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QUIZ FOUR NAME COMMENTS/SOLUTIONS ____ /50

Please show work and justify your answers for full credit! Please present your work

neatly.

**1) Find the inflection points of f ( x) x 4 x 3 3 x 2 2. (5 points)
**

f ' ( x) 4 x 3 3 x 2 6 x x(4 x 2 3 x 6)

f ' ' ( x) 12 x 2 6 x 6 6(2 x 2 x 1) 6(2 x 1)( x 1)

x 6(2 x 1) ( x 1) f ' ' ( x)

x 1 - - +

1 x 12 - + -

x 12 + + +

x f’

(x) f’

’(x)

x 1 Positive positive

x 1 Positive negative

x 12

negative negative

x 1 Negative Positive

2

**The first derivative test suggests that f(x) has no local extreme values at x
**

-1 and ½ since the sign of f’(x) does not change. The second derivative

changes sign at -1 and ½, indicating a change in concavity. Since f(x) is

continuous at these points we conclude that -1 and ½ are the inflection

points of f(x).

**2) Sketch the graph of f ( x) 3 x 5 5 x 3 with the aid of a graphing
**

calculator. Use calculus to discuss the behavior of f(x) with respect to:

location of the critical points, intervals where the function is

increasing/decreasing, and concavity. (10 points)

**f ' ( x) 15 x 4 15 x 2 15 x 2 ( x 2 1) 15 x 2 ( x 1)( x 1)
**

f ' ' ( x) 60 x 3 30 x 30 x(2 x 2 1) 30 x( 2 x 1)( 2 x 1)

Three critical numbers: - 1,0,1. .

2

Second derivative zeros: 2

,0, 2 2 .

Construct tables and run both tests to determine -1 and 1 as local

extremes (the only two points where the first derivative changes sign).

The second derivative is negative at -1 and positive at 1, thus -1 and 1

are local max and min, respectively. The second derivative test is

inconclusive at x=0 because f’ (x)=f’

’(x)=0. 0 is an inflection point

because f’ ’

(x) changes sign while f’(x) is negative on both sides. Examine

the second derivative at the other two zeros of f’ ’

(x) to determine two

additional inflection points. One may also comment on the end

behavior of f(x): what happens to f(x) as x approaches positive infinity?

Negative infinity?

3) Find values of a and b so that the function f ( x) x 2 ax b has a local

minimum at point (6, -5). (5 points)

**Note that f(x) does have a local minimum because the leading
**

coefficient is positive!

f '( x ) 2 x a 0

We set f’ (x) equal to zero to find the critical point because the

‘undefined’ case is impossible. Because a second degree polynomial is

differentiable and continuous everywhere, we must have f’ (x)=0 at its

local extreme.

f '( x) 2(6) a 0

a 12

Now we find b:

5 f (6) 6 2 12

6 b

b 31

2

So that: f ( x) x 12 x 31

4) Sketch the graph of f(x) given that:

f ' (2) 0; f ' ( x) 0 when x 2 ; f ' ( x) 0 when x 2

**f ' ' (4) 0; f ' ' ( x) 0 when x 4 ; f ' ' ( x) 0 when x 4 (5 points)
**

Assuming f(x) is continuous; the first condition suggests that 2 is a local

minimum. The second derivative changes sign at 4 whereas the first

does not; this makes 4 an inflection point and the graph of f(x) is

concave up for x less than 4 and concave down for x greater than 4.

**5) Let f be a function with f(x) > 0 for all x. Set g 1f
**

a) If f is increasing in an interval around x 0 , what about g?

b) If f has a local maximum at x1 , what about g?

c) If f is concave down at x 2 , what about g? [5 points]

a)

Why is g’ (x) negative in the given interval?

It follows that g is decreasing on that interval.

gf 1

g ' f gf ' 1

gf ' f '

g' 2 0

f f

b) f’changes sign from positive to negative; from the result in part a)

we have that g’ changes sign from negative to positive, hence it has

a local min at x1.

c)

f 1g

f ' gg2 '

[ g ' g 2 ]' g '( 2) g 3 g 'g '' g 2 2( g ') 2 g 3 g '' g 2

f ''

2( g ')2 g '' 2( g ')2 g '' g

f '' 3 2 0

g g g3

2( g ') 2 g '' g 0

g '' g 2( g ') 2

g '' g 2( g ') 2

2( g ') 2

g '' 0

g

g '' 0

g concave .

6) For what values of a and b does the function

f ( x) x 3 ax 2 bx 2 have a local maximum at x = -3 and a local

minimum at x = -1? [10 points]

f '( x) 3x 2 2ax b

f '( 3) 3( 3) 2 2a(3) b 0

f '( 1) 3( 1) 2 2a( 1) b 0

27 6a b 0 27 6a b 0 18 2b 0

3 2a b 0 9 6a 3b 0 3 2a b 0

18 2b b 9 b 9

1

2a b 3 a 2 (b 3) a 6

We still need to verify that f’

(x) changes from positive to negative at -3

and from negative to positive at -1.

f '( x) 3 x 2 12 x 9 3( x 2 4 x 3) 3( x 3)( x 1)

x 3 f '( x) 0

3 x 1 f '( x) 0

1 x f '( x) 0, as wanted .

**7) Sketch the graph of a function that satisfies all of the given conditions:
**

f (0) f ' (0) f ' (2) f ' (4) f ' (6) 0,

f ' ( x) 0 if 0 x 2 or 4 x 6,

f ' ( x) 0 if 2 x 4 or x 6,

[10 points]

f ' ' ( x) 0 when 0 x 1 or 3 x 5,

f ' ' ( x) 0 if 1 x 3 or x 5,

f ( x) is an even function .

**Start at the origin:
**

-increasing and concave up between 0 and 1.

-1 is an inflection point.

-increasing and concave down between 1 and 2.

-2 is a local max.

-decreasing and concave down between 2 and 3.

-3 is an inflection point.

-decreasing and concave up between 3 and 4.

-4 is a local min.

-increasing and concave up between 4 and 5.

-5 is an inflection point.

-increasing and concave down between 5 and 6.

-6 is a local max.

-decreasing and concave down for x values greater than 6.

**Since f(x) is even, we can reflect over the y-axis to obtain the other half of
**

the graph.

Bonus Question [2 points: No partial credit]

**Suppose f and g are both concave upward on (, ). Under what
**

condition(s) will the composite function f o g be concave upward?

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