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# AP CALCULUS AB WINTER TERM Score

QUIZ ONE NAME ___________________________ ____ /100

Please show work for full credit! Graphing calculators are permissible. Answers on

1) Carefully describe the method of linear approximation and illustrate its use with
an example of your own. (10 points)
L(x) = f(a) + f’
(a) (x-a) will approximate f(x) near x=a. Remember: L(x) is a
linear function.
2) If two resistors with resistances R1 and R2 are connected in parallel, as in the
figure, then the total resistance R, measured in ohms ( ), is given by:
1 1 1
 
R R1 R2

If R1 and R2 are increasing at rates of 0.3 /s and 0.2 /s, respectively, how
fast is R changing when R1 = 80  and R2 =100 ? (30 points)
Phillips-Park solution
1 1 1 R R2 RR
   1 R 1 2
R R1 R1 R1 R2 R1 R2
Fully differentiating:

'
dR  R1 R2  ( R1 R2 )( R1 R2 )'( R1 R2 )' ( R1 R2 )
 
 
dt 
R1 R2  ( R1  R 2 ) 2

' ' ' '
( R R2 )( R1 R2 R1 R2 ) ( R1 R2 )( R1 R2 )
 1 
(80 100) 2
(80 100)(0.3  100 0.2 80) (0.3 0.2)(100  80)
 2

(80 100)
(180)(30 16) (0.5)(8000) 4280
 2
 0.1320987/ s
(180) (180) 2

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3) Two people start from the same point. One walks east at 3 mi/h and the other
walks northeast at 2 mi/h. How fast is the distance between the people changing
after 15 minutes? (30 points)
Hong-Chandler approach
Using the cosine rule we can write distance between the two as a function of
the angle and their distances from the origin:
2
z 2 x 2 y 2 2 xy cos(45 o ) x 2 y 2 2 xy
2
z 2 x 2 y 2  2 xy
dx / dt 2mi / h
dy / dt 3mi / h
x 2 * 1 / 4 1 / 2mi
y 3 * 1 / 4 3 / 4mi
z  (1 / 2) 2 (3 / 4) 2 (6 2 / 16)  (4 / 16) (9 / 16) (6 2 / 16) 
 (13 6 2 ) / 16  13 6 2 / 4mi
dz / dt ?
Fully differentiate the implicit equation:

2 zz ' 2 xx'2 yy' 2( xy'x' y )
2 zz ' 2(1 / 2)(2) 2(3 / 4)(3)  2 ((1 / 2)(3) 2(3 / 4))
2 zz ' 2 (9 / 2)  2 ((3 / 2) (3 / 2))
2 zz ' (4 / 2) (9 / 2) (6 2 / 2)
2 zz ' (13 6 2 ) / 2
1 1
z '  (13 6 2 )  (13 6 2 )
4z 4( 13 6 2 / 4)
1
z'  (13 6 2 )  13 6 2 mi / h
13 6 2
Q: How does this result compare to the one we determined in class?

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4) Find the linear approximation of the function g ( x) 3 1 x at a 0 and use it to
approximate the numbers 3 0.95 and 3 1.1 . Illustrate by graphing g and the
tangent line. [Use your TI.] (10 points)
First derive and then use the formula from problem 1.
1 2
g ' ( x)  (1 x) 3
3
1
g ' (a) g ' (0) 
3
g (a ) g (0) 1
1 1
L( x) g (a ) g ' (a )( x a ) 1  x  x 1
3 3
Plug x= -.05 and x= 0.1 into L(x) to generate estimates.

5) A particle moves on a vertical line so that its coordinate at time t is
x  b 2 c 2 t 2 , t 0 , where b and c are positive constants. (20 points)

a) Find the velocity and acceleration functions.
b) Show that the particle always moves in a positive direction.
x  b 2 c 2 t 2
1 2 2 2
1
2 2 c 2t
x'  (b c t ) (2c t ) 
2 b 2 c 2 t 2
a) 1
c 2 b 2 c 2 t 2 c 2 t 12 (b 2 c 2 t 2 ) 2
(2c 2 t )
x' '  
b 2 c 2 t 2

1
c 2 b 2 c 2 t 2 c 4 t (b 2 c 2 t 2 ) 2
t
 acceleration
b 2 c 2 t 2
b) Show that x’ is always positive.

**BONUS QUESTION**
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6) Show that if f and f are differentiable, then
1
f ' ( f 1 ( x))  1'
f ( x)
Let f-1 = g.
f(g(x)) = x because f and g are inverses of each other.
Deriving on both sides, we get:
f’(g(x)) g’(x) = 1  f’ (g(x)) = 1 / g’
(x). Done.

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