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AP CALCULUS AB WINTER TERM Score

QUIZ FOUR NAME COMMENTS/SOLUTIONS ____ /50

Please show work and justify your answers for full credit! Please present your work
neatly.

1) Find the inflection points of f ( x) x 4 x 3 3 x 2 2. (5 points)
f ' ( x) 4 x 3 3 x 2 6 x x(4 x 2 3 x 6)
f ' ' ( x) 12 x 2 6 x 6 6(2 x 2 x 1) 6(2 x 1)( x 1)

x 6(2 x 1) ( x 1) f ' ' ( x)
x 1 - - +
1 x 12 - + -
x 12 + + +

x f’
(x) f’
’(x)
x  1  Positive positive
x  1 Positive negative
x  12
 negative negative

x 1 Negative Positive
2

The first derivative test suggests that f(x) has no local extreme values at x
-1 and ½ since the sign of f’(x) does not change. The second derivative
changes sign at -1 and ½, indicating a change in concavity. Since f(x) is
continuous at these points we conclude that -1 and ½ are the inflection
points of f(x).

2) Sketch the graph of f ( x) 3 x 5 5 x 3 with the aid of a graphing
calculator. Use calculus to discuss the behavior of f(x) with respect to:
location of the critical points, intervals where the function is
increasing/decreasing, and concavity. (10 points)

f ' ( x) 15 x 4 15 x 2 15 x 2 ( x 2 1) 15 x 2 ( x 1)( x 1)
f ' ' ( x) 60 x 3 30 x 30 x(2 x 2 1) 30 x( 2 x 1)( 2 x 1)
Three critical numbers: - 1,0,1. .
2
Second derivative zeros: 2
,0, 2 2 .
Construct tables and run both tests to determine -1 and 1 as local
extremes (the only two points where the first derivative changes sign).
The second derivative is negative at -1 and positive at 1, thus -1 and 1
are local max and min, respectively. The second derivative test is
inconclusive at x=0 because f’ (x)=f’
’(x)=0. 0 is an inflection point
because f’ ’
(x) changes sign while f’(x) is negative on both sides. Examine
the second derivative at the other two zeros of f’ ’
(x) to determine two
additional inflection points. One may also comment on the end
behavior of f(x): what happens to f(x) as x approaches positive infinity?
Negative infinity?
3) Find values of a and b so that the function f ( x) x 2 ax b has a local
minimum at point (6, -5). (5 points)

Note that f(x) does have a local minimum because the leading
coefficient is positive!

f '( x ) 2 x a 0
We set f’ (x) equal to zero to find the critical point because the
‘undefined’ case is impossible. Because a second degree polynomial is
differentiable and continuous everywhere, we must have f’ (x)=0 at its
local extreme.
f '( x) 2(6) a 0
a 12
Now we find b:
5 f (6) 6 2 12 
6 b
b 31
2
So that: f ( x) x 12 x 31

4) Sketch the graph of f(x) given that:

f ' (2) 0; f ' ( x) 0 when x 2 ; f ' ( x) 0 when x 2

f ' ' (4) 0; f ' ' ( x) 0 when x 4 ; f ' ' ( x) 0 when x 4 (5 points)
Assuming f(x) is continuous; the first condition suggests that 2 is a local
minimum. The second derivative changes sign at 4 whereas the first
does not; this makes 4 an inflection point and the graph of f(x) is
concave up for x less than 4 and concave down for x greater than 4.

5) Let f be a function with f(x) > 0 for all x. Set g 1f
a) If f is increasing in an interval around x 0 , what about g?
b) If f has a local maximum at x1 , what about g?
c) If f is concave down at x 2 , what about g? [5 points]
a)
Why is g’ (x) negative in the given interval?
It follows that g is decreasing on that interval.
gf 1
g ' f gf ' 1
gf ' f '
g'  2 0
f f
b) f’changes sign from positive to negative; from the result in part a)
we have that g’ changes sign from negative to positive, hence it has
a local min at x1.
c)
f 1g
f ' gg2 '
[ g ' g 2 ]' g '( 2) g 3 g 'g '' g 2 2( g ') 2 g 3 g '' g 2
f '' 
2( g ')2 g '' 2( g ')2 g '' g
f ''  3  2  0
g g g3
2( g ') 2 g '' g 0
g '' g 2( g ') 2
g '' g 2( g ') 2
2( g ') 2
g ''  0
g
g '' 0
g concave .
6) For what values of a and b does the function
f ( x) x 3 ax 2 bx 2 have a local maximum at x = -3 and a local
minimum at x = -1? [10 points]
f '( x) 3x 2 2ax b
f '( 3) 3( 3) 2 2a(3) b 0
f '( 1) 3( 1) 2 2a( 1) b 0
27 6a b 0 27 6a b 0 18 2b 0
  
3 2a b 0 9 6a 3b 0 3 2a b 0
18 2b b 9 b 9
  1 
2a b 3 a 2 (b 3) a 6
We still need to verify that f’
(x) changes from positive to negative at -3
and from negative to positive at -1.
f '( x) 3 x 2 12 x 9 3( x 2 4 x 3) 3( x 3)( x 1)
x 3  f '( x) 0
3 x 1  f '( x) 0
1 x  f '( x) 0, as wanted .

7) Sketch the graph of a function that satisfies all of the given conditions:
f (0) f ' (0) f ' (2) f ' (4) f ' (6) 0,
f ' ( x) 0 if 0 x 2 or 4 x 6,
f ' ( x) 0 if 2 x 4 or x 6,
[10 points]
f ' ' ( x) 0 when 0 x 1 or 3 x 5,
f ' ' ( x) 0 if 1 x 3 or x 5,
f ( x) is an even function .

Start at the origin:
-increasing and concave up between 0 and 1.
-1 is an inflection point.
-increasing and concave down between 1 and 2.
-2 is a local max.
-decreasing and concave down between 2 and 3.
-3 is an inflection point.
-decreasing and concave up between 3 and 4.
-4 is a local min.
-increasing and concave up between 4 and 5.
-5 is an inflection point.
-increasing and concave down between 5 and 6.
-6 is a local max.
-decreasing and concave down for x values greater than 6.

Since f(x) is even, we can reflect over the y-axis to obtain the other half of
the graph.

Bonus Question [2 points: No partial credit]

Suppose f and g are both concave upward on (, ). Under what
condition(s) will the composite function f o g be concave upward?