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AP Calculus AB&BC

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Page 1

ANSWER KEY.

Problem 1

**The volume of a cylinder equals k in.3, where k is a constant. Find the proportions of the
**

cylinder that minimize the total surface area.

k k

V r 2 h k h 2

r 2

r

k

A r 2 r 2 2r r 2 2r 2 2kr 1

dA

4r 2kr 2 0

dr

2k k k

4r 2 r 3 r 3

r 2 2

4k

A "(r ) 4 3 0 min

r

3

k k

2 3 3

k k k r 2 k 1

h r 2 3 2

2 .

2 h k k k 2k 2

3

2

Problem 2

**A charter bus company advertises a trip for a group as follows: at least 20 people must
**

sign up. The cost when 20 participate is $80 per person. The price will drop by $2 per

ticket for each member of the traveling group in excess of 20. If the bus can

accommodate 28 people, how many participants will maximize the company’ s revenue?

**CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD
**

20 x 28 p( x) price function

80 x 20

p( x)

80 2( x 20) 120 2 x 20 x 28

80 x 1600 x 20

R( x) xp( x) 2

Max[ R( x)] R '( x) 0

x(120 2 x) 120 x 2 x 20 x 28

R '( x) 120 4 x 0 x 30

ENDPOINTS

R(20) 1600

R(28) 284 6 1792 x 28, max[ R( x)].

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

Page 2

Problem 3

**Use linear approximation to estimate the area of the circle when its radius is increased
**

from 3 to 3.01. Does linear approximation generate an overestimate or an

underestimate?

A r 2

A '(r ) 2r

A(3) 9

A '(3) 6

LINEAR APPROXIMATION

~

f ( x m) f ( x) f '( x) m

x 3 x m 3.01

~

f (3.01) f (3) f '(3)(3.01 3) 960.01 9.06

A(3.01) actual area 3.012 9.0601

UNDERESTIMATE.

Problem 4

**Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x 2 y 2 9 0 at (1, 2 2) . Verify your
**

answer by plotting the given curve and tangent in the same window.

FULL DIFFERENTIATION

x 2 y 2 9 0

2 x 2 yy ' 0

x 1 2

y ' f '(1)

y 2 2 4

Tangent : y mx b

2 2

m 2 2 1 b

4 4

7 2 2 9 2

b y x OR 4 y 2 x 9 2.

4 4 4

Problem 5

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

Page 3

2 2

Find the equation of the tangent line to the curve x 2 xy 3 y 2 at ( 2, 0) . Verify

your answer by plotting the given curve and tangent in the same window.

x 2 2 xy 3 y 2 2 2 x 2 xy '2 y 6 yy ' 0 y '(6 y 2 x) 2 y 2 x

y x 0 2

y' f '( 2) 1

3 y x 0 2

y mx b 0 1 2 b b 2

TANGENT LINE : y x 2.

Problem 6

**a) Let y f ( x) x 3 x 2 , and let g be the inverse function . Evaluate g '(0).
**

f ( g ( x)) x WHY ? f '( g ( x )) g '( x ) 1 f '( g (0)) g '(0) 1

f '( x) 3x 2 1; g (0) 1 because f (1) 0.

1 1 1 1

g '(0) .

f '( g (0)) f '(1) 3 1 4

b) Find the derivative of the inverse function of y f ( x) 2 x3 5 x

y f ( x) 2 x3 5 x f '( x) 6 x 2 5.

f 1 ( x) g ( x).

f ( g ( x)) x

f '( g ( x)) g '( x) 1

1 1

g '( x) .

f '( g ( x)) 6( g ( x)) 2 5

Problem 7

Find the points where the tangent to the curve 4 x 2 9 y 2 36 is vertical.

4 x 2 9 y 2 36

8 x 4 x

8 x 18 yy ' 0 y ' .

18 y 9 y

SET y 0. 4 x 2 36 x 3.

Graphically,x 3 are two vertical tangents to the ellipse at the endpoints of

its major axis.

Problem 8

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

Page 4

3

Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that the equation 2 x 3 x 1 has exactly one

root.

**From the Intermediate Value Theorem we know that the given polynomial has a root
**

between -1 and 0 because f(-1) is negative and f(0) is positive, so the curve must

intersect the horizontal axis somewhere in the open interval (-1, 0). Call this x=a.

**Suppose that there exists a second root x=b. By the mean value theorem, there exists a
**

point between a and b such that its tangent line to the graph has slope

f (b) f ( a ) 0 0

0

b a b a

Differentiating f(x), we get:

**f '( x) 6 x 2 3 3( x 2 1) . We clearly see that the slope of the tangent is always
**

nonzero (in fact, greater than zero) so our assumption is false. There cannot be a second

root!

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

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Problem 9

Use calculus to study the behavior of y f ( x) x 4 4 x3 4 x 2 , then sketch its graph.

y f ( x) x 4 4 x3 4 x 2 f '( x) 4 x 3 12 x 2 8 x 4 x( x 2 3 x 2) 4 x( x 1)( x 2)

3

Critical Numbers: x 0,1, 2. f "( x ) 12x 2 24 x 8 4(3x 2 6x 2) x 1

3

3 3 3 3

f "( x) 0 when x 1 , x 1 :::::::::: f ''( x ) 0 when 1 x 1 .

3 3 3 3

...0 decreasing, concave up.

3

0...1 increasing, concave up.

3

3

1 ...1 increasing, concave down.

3

3

1...1 decreasing, concave down.

3

3

1 ...2 decreasing, concave up.

3

2... increasing, concave up.

Problem 10

**Find any maximum, minimum, or inflection points of y f ( x) x 3 5 x 2 3 x 6 , then
**

sketch the curve.

y f ( x) x 3 5 x 2 3 x 6

f '( x ) 3x 2 10 x 3 (3x 1)( x 3); x 13 , x 3.

f ''( x ) 6 x 10; x 53 .

f '( 13 ) 0, f ''( 13 ) 0 local max by the second derivative test.

f '(3) 0, f ''(3) 0 local min by the second derivative test.

f '' changes sign (hence f changes concavity) at x 53 but f '( x) has the same sign on either side of x 53 .

x 53 inflection point.

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

Page 6

Problem 11

**Find the global max and global min of f on a) 2 x 3 , and b) 0 x 3 , if
**

y f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 12 x .

Use the Closed Interval Method.

a) 2 x 3

y f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 12 x

f '( x) 6 x 2 6 x 12 6( x 2)( x 1) x 2, 1.

f (1) 7

f (2) 20

f (2) 4

f (3) 9.

global max x 1

global min x 2

b)0 x 3

f (2) 20

f (0) 0

f (3) 9.

global max x 0

global min x 2.

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

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Problem 12

2 x 1

Use calculus to sketch the graph of y .

x 1

2( x 1) (2 x 1) 3

y' 2

2

3( x 1) 2

( x 1) ( x 1)

6

y '' 6( x 1) 3

( x 1)3

vertical asymptote at x=1.

y '' 0 concave up wherever it is defined.

y ' 0 always decreasing wherever it is defined.

lim f ( x )

x 1

lim f ( x)

x 1

Problem 13

A particle moves along a line according to the law s (t ) 2t 3 9t 2 12t 4 , where t 0.

a) Find all t for which the distance s(t) is increasing.

**s '(t ) 6t 2 18t 12 6(t 1)(t 2)
**

s '(t ) 0 0 t 1; 2 t.

b) Find all t for which the velocity of the particle is increasing.

**v(t ) s '(t ) 6t 2 18t 12 6(t 1)(t 2)
**

a(t ) v '(t ) 12t 18

3

v '(t ) 0 t .

2

**c) Given that speed is equal to the absolute value of velocity, find all t for which the
**

speed of the particle is increasing.

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

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2

6t 18t 12 0 t 1 and 2 t

r (t ) 2

| 6t 18t 12 |6t 2 18t 12 1 t 2

The choice of the inequality sign is arbitrary at the critical points because

v(t ) 0 at t 1 and at t 2.

Now we differentiate over each piece:

12t 18 0 t 1 and 2 t

r '(t )

12t 18 1 t 2

::::::: 0 t 1 and 2 t ::::::::

12t 18 0 t 1.5

r '(2) 0 so :

r '(t ) 0 t 2

:::::::1 t 2 ::::::::::

12t 18 0 t 1.5

r '(1) 0 so :

r '(t ) 0 1 t 1.5.

Speed is increasing when 1 t 1.5 and when t 2.

d) Find the speed when t 32 .

| 64 |1.5.

r (1.5) | v (1.5) |

e) Find the total distance traveled between t 0 and t 4.

s(4) s(0) | s(1) s(0) | | s (2) s (1) | | s (4) s (2) |

| 1

( 4) | | 0

( 1) | | 28 0 |34.

Problem 14

**Answer the questions in Problem 13 if s (t ) t 4 4t 3 .
**

AP CALCULUS: Fifteen Problems & One Assignment ANSWER KEY

Page 9

4 3

s (t ) t 4t .

a)

s '(t ) 4t 3 12t 2 4t 2 (t 3)

s '(t ) 0 t 3.

s (t ) is increasing when t 3.

b)

v(t ) s '(t ) 4t 2 (t 3)

a(t ) v '(t ) 12t 2 24t 12t (t 2)

v '(t ) 0 t 2.

c)

speed r (t ) | v(t ) |

| 4t 2 (t 3) |4t 2 (3 t ) when 0 t 3

r (t ) 2

4t (t 3) when 3 t

2

12t 24t 12t (2 t ) when 0 t 3

r '(t ) 2

12t 24t 12t (t 2) when 3 t

:::::: 0 t 3 ::::::::

r '(t ) 0 2 t 0 t 2.

r '(0) 0 so :

r '(t ) 0 0 t 2.

:::::: 3 t ::::::::::

r '(t ) 0 t 2 0 t 2.

r '(3) 0 so :

r '(t ) 0 t 3.

Speed is increasing between t 0 and t 2 and when t 3.

d )r (1.5) | v(1.5) || s '(1.5) |272

e) s (4) s (0) | s (3) s (0) | | s (4) s (3) |

| 27 0 | | 0

( 27) |54.

Problem 15

**The velocity of a particle moving along a line is given by v(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 . If initially the
**

particle is at x = 3 on the line, find its position when t =2.

v(t ) x '(t ) 4t 3 3t 2 .

s (0) 3

x(t ) s (t ) t 4 t 3 c c 3.

x(2) 16 8 3 8 3 11.

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