y): so that c(_): Y (y>l) .•.r / 21 r_ i_ ¸ 9< q _.•.•i.y) = 0 (lyl< i) 2 _(O.i _ The solution can be seen to be : whence the stress +l- x) is (x + iy)2 + ' L In particular. _•_'ii_•i I_ ¸¸ •?r¸1i _::_L_• ¸._- • • p• i I _i ._ _ _.

O) = x 5u (x.y.y.8x (Cl) i i where u 5 satisfies 0 2 272u .22 APPENDIX STRESS The stress x-direction at CONCENTRATIONS IN A C STRINGER SHEET in an infinite stringer sheet with infinity and with a suddenly induced WITH A HOLE uniform stress in the hole can be written _U .-_i 5x These equations stresses around cular hole. an are solved elliptical in hole Static For the first case_ the sequel and the for dynamic Problem let x + iy = c cosh(_ + i_) two cases: stresses the around static a cir- .O) = 0 8T and at boundary the 1 (c3) conditions boundary of the hole: _u : o (c4a) _n and at infinity: _U (c4b) -.82u and the following initial conditions u(x.

_') :o u(m. 0 < _ < 2_) solution u(_. is the ratio of the only for result. = 1 + transverse a > b Therefore. = _0 (at the boundary of the is =i+ ba As derived._) This problem has the c e_cos (o < _ < 2_) ¢ (_ >>q)o._) - ° a- (a cosh _ - b sinh _)cos b Therefore.23 2 •hen the olli(x) 2se Iv\ + The differential (bl equation = 1 and L 1 maps into c cosh qD0 = a c sinh _0 = b boundary 82u + _ conditions 82u where = _0 become 0 (q_ >=q)o. this result tion for a _ b yields tration factor is is valid the same Ke where e ellipse.qD_ oos_ oos_/ b = _. But a the similar stress derivaconcen- e (C5) and longitudinal axes of the . 1 a- The hole maximum on the stress occurs y-axis) and a- b at @ cosh _ sinh. o < _ < 2_) 5 0 2 _u(_o.

1 Kc(T) valued the has 1 F y+i_ (ell) 2_i JT-i_ _i(_) s2 a branch a branch cut point along at the s = 0 negative and can real be axis.e. t . y = i is _/l__sh = ! _ ! Kl(S) "/_2 s s2 Ki(s) The stress-concentration equation (ClO). of unit radius.) following results _+ + 8r2 T_- cos 8 (c7) r2 8e2 _u_ (1.s) = o _r (c8) u*(r. e.s) ~ r cos @ (r >> l) S The solution is (C9) u*(r' e' s) . 24 Dynamic For and the take dynamic the problem Laplace boundary-value with transform problem Problem a circular hole x = r cos @_ y = r sin 8 in time. let (C6) J (See appendix s2u * = -sr The A.. transform of the stress at x = O.c°sIrse _ere KI prime is denotes The the modified Bessel iIs Kl(S Kl(Sr) )' function of the second kind and differentiation. made The single . factor The by integrand placing is given by (Cl0) the inverse KI(S) eSTds transform of Thus.

The results stress-concentration ratios forming a term-by-term the right-hand side of mation except for inversion equation for these of the (CI0). by interpolation approximate method by value using the by was using then series ! expansion for K I.. This latter after some manipulation can integral half- the resi- be can warped then be s0 T .e e i + + Jo yield symmetrically of s02 i + _02 _ e. of of the found zeros first of 2" The the Newton iteration The result is I0 and and II kind.50118i was evaluated numerically after substitution V Ten + intervals in the range are accurate 0 < --.64355 equation (C12) 0. T3 48 + " (T << l) (ClS) . . sO The making integral the in = -0.. K3/2. smallest values values were of obtained T..e -2m v < I were used together with Simpson's rule. approximately and Kl(S)._ II(_ CO ! where are sO and modified the s0 Bessel value of zeros of KI/2."4 The the small results are plotted in figure 4. the integration path around the branch rewritten in real form to sOT Kc(T) = 2- in K_. By taking path in equation the left-hand account of (CII) cut.. by the (conjugate) functions The refined are means sO was . The by per- asymptotic-series expansion of The resulting small-time approxi- is T2 _c(T) = 1 + T .T_d_ _ O3 (C12 ) + o(_) . : ?< k % i!_ ¸_ 25 integrand plane also which dues at into the has two arise poles from the located zeros these poles.

L. Elliptic Function Tables. 1950. Eward. Dover Pub- . Milne-Thomson. Use of Source Distributions for Evaluating Theoretiof Thin Finite Wings at Supersonic Speeds. 951.: cal Aerodynamics Rep. Inc.: Jacobian lications.. NACA 2. 1950. M. John C.26 REFERENCES i.

X _ P 0 8ci < 8 _n %uawDli3 .

i _L _1 OI _ I I I 0 _'0 O'i d_ l-=d _'I 0"8 cO OJ • .

0 .•ep_w Oh OJ Xluappns s! %!IS l 0 oo I I I _'0 enlo^ o!%o$S .

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Static and dynamic stressconcentration factors due to one or more filaments being broken are determined. II. 30p. uniform loading at infinity is assumed and small-deflection elasticity theory is used. Hedgepeth.NASA TN D-882 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Structures. (NASA TECHNICAL NOTE I. I-ledgepeth. Hedgepeth. $0. Structures. (NASA TECHNICAL NOTE I. Hedgepeth. NASA NASA L Milts . NASA NASA NASA TN D-882 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. John NASA TN D-882 (Initial NASA distrib uti°n:_ 51. uniform loading at infinityis assumed and small-deflection elasticity theory is used. 59. John Mills NASA TN D-882 (Initial NASA distribution: 51. Stresses andioads.) D-882) Theoretical analyses are made of the stress distributions in a sheet of parallelfilaments which carry normal loads and are imbedded in a matrix which carries only shear. Structures. May 1961. Stresses and toads. Hedgepeth. particular attention is paid the dynamic overshoot resulting when the filaments are suddenly broken. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES. uniform loading at infinity is assumed and small-deflection elasticity theory. 30p. 52. $0. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES. uniform loading at infinity is assumed and small-deflection elasticity theory is used. John Mills NASA TN D-882 (Initial NASA distrib uti°n:_ 51. (NASA TECHNICAL NOTE I. OTS price. Structures.75. $0. In allcases. Stresses and loads. May 1961. Stresses and toads. 30p. 52. Static and dynamic stressconcentration factors due to one or more filaments being broken are determined. In all cases. Theoretical analyses are made of the stress distributions in a sheet of parallel filaments which carry normal loads and are imbedded in a matrix which carries only shear.) D-882) NASA TN D-882 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OTS price. John M. Hedgepeth. $0. In all cases.75. Hedgepeth. Particular attention is paid the dynamic overshoot resulting when the filaments are suddenly broken.) D-882) NASA TN D-882 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Theoretical analyses are made of the stress distributions in a sheet of parallel filaments which carry normal loads and are imbedded in a matrix which carries only shear. II.75. Static and dynamic stressconcentration factors due to one or more filaments being broken are determined. OTS price. 30p. STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES. particular attention is paid the dynamic overshoot resulting when the filaments are suddenly broken. II. Particular attentionis 19aidthe dynamic overshoot resultingwhen the filaments are suddenly broken. Staticand dynamic stressconcentrationfactors due to one or more filaments being broken are determined. John M. May 1961.is used. 52.. John M. OTS price. II. In all cases. May 1961. (NASA TECHNICAL NOTE I. Hedgepeth.) D-882) Theoretical analyses are made of the stress distributions in a sheet of parallel filaments which carry normal loads and are imbedded in a matrix which carries only shear.75. John M. John Mills NASA TN D-882 (Initial NASA distribution:` 51.