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AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

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ANSWER KEY.

Problem 1

The volume of a cylinder equals k in.3, where k is a constant. Find the proportions of the
cylinder that minimize the total surface area.

k k
V r 2 h k  h  2
 r 2
r 
k
A r 2 r 2 2r r 2 2r 2 2kr 1

dA
4r 2kr 2 0
dr
2k k k
4r  2  r 3   r 3
r 2 2
4k
A "(r ) 4 3 0  min
r
3
k k
2 3 3
k k k r 2 k 1
h  r 2  3   2
 2   .
  2 h k k k 2k 2
3
 2

Problem 2

A charter bus company advertises a trip for a group as follows: at least 20 people must
sign up. The cost when 20 participate is $80 per person. The price will drop by $2 per
ticket for each member of the traveling group in excess of 20. If the bus can
accommodate 28 people, how many participants will maximize the company’ s revenue?

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD
20 x 28 p( x) price function
80 x 20

p( x) 
80 2( x 20) 120 2 x 20 x 28

 80 x 1600 x 20
R( x) xp( x)  2
Max[ R( x)]  R '( x) 0
x(120 2 x) 120 x 2 x 20 x 28
R '( x) 120 4 x 0  x 30
ENDPOINTS
R(20) 1600
R(28) 284 6 1792  x 28, max[ R( x)].
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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Problem 3

Use linear approximation to estimate the area of the circle when its radius is increased
from 3 to 3.01. Does linear approximation generate an overestimate or an
underestimate?

A r 2
A '(r ) 2r
A(3) 9
A '(3) 6
LINEAR APPROXIMATION
~
f ( x m) f ( x) f '( x) m
x 3 x m 3.01
~
f (3.01) f (3) f '(3)(3.01 3) 960.01 9.06
A(3.01) actual area 3.012 9.0601
UNDERESTIMATE.

Problem 4

Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x 2 y 2 9 0 at (1, 2 2) . Verify your
answer by plotting the given curve and tangent in the same window.

FULL DIFFERENTIATION
x 2 y 2 9 0
2 x 2 yy ' 0
x 1 2
y '   f '(1)  
y 2 2 4
Tangent : y mx b
2 2
m 2 2  1 b
4 4
7 2 2 9 2
b y x OR 4 y  2 x 9 2.
4 4 4

Problem 5
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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2 2
Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x 2 xy 3 y 2 at ( 2, 0) . Verify
your answer by plotting the given curve and tangent in the same window.

x 2 2 xy 3 y 2 2  2 x 2 xy '2 y 6 yy ' 0  y '(6 y 2 x) 2 y 2 x
y x 0 2
y'   f '( 2)  1
3 y x 0 2
y mx b  0 1 2 b  b  2
TANGENT LINE : y x  2.

Problem 6

a) Let y f ( x) x 3 x 2 , and let g be the inverse function . Evaluate g '(0).
f ( g ( x)) x WHY ? f '( g ( x )) g '( x ) 1  f '( g (0)) g '(0) 1
f '( x) 3x 2 1; g (0) 1 because f (1) 0.
1 1 1 1
g '(0)     .
f '( g (0)) f '(1) 3 1 4
b) Find the derivative of the inverse function of y f ( x) 2 x3 5 x
y f ( x) 2 x3 5 x  f '( x) 6 x 2 5.
f 1 ( x) g ( x).
f ( g ( x)) x
f '( g ( x)) g '( x) 1
1 1
g '( x)   .
f '( g ( x)) 6( g ( x)) 2 5

Problem 7

Find the points where the tangent to the curve 4 x 2 9 y 2 36 is vertical.

4 x 2 9 y 2 36
8 x 4 x
 8 x 18 yy ' 0  y '   .
18 y 9 y
SET y 0.  4 x 2 36  x 3.
Graphically,x 3 are two vertical tangents to the ellipse at the endpoints of
its major axis.

Problem 8
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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3
Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that the equation 2 x 3 x 1 has exactly one
root.

From the Intermediate Value Theorem we know that the given polynomial has a root
between -1 and 0 because f(-1) is negative and f(0) is positive, so the curve must
intersect the horizontal axis somewhere in the open interval (-1, 0). Call this x=a.

Suppose that there exists a second root x=b. By the mean value theorem, there exists a
point between a and b such that its tangent line to the graph has slope
f (b) f ( a ) 0 0
 0
b a b a

Differentiating f(x), we get:

f '( x) 6 x 2 3 3( x 2 1) . We clearly see that the slope of the tangent is always
nonzero (in fact, greater than zero) so our assumption is false. There cannot be a second
root!
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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Problem 9

Use calculus to study the behavior of y f ( x) x 4 4 x3 4 x 2 , then sketch its graph.

y f ( x) x 4 4 x3 4 x 2  f '( x) 4 x 3 12 x 2 8 x 4 x( x 2 3 x 2) 4 x( x 1)( x 2)
3
Critical Numbers: x 0,1, 2. f "( x ) 12x 2 24 x 8 4(3x 2 6x 2)  x 1 
3
3 3 3 3
f "( x) 0 when x 1  , x 1  :::::::::: f ''( x ) 0 when 1  x 1  .
3 3 3 3
...0  decreasing, concave up.
3
0...1   increasing, concave up.
3
3
1 ...1  increasing, concave down.
3
3
1...1   decreasing, concave down.
3
3
1  ...2  decreasing, concave up.
3
2...  increasing, concave up.
Problem 10

Find any maximum, minimum, or inflection points of y f ( x) x 3 5 x 2 3 x 6 , then
sketch the curve.
y f ( x) x 3 5 x 2 3 x 6
f '( x ) 3x 2 10 x 3 (3x 1)( x 3); x 13 , x 3.
f ''( x ) 6 x 10; x 53 .
f '( 13 ) 0, f ''( 13 ) 0  local max by the second derivative test.
f '(3) 0, f ''(3) 0  local min by the second derivative test.
f '' changes sign (hence f changes concavity) at x 53 but f '( x) has the same sign on either side of x 53 .
 x 53 inflection point.
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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Problem 11

Find the global max and global min of f on a) 2 x 3 , and b) 0 x 3 , if
y f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 12 x .

Use the Closed Interval Method.

a) 2 x 3
y f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 12 x
f '( x) 6 x 2 6 x 12 6( x 2)( x 1)  x 2, 1.
f (1) 7
f (2) 20
f (2) 4
f (3) 9.
global max  x 1
global min  x 2
b)0 x 3
f (2) 20
f (0) 0
f (3) 9.
global max  x 0
global min  x 2.
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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Problem 12

2 x 1
Use calculus to sketch the graph of y  .
x 1

2( x 1) (2 x 1) 3
y'  2
 2
3( x 1) 2
( x 1) ( x 1)
6
y '' 6( x 1) 3 
( x 1)3
vertical asymptote at x=1.
y '' 0  concave up wherever it is defined.
y ' 0  always decreasing wherever it is defined.

lim f ( x )  
x 1 

lim f ( x)  
x 1 

Problem 13

A particle moves along a line according to the law s (t ) 2t 3 9t 2 12t 4 , where t 0.

a) Find all t for which the distance s(t) is increasing.

s '(t ) 6t 2 18t 12 6(t 1)(t 2)
s '(t ) 0  0 t 1; 2 t.

b) Find all t for which the velocity of the particle is increasing.

v(t ) s '(t ) 6t 2 18t 12 6(t 1)(t 2)
a(t ) v '(t ) 12t 18
3
v '(t ) 0  t  .
2

c) Given that speed is equal to the absolute value of velocity, find all t for which the
speed of the particle is increasing.
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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2

6t 18t 12 0 t 1 and 2 t
r (t )  2

| 6t 18t 12 |6t 2 18t 12 1 t 2
The choice of the inequality sign is arbitrary at the critical points because
v(t ) 0 at t 1 and at t 2.
Now we differentiate over each piece:
12t 18 0 t 1 and 2 t
r '(t ) 
12t 18 1 t 2
::::::: 0 t 1 and 2 t ::::::::
12t 18 0  t 1.5
r '(2) 0 so :
r '(t ) 0  t 2
:::::::1 t 2 ::::::::::
12t 18 0  t 1.5
r '(1) 0 so :
r '(t ) 0  1 t 1.5.
Speed is increasing when 1 t 1.5 and when t 2.

d) Find the speed when t 32 .

| 64 |1.5.
r (1.5) | v (1.5) |

e) Find the total distance traveled between t 0 and t 4.

s(4) s(0) | s(1) s(0) | | s (2) s (1) | | s (4) s (2) |

| 1 
( 4) | | 0 
( 1) | | 28 0 |34.

Problem 14

Answer the questions in Problem 13 if s (t ) t 4 4t 3 .
AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY
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4 3
s (t ) t 4t .
a)
s '(t ) 4t 3 12t 2 4t 2 (t 3)
s '(t ) 0  t 3.
s (t ) is increasing when t 3.
b)
v(t ) s '(t ) 4t 2 (t 3)
a(t ) v '(t ) 12t 2 24t 12t (t 2)
v '(t ) 0  t 2.
c)
speed r (t ) | v(t ) |

| 4t 2 (t 3) |4t 2 (3 t ) when 0 t 3
r (t )  2
4t (t 3) when 3 t

2

12t 24t 12t (2 t ) when 0 t 3
r '(t )  2

12t 24t 12t (t 2) when 3 t
:::::: 0 t 3 ::::::::
r '(t ) 0  2 t 0  t 2.
r '(0) 0 so :
r '(t ) 0  0 t 2.
:::::: 3 t ::::::::::
r '(t ) 0  t 2 0  t 2.
r '(3) 0 so :
r '(t ) 0  t 3.
Speed is increasing between t 0 and t 2 and when t 3.
d )r (1.5) | v(1.5) || s '(1.5) |272
e) s (4) s (0) | s (3) s (0) | | s (4) s (3) |
| 27 0 | | 0 
( 27) |54.

Problem 15

The velocity of a particle moving along a line is given by v(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 . If initially the
particle is at x = 3 on the line, find its position when t =2.

v(t ) x '(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 .
s (0) 3
x(t ) s (t ) t 4 t 3 c  c 3.
x(2) 16 8 3 8 3 11.