# Leveling

Chapter 4

Why do we perform leveling surveys?
To determine the topography of sites for design
projects
Set grades and elevations for construction
projects
Compute volumes of earthwork

1

Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico New Datum: NGVD88 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1988 (NGVD88) Completed in 1991.Old Datum: Mean Sea Level Mean Sea Level (MSL) Average height over a 19-year period 26 gauging stations along the Atlantic Ocean.000 km of additional leveling Single tidal gauge bench mark located in Quebec. Canada Tidal gauge bench called Father Point/Rimouski 2 . refined 1929 survey Included 625.

Operators at Father Point Leveling Terms 3 .

Effects of Curvature and Refraction The earth’s curvature causes a rod reading taken at point B to be too high. The effect of refraction is to make objects appear higher than they really are thus making the rod readings too low. Effects of Refraction 4 .

S. Customary Units) And Rm = 0.S.093 M2 = 0.667 M2 = 0.0239 F2 (in feet) (U.0785 K2 (in meters) (Metric Units) Where: M – distance in miles F.distance in thousands of feet K – distance in kilometers Refraction Equations Rf = 0.Curvature Equations Cf = 0. Customary Units) And Cm = 0.011 K2 (in meters) (Metric Units) Where: M – distance in miles F.distance in thousands of feet K – distance in kilometers The refraction correction is about one-seventh the effect of curvature but in the opposite direction.0033 F2 (in feet) (U. 5 .

0206 (1000/1000)2 = 0.0675 K2 (in meters) (Metric Units) where: M – distance in miles F .distance in thousands of feet K – distance in kilometers Effects of Curvature and Refraction For 300’ shot: hf = 0. 6 .0206 F2 (in feet) (U.0206 (300/1000)2 = 0.S.0206’ Under the most adverse conditions (very hot humid conditions) the error associated with refraction can be as high as 0.574 M2 = 0.10’ for a 200-foot shot.0019’ For 1000’ shot: hf = 0. Customary Units) and hm = 0.Combined Equations hf = 0.

7 .Eliminating Effects of Curvature and Refraction Proper field procedures (taking shorter shots and balancing shots) can practically eliminate errors due to curvature and refraction. Trigonometric Leveling Used in areas of very steep or rugged terrain or when you have inaccessible points.

Trigonometric Leveling Procedure Equations: If S and the vertical angle are determined: V = S sin α or V = S cos z If H and the vertical angle are determined: V = H tan α or V = H tan z The change in elevation between points A and B is: Δelev = hi + V – r where: hi – height of the instrument above point A 8 .

Trigonometric Leveling Procedure: Long Lines 9 . the effects of curvature and refraction must be taken into account. For shots longer than 1000 feet. These equations are applicable when shots are taken at less than 1000 feet.Equations (continued): and: r – rod reading at B when the vertical angle is read If r is made equal to the hi. then the two values cancel and the computations are simplified.

10 .0206 F2 See Example 4-1 on page 82 and Example 4-2 on page 83.Equations: Δelev = hi + V + (C – R) – r where: (C –R) is computed from the equation: 0.