An-Najah National University

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Study and Design of An Automatic Control System for
Electric Energy Management - Case Study
An-Najah National University

By

Mohammed Khaleel Sa'di "Rashid Al_Mubayed"

Supervisor

Dr. Samer Mayaleh

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Master in Clean Energy and Conservation Strategy Engineering, Faculty
of Graduate Studies, at An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine

2008

iii

DEDICATION
To the owners of the glowing hearts and burning vigor.…………………..
To those who sacrificed their money, souls and blood for their faith...........
To those who faced the devil of evil and the devil of craving……………..
To Al-Aqsa Intifada martyrs and all martyrs of Palestine…………………
To those who loved Palestine as a home land and Islam as a way of life…...
To my tender mother, honored father and dear sisters.
To all of them,
I dedicate this work

iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It's an honor for me to have the opportunity to say a word to thank all
people who helped me to carry out this study, although its impossible to
include all of them here.
To begin with, I'd like to thank Dr. Samer Mayaleh, assistance
professor of electrical engineering for his great and continues effort helping
me in all stages in this study. Dr. Samer gave me huge assistance through
his long experience in this field; he was also patient and scientific.
My thanks also go to the staff of Clean Energy and Conservation
Strategy Engineering Program in An-Najah National University, especially
Dr. Imad Ibrik, the director of Energy Research Center, and the coordinator
of this master program, for his valuable and helpful suggestions.
Finally, I couldn’t complete this Acknowledgment without express
my deep gratitude to my father for his support, my mother for her kindness
and patient, my sisters for there encouragement, and my friends for there
useful help, and to all people who contribute in this effort. Without all
those mentioned above this study could not have seen the light.

v Abbreviations ANSI ASHREA BACnet BAS CFL Cu EC ECO EMS EPA EUI FLA GHG HVAC IEC IP Km kVAR kWh LAN LLD LMS MAC MRS NIS O&M PEA PHP PIC PIR RLA SNMP SPBP TCP/IP TQM UDP US VBA XML American National Standards Institute American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers Building Automation Communications Network Building Automation System Compact Fluorescent Lamp Coefficient of Utilization Energy Conservation Energy Conservation Opportunity Energy Management System Environmental Protection Agency Energy Utilization Index Full Load Ampere Greenhouse Gases Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning Israeli Electric Corporation Internet Protocol Maintenance Factor Kilovolt Ampere Reactive Power Kilowatt hour Local Area Network Lamp Lumen Deprecation Lighting Management System Media Access Control Monitoring Remote System New Israeli Shekel Operation and Maintenance Palestinian Energy Authority Hypertext Preprocessor Programmable Interrupt Controller Passive Infrared Sensor Rated Load Ampere Simple Network Management Protocol Simple Pay Back Period Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Total Quality Management User Datagram Protocol Ultrasonic Sensor Visual Basic for Application Extensible Markup Language .

unless otherwise referenced.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻟﺏ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Student's name:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Signature:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Date:‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪Declaration‬‬ ‫‪The work provided in this thesis. is the‬‬ ‫‪researcher's own work.‫‪vi‬‬ ‫ﺇﻗـﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ ﻤﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫‪Study and Design of an Automatic control System for‬‬ ‫‪Electric Energy Management . and has not been submitted elsewhere for any other‬‬ ‫‪degree or qualification.Case Study‬‬ ‫‪An-Najah National University‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺁﻟﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺍﺸﺘﻤﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺠﻬﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﻤـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻜﻜل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻱ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻟﻨﻴل ﺃﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺤﺜﻲ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪.

285 .5 NIS NIS = $ 0.vii Values used Cost of one kWh = 0.73 NIS Cost of one liter of diesel #2 = 5.

4.2 2.3.2 2.1 2.4.1 3.1 3.1 2.3.3.2 2.3.3 1.1 2.4 2.5.2.4 3.2 2.1 Content LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDECE ABSTRACT CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Scope Objectives of the Study Methodology Thesis Outline CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The Need for Energy Management Control Systems and Computers Lighting controls Occupant needs Building operation Control selection guidelines Control devices Occupancy sensors Daylighting controls Building controls integration Protocols Integrated controls Energy savings Previous Studies CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION OF THE AUDITED UNIVERSITY Introduction New Campus Description University Layout University Faculties Building description Major energy consuming equipment Electricity bills Weekly load curve Data collection Boilers Page XI XIII XV XVI 2 6 6 7 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 23 23 24 25 26 27 32 33 33 35 35 35 37 39 41 41 .4.4.4.3.3.3 3.2.2 2.3.1.4 2.3.3.2 3.3.1 1. 1.5 3.2 3.1 2.2 1.4 3.4.1 2.1.3 2.3 3.4 3.3 2.3.5 2.4.viii TABLE OF CONTENTS No.4.

3 Software Language 66 5.2 Software Components 100 7.5 System Schematic Diagram and Its Main Components 89 6.5.5 Summary of the Saving Opportunities 59 CHAPTER FIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 5.4 Lighting System Saving Opportunities 53 4.4.2 Time of day/week impacts on energy savings 85 6.4 Lighting system 44 CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY AUDIT IN DIFFERENT FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY 4.4 Flow Charts 102 7.4.2 HVAC distribution system 41 3.4.1 Introduction 63 5.3 Software Language 102 7.2.ix No.5 Software Design 105 7.4.6 The Benefits of Networked Management 98 CHAPTER SEVEN Light Management and Control Web-Based Software Development 7.2 Software Components 64 5.3 Cooling system 73 5.6 Principle of the Software 108 .4 Power factor improvement 75 5.1 Introduction 100 7.5.4.5 Software Verification 78 CHAPTER SIX SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS 6.4.2 Methodology 81 6.1 Introduction 80 6.4.1 Lighting system (Lumen Method) 67 5.4 Implementation 88 6.3 Cooling System Saving Opportunities 52 4. Content Page 3.2.3 Scheduling Using EMS 86 6.1 Introduction 46 4.5.2 Heating system 71 5.4 Energy Conservation Measures Flow Charts 66 5.1 Total energy savings potential (Baseline Data) 83 6.3 Power factor improvement 42 3.2 Heating System Saving Opportunities 47 4.

3.6 9.3.1 8.2 8.3 Content CHAPTER EIGHT TESTING AND RESULTS Page Introduction PIC and Serial Interface Testing Occupancy Sensor Testing Commissioning adjustments Sensitivity to motion Timeout adjustment Daylight distribution XPort Configuration Energy and Cost Savings Results from Our System Economical Evaluation of the System CHAPTER NINE CONCLOUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES APPENDICES ‫الملخص‬ 111 111 112 112 113 114 114 115 116 118 123 123 125 126 130 ‫ب‬ .4 8. 8.3.5 8.4 8.x No.2 8.3 8.3.3 8.1 9.2 9.1 8.

6) 41 faculties Table (3.3) 49 arts boilers Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Table( 4.3) Major energy consuming equipments 36 Electrical energy use and cost for the university Table (3.7) 54 removal specified in appendix 2 Annual cost saving achieved upon lamps removal Table (4.8) Chillers nameplate (other types) 42 Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Table (4.2) 27 application and control type Table (2.7) Chillers nameplate 42 Table (3.6) HVAC saving for the university faculties 53 Annual energy saving achieved upon lamps Table (4.1) 20 lighting profile Lighting control energy savings examples by Table (2.11) 57 efficiency electronic ballasts .10) 56 reflectors in lamp fixtures in specified lamps Annual energy savings by installing highTable (4.2) Buildings description 35 Table (3.1) 33 the university Table (3.1) 48 engineering boilers Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of science Table (4.4) 37 faculties Diesel consumption and cost for the university Table (3.9) 55 reflectors Annual cost saving achieved upon the installing Table (4.xi LIST OF TABLES No. Table Page Electrical energy consumption in 2007.1) 3 West Bank universities Selecting control devices based on expected Table (2.2) 49 boilers Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of fine Table (4. for the Table (1.5) Boilers saving for the university faculties 51 Table (4.5) 38 faculties Boilers flue gas data measured at university Table (3.3) FY 96/97 savings & cost avoidance 28 The main faculties and its operating schedules in Table (3.8) 54 specified in appendix 2 Annual energy savings results when installing Table (4.4) 49 pharmacy boilers Table (4.

1) Table (6.3) Table Page Annual energy saving achieved upon the 57 replacement of the specified lamps Annual cost saving achieved upon installing 57 electronic ballasts. Table (4.12) Table (4.16) Table (5. connected lighting load.15) Table (4. and power density for each 117 application The effects of time delay on energy and cost 118 savings for the total monitoring period Capital investment cost of the system 119 .13) Table (4.2) Table (8.2) Table (8. and unoccupied 84 with lights on and off Average percentage of energy used and waste for 85 weekdays and weekends Descriptive statistics for room area.1) Table (8.1) Table (6.xii No.14) Table (4. and high efficiency lamps Domino Effect energy savings (DEES) 59 Domino Effect cost savings (DEES) 59 Summary of the saving opportunities 60 Energy saving report 78 Average percentage of time each area was occupied with lights on and off.

large 87 building .3) Figure (5.7) Figure (6.3) Figure (3.10) Figure(3.6) Figure (5. Figure (1.1) Figure (2.1) Figure (5.1) Figure (4.4) Figure (3.2) Figure (2.4) Figure (5.2) Figure (3.7) Figure (3.1) Figure (1.2) Figure Page Electrical energy consumption in 2007.8) Figure (3.11) Figure (4.9) Figure(3. fuel) 39 Weekly load curve for the faculty of Engineering 40 Weekly load curve for the faculty of Science 40 Weekly load curve for the faculty of Fine Arts 40 Weekly load curve for the faculty of Pharmacy 40 Average power factor measured at the 43 Engineering faculty Average power factor measured at the Science 43 faculty Average power factor measured at the Fine Arts 43 faculty Average power factor measured at the Pharmacy 43 faculty Combustion efficiency chart for #6 fuel oil 50 Energy cost before and after improvements 61 Percentage of energy saving by ECM 61 Energy management program main data screen 64 display Block diagram of the main data screen display 65 Flow chart of Lumen Method function 69 Flow chart of Lumen Method lighting distribution 70 Flow chart of heating system function 72 Flow chart of cooling system function 74 Flow chart of power factor function 76 Faculties distribution of the campus through the 81 network Circuit diagram for EMS-based scheduling.xiii LIST OF FIGURES No.2) Figure (5.2) Figure (4.6) Figure (3. for the 4 West Bank universities Percentage of electrical energy consumption for 4 An-Najah National University campuses Occupancy sensor control system 21 Selecting occupancy sensor types 22 Control network running LonMark and BACnet 25 New campus layout 34 Electrical energy consumption for the university 38 faculties Energy cost distribution (elect.1) Figure (3. vs.5) Figure (3.2) Figure (2.3) Figure (3.1) Figure (6.5) Figure (5.3) Figure (5.

12) Figure (6.9) Figure (6. c) Laboratory.3) Figure (7.7) Figure (6.4) Figure (8.6) Figure (7. Figure Page Figure (6.11) Figure (6.5) Figure (7.5) Figure (6.1) Figure (7. b) Coverage area Powerpack wiring diagram Block diagram of the main data screen display Flow chart of the software main functions Flow chart of the lighting control procedures Software home page Software main display screen Software lighting control Room lighting monitor PIC16F877 and MAX232 testing board Lighting control kit Sensor placement: a) Classroom. b) Office.10) Figure (6.2) Figure (8.1) Figure (8.5) Wiring for combination occupancy and light sensors System block diagram Lighting control board schematic diagram Lighting control panel Pin diagram of PIC16F877 RS232 Serial Port Pin diagram of ULN2003 XPort Direct+ embedded device server XPort schematic carrier board a) DT-200 Dual Technology sensor.13) Figure (6.3) Figure (8.C Classroom lighting distribution Setup menu options 88 89 90 91 92 92 93 93 95 95 96 101 103 104 106 106 107 107 111 112 113 115 116 .6) Figure (6.3) Circuit diagram for EMS-based scheduling.4) Figure (6.7) Figure (8. small building 87 Figure (6.2) Figure (7.8) Figure (6.14) Figure (7.4) Figure (7.xiv No. d) W.

xv LIST OF APPENDICES No. Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix Illumination Standards Existing Lighting System Measured Weekly Load Curve Sample of Measured Illumination Sensors Drawing XPort Direct Plus Data Sheet DT-200 Occupancy Sensor Data Sheet Software Sample Codes Page 131 133 171 183 190 192 207 214 .

xvi Study and Design of an Automatic Control System for Electric Energy Management – Case Study An_Najah National University By Mohammad Khaleel Sa'di "Rashid Al_Mubayed" Supervisor Dr. and lighting system. we have established a start or a beginning step toward the efficient use of energy and energy conservation in universities through conducting several energy audits in some faculties of An-Najah National University which are considered as high energy consumers and allocate the potential for energy savings opportunities. air conditioning. Where we have achieved a percentage of saving 24% in the lighting system (low cost). and 5% in the heating system (no cost). In this thesis we have successfully proven that there is a huge potential for energy savings in the Palestinian universities sector (15-25%) by implementing some energy conservation measures (with no or low cost investment) on the most energy consumption equipment such as boilers. In this thesis. the efficient use of energy. we succeeded in developing a new energy management software. In addition. and providing reliable and neatly organized data for use in analysis and post-retrofit troubleshooting. 7% in the cooling system (no cost). and the energy conservation in universities. minimizing calculation errors. which is used to estimate the total energy savings from each opportunity in our study. is not in a better condition than most developing countries. . this program has several advantages through tabulating large quantities of energy use data. Samer Mayaleh Abstract The energy situation in Palestine.

in order to reduce the lighting consumption. the occupancy sensors. .xvii In this thesis also we have designed and implemented a new webbased automatic light management and control system . by taking into account the classrooms schedule table. and the daylight distribution. this system resulted in extra saving of 45%.

1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION .

of which the Israeli occupation is the main cause. Palestine imports all its need of energy (electric. because decreasing the consumption affects the economy and contributes to keeping our environment clean. which make the price uncontrollable. we must take all the possible efforts to reduce electrical energy consumption in our country.2 Chapter One Introduction 1. which provide educational services for more than one hundred and thirty two thousand students [1]. higher education has witnessed a remarkable development in Palestine during the last decade despite the difficulties faced by our Palestinian society. the political and social situation is uncertain because of Israeli occupation. petroleum. Undoubtedly. in addition to being a contributor to steady development to better meeting the needs of the individual and society. The higher education sector in Palestine consists of 46 institutions in the academic year 2006/2007. Higher education sees much attention at various levels in all countries of the world.1 Scope Electrical energy bill in the West Bank is very high. and gas) from Israel electrical company (IEC). Due to the bad situation of all the factors given above. The economic situation of the Palestinian people is very bad. these institutions are distributed as follows: .

400 1.627 1. there was no any previous or current experience in the field of energy management.3 .500 3.500 7.12 university colleges.1.850 36. huge and different loads. in particular we took An-Najah National University.350.095 Universities EUI (kWh/m2) 30. this will make the energy management more sensible and feasible.786 14. which urged us to built our research.6 In our ongoing attempts to reduce the Palestinian electrical bill. is illustrated in table 1.311 1.940 653. After reviewing the energy bills of An-Najah National University.432 1. Masters'.172 Consumption (kWh/Year) 3.0 38.1): Electrical energy consumption in 2007.158 11. as a case study in this thesis to manage and reduce the energy consumption.144.886 17.258.5 35.426.000 4. In fact. The annual electrical energy consumption of the universities in the West Bank.13 universities which award Bachelors'.746 637.208 218.222 949. we decided to study the energy consumption in a very important sector which is universities. big buildings.000 Std # 16.263 28. like many commercial buildings and .7 40.000 Total 336.520 2.7 37. and PhD degrees. offering Diploma level. Since it has four campuses.825 22.600 2599 7. Table (1.2 33.1 52.0 16.714 83.100 31. for the West Bank universities An-Najah National University Palestine Polytechnic University Palestine Technical University Arab American University Al-Quds Open University Bethlehem University Al-Quds University Hebron University Birzeit University Area (m2) 106. .000 66.854. .004 13.215. offering Bachelor's degree and 2 years Diploma.425 5.0 44. it became obvious to us that it.21 community colleges.051 35.

as shown in figure 1.000 West Bank Universities Figure (1.000.500.4 establishments suffers from high consumption with respect to its connected loads.2): Percentage of electrical energy consumption for An-Najah National University campuses .1.500.000 1.2 shows the percentage of the total electrical energy consumption in 2007. distributed on the four campuses.000.000 1.000 3.000.215.000 kWh/year 2. The total electrical energy consumption was approximately 3.432 kWh.000 2.1) : Electrical energy consumption in 2007. Electrical Energy Consumption 3. for the West Bank universities Also figure 1.000 P a le st in e T e c h n ic a l U n i v e rsi t y H e b ro n U n i v e rsi t y B e th l e h e m U n i v e rsi t y A ra b A m e ri c a n U n i v e rsi t y P a l e sti n e Po ly tec h n ic U n i v e rsi ty A l -Q u d s Open U n i v e rsi t y A l -Q u d s U n i v e rsi t y B i rz e i t U n i v e rsi t y 0 A n -n a ja h N atio n al U n i v e rsi t y 500. Percentage of electrical energy consumption for An-Najah National University Campuses Khudouri Campus 4% Hisham Hijawi Campus 8% New Campus 42% Old Camups 46% Old Camups Khudouri Campus Hisham Hijawi Campus New Campus Figure (1.500.

the utilization of this new developed light and management control system will keep An-Najah National University on the forefront of environmental technologies. . Such investment allows the university to maintain control of increases in utility costs. in all occupancy lighting control situations. we intended to conduct a series of tests of the technology using a "before and after" measurement to determine actual potentials. Such behavior is also impossible to evaluate within a laboratory environment. modified by occupant responsiveness in turning off lights in unoccupied areas. of course. the operation of the lighting by the occupants emerges as the dominant factor in determining potential lighting energy savings. Thus. but it is projected to significantly reduce energy costs to the university over time.5 So. a goal that is extremely important to primary educational institutions. Moreover. In an attempt to solve this problem. Generally. we design an automatic light and management control system in a more efficient way to light classrooms by installing occupancy (motion) sensors in these rooms. as developments in technology open up new opportunities. Our research focused specifically on lighting efficiency in campus classrooms. Savings will be. However. we suggest that the university must adopt new energy improvement projects. We identified electrical energy waste as one of the current and most pressing obstacles to the fulfillment of our committed goal sustainability. This will not only reduce the total energy consumption of the university. lighting energy reductions from occupancy sensors will roughly follow room vacancy rates.

3 Methodology The methodology is divided into three categories: • First category: Collecting data and energy audit. ƒ Make strategies to increase energy performance in universities sector. 1. o Identifying the types and costs of energy use. to understand how that energy is being used and possibly wasted. Establishing energy audit for the new campus of An-Najah National University. 1.Case Study: An-Najah National University".2 Objectives of the Study In this study we will concentrate on the following activities: Main objective: "Study and Design of an Automatic control System for Electric Energy Management .6 1. . ƒ Contribution in keeping our environment clean. ƒ Designing a well-structured software to supervise and monitor the lighting system remotely through the internet. Specific objectives: ƒ Reduce the energy consumption of An-Najah National University and consequently energy bills by designing light and management control system.

o Performing an economic analysis on those alternatives and determine which ones are cost effective for our target. through a user graphical interface software that we have designed. Making some suggestions on the best lighting fixtures which have been tested world wide and approved in energy conservation. such as operation techniques and/or new equipments that could substantially reduce energy cost.4 Thesis Outline This thesis is divided into (9) chapters including this introductory chapter. together with the objectives of the study and the methodology. to realize the energy conservation opportunities. 3.7 o Identifying and analyzing the alternatives. • Second category: Designing a well-structured energy management software. 1. The most energy consumption . a brief description of the energy situation in Palestine was presented. Utilizing the energy audits recommendations to determine the energy conservation opportunities. 2. In chapter one of this thesis. In chapter two. literature review in the field of energy efficiency and conservation in universities was presented. • Third category: Designing a lighting panel for controlling lights remotely from any computer connected to intranet of the university.

In chapter six the system development and analysis of the occupancy sensors were presented. the energy conservation measures implemented on each system from the technical and economical sides. and transforming them into mathematical models and flow charts. . Chapter five presents. Chapter four presents. the amount of energy savings in each energy conservation opportunity of each system with the required investment and the simple payback period were found and analyzed. boilers. Also the control strategies for lighting system were discussed. descriptive statistics were calculated and cost analysis were performed for weekdays. and air conditioning. which enhances the national economy and leads to a huge reduction in the harmful environmental emissions such as CO2. illustrating the methods employed in energy conservation. as a result of decreasing the demand on energy. to find the total energy saving from each opportunity in our study.8 systems were lighting system. a brief description for the audited university in this thesis . the percentage of saving in each area were measured for the occupancy sensor.25%. Description of the system main components and operation. and the installation of the sensors were also presented in this chapter. and for the total monitoring period. The amount of energy saving that could be achieved through the no/low cost investment in university is 15 . the annual electric and fuel energy consumption in addition to the energy bill analysis for each faculty were also discussed. the developed energy conservation software. weekends. Chapter three presents.

9 Chapter seven presented. the system testing and results of the new developed automatic light and management system. flow charts. In chapter nine the conclusion and recommendations for our thesis are presented. the designing procedures. the placement and adjustment of the occupancy sensors. illustrating the main components. and the economical evaluation of the designed system. the impact of time delay on energy saving. and the principle work. . the XPort Direct+ configuration and its kit. the PIC and serial interface. the light management and control webbased software development. the daylight distribution. its language. Chapter eight presents.

10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW .

Cultivating good communications on energy matters. 2. and other factors. many businesses and industries are adopting a Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy for improving their operations. its functions. occupancy schedules. It is meant to reduce waste of energy and money to the minimum permitted by the climate where the building is located. The primary objective of energy management is to maximize profits or minimize costs. and management strategies for wise energy usage. Presently. Improving energy efficiency and reducing energy use. A whole systems viewpoint to energy management is required to ensure that many important activities will be examined and optimized. Developing and maintaining effective monitoring.1 Introduction The energy management program is a systematic on-going strategy for controlling a building's energy consumption pattern.11 Chapter Two Literature Review 2. reporting. Any TQM approach should include an energy management component to reduce energy costs [2]. It establishes and maintains an efficient balance between a building's annual functional energy requirements and its annual actual energy consumption [2]. thereby reducing costs. . Some desirable sub-objectives of energy management programs include: 1. 3.

Reducing the impacts of curtailments. or any interruption in energy supplies.12 4. Electric energy management is good for the Palestinian economy. 5. 3. as the balance of the payments becomes more favorable. . Developing interest in and dedication to the energy management program from all employees. 6. Electric energy management make us less vulnerable to energy cutoffs or curtailments due to political unrest. industry and government organizations have all been under tremendous economic and environmental pressure in the last few years. Being economically competitive in the global marketplace and meeting increasing environmental standards to reduce air and water pollution have been the major driving factor in the most of the recent operational cost and capital cost investment decisions for all organizations. Finding new and better ways to increase returns from energy investments through research and development. 2. Energy management is friendly to our environment as it eases some of the strain on our natural resources and may leave a better world for future generation.2 The Need for Energy Management Business. brownouts. Energy management has been an important tool to help organizations meet these critical objectives for their short term survival and long term success [2]. Energy management is necessary to Palestine because: 1. 2.

Because choosing the proper type of control is often a difficult task. Air conditioners have thermostats and fan switches. the automated controls are more expensive.1D [3]. Large heating systems . and some have timers and dimmer controls. Motors have on-off switches. and some have variable speed controls. Our view is that the control should be as simple and reliable as possible. each level of automation and complexity requires additional expenditure of capital. Large air conditioning systems have extensive controls consisting of several thermostats. such as BLAST 3. and possibly scheduling controls to optimize the operation of all of the components. but they do more. As one moves through this hierarchy of controls. but often automated controls ranging from simple clocks to sophisticated computers are required.0 and DOE-2.3 Control Systems and Computers Energy use can be controlled in order to reduce costs and maximize profits. Some excellent large-scale computer simulation programs have been written that enable the energy analyst to try alternative scenarios of energy equipment and controls. Every piece of energy-consuming equipment has some form of control system associated with it. That is. Lights have on-off wall switches or panel switches. Computers can also help the energy manager in the analysis of proposed and present energy systems. The controls can be as simple as manually turning off a switch. valve and pump controls. motor speed controls.13 2. we will explore this decision process.

Our interest is in the energy consumption and energy efficiency of this equipment and these systems. and the controls have a significant impact on both of these areas. And manual dimmers. and allow equipment and systems to be operated in a manner that reduces energy costs. Controls allow unneeded equipment to be turned off. which allow occupants to adjust light levels to their preference. as well as for the proper operation of the equipment and systems. each segment of .3. Daylighting controls or advanced load management can reduce lighting demand when energy is most expensive. Occupancy sensors can eliminate wasted lighting in unoccupied spaces. gas and purchased steam. 2.wide automation systems.1 Lighting controls Controls are an excellent way to reduce lighting energy while enhancing lighting quality.14 have modulating controls on the boilers and adjustable speed drives on pumps and variable air volume fans [3]. are becoming more affordable. as well as the power and energy requirements associated with other forms of energy such as oil. Lighting control systems are becoming digital. In a digital system. This may include reductions in the electric power and energy requirements of equipment. Lighting controls have been shown to reduce lighting energy consumption by 50% in existing buildings and by at least 35% in new construction [4]. Digital lighting control systems have been developed as stand-alone systems or as part of building. These controls are necessary for the basic safety of the equipment and the operators.

During these times. . any reduction in lighting load during peak-rate periods will translate into savings. In addition to providing a central control station for the building’s lighting systems. Digital systems can perform the same lighting automation functions that independent. most digital systems are Internet compatible. They can monitor occupancy patterns in an area and adjust the operation of the lighting systems as required [5]. One method of reducing those costs is to limit the facility’s demand for electricity during peak-use periods when rates are the highest. stand-alone systems perform. Digital systems also give facility executives the ability to control building lighting energy use from any location. allowing managers to monitor and control building lighting systems from any location that has Internet access. They can override the set schedule to match changes in operating schedules. They can schedule the operation of lights in any area within the facility. That allows commands to be issued to specific portions of the building’s lighting system. The ability to remotely control building lighting systems is particularly important for facilities facing high or uncertain electricity costs. or dim those systems that are equipped with dimming ballasts. With building lighting systems accounting for such a large portion of the electrical load. in both energy use and energy demand charges [5].15 the lighting system has its own device-specific address. the lighting control system can turn off as many lighting system components as possible. only better.

Except for the most humble of lighting controls -the manual wall switch. At the minimum. which are the most important factors in determining lamp life. the type of lighting systems installed. Most facility executives can expect to achieve a 25 to 45 percent reduction in lighting energy use by implementing an automated lighting control program [6]. confirming that it is on or off as commanded. In the past. objectives: (1) reduce lighting energy costs and (2) maintain or improve occupant satisfaction and comfort. the digital system can receive feedback from each lighting system.3. The digital system can also monitor the number of hours that the lights are operated in a given area.lighting controls have historically had little to offer the building occupants. as well as the number of times the lights are turned on. managers can schedule the group relamping of particular areas in the building before the number of lamp burnouts becomes excessive while ensuring that the lamps have been used for as long as possible [5]. The actual savings and payback that will be achieved depend on a number of factors. Most facilities will recover their investment in lighting automation in two years or less. including how the facility uses lighting. Using this information.1 Occupant needs Lighting controls are intended to fulfill two. potentially conflicting. the lighting level needed.16 Another benefit of digital lighting control systems is their ability to monitor the operation of the lighting systems. the occupants' lighting control needs were thought to be adequately served if they could turn their . 2.1. when the lights are required and the ability of the facility to make use of daylighting. the hours that lighting is required.

• Lower maintenance costs.1. especially HVAC. • Reduced HVAC operating costs. The usual “rule of thumb” is that every watt saved in lighting saves an additional 1/4 watt in avoided HVAC energy [8]. • Reduced peak demand charges. In the modern work environment. this attitude is no longer sufficient. Changing visual needs is now the norm rather than the exception and controls can help to meet this variety of needs [7]. Savings from lighting controls may come from: • Reduced electric lighting use.3. 2. Lighting also affects other building loads. improved lighting controls can have a major positive impact on building energy consumption and peak demand. • Productivity improvements. • Downsizing HVAC equipment (reduced first cost). .17 lighting on or off when arriving or leaving work. Since lighting energy is a substantial fraction of electric energy in many buildings.2 Building operation Cognizant building managers use the building lighting control system as a tool to control building operation costs.

Initial commissioning may be done by a professional or by the facility management staff. 2. Tuning may be accomplished with dimming devices.3. timers and other time clock devices. With automatic daylighting controls. Appropriate for unpredictable occupancy patterns. . Tuning: Reducing power to electric lights in accordance with the user needs at the time. With occupancy sensors. but for best performance. as well as several useful tables to evaluate which strategies and devices are appropriate for various space types. occupants should be involved in fine-tuning control system operation according to their preference [9]. Appropriate for predictable occupancy patterns. Scheduling: Turning lights off according to program using programmable relays. 3.18 Most controls require commissioning to ensure that they operate according to design intent and are properly adapted to local conditions. the sensitivity to changes in daylight must be set for local room conditions. the time delay and sensitivity should be adjusted for each workspace. Occupancy Sensing: Turning lights on and off according to occupancy as detected with occupancy sensors. There are several general strategies for using lighting controls to reduce operating costs and improve lighting system functionality: 1. 2. especially when daylight is available.2 Control selection guidelines This section provides an overview of general control strategies and devices. but bi-level switching of overhead lighting should also be considered.

This strategy is generally deprecated today.3. linked to a switching or dimming unit that varies electric light output in response to available daylight. where several control strategies can be applied at once. 2. Bi-level switching should be considered if dimming is not economically justified. the convenience of having one accessible location for performing all system commissioning can reduce setup and maintenance costs. 6. Demand Limiting: Reducing electric lighting power during or in anticipation of power curtailment emergencies.1 Control devices The above control strategies define what the lighting controls do. Daylighting controls typically employ a photo sensor. Integrated system: Integrated lighting controls provide all necessary control adjustments and inputs at one location. 7. During Emergency Alerts periods lighting loads can be shed either through voluntary curtailment or automatically by the facilities manager or utility service provider. Daylighting: Reducing power to electric lights or turning lights off in the presence of daylight from side lighting or top lighting. Lumen Maintenance: Compensating for lamp lumen depreciation using a photocell. The control devices are the physical equipment that is installed to .19 4.2. as the lamp lumen depreciation from modern building lighting systems is too small to make lumen maintenance economically viable. Although integrated controls are somewhat more expensive. 5.

but not interesting for a building with most of its electric use at night.2 Occupancy sensors Occupancy sensors are switching devices that respond to the presence and absence of people in the sensor’s field of view. to reduce demand charges. Control selection should consider the building’s expected electric load profile as shown in table 2.1): Selecting control devices based on expected lighting load profile [10] Lighting use profile Selection Typical work hours 8 to 5 with limited weekend use Select controls that reduce peak demand Extended hours Select controls that reduce unpredictable use Devices Occupancy sensors and photo sensors for tenant spaces Time clock devices for public areas Occupancy sensors Manual dimming/multilevel switching for adaptive compensation 24-hour Event-oriented operation Select controls that reduce lighting day and night Manual controls work best Photo sensors Manual dimming/multilevel switching for adaptive compensation Manual dimming Multilevel switching 2.2.1. daylighting control may be very attractive for a building with peak loads during daylight hours. Table (2.20 implement the desired control strategies in a particular application. The occupancy sensor system is usually made up of one or more components. For this application. adaptive compensation may be a more cost-effective strategy [10]. which include a motion detector and a control unit consisting of a .3. For example. The needs of both the lighting users and the facility manager must be considered when developing the lighting control program.

1.21 transformer for power supply and a relay for load switching. Figure (2. . Most sensors include manual and/or automatic controls to adjust sensitivity to motion and to provide a time delay for shut-off of lights upon vacancy. controller and motion detector is shown in figure 2.1): Occupancy sensor control system [7] Figure 2. The sensor sends a signal to the control unit that switches lights on and off.2 provides a flow diagram to help decide whether Ultrasonic. sometimes called a power pack. PIR. relay. The relationship between the power supply. or Dual-technology occupancy sensors are more appropriate for a particular application.

22 Figure (2.2): Selecting occupancy sensor types [7] .

reducing power to a .4 Building controls integration There are many benefits to integrating the operation of the building lighting with other electrical loads in a building. daylight controls can also reduce peak demand charges. automatic photo electrically controlled lighting systems can easily save 10–50% of the annual lighting energy [11]. and this is best accomplished from one facility. 2. Even in facilities without dimmable lighting systems. As lighting averages 37% of a typical commercial building’s total electrical demand. and a control module that then switches or dims the electric lighting to maintain the needed illumination with minimal energy use. Scheduling controls require commissioning the operation of many lighting zones in a complex. there are economies from combining switching control of lighting circuits with other building electric loads. since daylight availability usually coincides with the utility’s peak demand profile. Equally important. Since daylight may be present in large areas of commercial buildings for many hours of the day. especially if the overhead lighting is dimmable. They usually consist of a sensing device (photocell or photo sensor) that monitors either the total light level in the space or the available daylight level at the daylight aperture.3.3.23 2.3 Daylighting controls Daylighting controls are devices that regulate the level of illumination provided by electric lights in response to the presence of daylight. reducing both building operating costs and consumption of natural resources.

Gateways between LonMark and BACnet are straightforward. Both protocols use the Internet (or TCP/IP) as the communications medium between control networks. Both protocols integrate control networks from different vendors with the Internet.3. Most modern buildings already have wiring to support their computer networks. With dimmable lighting. .4. but any modern building using BAS controls will probably elect to use a hybrid system with some equipment running LonMark and other control networks running BACnet as shown in figure2. The development and acceptance of open-protocol communications standards for building equipment controls and the pervasiveness of the Internet are creating new opportunities for building owners and operators. which is based on LonWorks from the Echelon Corp [7]. 2. it is even possible to adjust lighting power according to the hourly price of energy or other utility pricing signal.1 Protocols Integrating lighting control with other building equipment requires consideration of the protocols used to allow communications between control products from different equipment vendors. this “road” serves as well for building equipment communications as it does for enterprise computing.24 building’s dimmable lighting system by 25% (hardly noticeable in terms of light output) would reduce a building’s electric demand by 10% [7]. as is LonMark. Comparisons between LonMark and BACnet are beyond the scope of these guidelines.3. BACnet (Building Automation Communications network) is an open-protocol standard (ASHRAE/ANSI standard) for intermediating BAS transactions.

25 Figure (2. integrated controls for a classroom application might exploit daylighting. For example.2 Integrated controls With integrated controls. These trade-offs should be carefully considered in the design of a system [7].3. tuning. more energy can potentially be saved and the greatest economic benefit extracted from the investment in controls. While integrated controls offer the potential of greater energy savings and more highly responsive lighting systems. they also run the risks inherent in any complex system: more complexity in design and more difficulty in diagnosing failure. and scheduling all with the same hardware. By combining more than one strategy. more than one lighting control strategy is implemented at a time with the same lighting hardware.4.3): Control network running LonMark and BACnet [7] 2. . Combining several strategies increases the economic benefits if the marginal cost of adding additional strategies onto one base strategy is small.

Time switches and programmable relay systems also reduce hours. Occupancy sensors reduce the time of lighting operation. many buildings enclose spaces where automatic controls can significantly reduce wasted lighting energy by eliminating lighting during unoccupied times or reducing electric light levels where adequate daylight is available [7]. then energy savings would be modest. such as daylighting. Since every building is different. In large part. the energy savings from controls depend on how the building lighting was operated before the controls were installed. The energy savings values listed are the maximum expected values. Reducing energy use during peak periods may also reduce lighting demand and related peak demand charges. installed. Properly operated lighting controls reduce lighting energy when lighting is unnecessary and reduce lighting demand when and where possible. and commissioned. space type and typical hours of operation.2 presents estimates of the maximum yearly energy savings that would be expected per controlled circuit according to control type.26 2.3.5 Energy savings Lighting controls reduce building operation costs. Dimming controls. it is difficult to know how much energy lighting controls are likely to save in any given application. reduce or eliminate lighting power throughout the day even in occupied areas. and assume that the control devices are properly specified. . not the average. Table 2. If building occupants are conscientious with lighting. However.

definitely in June 2004. The Duke University Board of trustees had been approved of $ 3.5 million loan . the energy management program has saved over $4. classrooms. The initial projects fell into the general categories of steam trap maintenance. dormitories.4 Previous Studies Energy management is becoming a major concern on university campuses.2): Lighting control energy savings examples by application and control type. Initially the university focused on projects that were relatively easy to implement and that produced immediate savings.27 Table (2. auditoriums.7 billion in directly metered utilities [12]. After 8 years. lighting improvements. individual building chillers for air conditioning. in September 1996. a central steam-heating plant. The sample of saving in the period of FY 96/97 are illustrated in the next table: . offices. dining halls. and HVAC repair and replacement. libraries. The university’s facilities are an eclectic mix of building styles and construction. thousands of lighting fixtures and exit lights. [7] Space type Private Office Laboratory Classroom Maximum expected yearly energy savings 45% Controls type Occupancy sensor Side lighting w/photo sensor 35% Manual dimming or multilevel switching Side lighting w/photo sensor 30% 40% Occupancy sensor Multilevel switching 35% 15% Side lighting w/photo sensor 40% Occupancy sensor 25% 2. including research facilities.

Energy efficient replacement for incandescent lamps. The upgraded system was user friendly and it dramatically increased the capacity of the automation system. Save energy by automatically turning off lights during unoccupied periods.28 Table (2.565 $1. Consume much less energy than incandescent signs and last many times longer.3 58.166 2. Consume less energy and have longer life. and students have profited by an improved learning environment.180 4.4 University of New Brunswick has two campuses. During the energy crisis of the 1970s. First Cost ($) Estimated annual saving Simple payback (years) 12. the university installed an automated energy management system that utilized Honeywell Delta 1000 panels and was monitored by a central computer located in the Services Building.2 59.400 $11.340 3.472 $10.622 $25. Replacement of pneumatic controls by DDC enabled more efficient operation of buildings. These investments have enabled the university to control the rate at which its utility costs have increased. Occupancy scheduling .464 $12. In 1991 the front end of the Automated Energy Management System was upgraded to a Honeywell Graphic Central System.393 1. The system introduced. occupancy scheduling and monitoring of heating. The university has been investing in energy conservation measures for three decades.2 83. for the first time. one in Fredericton and the other in Saint John. The Graphic Central System was accessible from one work station utilizing a Dell 425E computer.8 2.000 5.3): FY 96/97 savings & cost avoidance [12] Efficiency measure Steam Traps Compact Fluorescent Lamps LED Exit Signs Motion Sensors HVAC Controls Detail Trap maintenance pilot program. ventilation and air-conditioning systems.

switched off. The program calls for an investment in energy conservation projects of up to $1. According to their research. Large universities. Virginia has begun to use the EPA’s Energy Star™ program to replace inefficient light fixtures and switches in order to cut energy costs while improving building conditions and helping the environment [15]. has recently started a ‘Green Lights Program’ in which all regular light switches in common areas (i. Projected annual cost avoidance of all projects was $436.900. auditoriums.36 years [14]. on the other hand. . ventilation and air-conditioning systems in 11 facilities was provided by the system [13]. have engaged in much more extensive audits and programs for obvious reasons. for example. Princeton has installed motion and daylight sensors in classrooms. these sensors result in an approximate 50% reduction in classroom lighting and a 20-25% reduction in hallway lighting demands [16]. and bathrooms) will be replaced with occupancy sensors. social rooms. has the most thorough online environmental audit regarding energy use.000. In 1996. Green Mountain College in Poultney.e. Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania. and hallways. if ever.29 and monitoring of 50 heating. Princeton’s Environmental Audit Team has made further recommendations that motion and daylight sensors be installed in dormitory bathrooms to reduce electrical waste because lights in dormitory bathrooms are rarely. laundry facilities. the university's Board of Governors approved an energy management program for the Fredericton campus. Princeton University.000. resulting in a simple payback of 4.

however.30 Brown University is also worth mentioning here because a project team recently researched lighting efficiency at Brown University as part of an environmental geology course. . according to the students who conducted this audit [16]. Dimming hallway lights seems to be a much better option. The goal of the lighting efficiency project at Brown was to determine whether or not timers and/or motion sensors should be installed in dormitory and office hallways to reduce energy consumption and expenditures. they recommend that installing motion sensors in oncampus bathrooms would not be a feasible option for Brown University. In addition. showed that sensors may not be the most energy efficient method of reducing lightening in hallways at night. Their findings.

31 CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION OF THE AUDITED UNIVERSITY .

There are three campuses in Nablus: the Old Campus.32 Chapter Three Description of the Audited University 3. and Hisham Hijawi College of Technology Campus. the New Juneid Campus.1 Introduction An-Najah National University is recognized as Palestine's leader in higher education. daytime walk-through were performed. building occupants were questioned as to equipment and building usage schedules. The university has four campuses distributed between the cities of Nablus and Tulkarm. The fourth Campus is Khudouri which is located in the city of Tulkarm. Most building characteristics and systems were also discussed. and building control. . In almost 90 years of teaching. the university has been playing a leading part in the development of modern higher education in Palestine. In order to determine the energy consumed by this buildings. An energy conservation study was performed for An-Najah National University in Nablus. knowledge and personal development. Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The study objective was to obtain an overview of existing building energy consuming systems related to the lighting. Students from different parts of the country attend the university in pursuit of learning. The university is one of the pioneering and well-established universities in Palestine.

IT and Optometry Fine Arts. Faculty of Optometry and Faculty of IT.33 3. Pharmacy & Medicine building and building of Engineering College.1.185 Working hours / day From To 8 AM 5 PM 8 AM 5 PM 8 AM 5 PM 8 AM 5 PM 3.000m2 land in the west region of Nablus city.250 12. building of Science and IT which consists of: Faculty of Science. Graduate Studies and Law Area (m2) 12. The description of the main faculties and its operating schedules could be seen in table 3.1): The main faculties and its operating schedules in the university Faculty Engineering Pharmacy & Medicine Science.795 7.700 19.2 New Campus Description The new campus of An-Najah National University is constituted by four different poles (buildings) located at 121.3 University Layout The general layout of the university and the location of the main faculties is shown in figure 3. . Faculty of Graduate Studies. named building of Fine Arts which consists of: School of Arts. College of Law and Theater building.1. Table (3.

1): New campus layout .34 ÇáãÓÑ Í Figure (3.

which may give some of the no cost opportunities to reduce energy consumption.100 2 298 m2 Conditioned floor area (if different than gross floor area) (m ) 2 50 m2 Total southern exterior glass area (m ) 50 m2 0.0 Volume (m3) 36555 2.3 lists the major energy consuming systems and equipments in the university faculties.0 Gross area (m2) X Ceiling height (m) = Volume (m3) 7.700 X 3 = 23.1 Building description Table 3.2 Major energy consuming equipment Table 3.35 3.185 X 3 = Conditioned floor area (if different than gross floor area) (m2) Total southern exterior glass area (m2) 84 m2 Single panes (m2) Double panes (m2) Other general building descriptions Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine Volume (m3) 57750 763 m2 222 m2 0.185 m2 84 m2 0.2 shows the general description of the buildings.2): Buildings description Faculty of Engineering Gross area (m2) X Ceiling height (m) = 12.795 X 3 = Conditioned floor area (if different than gross floor area) (m2) Total southern exterior glass area (m2) 134 m2 Single panes (m2) Double panes (m2) Other general building descriptions Volume (m3) 38385 1270 m2 134 m2 0. Table (3.4 University Faculties 3.0 Single panes (m2) Double panes (m2) Other general building descriptions • Not all the faculties southern windows have curtains (shutters). 3. IT and Optometry Gross area (m2) X Ceiling height (m) = 19.4. . Graduate Studies and Law Gross area (m2) X Ceiling height (m) = 12.0 Faculties of Science.250 X 3 = Conditioned floor area (if different than gross floor area) (m2) Total southern exterior glass area (m2) 222 m2 Single panes (m2) Double panes (m2) Other general building descriptions Faculties of Fine Arts.4.

75-11 kW 10 0. Compressors F. Hot water Space Heating Diesel Boilers Electrical Boilers B.1-3 kW 9 4-7. Elevators .5 kW 24 0.711 88 18-36 W 16 W 1. Lighting Fluorescent Lamps Emergency Lamps C. Air Conditioning Chillers Split Units D.141 44 18-36 W 8W 746 40 18-36 W 8W 1 36 11 kW 2 kW 2 35 7.6 kW 1 4 kW 1 4 kW - - 1 4 kW 13 300 W 18 300 W 8 300 W 12 300 kW 2 11 kW 4 8 kW 2 11 kW 3 75 kW A.943 72 18-36 W 8W 1. IT and Optometry Faculties of Fine Arts. Graduate Studies and Law Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine Number of units Nameplate rating per unit Number of units Nameplate rating per unit Number of units Nameplate rating per unit Number of units Nameplate rating per unit 3 415-1364 kW 3 420 kW 2 990 kW 2 590 kW 15 3 kW 18 3 kW 6 3 kW - - 1.5 kW 14 1.5 kW 3 3 187 kW 3. Refrigerators G.36 Table (3.2-0.5 kW 2 8 11.5 kW 3.27 kW 3. Hot water Pumps E.3): Major energy consuming equipments Equipment / System Faculty of Engineering Faculties of Science.

06 47500 34670 2.678 Faculty of Pharmacy Consump. and IT Consump.03 22000 16055 1.42 27000 19705 2.38 57000 39898 2.41 58500 42700 3. Table 3.09 8880 6477 1.4 9840 7183 1.37 3.4.291 Faculties of Science.87 9120 6081 1.000 430.4): Electrical energy use and cost for the university faculties Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Total Faculty of Engineering Consump.2 46000 30680 2.68 271.62 26500 19340 2. Cost EUI (kWh) (NIS) (kWh/m2) 24000 16006 1.27 8640 6302 1.88 45000 32845 2.5 25500 18610 2.03 58500 42700 3.38 39500 27648 3.17 29500 21530 2.500 194.60 29000 20298 2.95 21000 15325 1.62 11520 8062 1.96 55500 38848 2.91 21500 15690 1.03 21000 15325 1.64 26000 18975 2.38 27500 20070 2.24 30500 21348 2.3 117.500 257.461 Faculty of Fine Arts Consump.72 20500 14960 1.32 32000 23355 2.60 25000 18245 1.21 29000 21165 2.3 Electricity bills The university receives its electric utility service from Nablus Municipality. and the energy utilization index (EUI).18 12480 8734 1.12 11760 8580 1.09 40500 29560 3.15 9120 6652 1.13 602.49 8400 6127 1.46 46500 33940 2. Cost EUI (kWh) (NIS) (kWh/m2) 6720 4480 0. Table (3.13 20500 13671 1.25 360.52 10800 7879 1.33 59000 43065 3.735 . Cost EUI (kWh) (NIS) (kWh/m2) 42500 28345 2.96 29000 19341 2.64 24500 17880 1.03 41000 29925 2.18 9840 7178 1. Cost EUI (kWh) (NIS) (kWh/m2) 14500 9669 1. dividing the kWh by the faculties areas.33 45000 32845 2.26 26000 18198 2.4 shows how the electrical energy consumption is varied with months.120 83.

table 3. . is the diesel burned in boilers to produce hot water for space heating in winter.000 liters 40.750 NIS 198.38 Figure 3.000 liters Figure 3.500 NIS 222.000 NIS 36. Table (3.2): Electrical energy consumption for the university faculties Then another type of energy which is consumed by the faculties.5): Diesel consumption and cost for the university faculties Fuel type Total cost (winter season) Number of consumed liters Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Science Faculty of Fine Arts Faculty of Pharmacy Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel 198.000 liters 45.2 shows the electrical energy consumption in kWh variations with respect to time in months.5 shows the diesel consumption around the months.500 liters 36. Electrical Energy Consumption 60000 40000 30000 20000 Science Fine Arts Engineering December November October August Months Septemper July June Science May 0 March April 10000 January February KWh/year kWh/month 50000 Pharmacy Figure (3.3 Illustrates the percentage of energy cost distribution for electricity and fuel as a source of energy. for the university faculties.000 NIS 247. for the university faculties.

fuel) 3. Facility management can redistribute load to suit transformers and cables capacities. 2. which is charged for monthly maximum load occurs during system peak load period. as shown in the next figures 3. illustrates the varying magnitude of the load during one week called weekly load curve. Vs.6. 3.3): Energy cost distribution (elect.4. Facility management can redistribute load to avoid maximum demand penalty. referred to appendix 3. Demonstrates load distribution in a facility during one week. The weekly load curves for the university faculties were measured by using the Energy Analyzer apparatus. and 3. 3. Fuel) 100% 80% Diesel Electricity 44% 30% 40% 64% 60% 40% 56% 70% 60% 20% 0% 36% Engineering Science Fine Arts Pharmacy Figure (3. The weekly load curve is good tool for load management to achieve many benefits: 1.7. vs.5. 3.4 Weekly load curve The relationship of power supplied to the time of occurrence.4. .39 Energy Cost Distribution (Elect.

6): Weekly load curve for the faculty of Fine Arts Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine Time (One We e k) Qt / Avg (VAR) Figure (3.4): Weekly load curve for the faculty of Engineering 300000 Faculties of Science.VA.VAR 40 Faculty of Engineering Time (One We e k) Qt/ Avg (VAR) Figure (3.VA.VA.VAR W. Graduate Studies and Law 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 Time (One We e k) Qt / Avg (VAR) Figure (3.W.VAR 03:08:00 AM 08:08:00 PM 01:08:00 PM 06:08:00 AM 11:08:00 PM 04:08:00 PM 09:08:00 AM 02:08:00 AM 07:08:00 PM 12:08:00 PM 05:08:00 AM 10:08:00 PM 03:08:00 PM 09:08:00 AM 02:08:00 AM 07:08:00 PM 12:08:00 PM 05:08:00 AM 10:08:00 PM 03:08:00 PM 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 11:26:00 AM W. IT and Optometry 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 Time (One We e k) Qt / Avg (VAR) Figure (3.VA.VAR 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 St/ Avg (VA) Pt/ Avg (W) 04:06:00 AM 08:06:00 PM 07:16:00 AM Pt/ Avg (W) 12:06:00 AM 04:06:00 PM 07:09:00 AM 06:09:00 PM 10:09:00 AM 01:09:00 AM 04:09:00 PM Pt/ Avg (W) 10:09:00 PM 01:09:00 PM 04:09:00 AM 07:09:00 PM 04:45:00 AM 11:45:00 PM 06:45:00 PM 01:45:00 PM 08:45:00 AM 03:45:00 AM 10:45:00 PM 05:45:00 PM 12:45:00 PM 07:45:00 AM 02:45:00 AM 09:45:00 PM 04:45:00 PM 11:45:00 AM 06:45:00 AM 01:45:00 AM 08:45:00 PM 03:45:00 PM Pt/Avg (W) 08:06:00 AM 12:06:00 AM 04:06:00 PM St/ Avg (VA) 08:06:00 AM St/ Avg (VA) 10:09:00 AM 01:09:00 AM 04:09:00 PM 07:09:00 AM 10:09:00 PM 01:09:00 PM 04:09:00 AM 10:45:00 AM St/Avg (VA) 12:06:00 AM 04:06:00 PM 08:06:00 AM 12:06:00 AM 04:06:00 PM 08:06:00 AM 12:06:00 AM 04:06:00 PM 0 10:09:00 AM 0 07:09:00 PM W.7): Weekly load curve for the faculty of Pharmacy .5): Weekly load curve for the faculty of Science 140000 Faculties of Fine Arts.

1 7. the chillers specifications are illustrated in tables 3.8 52 49 10.6.4 4 8.5 10.1 Boilers There are ten boilers in the university.8.2 60 0 87. and the measured data from the exhausted flue gas in the stack is illustrated in table 3.7 2 72 12.3 2 24 4.8 60 0 84.5 65 0 88.8 7.4.4 9.4 12.6 85 0 88.6): Boilers flue gas data measured at university faculties Faculty of Engineering Temperature (oF) O2% CO2% CO% Excess air % Losses% NOx (ppm) SOx (ppm) Efficiency % Faculties of Science. three of them is out of service.9 6. used for space heating in winter season.4 9. fans.2 11 4 39 11. Table (3.5.5 3. condenser. and motors.2 4.9 10 9 45 15. . these chillers consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit.6 99 0 89.7.5 Data collection 3.5 8 98 18.4. In order to determine the efficiency of these boilers we used the apparatus called Combustion Analyzer.5 68 0 89.2 6 21 10. IT and Optometry Faculty of Fine Arts Faculty of Pharmacy Boiler 1 Boiler 2 Boiler 1 Boiler 2 Boiler 3 Boiler Boiler 413 304 260 252 224 386 264 6.8 40 0 81.4. the indoor unit consists of an evaporator and a flow control device.2 6.2 HVAC distribution system The university faculties uses an electrical chillers for space cooling in some areas.41 3.5. the outdoor unit contains a compressor. with different capacities. and 3.

EA 2 3 Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine Compressor Motor Condition Fan Motor Qty 3 Qty 2 Volt 380 Volt 380 Hz 50 Hz 50 Coil Test Pressure Refrigerant Ph LRA. 3. IT and Optometry Compressor Motor Condition Fan Motor Qty 1 Qty 1 Volt 380 Volt 380 Hz 50 Hz 50 Coil Test Pressure Refrigerant Ph LRA.11 illustrates the existed average power factor for each faculty.10. Graduate Studies and Law PH 100 400 / 3 / 50 322 187 kW R-22 28 BAR 10 Bar 90 ºC 3. for all faculties of the university.4.7) Chillers nameplate Faculty of Engineering Compressor Motor Condition Fan Motor Qty 4 Qty 2 Volt 380 Volt 380 Hz 50 Hz 50 Coil Test Pressure Refrigerant Ph LRA.EA 29 FLA.EA 3 Table (3.EA 32 FLA.96. Figure 3.5.8) Chillers nameplate (other types) Chiller specifications Model V / Ph / Hz Max Absorption Power Refrigerant Refrigerant Pressure Water Pressure Water Temperature Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine HAE 251 400 / 3 / 50 44 27 kW R-22 26 BAR 6 Bar 65 ºC Faculties of Fine Arts. referred to appendix 3 .8.EA 3 130 Ph kW. Thus.9.42 Table (3. 3.EA 32 FLA.Ea 3 11 450 Psig R-22 Amp.Ea 3 11 450 Psig R-22 Amp.Ea 3 75 450 Psig R-22 Amp.3 Power factor improvement The average power factor measured by Energy Analyzer for one week was 0.EA 3 145 Ph kW. there is no required action for power factor improvement. and 3.EA 3 Faculties of Science.EA 3 145 Ph kW.

8): Average power factor measured at the Engineering faculty 0.92 0.98 Power Factor Analysis 0.86 Time (One Week ) Pfti+ Avg () Figure (3.0.8 1 0.92 0.11): Average power factor measured at the Pharmacy faculty .F 03:08:00AM 08:08:00PM 01:08:00PM 06:08:00AM 11:08:00PM 04:08:00PM 09:08:00AM 02:08:00AM 07:08:00PM 12:08:00PM 05:08:00AM 10:08:00PM 03:08:00PM 09:08:00AM 02:08:00AM 07:08:00PM 12:08:00PM 05:08:00AM 10:08:00PM 03:08:00PM [ 11:26:00AM P.86 10:09:00AM P.F P.2 0.98 Power Factor Analysis 0.88 08:06:00AM 01:06:00AM 06:06:00PM 07:06:00AM 12:06:00AM 05:06:00PM 10:06:00AM 03:06:00AM 08:06:00PM 01:06:00PM 06:06:00AM 11:06:00PM 04:06:00PM 09:06:00AM 02:06:00AM 07:06:00PM 12:06:00PM 05:06:00AM 10:06:00PM 03:06:00PM 0.96 0.9 Time (One Week ) Pfti+ Avg () Figure (3.02 Power Factor Analysis 0.9 Time (One We e k) Pfti+ Avg () Figure (3.88 0.94 0.92 0.4 0.10): Average power factor measured at the Fine Arts faculty 1.9 0.2 0 Time (One Week) Pft+ Avg () Figure (3.94 0.F P.94 0.84 05:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 10:09:00AM 02:09:00AM 06:09:00PM 04:45:00AM 11:45:00PM 06:45:00PM 01:45:00PM 08:45:00AM 03:45:00AM 10:45:00PM 05:45:00PM 12:45:00PM 07:45:00AM 02:45:00AM 09:45:00PM 04:45:00PM 11:45:00AM 06:45:00AM 01:45:00AM 08:45:00PM 03:45:00PM 10:45:00AM 0.96 0.6 0.9): Average power factor measured at the Science faculty 1 0.88 0.98 1 0.96 0.F 43 Power Factor Analys is 1.

5.4. and the level of natural light. . its furnishings.4 Lighting system A lighting system is an integral part of a building’s architectural design. Appendix 2 illustrates the existing lighting system. the luminance in each area in the university. There is great potential for saving electricity. reducing the emission of greenhouse gases associated with electricity production. Lighting averages 45% of the university building's total electrical demand. and reducing consumer energy costs through the use of more efficient lighting technologies as well as advanced lighting design practices.44 3. and interacts with the shape of each room. and the recommended conditions for each area are also presented. and comparing them with the standards (appendix 1) are very excessive in many areas. Lighting at the university according to the measurements taken by the Extech Data logging light meter.

45 CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY AUDIT IN DIFFERENT FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY .

Evaluation of alternative energy conservation measures based on the evaluation of energy use pattern of the buildings. Also they were classified into the three categories of: .1 Introduction As mentioned in the previous chapter. • Combustion analyzer equipment: It was used on the boiler's chimney for determination of the combustion efficiency. and heating system. flue gas temperature. • Lux meter: For lighting illumination measurements. several energy conservation measures (ECMs) were analyzed. The measurements instruments used for measuring and collecting data were: • The energy analyzer equipment: It was installed on each electrical board of the facility for power measurements and energy consumed and for determination of the power factor. Energy conservation measures were studied in different energy systems. • Thermometer: For temperatures measurement. four faculties were audited and analyzed in this study. The data were collected using measurement instrumentation and through effective estimation based on sound engineering judgment. lighting system. cooling system. O2 and CO2. excess air percentage.46 Chapter Four Energy Audit in Different Faculties of the University 4.

They can be implemented through system renovation or retrofitting to the building or for new similar projects. For this reason. a relatively small efficiency improvement in the boiler plant may produce greater overall savings than much larger efficiency improvements in individual end users of energy. do not require extra cost for their implementation. • Major investment measures (high return): These measures require major financial investment for their implementation. therefore. extra but low cost is required for their implementation. Also.2 Heating System Saving Opportunities A large fraction of a facility’s total energy usage begins in the boiler plant. 4. Excess air is supplied to the burner because a boiler firing without sufficient air or "fuel rich" is operating in a potentially .47 • No cost measures (low return): These are measures that can be implemented through operational and behavioral means without the need for system or building alterations and. • Low cost measures (medium return): These are measures that can be implemented for building alterations or modifications and thus. The cost of boiler fuel is typically the largest energy cost of a facility. Excess air is the extra air supplied to the burner beyond the air required for complete combustion. The main efficiency measures is to reduce boiler excess air. most boiler plants offer significant opportunities for improving efficiency [17]. or the second largest.

the more heat is wasted in heating this air rather than in producing steam.3.4 10 89. and 4.6. The boiler efficiency and excess air before and after controlling the excess air are illustrated in tables 4. Air slightly in excess of the ideal stochiometric fuel/air ratio is required for safety.2. and to reduce NOx emissions. The more air is used to burn the fuel.2 . A rule of thumb often used is that boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for each 15% reduction in excess air or 40°F (22°C) reduction in stack gas temperature [17].1): Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Engineering boilers Engineering faculty Boiler (1) Excess Air (%) Efficiency (%) Boiler (2) Excess Air (%) Efficiency (%) Before controlling After controlling 45 84. 4. 4. The apparatus used to measure the boilers combustion efficiency was "Combustion Analyzer" as mentioned before. Poorly maintained boilers can have up to 140% excess air.48 dangerous condition.2 24 88. but this is rare. in tables 3. Reducing this boiler back down to 15% even without continuous automatic monitoring would save 8% of total fuel use. excess air is supplied to the burner to provide a safety factor above the actual air required for combustion.1. Therefore. but approximately 15% is adequate [17].2 11 87.4: Table (4.

49

Table (4.2): Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Science boilers
Science faculty
Boiler (1)
Excess Air (%)
Efficiency (%)
Boiler (2)
Excess Air (%)
Efficiency (%)
Boiler (3)
Excess Air (%)
Efficiency (%)

Before controlling

After controlling

21
89.4

10
90.4

72
87.8

12
90.1

49
89.5

11
91

Table (4.3): Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Fine Arts
boilers
Fine Arts faculty
Boiler
Excess Air (%)
Efficiency (%)

Before controlling

After controlling

98
81.2

13
87.5

Table (4.4): Excess air and efficiency for the faculty of Pharmacy
boilers
Pharmacy faculty
Boiler
Excess Air (%)
Efficiency (%)

Before controlling

After controlling

39
88.5

10
89.9

Figure 4.4 support the previous tests, and shows the relation between
the percent of the flue gas oxygen, the percent of excess air and the
combustion efficiency.

50

Figure (4.1): Combustion efficiency chart for #6 fuel oil

To compute the saving achieved by this efficiency improvement, the
fuel consumption should be known, based on the faculties diesel bills the
yearly consumption cost is known, then the next equation could be used to
estimate the saving:
Saving = k × [1- (η before /η after )]………………….4.1

Where:
k = annual fuel usage by boiler, liters/yr.
η1 = combustion efficiency before improvement.
η2 = combustion efficiency after improvement.
So by using equation 4.1, and taking the engineering faculty as an
example to compute the saving we obtain that:
Saving = k × [1- (η before /η after )]

51

= 36,000 × [1- (84.2 /87.2 )]
= 36,000 × (0.0344)
= 1,238.4 (liters/year).
Knowing that each liter of diesel costs 5.5 NIS of energy, and
approximately 10.5 kWh, we can compute the saving in (NIS/year),
(kWh/year) respectively.
Saving in NIS/year = 1,238.4 Liter × 5.5 (NIS/Liter)
= 6,811.2 (NIS/year)
By applying the previous equation on the other boiler in the
engineering faculty we can achieve additional saving equal to 1,775.78
NIS, so the total saving are:
8,586.98 (NIS/year)
Applying the previous scenario, and by using equation 4.1, we can
calculate the saving in the other faculties.
Table (4.5) Boilers saving for the university faculties
Faculty
Engineering
Pharmacy
Fine Arts
Science
Total

Saving (kWh/year)
16,393.3
5,886.6
30,618
25,076.8
77,974.7

Saving (NIS/year)
8,586.98
3,083.45
16,038
13,135.46
40,843.89

52

4.3 Cooling System Saving Opportunities
The space cooling system in the university works by electrical
energy; it covers about half of the total volume.
The energy consumption by this system could be estimated by taking
the total load for each faculty multiply by the total hours operating in the
summer season.
Total load = 36 unit × 1.8 kW + 1 chiller × 10.5 kW = 75 kW
In diagnostic phase it was noticed that the temperature of the chiller
were set on 9oC and it's too low, in the other hand the temperature of the
cooled space were about 21oC, this means that there is a large amount of air
leakage in the building because of opened windows or doors.
Saving could be achieved by increasing the temperature that the chiller
is set on, percentage of saving is calculated as follows:
Percentage saving = [(Tout - Texisting) – (Tout - Tsuggested)]/(Tout - Texisting)….4.2
Where:
Tout: before cooling the space (30 oC)
Texisting: the temperature in the room (21 oC)
Tsuggested: suggested room temperature (24 oC)
Percentage saving = [(30 – 21) – (30 – 24)] / (30 – 21)
= 33%

Improvements in lighting efficiency can be obtained in the following areas: ECM # 1: Extra-lamps removal (no cost measure) According to illumination measurements shown in Appendix 2. which were measured at some areas.6): HVAC saving for the university faculties Faculty Engineering Pharmacy Fine Arts Science Total Saving (kWh/year) 14. So removing extra lamps is recommended for the areas specified in Appendix 2.5 65.135 89.4 Lighting System Saving Opportunities By having an understanding of the lamps.764 23.850 (kWh/year) Cost reduction = 0.5 (NIS/year) Table (4.5 14.73 × 14. .840. fixtures and control option available today as well as the techniques used to develop efficient lighting. and the SPBP is immediately. Lighting can be produced that is energy efficient cost effective and yields a higher quality of light.490 31.850 19.239 Saving (NIS/year) 10. 4.850 = 10.7 22.4 This energy saving opportunity is very attractive because it could be done without any initial investment cost.144. ballasts.840.7 17. it was found that values.427.53 Energy consumption saving = 0.147.33 × 75 kW × 600 h/year = 14. exceeds the standard illumination required for the certain areas or places as shown in Appendix 1.728.

E: illumination lm/m² (lux). n: number of lamps in the unit.P.P 0 Immediate .915 NIS/year Investment S.7): Annual energy saving achieved upon lamps removal specified in appendix 2 Lamp type Fluorescent # of lamps 4677 Saved demand kW 110.418 KWh upon removal of the specified lamps.939 Saved energy (kWh) 157. A: area in m².8.3 was used: N= E×A ………………….418 With reference to Appendix 2. K u: reflectance factor . and Km: maintenance factor.3 n × Φ × Ku × Km Where: N: number of units.73 NIS/kWh Total saving in electricity bill 114. Φ: luminous flux in lumen. Table 4.4.54 In order to calculate the optimum number of fixtures and reducing the number of excessive lamps equation 4. knowing that lamp removal doesn’t incur any costs from the university: Table (4.8): Annual cost saving achieved upon lamps removal specified in appendix 2 Energy saving 157.418 kWh/year Electric tariff 0. The corresponding savings in electricity bills are calculated as shown in table 4.B. it is expected to achieve an annual energy saving of approximately 157. Table (4.7 illustrates the annual energy saving achieved upon the removal of the lamps specified in Appendix 2.

it is expected to achieve an annual energy saving of approximately 114.9 showing the energy savings results when installing reflectors.10. By installing reflectors in the fixtures.437 kWh upon installing reflectors in lamp fixtures in specified lamps. The corresponding savings are calculated as shown in table 4.. .9): Annual energy savings results when installing reflectors Existing system Recommended system Lamp type watt # of lamps # of ballast Oper time FL 36 2*1766 3532 1500 Energy used kWh/y 288.55 ECM # 2: Installing reflectors in lamp fixture (medium cost measure) Reflectors are mirror-like devices that can be mounted inside existing fluorescent fixture to direct light out of the fixture more efficiently. hours/year)/1000.9.. Ballast consumes energy whether the lamps are working or not.4 [18] Table (4. hours/year)/1000 + 0. Table 4. reducing the number of lamps by installing reflectors this will reduce the number of ballast used.87 # of lamps # of ballast 1*1766 1766 Energy used kWh/y 114437 Energy savings kWh/y 114437 From table 4. one lamp in every two lamp fixture can be disconnected [19].2 × (# of lamps × w/lamp × oper. The following formula is used to calculate the energy used (kWh/year): Energy used = [wattage from lamps] × [wattage from ballasts] Energy used = (# of lamps × w/lamp × oper.. These reflectors approximately double the light output of the lamp fixture. Reducing the number of lamps will not appreciably decrease the light levels in the university.4.

The high efficient lamps (HOT5). net power factor of 95%-99%.000 hours. longer life time 20.P.10): Annual cost saving achieved upon the installing reflectors in lamp fixtures in specified lamps Energy saving Electric tariff Total saving in electricity bill # of fixtures Reflector cost Investment S. And saves . This opportunity recommends that if the university starts to phase out inefficient lighting lamps and ballast by replacing the lamps that bum out with high efficiency lamps.73 NIS/kWh 83.B. reduction in weight. Each ballast serves one lamp (36w).437 kWh/year 0. 20-30% energy reduction compared with conventional ballast. cool operation. New ballast has been developed that has superior qualities over conventional wound choke ballast's (magnetic ballast). 10-40% more light output than standard T8 lamps. also replacing the magnetic ballasts that burn out with electronic ballasts. Electronic ballast offer some advantages such as.P 114.56 Table (4. The power consumption by ballasts at the building can be reduced by 8 watt per 2-lamp fixture.700 out put lumen [18].1 Years ECM # 3: Installing high-efficiency lamps and ballasts (medium cost measure) The efficiency and output of fluorescent lamps varies depending on both the lamps itself and ballast installed.539 NIS/year 1766 100 NIS 176. and 2. eliminates the annoying problems of light flicker and noise and this lead to an improvement in the quality of lighting [18]. 24W offer some advantages such as.600 NIS 2. 50% longer service life of lamps.

P 50.128.13.6 1800 2.13): Annual cost saving achieved upon installing electronic ballasts.436 718 4 Faculties of Fine Arts.112.B. Graduate Studies and Law FL/36/2 786 393 4 Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine FL/36/2 404 202 4 Oper.4 NIS/year (80-10) = 70 NIS (15-5) = 10 NIS 141.280 NIS 3.766 21.192 1800 38.8 kWh/y 37.145. Ballast ) Price difference (24W lamp -36W lamp ) Investment S. and high efficiency lamps. and high efficiency lamps Energy saving Total saving in electricity bill Price difference (elec. Table (4. Pallast mag.12 shows the annual energy savings results due to replacing the ballasts and lamps. it is expected to achieve an annual energy saving of 50.11 and 4. hours/yr Energy saved (kWh/yr) 1800 3. 4.454.860.11): Annual energy savings by installing high-efficiency electronic ballasts Fixture type # of fixtures # of ballasts Wattage reduction/ballast Faculty of Engineering FL/36/2 906 453 4 Faculties of Science. Tables 4.57 12 watt by one lamp.8 years . Table (4. IT and Optometry FL/36/2 1.6 With reference to tables 4.6 1800 1.860.715. The corresponding savings are calculated as shown in table 4.12): Annual energy saving achieved upon the replacement of the specified lamps Replaced lamp type Replace with # of Lamps Saved demand kW Annual operation hours Saved energy (kWh/year) FL 36 W HOT5 24 W 1.261.4 Total Energy Saved 12.P.829.2 Table (4.6 1800 5.8 kWh upon installing high-efficiency electronic ballasts.169.11.

an additional saving occurs through reduced air-conditioning demand.14 shows the Domino Effect Energy Savings (DEES). for the conditioned areas that mentioned before. the Domino Effect Energy Savings (DEES) can be calculated in each of the previous ECO's as follows: (DEES) = (Fraction of year in cooling season × 0.. it can be calculated using the Rundquist Method [18]. conference rooms. The air conditioning savings have been called the Domino Effect. . lower wattage means less heat.33× total energy saving from the previous ECO's in the conditioned areas)….58 ECM # 4: Domino Effect savings (no cost measure) In addition to the direct savings that results from the previous ECO's. 14 weeks × 100% = 27% of the year 52 weeks / year In this opportunity the air conditioned areas is computer labs. so the air conditioning units do less work to cool the conditioned areas.5 [18] Table 4. According to our local climate and the operating time in the building the air conditioning is used only in summer season about 14 weeks per year.. and head of department rooms.4.

450 0. .P.16 illustrates the saving opportunities summary for An_Najah National University.59 Table (4.15. and the simple payback period for each energy conservation measure.27 Total Energy Saved 207. Table (4.348.847.4 0.27 699.14): Domino Effect energy savings (DEES) Energy saved kWh/yr Faculty of Engineering Area # ECO's G0030 ECO#1 Fraction of cooling season DEES kWh/yr 0.73 NIS/kWh Total saving in electricity bill 1. it is expected to achieve an annual energy saving of approximately 1.690 Faculties of Science.15): Domino Effect cost savings (DECS) Energy saving 1. the annual Co2 reduction.P 0 Immediate 4.453 Faculties of Fine Arts.847.78 kWh/year Electricity tariff 0. the annual cost saving.847.2 0. The corresponding savings are calculated as shown in table 4.78 kWh upon Domino Effect Energy Savings (DEES).27 863.379 9.14.88 NIS/year Investment S. that includes the annual saving in kWh.395 1.B.78 From table 4.552 Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine G0030 ECO#1 3. IT and Optometry G360 ECO#1 7580.5 Summary of the Saving Opportunities Table 4.27 77. Graduate Studies and Law 20 ECO#1 870.

591.011.915 No cost 170.P 77.4 No cost 96.44 Immediately 114.P.8 years 1.212.66 3.128.7 40.12 Immediately 157.8 37.880 531.847.600 123.1 years 50.16): Summary of the saving opportunities Opportunity Boiler combustion efficiency Space cooling system Lamps removal Lamp reflectors High-Efficiency lamps and ballasts Domino Effect Description Increasing boiler combustion efficiency by controlling the amount of excess air.96 2. and magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts.437 83. Saving could be achieved by replacing old lamps with high efficient lamps.119.B.919.995. Saving could be achieved by removing unnecessary lamps.88 No cost 1.929.60 Table (4.60 Immediately 491.348. Saving could be achieved by reducing the air-conditioning demand.28 342. Total Energy saved (kWh/year) Cost reduction (NIS/year) Opportunity implementation cost (NIS) Equivalent kg of CO2 reduction S.144.280 54. Saving could be achieved by changing the temperature that the system is set on.777.67 Immediately 89.539 176.78 1.239 65.418 114.843.974.57 317.4 141. Saving could be achieved by installing reflectors for fixtures.378.45 .89 No cost 84.860.

3): Percentage of energy cost saving by ECM . Energy Cost Before and After Improvements Cost (NIS) 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 Heating System Lighting System Energy Cost After Improvements Cooling System Actual Energy Cost Figure (4.3.16 are illustrated in figure 4. also the percentage of energy saving for each energy conservation measures shown in figure 4.61 The energy cost before and after improvements which obtained from table 4.2.2): Energy cost before and after improvements Percentage of Energy Cost Saving by ECM 11% 0% 12% 19% 24% 34% Boiler Efficiency Saving Space Cooling Saving Lamps Removal Saving Lamps Reflector Saving High Efficiency Lamps and Ballasts Saving Domino Effect Saving Figure (4.

62 CHAPTER FIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT .

Showing recent trends in energy use accounting for savings achieved by an energy retrofit program.63 Chapter Five Energy Conservation Software Development 5.Pro-rating the data so as to provide calendar-month consumption figures (as opposed to varying-length billing periods). which used to find the total energy saving from each opportunity in our study.Tabulating large quantities of energy use data. including: .Minimizes calculation errors. Utilizing the computer softwares instead of manual calculations has numerous beneficial effects.Provides reliable and neatly organized data for use in analysis and postretrofit troubleshooting. we had illustrated the methods employed in energy conservation.1 Introduction In the previous chapter. . . . in addition to a list of final consequences that indicates all forms of energy saving in our study. by designing a software in which all energy conservation calculations are accomplished on universities or any other facilities. and crowning that in this chapter. with each study per se. printing the outcome in specific tables. . including documenting and adjusting for the effects of weather and other independent variables. . transforming them into mathematical models.

It is needless to say that it is not crucial to process all the cases in each study.1): Energy management program main data screen display The list design block diagram of the main data screen display is shown in figure 5. Since they are available in the user interface for choosing any process to be implemented. includes a set of partial programs to certain study cases illustrated in chapter four. improving the power factor.2 Software Components The energy conservation software in universities.64 5. The main data screen is shown in figure 5. air-conditioning. raise the boilers efficiency and recover the expense of capital. It includes lighting.2. Figure (5. On the contrary we could choose any case study independently according to subject matter. .1.

65 Figure (5.2): Block diagram of the main data screen display .

and the results of the code are instantaneously written to the spreadsheet or displayed on charts [20]. rich data visualization. With this code any function or subroutine that can be set up in a Basic or like language can be run using input taken from the spreadsheet proper. . combined with Excel Services.3 Software Language In designing and programming this software we use Microsoft Office Excel 2007. 5. we can navigate. Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A valuable aspect of Excel is the ability to write code using the programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). By sharing a spreadsheet using Office Excel 2007 and Excel Services. We can share sensitive information more broadly with enhanced security with other partners. and interact with Pivot table views directly on the web browser [20]. into mathematical models to put its flow charts. which is one of the strongest softwares. input parameters. professional-looking charts are easier to create and use.66 5. used to create and format spreadsheets. filter. so we can implement the case study on our facility and others in general.4 Energy Conservation Measures Flow Charts We are going to transform the most important methods of energy conservation in universities which we illustrated in chapter four. With the Microsoft Office Fluent user interface. analyze and share information to make more informed decisions. sort. a new technology provides significant improvements for sharing data with greater security. and Pivot table views.

. and virtual). It is also a quick method to get an overview of the necessary number of fixtures in the room to have a good opportunity to reduce number of fixtures. We note here that the method of modeling is to turn every issue into two parts. measured. desk height or height above the floor at which the visual work is to be performed). . There remains some issues that are on the suggestions and advice can be implemented purely administrative procedures. extracted from the tables.Distance from the work plane to the fixtures. Lumen Method calculation input requirements: . which is used to determine and calculate the number of fixtures necessary to achieve an average luminance. and floor reflectance's (% of light reflected by the room surface). and height.Physical characteristics of the room.4. 5.1 Lighting system (Lumen Method) This method is based upon utilization factor. one containing various kinds of information available (nominal. .67 We recall that the process of modeling on all issues that can be formulated in the form of mathematical calculations. and the second contains the accounts according to the model mathematical formulas for each issue. width.Ceiling.Work plane height (i. wall.e. including length. .

3. . and thermal application effect. The overall of maintenance factor range from 0. lamp depreciation.Coefficient of utilization (Cu) of the fixtures: This value depends on the design of the fixtures and the characteristics of the space where the fixtures is located.65-0.75-0. The flow chart of the lumen Method main function is shown in figure 5.85 for ballasted lighting systems and from 0.68 .Maintenance factor (Km): May be either recoverable due to maintenance of lighting system and room surfaces. .95 for most incandescent systems. ballasts factors.

3): Flow chart of Lumen Method function .69 Figure (5.

4): Flow chart of Lumen Method lighting distribution .70 Also the Lighting Distribution is shown in figure 5. Figure (5.4.

Exterior doors and windows. percent of oxygen and excess air. and building envelop.71 5. . The flow chart of the heating system main function in figure 5. floors area and height.Combustion efficiency after improvements (controlling excess air).4. Heating system calculation input requirements: . number of floors.Boilers annual fuel consumption. illustrates all steps required for calculating the saving and the simple payback period. fuel type and price. including area. combustion efficiency and losses. The measures used is controlling the excess air which is the most important tool for managing the energy efficiency and atmospheric emissions of a boiler system. . types and orientation. . temperature.2 Heating system This method is based mainly upon the boiler efficiency and its fuel consumption. . .Physical characteristics of the building.Boiler stack gases characteristics.5.

5): Flow chart of heating system function .72 Figure (5.

4. number of floors. . . including area.Number of Air conditions. illustrates all steps required for calculating the saving and the simple payback period. The flow chart of the cooling system main function in figure 5.Electric tariff rate.6.Physical characteristics of the building.73 5. depending upon the ambient temperature. and set point temperatures . and building envelop.Indoor. and their rated power. and the seasonal operation hours.Seasonal operation hours . floors area and height. Cooling system calculation input requirements: . .Exterior doors and windows. .3 Cooling system This method is based upon the number of air conditions. chillers. types and orientation. ambient. chillers and their set point temperatures. . The measures used is to controlling the set point temperature of the air condition and the chiller systems to suit the indoor climate. .

74 Figure (5.6): Flow chart of cooling system function .

75 5. Because low power factor is expensive and inefficient. and the electric tariff rate.The total investment of the required capacitor bank.4. . Power factor improvement calculation input requirements: .Total annual electrical energy consumption for the facility.7 illustrates how we can calculate the penalties due to low power factor. The flow chart of the power factor improvement main function in figure 5. . . Saving and simple payback period will be display in the end of the process.The existing power factor of the facility.The percentage of penalties depending on the existing power factor. .4 Power factor improvement This method is based upon measuring power factor in the facility to make sure that is equal or more than 92%. .The price of 1 kVAR. and also reduces the electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. and the maximum demand.

7): Flow chart of power factor function .76 Figure (5.

The information in our software is entered either directly into the spreadsheet cells or by selecting from pull-down menus. All the worksheets can be printed out as reports on the design and expected performance of our case study. we can generate a savings estimate and analysis for our building in a few seconds.1 summarizes the energy characteristics and savings results from the Engineering faculty which is taken as an example of our study. this making sure that the software will function as required. . and each step in the process of building the software yields the right results.5 Software Verification Software verification is the process of ensuring that software being developed will satisfy functional and other requirements. Table 5. Once we fill in these basic inputs.77 5.

883.65 2 Combustion Efficiency Before Combustion Efficiency After Cost Saving 8586.914 # of Removed Lamps 1.(L/year) 36000 Total Saving (L/Year) 1.93 (NIS) Total Wattage 17927 kWh 108.P.86 14.20% 87.506 W Consumption Cost Saving 37.P.P HIGH EFFIECIENCY LAMPS & BALLASTS Watt Reduction 8.10% S.3 m 6 .918 kWh 44.845 (NIS) S.561 (NIS) Investment S.40% 89.381 # of Fixtures 110 # of Ballasts # of Lamps 2072 2072 Room Function Maintenance Factor No. of Lamps /Fixture Class 0.120 300 Lux 2.288 W Energy Saving Watt Reduction 12 W/Lamp Energy Saving Cost Reduction 43.P Nablus 12.40 Electrical Energy Consumption and Cost kWh 84.291 (NIS) Rated Power 2 kW Rated Power 11 kW Operating Hours 600 S.P.1 Years 14.P.B.B.P Energy Saving 33% Cost Saving Energy Consumption Saving (kWh/year) 30000 0 Address Building Area Electric Cost Heating Heati ng 51843 kWh Immediate 7128 kWh/y 2.500 0:08 Am to 0:16 Pm Sun-Wed Heating System Diesel Consump.B.20% Immediate Immediate 10.909.795 m2 194.B.P INSTALLING REFLECTORS Consumption 14256 kWh/y Energy Saving Investment 11000 (NIS) S.2 Cooling System # of air-conditions # of Chillers Ambient Temperature Indoor Temperature Setpoint Temperature 36 1 30 21 24 Lighting System Total No.78 Table (5. of Fixtures 25000 20000 15000 10000 December October November Septemper July August June April May March January February 5000 Months Cost (NIS) Cos t Saving for Each Opportunity 100000 Cost (NIS) 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Lighting Lighti ng Cooling Cooling 88.72 No.P 4 Years LUMEN METHOD Room Area 56 m2 Illumination Lamp Lumen 3100 Lumen Fixture height Utilization factor 0. of Lamps 3.561.1): Energy saving report Name of Institution Name of the Building Electric Bill (kWh/year) Building Operation An-Najah National University Faculty of Engineering 271.165 W Consumption LAMP REMOVAL Total Wattage 33.755 kWh 176.B.P.

79 CHAPTER SIX SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS .

specially in the lighting system. although their specific function is optimized for the operation of a large number of smaller lighting loads.80 Chapter Six System Development and Analysis 6. . This system consists of lighting panels and sensors that are distributed throughout a facility and tied together via a local-area network (LAN). and affirmed by the software in chapter five. there is a huge potential of energy saving in An-Najah National University. Systems are usually priced by the number of control points [21]. and considered as apart of the energy management system (EMS). These lighting management systems (LMS) typically have similar capabilities to energy management systems. such as motors and HVAC equipment. An energy management system (EMS) is a multiprocessor control system that controls most or all of a facility's building equipment loads.1 Introduction As demonstrated in chapter four. many manufacturers have developed systems that manage energy functions for lighting systems. Most building EMS's are able to control many (typically hundreds) of electric loads in a building. this led us to design an automatic light and management control system. These systems are very good for controlling many switching loads throughout a facility and for coordinating their day-to-day operation. Since lighting systems are also loads in a building. Each switch is considered “one control point”. to achieve the greatest possible saving that we could.

and equipment located across a campus in multiple buildings. Figure 6. 6. there are often heating. a building EMS will be attached to the facility’s existing information technology (IT) network. Universities often have multiple data centers.1): Faculties distribution of the campus through the network [26] . In addition. but they are often managed by a central support organization. cooling. security.1 shows the faculties distribution of the campus and there relationship with each through the local area network (LAN). Figure (6. These diverse pieces of equipment can be in different locations around the faculty as well as at satellite campuses.2 Methodology Educational institutions and universities face some unique challenges in IT and network equipment management.81 Nowadays. and phone equipment which also needs to be managed. labs.

The building was built in 2005. the study database contained 32 rooms categorized by primary occupancy type into 8 classrooms. dimensions and lighting system specification. and 4 W. The logger device recorded the time and state of the light and/or occupancy condition. It serves the different engineering departments. the logger documented the time of day and the change in condition. size. workshops and teacher's offices. with a minimum connected lighting load of at least 504 watts. labs. after eliminating records with inconsistent or incomplete data. Occupancy and lighting operation data was collected using Extech Data logging light meter. The diversity of age. Each time occupancy or the lighting condition changed. The building includes: teaching rooms. drawing rooms.82 The buildings under consideration are located in the New Campus of An-Najah National University. Data for 40 rooms were originally collected. industrial. The total floor area of the building is 12. 10 private offices. computer and electrical departments.795m2. we intend to design and implement an automatic light and management control system for the Engineering faculty building. mechanical. 6 drawing halls. Rooms for study were contained manual controls for the lighting systems. A three-weeks monitoring period between September and October 2007 was chosen to represent a typical lighting and occupancy schedule. The data were downloaded to a computer and organized into consistent for data aggregation and analysis. architecture. efficiency.C's. 4 laboratories. civil. . chemical. In this study. and occupancy types for this building was intended to represent a typical cross section of the country’s educational building stock. Rooms were surveyed for occupancy type.

and for weekends were averaged over the 6y weekends in the monitoring period.83 Descriptive statistics were calculated and cost analyses were performed for weekdays. weekdays were analyzed from 08:00am to 18:00pm.73 NIS/kWh) to the energy savings under each control scenario. Data presented for weekdays were averaged over the 15 weekdays.1 Total energy savings potential (baseline data) Determining the basic energy savings potential across applications requires establishing a baseline of observed occupancy and lighting conditions. Total energy savings was determined by applying a flat rate (0. as illustrated later in chapter 8. the total load for each room was used to determine lighting energy usage and waste. Statistical analyses also were conducted to generalize the results of the measured data to the whole buildings in the university. Lighting energy waste was calculated by multiplying the total load by the time that the lights were on and the room was unoccupied. Baseline occupant switching and occupancy patterns were established using the collected data on occupancy and light usage. The baseline occupancy and light usage data were then used for modeling the effects of installing occupancy sensors with 5. 15. and for the total 21-days monitoring period. and 20 minute time delay periods. weekends. Lighting energy use was calculated by multiplying the total lighting load by the time that the lights were on and the room was occupied. 10. Lighting and occupancy use in any space will always fall into one of the following four conditions: . 6. as will seen later in chapter 8. For the energy calculations. Data presented for the total period were averaged over the 21-days monitoring period.2.

Condition three represents wasted lighting energy by having lights on when spaces are unoccupied.1): Average percentage of time each area was occupied with lights on and off. Table 6. the first three are of particular interest.1 illustrates that spaces were infrequently occupied. Occupied with the lights on 2.84 1. Table (6. and unoccupied with lights on and off Classroom Drawing Hall Private Office Laboratory W. Occupied with the lights off 3. Unoccupied with the lights off Of the four conditions. Condition one is of interest for gathering information about how frequently occupants use these types of spaces with the lights on. with the daily percentage of total occupied time with lights on and off never . This condition is of primary importance when considering using automatic occupancy sensor control. Unoccupied with the lights on 4. If occupants frequently occupy a space with the lights off (condition two). Conditions two and three are of interest when considering lighting controls. then a manual lighting control device that allows occupants to turn lights off when needed should be provided.1 lists the average percentage of time each application was in each of the four occupancy and lighting conditions.C Occupied lights on 52% 46% 35% 40% 62% Occupied lights off 4% 1% 8% 3% 0% Unoccupied lights on 32% 26% 17% 22% 28% Unoccupied lights off 12% 27% 40% 35% 10% Table 6.

the majority of energy waste (16-30%) occurs during the weekdays.C Energy use (%) Weekdays Weekends 80% 4% 70% 2% 48% 6% 59% 3% 89% 1% Energy waste (%) Weekdays Weekends 30% 2% 23% 3% 16% 1% 20% 2% 27% 1% As expected.2 Time of day/week impacts on energy savings Determining the applicability of occupancy sensors as a control strategy suitable to obtain these savings requires an examination of when those savings present themselves. occupants did not diligently turn lights off when they vacated spaces.2.C's operating more often when the occupants were out of the room than in the room.2 demonstrates that the majority of energy use (48-89%) occurs for all space types during the weekdays. Table (6.85 exceeding 62%. not on the weekends. Likewise. As an automatic control strategy. private offices. occupancy sensors work best in areas where occupancy is intermittent and unpredictable. 6.2): Average percentage of energy used and waste for weekdays and weekends Classroom Drawing Hall Private Office Laboratory W. Also. with the lighting system in drawing halls. and W. The data shown for condition 2 indicates that occupants rarely occupied spaces with the lights off. indicating that for these spaces there may be a small potential benefit of installing manual controls. where a high percentages of . table 6. such as classrooms. This indicates that occupants controlled their lighting poorly during the workday. This is intuitively understandable in such areas where occupants do not feel that the lighting is “theirs” to control.

For smaller zones and zones where occupancy patterns cannot be predicted ahead of time. Thus scheduling implemented with relays and lighting circuit breaker panels usually results in on/off control over large . In both large and small buildings. The controllable relays are usually connected in series with the existing branch circuit wiring. This indicates that occupancy-based controls would be more effective given they save not only after hours but also at capturing savings during working hours. 6. there are compact programmable relay panel controls. a lighting control strategy best implemented by using building-level controls. Scheduling works well for large spaces where occupancy is predictable.3 Scheduling Using EMS With scheduling.86 waste occurred over after hours. Since most lighting circuits in buildings are typically 30 amp breakers. scheduling is typically implemented using EMS type systems that are designed for large multizone building control. each circuit breaker may control lighting power for between 200–450 m² of lighting [22]. occupancy sensors are a better solution. lighting loads throughout a facility are turned on and off at appropriate times. which results in on/off control of entire lighting circuits. scheduling is typically implemented using latchable relays that are installed at the lighting circuit breaker panels. In large buildings (over 4. The primary function of scheduling controls is to turn off lighting loads when the space is expected to be unoccupied (also called “sweep-off” control since lighting circuits are swept off at scheduled times). For small commercial buildings.500 m²) [22].

1–1999. it may be economical to apply the relays at a smaller level. large building [22] Figure (6.3. at the switch leg level.87 banks of lights. that is. This provides a finer degree of control over the building lighting.2): Circuit diagram for EMS-based scheduling. Figures 6.2 and 6. but has greater installation costs because of the increased number of control points.3): Circuit diagram for EMS-based scheduling. For new construction. small building [22] . Figure (6. show how scheduling might be applied in large commercial buildings as required by ASHRAE Standard 90.

the photocell is connected to the low-voltage control that ties together the different ballasts serving the control zone.4 Implementation There are two ways to implement integrated controls.4 shows how the different lighting control components would be wired together into the building's electrical system to provide both occupancybased and light-sensing-based control. In this application. including light sensors. Figure (6. Multifunction controllers represent state of the art in lighting controls. while the occupancy sensor merely interrupts the high-voltage power going to the lighting system [22]. and signals from energy management systems. The second method uses multifunction controllers that may take inputs from several different sensors. The first method relies on assembling discrete components to form systems capable of executing more than one strategy.4): Wiring for combination occupancy and light sensors [22] . occupancy sensors. A knowledgeable specifier can design a lighting control system that exploits more than one strategy. Figure 6. A simple example of this is the combination of occupant-sensing controls and daylight controls.88 6.

and occupancy sensor). These components will discussed in details later in this chapter.89 6.5 shows the block diagram of the main components of our light management and control system (PIC16F877.6 shows the schematic diagram of the lighting control board. ULN2003. which is needed to interface and configure the XPort. . shape. Figure 6. Figure (6. XPort Direct+.5): System block diagram Figure 6. which illustrates the main components of the lighting kit that we developed to replace with the Lantronix kit. by means of graphic symbols. It also used to trace the circuit and its functions without regard to the actual physical size.5 System schematic Diagram and Its Main Components The schematic diagram shows. the electrical connections and functions of a specific circuit arrangement. or location of the component devices or parts. RS232. By designing this kit we avoided an extra cost that could be paid. power pack.

1 Light Level PIC.4 PIC.3 Com.3 J2.Figure (6.2 J2.6): Lighting control board schematic diagram J2.4 J2. DT-200 90 .

The main reason for choosing 16F877 microcontroller is the need for larger number of input/output ports. a microcontroller executes a user program which is loaded in its program memory.7. the main components of our system are: • Microcontroller PIC16F877: Are general purpose microprocessors which have additional parts that allow them to control external devices. Basically. Programmable interrupt Controlling chip is used in my system to be the interface between the computer and the hardware. In figure 6.7): Lighting control panel From the previous schematic diagram in figure 6.6.7 after the parts added. manipulated and then data is sent to external output devices [23]. Figure (6. . and the lighting control panel in figure 6.8 the pin diagram of the PIC16F877.91 The lighting control panel can be seen in figure 6. data is received from external devices (inputs). Under the control of this program.

9): RS232 serial port . Figure (6. data moves here bit by bit. Figure 6. the full-duplex mode block which enables this way of communication is called serial communication block.8): Pin diagram of PIC16F877 [23] • MAX232: Since we can send and receive data at the same time due to the separate lines of sending and receiving data. or in a series of bits what defines the term serial communication comes from.9 shows the connection of MAX232 chip and the DB9 port.92 Figure (6.

etc with a PIC.93 • ULN2003: We use ULN2003 because that the PIC can only supply up to 25mA.11 can now rapidly and even more affordably web-enable virtually any device with a serial interface on its microcontroller [24]. and can withstand a continual 500mA current drain and a maximum 50V.10.11): XPort Direct+ embedded device server [24] . The part shown in figure 6. but we can't drive a relay. Figure (6. Figure (6.10): Pin diagram of ULN2003 • XPort Direct+ embedded device server: It is an embedded device server module delivering high-performance Ethernet connectivity and web server capabilities. It simply switches an earth to/from an external circuit. and even small devices like LED's. motor. as shown in figure 6. The ULN2003 is a very cost effective chip that acts like a switch. This is fine for logic levels.

256 KB of SRAM and an RJ45 jack [24]. XPort has 512 KB of on module Flash for web pages and firmware upgrades.12 shows the schematic for XPort carrier board. permitting the device’s host microcontroller to function at maximum efficiency. I built a circuit to convert from 5V to 3. incoming TCP or UDP packets are unbundled and presented to the attached device over its microcontroller’s serial interface. Serial data from the device microcontroller’s CMOS logic-level serial port is packetized and delivered over an Ethernet network via TCP or UDP data packets.3 volts. and not 5V-compliant. . To use it with a PIC or similar microprocessors that have TTL serial capability. Figure 6. This fully-integrated and ready-to-deploy module also includes a 10/100 MAC/PHY. and ground goes to pin 1 of J1. XPort Direct+ features a built-in web server for communications with a device via a standard Internet browser. real-time monitoring. Web capability can be used for remote configuration. It operates on 3. Similarly. The data sheet and the configuration of the XPort are shown in appendix 6. upgrades and troubleshooting. The XPort has one serial port and three configurable I/O pins. +5V input goes to pin 10 of Connector J1.94 XPort Direct+ acts as a dedicated co-processor module to optimize network activities.3V. DC.

b) Coverage area [25] The DT-200 offers numerous operating modes that can be combined to create the ideal custom control. Figure (6.13): a) DT-200 Dual Technology sensor. The sensors can be configured to turn lighting on. The combination of these technologies helps to eliminate false triggering problems even in difficult applications [25].12): XPort schematic carrier board • Dual Technology occupancy sensor (DT-200): The Watt Stopper DT200 Dual Technology occupancy sensors combine advanced passive infrared (PIR) and ultrasonic technologies into one unit. After no movement is detected for the user specified time or . as shown in figure 6.13. and hold it on as long as either or both technologies detect occupancy.95 Figure (6.

a network access port is usually nearby. Sensor data sheet shown in appendix 7. There are several reasons for networking these devices: 1. • Power Pack: In most occupancy and light sensor systems. the power supply and relay comprise in one unit. Easy installation and maintenance Network connections tend to populate every location of a campus or corporate site. I've drawing the wiring diagram of the power pack and the sensor.14): Power pack wiring diagram 6. . Wherever one goes. DT-200 sensors also have an isolated relay with Normally Open and Normally Closed for integration with HVAC and BAS.14.6 The Benefits of Networked Management Device Server technology allows an isolated device to be networked into the campus or corporate network. as shown in figure 6. Figure (6.96 SmartSet time (5 to 30 minutes) the lights are switched off. sometimes called a power pack or switch pack.

In most larger networks. Routed networks provide multiple pathways for data deliver [26]. Many vendors. while most vendors support simple telnet or menu-based management interfaces. hubs and converters. literally around the world. Management from anywhere Network managers now have a great many tools at their disposal for ensuring that the network performs efficiently. Reliable management access Corporate and campus networks have become very highly scrutinized. All of these reasons . Networking protocols designed for data delivery ensure that information arrives from node to node. allowing a network manager to roam at will. such as HP (HPOpenview) and SUN (SunNetmanager). 2. connectivity becomes available to areas that previously required long dedicated serial cable run. New software capable of measuring quality of service helps the network manager to tune the network topology to allow data to flow freely between devices virtually all the time. As networks are extended to great lengths using switches. 3. have welldeveloped software packages for network management. and still have access to a device [26]. SNMP (including MIBs) is a standardized management protocol providing pro-active management information arising from continuous process monitoring. 24-hour-a-day maintenance and monitoring takes place to ensure the network is running properly. These protocols are supported over the Internet.97 This means a device in any location can be put onto the network and accessed from anywhere else on the local network or even over the Internet [26].

network managers can train internal staff better and more easily hire new staff with known levels of skill regarding the management suite. Standards-based management features such as SNMP maximize the investment in software and analysis devices based upon that protocol [26]. With a management scheme based upon established standards. Even a simple management technique such as a ping or a telnet login to validate that a node is alive can be run from a script. 4. Better management technology and better staff results in lower costs for the network manager. . Lower management costs With a reliable remote management tool available. network managers can streamline their staffing and troubleshooting requirements to a centralized or even automated system.98 combine to make management over the network one of the most reliable ways to manage a remote device.

99 CHAPTER SEVEN LIGHT MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL WEB-BASED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT .

7. including the baseline data survey. . implementation.1. includes a set of tasks that coverage the whole issues in monitoring and controlling the lighting system. In this chapter we connect all parts of the system together via a web-based software. The list design block diagram of the main data screen display is shown in figure 7. and results.2 Software Components The light management and control software in universities.100 Chapter Seven Light Management and Control Web-Based Software Development 7. from anywhere else on the local network or even over the Internet.S) software. which mentoring and controlling the lighting system in the university buildings.R. they are available in the user interface for choosing any process to be controlled.1 Introduction In chapter six. called monitoring remote system (M. we had illustrated the system development and analysis.

1): Block diagram of the main data screen display .101 Figure (7.

102 7. stable. Another key advantage of PHP is its connective abilities. It is used for creating dynamic web pages that interact with the user. 7. that can be embedded into HTML. PHP is one of the most popular server side scripting languages running today. runs on all of the most popular web servers and is available for many different operating systems. it offers many advantages. encryption. PHP uses a modular system of extensions to interface with a variety of libraries such as graphics. . programmers can extend PHP by writing their own extensions and compiling them into the executable or they can create their own executable and load it using PHP [28].2. In addition.3 Software Language In designing and programming this software we use PHP language.4 Flow Charts The flow chart of the main procedures of our software are illustrated in figure 7. It can also be used with a large number of relational database management systems. secure. it is fast. easy to use and open source [27]. XML. etc.

103 Figure (7.2): Flow chart of the software main functions .

104 The lighting control procedures are illustrated in figure 7.3): Flow chart of the lighting control procedures .3. Figure (7.

The components could be then implemented and tested in isolation before being integrated to form a desired software system. • Fault-tolerance: The software is resistant to and able to recover from component failure.105 7. independent components. Some of these aspects are: • Extensibility: New capabilities can be added to the software without major changes to the underlying architecture. . This allows division of work in a software development project. The importance of each should reflect the goals the software is trying to achieve. • Maintainability: The software can be restored to a specified condition within a specified period of time. • Modularity: The resulting software comprises well defined. That leads to better maintainability. • Security: The software is able to withstand hostile acts and influences. • Reliability: The software is able to perform a required function under stated conditions for a specified period of time.5 Software Design There are many aspects to consider in the designing of web-based software. • Compatibility: The software is able to operate with other products that are designed for interoperability with another product. • Robustness: The software is able to operate under stress or tolerate unpredictable or invalid input.

Figure (7.4and 7.5.4): Software home page Figure (7.106 The main screens in the software are illustrated in figures 7.5): Software main display screen .

107 figures 7. Figure (7.6.6): Software lighting control Figure (7. and 7.7 shows the lighting control procedures which depends on the room schedule table and the occupancy pattern.7): Room lighting monitor .

The administrator has the full privacy for editing. The monitoring control allows the user to monitor the university faculties by displaying all rooms in the selecting faculty and its status as shown in figure 7. the lights turn on in a classroom when two conditions are achieved together: (1) there is a lecture at this time. end time. if they want to make a lecture out of the schedule table.6 Principle of the Software The web-based software. otherwise the lights remain off even one of the previous conditions are verified. for example. and submit this information. there are three permissions: administrator. the schedule table is downloaded from the university server at the beginning of each semester. and security. (2) the occupancy sensor detects a motion (the students enter the room). the software verify this information. Through this scenario. to make sure they don’t conflict with the schedule table.108 7. Another wonderful feature that the software provided is the special events. has several functions which achieved the desired objectives of it.6. then enter the start time. they can firstly determine the room number.7. we can achieve a maximum possible saving in the classrooms. deleting. depending on the schedule table of the area. and the date of the desired lecture. or searching for a specific room number to show whether it is on or off as shown in the previous figure 7. Through the system accounts we can make a permissions for the software users. and the occupancy pattern. instructor. and . this option allow the instructors to override the previous scenario. The main function is to turn the lights on and off.

Great Bairam. a limited permissions given to the security. in addition to a list of final consequences that indicates all forms of energy saving in the study. • Holidays: We can assign a general holidays such as (Friday. The software also supports other features. or any new holiday from the calendar. to apply a certain function on it. • Energy management: All energy conservation calculations are accomplished on universities or any other facilities. such as: • Light meter: Monitoring the illumination in any room remotely by using Extech Data logging light meter.109 modification of the software. the instructors have also privacies for monitoring and assigning new lectures. and calculating the total energy consumption for a specific day. Lesser Bairam. • Groups: By using groups we can arrange all the areas which have the same functions in on group to apply a command on it. Saturday. . • Daily load curve: Displaying the load curve for any chosen room. which is connected to the lighting panel through the serial port. etc). printing the outcome in specific tables. with each study per se.

110 CHAPTER EIGHT SYSTEM TESTING AND RESULTS .

It explains basically how we managed to make every component work as expected. Finally we connect the PIC and the serial interface to the XPort direct embedded device server. including the total investment cost. We will be focusing in this chapter on how we dealt with the PIC and serial interface. 8.1): PIC16F877 and MAX232 testing board .P).2. this kit shown in figure 8.1. the XPort Direct+ embedded device server configuration and its interfacing board.2 PIC and Serial Interface Testing Firstly we built the circuit of the PIC and the serial interface on the testing board to insure that it is working well. The end part of this chapter illustrates the economical evaluation of the system.P.1 Introduction This chapter is dedicated to the different experiments we have executed during the development of our system. as shown in figure 8.111 Chapter Eight System Testing and Results 8.B. then we connect it with the PC through the serial port to install the program to the PIC. and the occupancy sensor adjustment. and the simple payback period (S. Figure (8. that is needed to interface with the sensors.

The sensors drawing also shown in appendix 5.2): Lighting control kit The previous kit I developed to replace with the kit that supported by Lantronix which is needed to configure the XPort. Commissioning reduces the number of false ONs and false OFFs.3. Virtually all sensors allow adjustment of sensitivity and the time delay period. so by developing this kit we save approximately $100. .112 Figure (8. as shown in figure 8. A false OFF occurs when an occupancy sensor switches off lights while the space is still occupied. 8.3 Occupancy Sensor Testing 8.1 Commissioning adjustments Most occupancy sensors require commissioning upon installation to adapt the sensor to the specific space. The adjustment device should be located so that it is accessible to the contractor performing the commissioning but not so accessible that unauthorized personnel can interfere with it. A false ON occurs when the sensor switches on lighting when the space is not occupied.3.

and the distance of the sensor from the person being detected. Figure (8. Some sensors incorporate an adjustable sensitivity feature that helps the sensor perform more consistently year round. false OFFs and ONs will be minimized.C 8. If there is a false detection. . If the sensitivity is correctly set for the application.3.3) : Sensor placement: a) Classroom.113 (a) (b) (c) (d) . the sensor can be fine-tuned to accommodate the activities being performed in the space.2 Sensitivity to motion With the sensitivity adjustment. the presence of air currents or drafts. Sensors commonly encounter changing ambient conditions that can affect their ability to detect moving heat. b) Office . c) Laboratory. the sensor will automatically increase the detection sensitivity. The range of this sensitivity adjustment is typically 80–120%. d) W.

the time delay will lengthen. If the room is used more often. depending on hour of day.3. the time delay can be set longer to mitigate any potential shortening of lamp life. daylight levels vary across the space depending on distance from the daylight apertures.4 shows a sample of the lighting distribution which is measured by the Extech Data logger light meter for a classroom # 1230. DT-200 Dual Technology occupancy sensor can adapt the timeout delay according to the usage patterns in the room (SmartSet). accent lighting is usually placed on a time schedule and task lighting may be manually controlled or occupancy sensed with one of the newer personal lighting controls. daylight distribution appears uniform across the space. If the lights cycle often because an occupant frequently moves in and out of the space. The daylight intensity and distribution also change through time. .4 Daylight distribution The daylighting controls operate on the ambient electric light system. which is reasonable for many applications. season. 8. sky condition (clear versus cloudy) and condition of blinds and shading devices. Figure 8. the sensor will set a short time delay. If a room is used infrequently. But more often. Sometimes.114 8. Many systems come factory preset with a 10-minute timeout.3.3 Timeout adjustment The time delay adjustment allows changing the time period between when the sensor last detects occupancy and when it turns the lights out (often called the timeout period).

then. For the initial setup.1. We open the Hyper terminal to connect to the serial port on the PC at 9600-8-N-1. this supports the 4% (occupied and off) that obtained in table 6. even with the lights off the illumination is higher than the standards. And we open the serial port on the computer. 5/17/2008 13:46 5/17/2008 13:33 5/17/2008 13:20 5/17/2008 13:06 5/17/2008 12:53 5/17/2008 12:40 5/17/2008 12:26 5/17/2008 12:13 5/17/2008 12:00 5/17/2008 11:46 5/17/2008 11:33 5/17/2008 11:20 5/17/2008 11:06 5/17/2008 10:53 5/17/2008 10:40 5/17/2008 10:26 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 5/17/2008 10:13 Lux Lighting Distribution Figure (8.115 this figure shows the high potential for the daylighting in classrooms and also for different areas of the university.4 XPort Configuration There are a variety of ways to set the Lantronix devices up.2. the resulted saving will be shown in table 8. the DT-200 Dual Technology occupancy sensor with light level. 8. Referred to appendix 4. We connect the device's serial port1 (pins 4 and 5 on the XPort) to a PC's serial port through a MAX232 chip. this higher than the illumination standard for the classroom which is 300-500 as seen in appendix 1. It seems clear from the figure that there is excess daylight approximately 1600 Lux when the lights on. while . it's easiest to do it serially. turns off the lighting raw which is parallel to the window during the availability of daylighting.4): Classroom lighting distribution As a result.

To examine the impact of time delay on energy savings. a menu will come up allowing to modify the various settings of the XPort.5.5): Setup menu options The full configuration of the XPort direct plus embedded device server will seen in appendix 7.116 holding down the "x" key.5 Energy and Cost Savings Results From Our System Most occupancy sensors are equipped with a variable time delay feature to adjust the time interval between the last detected motion and the switching off of the lamps. Shorter time delays increase energy savings (particularly in rooms that are infrequently and briefly occupied). and 20 minute time delays were modeled for each application. we power up the device. 8. control scenarios for 5. 10. 15. This allows the sensor to be customized to the application to reduce the chance of lamps switching off when a room is occupied but minor motions are not detected. . Manufacturers report time delay setting ranging from several seconds to more than 30 minutes. as shown in figure 8. Longer time delays reduce the incidence of occupant complaints. Adjusting the time delay creates a tradeoff between saving energy and avoiding occupant complaints. Figure (8.

8 846 1440 1100 203. The range of savings between the shortest and longest time out setting varied with application as well because of the occupancy pattern differences among the applications.4 10 20 15 4.000 1.166 121. and power density for each application Application Area (m2) Sample size Classroom 8 Drawing Hall 6 Private Office 10 Laboratory 4 W. and W.7 As demonstrated in table 8. the savings estimates were considerable across all space types (ranging from 17-45%).1): Descriptive statistics for room area.C's. which illustrates that both application and time delay selection significantly impacts the quantity of available savings. private offices.C 4 Minimum Maximum Average σ Minimum Maximum Average σ Minimum Maximum Average σ Minimum Maximum Average σ Minimum Maximum Average σ 39 85 65 18.300 1. followed by drawing halls. Table (8.3 86 164 121 32.4 792 1296 1. connected lighting load.5 300 830 478 163 580 500 545 34.117 Table 8.7 109 125 114 5.008 182 144 648 309 201.5 Connected lighting load (W) 504 972 787 161.6 108 336 208 95.3 Power density (Lux) 340 780 520 137 1. and power density for each application.1 lists the descriptive statistics for room area. classrooms showed the highest overall savings.1 7 43 20 13.2 250 380 307 56. connected lighting load. and from the load curves that obtained by the software. laboratories. . For this data set.2.

10 2.914.21 --40% 35% 29% 24% 9.845.00 2.60 --34% 28% 23% 17% 2.86 4.08 4.94 525.014.869.668.94 --3.40 --867.102.94 --42% 37% 31% 27% 8.48 1.12 5.359.02 6.285.77 3.46 1.536.78 --3.895.76 2.981.39 1.626.267.074.04 1.584.534.140.42 3.76 6.25 4.60 4.62 8.10 4.13 1.50 5.2): The effects of time delay on energy and cost savings for the total monitoring period Application Classroom Baseline 5-minute 10-minute 15-minute 20-minute Drawing Hall Baseline 5-minute 10-minute 15-minute 20-minute Private Office Baseline 5-minute 10-minute 15-minute 20-minute Laboratory Baseline 5-minute 10-minute 15-minute 20-minute W.50 6.34 1.758.56 591.60 --424.387.16 --3.821.654.24 709.02 1.43 4.93 1.46 2.64 3.52 494.361.77 --45% 39% 34% 29% 8.58 6.62 227.30 433.378.28 2.20 --35% 30% 24% 19% 652.46 5.40 6.6 Economical Evaluation of the System One of the most commonly used cost analysis methodologies is the Simple Pay Back Period (SPPB).944.40 5.825.04 3.78 1.86 197.02 6.10 1.74 4.89 4.76 455.49 0.47 4.491.27 1.628.72 2.00 6.044.168.52 1.84 5.78 4. which is a broad indicator of how long it will take to recover the capital investment cost as a result of the improvement in annual saving cost.04 5.1 157.68 127.118 Table (8.C Baseline 5-minute 10-minute 15-minute 20-minute Total daily energy use (kWh) Energy saved compared to baseline (%) Annual energy cost (NIS) Annual energy cost reduction (NIS) 6.36 5.75 3.66 3. It is expressed as: .111.826.873.

5 Software Development Shipping Charges Total Qty 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 490 70 70 2.2 by taking five minutes as time delay . 20 A ballast Load PIC16F877 Microcontroller MAX232 Serial Interface ULN2003 7805 Voltage Regulator 1N5226B-T Installation Cost DB9 Serial Adapter Capacitors. With Light Level B220E-P Power Pack220 VAC. a shorter SPB period generally indicates a more attractive investment. We calculate the capital investment cost for installing our system in 70 classrooms.900 2.B.1 [1] Annual Saving Cost SPBP must always be shorter than the expected life of the project and in comparison to other projects.P = Capital Investment Cost ………….400 21. Table (8. LED’s Cable 3 x 1. so the total annual energy consumption for the lighting system in the seventy classrooms (with referred to appendix 2 ) is 100.500 1000 53.100 1. and from table 8.8. as shown in table 8.000 4.P.000* 10.400 m - Price (NIS) 2.300* 280* 210* 100* 490* 3.3): Capital investment cost of the system Item Panels (30x20x10 cm) XPort Direct+ Embedded Device Server DT-200 Dual Technology Sensor. Resistors.000 * Market Price (Jardaneh Electronic and Electrical Supplier) We have two scenarios to calculate the energy saving .6 kWh.119 S.800* 3. first scenario is to install the system on the current situation (without implementing any energy conservation measures).3.500 260* 260* 2.145.

897.45 = 45.45 = 29.52 kWh and the corresponding cost saving is: Energy Cost Saving = 45. so the total annual energy consumption for the lighting system in the seventy classrooms (with referred to appendix 2 ) is 64.510.191.897.065.633 NIS from the previous we can calculate the simple payback period which is: .52 × 0.6 years Second scenario is to install the system after implementing the energy conservation measures.3 kWh.510.145.P.P = 53.B.000 / 32.029.3 × 0.73 = 21. we have also achieve 45% electric energy saving compared to the base line.120 we have achieved 45% electric energy saving compared to the base line.73 = 32.635 kWh and the corresponding cost saving is: Energy Cost Saving = 29.065.83 NIS from the previous we can calculate the simple payback period which is: S.635 × 0.6 × 0.83 = 1. so the total saving in electric energy is: Electric energy saving = 64. so the total saving in electric energy is: Electric energy saving = 100.029.

000 / 21.5 years From the previous we have shown that the two scenarios have the same percentage of saving 45%.B.633 = 2. this led to provide less energy saving. the second scenario has less energy consumption because of the energy conservation measures.P. because our system depends on the behavior of the occupancy and not the consumption. which affect the simple payback period and raise it from 1.121 S.6 to 2.191. .5 years.P = 53.

122 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .

We have achieved a percentage of energy saving 24% in the lighting system (low cost). in light of the furnished analyses and the corresponding discussions. After reviewing the energy bills of An-Najah National University. It was presented and approved in this thesis that there is a great potential for energy savings in the Palestinian universities by implementing energy conservation measures of no and low cost investment. are the following: 1. 3. it became obvious to us that it is like many commercial buildings and establishments suffers from high consumption with respect to its connected loads.123 Chapter Nine Conclusions and Recommendations 9. 2. and 5% in the heating system (no cost). 7% in the cooling system (no cost). 9.1 Introduction Regarding audits and energy conservation measures and despite the fact that the measures were discussed at small-scale levels it is evident that they could actually make substantial energy savings. There would be tremendous reduction of localized gaseous emissions to the environment. These savings could reduce the financial burden of the current energy bills at the universities.2 Conclusions The key conclusions of this research. . There would also be environmental benefits derived from implementing energy conservation measures.

124

4. Although some of the recommendations in this thesis are specific to the
universities, many could be translated to any facility. In our experience,
most universities can reduce their energy cost by (15-25%) with
investments that have immediately payback periods in most cases,
excepts in the case of installing reflectors then we have payback period
of 2.1 years (low return), and in case of installing high efficient lamps
and ballast we have payback period of 3.8 years (medium return).
5. The automatic light and management control system achieve extra 45%
saving, with low capital investment cost, whether installed before or
after the energy conservation measures, because our system depends on
the behavior of the occupancy and not the lighting consumption, but the
simple payback period raises form 1.6 years (before making measures),
to 2.5 years (after making measures).
6. By designing a web-based software application through the using of
XPort direct+ embedded device server, we reduce the cost of remote
connecting devices, due to its low cost. Also many advantages were
achieved by using it like, remote access and control any device with a
serial interface on its microcontroller over the web, this web capability
can be used for remote configuration, real-time monitoring, upgrades
and troubleshooting
7. There is great abundance in daylight in the university buildings, but
unfortunately it is not exploited properly, this led to remove a large
quantity of lighting units from different areas.
8. A large quantity of heat losses through the building's windows, this
explained by the higher consumption in the amount of fuel used in

125

boilers, and this shows the lack of awareness among students towards
energy management and conservation.

9.3 Recommendations
The research encompasses a multitude of parameters at different
spatial levels. Several recommendations can be drawn out of this research.
The recommendations listed here below are mainly directed to the decision
makers and for researchers :
1. We advice that similar energy management researches must be
conducted in other universities.
2. The web-based application software that has been designed and tested in
this thesis, should be installed and adopted by An-Najah National
University and other universities.
3. Support the existing and new energy research and information centers to
acquire the potentials in energy sector and to encourage investment and
use of new technology and concepts of energy conservation and
efficiency in universities and other facilities.
4. Establishment of a campaign program to raise awareness of the benefits
of energy conservation could happen change the attitudes or ignorance
of the students or the employee in the universities for a better prospect
of responsibility.
5. Strengthen the role of Energy Research Centers, and encourage other
universities by encouraging investments in energy conservation
programs within the sector.
6. Introduce technical training for energy conservation practices to
schools, vocational colleges and universities.

126

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130

Appendix
Appendix 1

Illumination Standards

Appendix 2

Existing Lighting System

Appendix 3

Measured Weekly Load Curve

Appendix 4

Sample of Measured Illumination

Appendix 5

Sensors Drawing

Appendix 6

XPort Direct+ Data Sheet

Appendix 7

DT-200 Occupancy Sensor Data Sheet

Appendix 8

Software Sample Codes

131

Appendix 1

Illumination Standards

C Standard illumination (lm/m²) or lux 300-500 250-500 500-700 700 700 500 300 150 150 150 150 150 200 100 100 .132 Illumination Standards [29] Place Classrooms Offices Laboratories Conference Room Dissect Hall Drawing Halls Studio Lobbies Corridors Cafeteria Electrical Room Boiler Room Store Mosque W.

133 Appendix 2 Existing Lighting System .

576 0.6 93.576 0.078 0 0 0.36 0.720 0.4 345.052 0.944 3.18 2.052 0.052 0.052 0.216 0.224 0.6 216 129. of Fixtures No.864 0.36 0.144 0 140.576 0.203 140.08 3.36 0.2 FL FL PL FL FL FL PL FL FL 8 8 10 12 12 8 10 8 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 4 2 18 18 36 18 18 18 36 18 36 700 250 600 630 300 1600 600 600 250 250 600 600 630 250 600 660 290 250 250 600 600 0.203 280.134 Faculty of Engineering Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.252 0.576 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.4 0 0 388.4 14 12 10 16 16 12 10 12 0 0.8 0.4 93.4 140.152 518.4 518.480 1. Hours 30 50 16 15 4 4 2 2 18 18 26 36 940 100 1800 980 100 1800 400 500 Consumption Recommended Condition kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.6 576 172.C W.216 0 151.6 518.288 0.864 0.4 324 0 0.C W.288 0.324 2.078 0.6 216 216 216 86.C W.944 3.156 0.288 0.324 0. kW 1800 2.08 1. Lux Annual Oper.216 0.8 93.2 0 0 92 12 12 5 5 130 54 FL 2D 2D 2D 2D FL PL 17 6 6 2 2 14 9 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 36 26 26 26 26 18 18 380 470 490 320 300 600 460 500 100 100 100 100 150 150 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1.2 0 3 3 0 0 12 8 1.078 0.216 0.576 0.240 0 1.36 0.6 0.6 921.C Corridor Lobbies 115 FL FL PL FL 56 FL 7 2 36 350 500 1800 0.504 907.498 1.832 0 1.6 0 3070 3080 3010 3020 3050 3060 2nd Floor 2010 OFFICE 50 2020 CLASS 55 2030 2040 OFFICE OFFICE 61 61 2050 OFFICE 52 2060 2070 OFFICE OFFICE 50 23 .4 576 576 345.224 0.888 6.6 345.576 0.6 432 345.08 1.36 0.6 86.4 0.2 583.078 0.156 0.498 0 3rd Floor 3000 MOSQUE 110 3030 MOSQUE 196 3040 Comp-Lab Multimedia Lab Comp-Lab W.944 60 100 32 0 1.144 345.8 280.240 1. Lux Stand.2 345.832 1.80 0 1.504 0.6 907.6 93.504 907.36 0.6 1.8 172.2 0 0.4 140.144 194.720 0. kWh/year Saving kW kWh/ year 1.8 129.36 0.08 Consump.944 1.8 259.16 3.

kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.4 86.648 0.4 43.432 0.4 86.2 129.072 0.720 0.144 0.72 0.2 43.72 0.2 43.6 86.072 0.4 86.144 0.144 0.72 0.2 43.4 432 432 86.144 0.072 0.144 0.72 0.144 0.4 86.072 0.144 0.2 43.072 0 43.72 0.4 432 432 86. Lux Annual Oper.144 0.072 0 0.072 0.4 43.135 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.144 0.2 43.6 216 129.2 0 0 0 43.576 0.144 0.2 86.072 0.4 86.144 0.072 0. Lux Stand.2 43.4 86.072 0.4 86.144 0.4 86.4 43.144 0.144 0.2 259.4 86.8 432 129.072 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 43.072 0.36 0.2 86.4 86.2 43.4 86.72 0.4 86.4 43.072 0.072 0.6 86.2 43.4 86.2 43.144 0.072 0 0 0 0.216 0.216 0.2 .4 388.144 0.6 432 388.72 0.072 0.144 0.144 432 129.8 345.2 0 0.216 0.2 216 216 259.36 0.072 0.2 43.144 0.216 0.6 86.6 129.216 0.144 0. kW Consump.216 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. of Fixtures No.144 0.4 86.144 0.144 0.072 0.2 43.2 43.432 0.072 0.2 0 43.2 43.072 0.072 432 86. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur. Hours FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 8 10 9 1 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 36 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 160 490 330 320 320 320 330 330 370 290 350 350 350 350 330 600 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 620 250 600 600 600 260 290 180 180 320 330 330 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 2080 2090 2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2210 2220 2230 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE 10 18 13 14 14 14 13 13 9 20 16 16 16 16 14 42 2240 OFFICE 54 2250 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2340 2350 2360 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE 42 4 22 13 8 8 15 12 12 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.2 43.4 86.648 0.72 0.4 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 12 12 10 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0.072 0.2 432 129.2 43.36 0.4 86.144 0.

4 86.084 0.8 43.C W.144 0.4 86.072 0.216 0.144 0.144 0.072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.144 0. Lux Annual Oper.648 86.072 0 0.4 86.336 0.296 86.072 0.6 1.2 252 302.2 432 43. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.684 0.144 0.4 1.084 0.056 0.36 43.4 1.084 0.144 0.144 0.112 0.144 0.4 86.2 43.072 0.36 648 1st Floor 1010 Drawing .036 0.4 151.2 43.2 648 0.144 0.144 0.4 86. Hours 15 13 8 8 13 22 4 14 16 18 16 16 20 22 10 10 22 20 20 15 8 10 305 254 106 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2D 2D 2D 2D FL FL PL 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 8 5 6 33 40 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 28 28 28 28 28 18 18 320 300 200 200 300 260 600 320 300 140 360 360 300 290 340 330 290 310 450 450 470 490 520 550 500 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 109 FL 13 2 36 1100 500 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.6 2.4 86.6 2.072 0.880 0.072 0 0 0 0 0 0.144 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 600 600 600 600 600 600 1800 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 0.8 0.663 5.2 302.4 201.C W.4 86.2 86.4 86.136 Area # 2370 2380 2390 2400 2410 2420 2430 2460 2480 2490 2500 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2260 2270 2440 2450 Area Type OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Maintenan.8 100.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 403.072 0.144 0.4 86.072 0.4 86.4 86. Lux Stand.140 0.6 100.144 0.2 151.168 0.936 1.4 86.4 86.224 0.532 1.144 0.584 0.4 86.4 86.576 1.144 0.333 518.4 86.4 86.8 151.685 10 0.144 0.924 2.144 0.288 43.144 0.2 705.720 0. OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE W.144 0.4 1800 0.2 43.144 0.72 0.2 86.4 129.144 0.072 0.144 0. kW Consump.4 86.231 43.4 86.72 0.168 0.166 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 3 3 14 72 16 0.C Corridor Corridor Lobbies Area m2 Lamp Type No.144 0.4 86.2 43. of Fixtures No.144 0.C W.851.2 0 0 0 0 0 64.2 0 43.224 0.8 403.2 957.296 0.4 86.184 1.4 432 86.144 0.392 1.056 0.036.144 0.4 604.

4 129.6 716.144 0.216 0.504 0.144 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 43.576 0.36 0.2 0 0 2 36 330 500 1800 0.555 0 0.432 0.144 0.685 1.144 0.576 0.6 345.036.576 0.296 2.648 1.8 129.144 0.576 0.072 0 648 648 648 129.2 0 .072 0.8 576 576 576 0.846 1.4 43.576 0.036.4 10 10 10 12 12 8 12 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0.152 0 0.685 259.576 0.4 10 10 4 4 4 0.144 0.4 129.4 86.720 1.36 0.936 0.2 86.2 0 43.216 0.504 1.4 500 1800 1.144 0. Lux Annual Oper.144 1.152 0 0 36 370 500 1800 0.144 0.144 0.072 0.144 1.4 86.555.144 0.216 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 1800 1600 1600 1600 0.864 1.6 358.36 0.216 0.036.8 1.685 1.8 1.2 921. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.296 2.144 0.144 0.4 806.2 86.144 648 648 230.2 86.166 0 0 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 18 18 28 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 1300 1200 1300 830 500 500 500 250 1800 1800 1800 600 650 300 1600 830 100 300 250 250 260 390 300 390 330 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 0. of Fixtures No.137 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.333 0 1.936 0.448 0.4 86.224 0.8 1.936 0.4 86.4 86.720 1.8 259.144 0.4 86.333 0 0 340 300 1600 0.648 1.36 1.224 0.4 230. LAB MATERIA LAB Drawing Drawing Drawing OFFICE 1230 CLASS 54 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE 18 11 12 10 10 9 20 12 16 9 1020 1030 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1130 1140 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.216 0 0 0 0 0 0. DESIGN CLASS METRO.36 0.144 0. Hours 124 109 55 52 54 FL FL FL FL FL 13 13 7 7 7 2 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 36 36 1000 1100 450 460 450 500 500 300 300 300 154 FL 18 2 36 300 67 FL 10 2 36 85 FL 12 2 52 FL 9 109 121 112 18 FL FL FL FL FL PL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 13 13 13 6 8 8 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1170 1180 1190 1220 Drawing Drawing CLASS CLASS CLASS COMP.072 0 0.936 0.4 86.36 0.144 0.685 1.685 806.166 0 0.6 576 358.4 86.36 0.036.4 86.4 43. kW Consump.4 0.4 806.936 0.4 86.36 0. Lux Stand.504 0.432 0.36 0.4 230.4 86.144 0.4 86.6 86.036.

2 1.216 0.224 0.056 0.072 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.056 0.072 0.4 86.784 2.288 0.C W.08 0.4 172.144 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.C W.072 0.056 0.4 705.2 86.4 86.648 86.144 0.056 0.4 86.072 0.2 388.8 604.4 100.144 0.8 403.6 43.144 0.072 0.4 86.2 43.288 0.C W.2 302.6 86.392 1.2 129.368 0.144 0.144 0.2 43.144 0. Lux Annual Oper.216 0.4 86.944 518.C W.4 86.462.216 0. Lux Stand.072 0.144 0.056 0.8 86.224 0.166 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 6 0 0 8 6 8 6 14 60 16 0.C Corridor Corridor Lobbies Area m2 Lamp Type No.144 0.4 86.144 0.144 0.144 0.2 129.4 648 0.144 0.8 403.6 100.392 1.072 0.8 100.4 129. kW Consump.224 0.8 100.2 302.144 0.6 2.8 518.8 705.144 0.4 86.056 0.072 0.224 0.4 86.4 .144 0.138 Area # 1340 1350 1360 1370 1380 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1110 1120 1150 1160 1200 1210 Area Type OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Maintenan. W.4 403.4 86.4 172.8 201. of Fixtures No. Hours 13 18 9 8 9 11 13 11 21 9 9 9 39 9 10 19 18 5 5 20 16 16 20 200 458 106 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D PL FL FL 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 12 8 12 8 28 34 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 18 18 280 320 270 200 250 300 290 230 200 300 300 300 350 350 340 350 330 300 310 450 450 450 450 600 800 600 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 150 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.2 0 0 0 0 43.4 86.4 86.2 43.144 0.2 43.6 129.144 0.288 43.072 0 0 0 0 0.336 0.144 0.4 86.4 86.336 0.4 172.072 0 0 0 0 0 0.288 0.8 0 0 403.112 0.6 100.144 0.2 604.144 0.406 1.216 0 0 0.288 0.8 86.144 0.072 0.6 100.36 43.8 201.112 0.6 1.4 86.2 0 0 0 0 0 43.448 0.4 86.411 4.4 43.4 86.072 0.2 43.168 0.168 0.C W.

216 345.504 907.555 4 0.8 460.8 FL FL FL FL FL 7 7 18 7 7 2 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 36 36 580 600 500 590 600 300 300 500 300 300 1600 1600 1800 1600 1600 0.4 2.8 0.4 345. Lux Annual Oper.203 2 36 580 500 1800 0.216 230.240 5.296 16 0 4 0.224 2.4 4 0 4 4 1.037 0 259.288 460.4 6 0.720 0.8 1.8 1.4 806.4 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.944 0.864 0.296 576 576 0.144 259.016 3.2 1.36 648 104 54 54 54 FL FL FL FL 18 10 7 7 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 36 450 410 500 500 500 500 300 300 1800 1800 1600 1600 1.036.4 806.8 0.216 0.6 518.073. Lux Stand.288 460.144 0.44 2.504 1.144 0.720 1.555 259.592 10 1.6 345.166 4 0.814.720 1.4 806.296 0.144 259.504 0.576 0 0.648 1.296 806.6 86 FL 12 2 36 400 500 1800 0.27 0.2 18 800 300 1800 3.8 0.144 259.216 388.4 4 6 8 6 6 0.576 486 259.2 0 230. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 1800 1800 0.864 1.628.144 259.555 0 0. of Fixtures No.166.6 114 FL 20 2 36 550 500 1800 1.504 806.4 230.288 0.864 1.296 0.4 460.832 68 2.720 1.144 0.6 1. Hours 108 15 74 FL FL FL 12 2 10 2 2 2 36 36 36 700 150 500 150 200 500 74 FL 12 2 36 540 74 FL 12 2 36 270 FL 45 4 50 FL 9 85 FL 47 54 121 54 53 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.2 1.2 0.288 1.504 0.296 0.333 1.864 1.504 2.864 1.2 500 1800 0.864 1.555 4 0.2 12 2 36 600 500 1800 0.216 0.139 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.555.4 Ground Floor G0010 G0020 G0030 G0040 G0050 G0060 G0070 G0080 G0110 G0120 G0130 G0140 G0150 G0180 G0190 G0220 G0230 G0240 G0250 G0260 Cafeteria Service Safety-Lab Mechanic Vibration Fluid Mechanic Lecture Hall Machine Design Aerodynamics CLASS CLASS Comp-Lab CLASS CLASS ThermoDynamics CLASS Unit Operation Comp-Lab Comp-Lab CLASS CLASS . kW Consump.36 2.504 806.648 1.36 0.333 806.144 1.144 0 0.288 0.144 0.2 550 500 1800 0.08 1.296 0.2 0 0 52 FL 7 2 36 600 300 1600 0.152 0.008 0.4 345.288 0.8 460.720 0.555 6 0.504 0.

152 2.382 6 0.648 0. Lab Digital-Lab Electronic Circuits Network Lab Microproc.056 3.8 648 1800 0. kW Consump.4 302.168 0.555 4 0.036.336 0.080 1.8 100.576 1.6 0.592 0 1.8 0.720 129.8 100.2 259.069.864 1.168 0.36 403.2 0.056 0.600 0.6 100. Hours W.144 201.140 Area # G0090 G0100 G0160 G0170 G0200 G0210 Area m2 Lamp Type No.112 0.6 100.240 648 1.2 403.296 0.6 FL 12 2 36 520 500 1800 0.8 100.056 1.720 1.112 0.126 0.6 2 36 420 500 1800 0. Lux Annual Oper.720 1.592 8 1.864 1.2 0 0 3.C W.C W.2 8 6 6 8 0 0 100 16 7 10 0.6 0.224 0.44 2.240 518.288 518.555 0 0.224 0.080 1.576 1.296 0 0.296 907.555. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.056 0.0773.8 100.2 560 500 1800 1.8 3.432 777.288 0.4 36 510 300 1600 0.8 201.296 0 0.296 0 0 16 2 36 600 500 1800 1.037 0 0 B1 Floor B1030 B1040 B1050 B1060 B1070 B1100 B1110 B1140 B1150 B1160 Traffic-Lab Soil Mechanics Electrical Circuits CLASS Survey Lab Communic.152 2.216 345.166 1. Lux Stand.720 1.056 0.C W.C W.8 0.944 0 1.4 226.648 1.720 1.504 604.36 0.720 0.144 259.8 0.944 0 0 51 FL 8 2 36 360 500 1800 0.2 604. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.44 2.2 302. of Fixtures No.336 0.720 1. Lab .480 1.864 1.C Corridor Lobbies 20 16 15 20 5 5 535 106 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 28 28 28 28 28 28 18 18 18 36 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 146 12 8 8 12 2 2 50 18 20 14 450 450 450 450 300 300 800 600 Entrance 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D FL PL PL FL 900 200 1800 60 FL 10 2 36 410 500 72 FL 12 2 36 500 164 FL 20 2 36 72 FL 12 2 60 FL 10 85 FL 51 Area Type Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.44 2.074 12 0.594 0.056 0.864 1.8 403.037 0 0.224 0 0 1.C W.8 6.4 403.592 0 0 104 FL 15 2 36 350 500 1800 1.224 0.2 0 0 109 FL 20 2 36 400 500 1800 1.296 0 0 500 1800 0.

944 12 0.4 302.140 0.152 2. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.8 100.864 1.4 403.080 1.074 8 0.224 0.6 0.168 0.037 4 0. Lab .224 0.36 36 0.056 0.2 0 0 500 1800 0. of Fixtures No.4 302.6 0.C W.2 2.037 0 0 470 500 1800 0.4 50 FL 8 2 36 500 500 1800 0.880 0.2 604.555.426 0 0 36 540 500 1800 0.720 129.074 12 0.C Corridor Lobbies Area m2 Lamp Type No. Hours 112 FL 12 2 36 430 500 52 FL 8 2 36 350 78 FL 11 2 36 86 FL 12 2 86 FL 12 11 11 16 21 5 5 300 118 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D FL PL 70 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.720 72 10 0.2 151.2 0.2 151.648 1.555 4 0.224 0.C W.140 2.8 201.4 0.166 6 6 6 8 3 3 80 12 0.864 1. kW Consump.6 0.432 777.216 302.648 403.056 1.864 1. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.112 0.152 2.C W.426 0 0.2 2 36 540 500 1800 0.592 777. Lab Maintenan.C W.037 0 0.555 0 0.084 1.44 0.555 4 0.296 0.432 777.224 0.555.792 1.8 252 252 5.576 1.C W.8 2.141 Area # B1170 B1180 B1190 B1200 B1210 B1010 B1020 B1080 B1090 B1120 B1130 Area Type Control Systems Reactor Lab Control Lab Hydraulic Machines Lab W.8 100.720 129.8 FL 10 2 36 300 150 100 0.432 100.056 0.6 0.2 403.168 0.864 1.168 0.6 100.2 8 8 8 12 5 5 40 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 28 28 28 28 28 28 18 18 450 450 460 490 320 300 600 460 100 100 100 100 100 100 150 150 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 0.576 1.2 86 FL 16 2 36 700 500 1800 1.792 1.288 518.44 0.056 0.144 259.864 1.8 100. Lux Annual Oper.056 0.576 1.084 0.72 1.144 259.592 388.36 36 80 FL 16 2 36 600 500 1800 1.432 777.144 259.336 0.166. Lux Stand.6 B2 Floor B2010 B2040 B2050 B2080 B2090 Electrical Room Concrete Lab Carving & Modeling Transporta.6 80 FL 15 2 36 900 500 1800 1.2 403.184 1.

168 0 0 0.C Corridor Lobbies Area m2 3.8 100.4 51.056 0.144 14.196 0.4 0 0 352.269 B2120 Lamp Type 108.864 86. of Fixtures 179.108 302.2 4 0.4 28 28 28 28 28 18 500 450 250 250 600 460 100 100 100 100 150 150 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 0.8 0.144 14.056 0.4 280 150 100 0.296 200 100 0.224 0.056 0.8 0.711 Area # .4 14 0.142 Annual Oper.224 0. Hours 293 FL 46 2 36 650 300 115 FL 12 2 36 450 38 FL 6 2 36 72 FL 6 2 11 15 5 5 104 56 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D PL 8 8 2 2 14 9 1 1 1 1 1 2 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.6 0.665.914 B2100 Area Type 1.324 403.381 B2130 No.8 705.168 0. kW Consump.312 5.432 43.6 583.8 194.4 36 250 150 100 0.8 100.65 B2020 B2030 B2060 B2070 No. Lux 33.426 Total Rating W 74.592 4.506 Measur.962 20 2.72 1.8 352.2 403.196 0.2 4 0.156 B2110 Workshop Boiler Room Generator Room Transform.8 100.4 302. Room W.432 43.288 28.C W.2 6 6 0 0 7 6 0.8 0.C W.056 0.392 0.056 0.843 Stand.36 36 0.2 100. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 3.504 50.216 100.C W.8 388. Lux 127. of lamps /Fixture 1.056 0.288 28.8 100.

648 648 0 0.072 0.2 43.288 0.2 43.8 64.432 0.143 Faculties of Science.072 0.8 172.648 388.288 86.144 0.072 43.072 0.2 43.072 0.2 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0.6 21.144 0. Lux Annual Oper.8 172.6 86. Hours 50 FL 6 3 36 408 600 71 FL 8 3 36 550 13 12 13 13 41 19 19 19 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 2 2 2 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 37 FL 6 3 7 6 7 11 8 8 7 7 7 7 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Consumption Recommended Condition kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump. of Fixtures No.2 43.072 0.144 0.4 86.108 0.4 259. kW 1000 0.0.072 0.144 0.8 36 650 700 600 0.108 0.18 0.2 172.4 86.4 86. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.2 43.072 0.2 43.4 86.2 0 620 490 550 540 810 990 1100 1200 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 0.2 43.8 64.2 43.072 Consump.072 0.288 0.216 0.8 64.0.072 0.108 43.072 0.4 64.288 0. Lux Stand.864 691.2 43.8 0 0.864 691.8 108 108 108 0. kWh/year Saving kW kWh/ year 648 0 0 0.2 0 0 4 2 2 2 8 6 6 6 0.072 0.8 0 0 86.4 43.108 0.4 86.2 43.072 0.4 129.36 0.072 0.2 43.2 43.072 0.2 43.2 43.6 21. IT.648 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 630 860 590 845 840 870 570 577 565 550 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 0.144 0.2 21.144 0.6 86.072 0.648 600 800 0.36 0.072 0.2 64.2 43.072 0.072 0.144 0.2 43.18 43.072 0 0 0 0 43.108 0.0.2 0 0 0 0 2nd Floor 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2861 2860 2850 2840 2750 2760 2770 2780 2800 2810 2090 2100 2110 2120 Visual Room Meeting Room OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Guest Room OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE .108 0.144 0.36 0.144 0.8 172.4 86.144 0.8 64.2 0.2 43.18 0.072 0.8 388. and Optometry Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.

0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.4 86.0.2 43.4 86.072 0.2 43.8 64.108 0.072 0.0.144 0.072 0.072 0.4 86. kWh/year 43.8 64.072 0.2 43.4 86.2 43.6 21.2 Saving kW kWh/ year 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 21.072 0.072 0.072 0.36 0.144 0.36 0.2 .2 43.144 0.6 21.2 43.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.072 0.4 86.108 0.072 0.36 0.2 43.0.0.072 0.4 86.072 0.36 0.4 86.4 86.2 43.8 64.108 0.0.36 0.8 43.6 43.36 0.072 0.072 0.108 0.144 0.144 0.108 0.0.2 64.108 0.8 64.144 0.8 64. of Fixtures No.2 43.072 0.4 86.072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21.6 21.8 64.2 43.144 0.072 0.2 43.8 64.144 0.8 64.072 0.36 0.2 43.0.36 0.072 0.108 0.072 0.108 0.4 86.144 0.36 0.36 0.2 43.2 43.4 86.144 0.108 0.144 43.0.072 Consump.144 Area # 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200 2460 2470 2490 2500 2510 2520 2530 2540 2550 2560 2570 2580 2610 2620 2630 2640 2650 2660 Area Type OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Area m2 Lamp Type No.6 21.2 43.2 43.144 0.36 0.8 64.8 64. Hours 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 8 8 10 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 560 533 540 531 524 544 552 578 480 422 493 433 487 445 487 470 448 460 490 540 840 853 842 844 817 825 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 Consumption Recommended Condition kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.144 0.8 64.4 86.6 21.0.2 43.6 21.144 0.6 21.072 0.108 0.0.072 0.144 0.108 0. Lux Stand.072 0.6 21. Lux Annual Oper.2 86.4 86.6 21.6 21.2 43.144 0.144 0. kW 0.2 43.4 86.2 43.4 86.4 86.2 43.072 0.072 0.2 43.144 0.0.4 86.108 0.072 0.072 0.2 43.2 43.36 0.

2 43.072 0.4 86. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.072 43.072 43.144 0.072 0.144 86.2 43.2 43.072 0. Lux Annual Oper.4 86.36 0.8 64.2 43.4 86.144 0.144 0.072 0.8 108 64.144 0.144 0.108 0.108 0. of Fixtures No.2 43.144 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.2 108 21.6 21.144 0.108 0.072 0.6 64.2 43.072 0.072 0.288 0.2 43.4 86.144 0.2 43.0.4 86.2 43.2 43.072 0.2 43.4 86.2 43.4 86.4 86.2 43.4 86.108 0.432 0.4 86.18 0.072 0.2 43.2 43.4 86.2 43.072 0.072 0.072 0.4 86.4 86.144 0.2 43.0.072 0.145 Area # 2690 2700 2710 2720 2730 2740 2210 2220 2230 2240 2250 2260 2270 2280 2290 2300 2310 2320 2330 2340 2350 2360 2370 2380 2390 2400 Area Type OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Area m2 Lamp Type No.4 86.252 0.6 21.144 0.072 0.144 0.2 43.2 43.072 0.2 43.4 259.2 151.0.072 0.432 0.6 43.4 86.072 0.2 43.4 86.108 0.8 21.36 0. Lux Stand.252 0.072 0.8 86.072 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.144 0.2 43.072 0.072 0.4 259.144 0.144 0.4 86.144 0.072 0.072 0. kW Consump.2 64.18 0.0.144 0.144 0.36 0.072 0.4 86.36 0.072 0.8 43.2 43.144 0. Hours 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 16 7 15 9 10 9 14 8 7 7 7 7 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 840 850 700 780 660 670 650 644 643 665 670 683 673 653 1020 644 1029 580 400 410 867 620 660 680 650 690 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.144 0.072 0.072 0.2 43.2 151.2 43.2 43.2 43.4 86.4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 10 4 10 2 2 2 6 2 4 4 4 4 0.2 43.4 172.2 43.2 108 43.2 43.8 64.2 86.144 0.2 0.2 86.144 0.072 0.072 0.144 0.2 .072 0.2 43.072 0.072 0.18 0.2 43.2 43.

018 0 0.8 64.8 64.C 10 2590 W.4 43.432 0.4 0 32.8 129.54 172.648 259.8 172.4 108 108 129.144 0.288 0.8 97.203 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 1600 0.288 0.288 0.4 64.036 0 1.4 0 64.8 64.036 0.6 129.036 0.8 97.054 0.036 0.8 43.8 172.0.4 86.324 0.072 0.288 0.037 8 4 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 0.036 0.2 21.6 129.2 172.6 64.2 43.8 1st Floor 1720 1710 1730 1700 1690 1680 1670 1660 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE CLASS .C 14 2680 W.8 64.36 0. of Fixtures No.108 0.8 7. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.072 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.036 2.8 1.18 0.108 0.36 0.8 129.8 0 2.072 0.4 129.2 64.6 172.4 0.6 21.216 0.216 0.288 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.8 64.6 129.216 0.8 259.144 0.054 0.216 0.054.224 43.0.144 0.8 172.108 86.288 0.432 0.036 0. Hours 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 2 56 4 4 4 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 18 18 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 18 630 600 520 250 250 250 600 600 600 300 100 1800 250 100 1800 260 100 1800 290 100 1800 400 150 6 4 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 36 700 560 703 550 744 700 540 640 560 460 750 760 580 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 2410 2420 2430 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE 7 8 8 2670 W.216 0.288 0.2 64.4 86.144 0.036 0.8 194.036 4.8 64.8 64. Lux Annual Oper.108 0.288 0.2 259.108 0.8 0 32.8 5.2 172.072 0.808 43.2 43.8 64.018 0 0.18 0.072 0.8 172. kW Consump.146 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.6 64.8 172.032 86.C 10 2090 W.18 0.036 0.6 108 108 864 0.2 43.8 64.432 0.288 0.2 64.18 0.036 0.2 64.8 64.144 0.6 64.258 4 2 2 4 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 68 0.8 64.288 0.036 0.C 15 Corridor 434 FL FL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL FL 24 20 27 40 18 19 18 16 21 20 19 20 40 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.8 172.2 86.036 0.072 0.108 0.8 172.288 0.8 172.8 64.072 0.108 0.036 0 0. Lux Stand.

4 86.144 0.4 86.6 86.6 129.072 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.2 43.072 0.2 21.2 .2 43.072 0.144 0.648 0.216 0.144 0.4 86.2 43.072 0. Lux Annual Oper.4 86.8 129.072 0.037 86.4 86. kW Consump.2 43.4 86.2 43.072 0.072 0.6 129.072 0.2 43.108 0.216 0.144 0.072 0.072 0.8 43.2 43.072 0.144 0.4 86.2 43.2 43.4 129.2 43.2 21.072 0.072 0.216 0.144 0.072 0.216 0.216 0.2 43.2 43.072 0.6 0.072 0.6 129.6 86.4 129.144 0.072 0. Lux Stand.2 43.2 43.072 0.0.4 86.4 86.144 0.144 0.072 0.4 86.4 86.144 0.072 0.144 0.072 0.072 0.4 129.144 0.072 172.6 43.4 86.4 86.4 86.216 0.144 1.0.2 43.2 43.2 43.144 0.072 0.6 64.4 86.2 43.147 Area # 1060 1570 1580 1590 1600 1620 1630 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1280 1290 1310 1320 1510 1520 1530 Area Type CLASS OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE Area m2 Lamp Type No.072 0.144 0.2 43.144 0.2 43.2 43.6 43.144 0.4 86.2 64.2 43.36 0.072 0.216 0.072 0.2 43.6 86.8 43.216 864 129.2 43.144 0.108 0.2 129.072 0.2 43.2 43.4 86.2 43.2 43.072 0.2 43.36 0.072 0.108 0.6 43.144 0.54 0.072 0.216 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.072 0.4 86.2 43. Hours 40 7 7 7 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 10 9 7 7 7 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 6 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 36 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 400 740 670 820 620 820 600 760 750 749 735 740 720 715 755 730 710 750 753 590 750 550 600 830 955 897 300 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 1600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.144 0.6 129. of Fixtures No.144 0.144 0.2 43.072 0.144 0.4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.072 0.216 0.4 86.216 0.6 129.2 43.

144 0.2 43.2 64.108 0.324 0.4 86.4 64.216 0.8 64.4 1.C 10 260 100 1800 1060 W.8 64.2 43.944 600 600 600 1600 600 600 600 0.288 0.094.144 0.036 0 0.072 86.8 43.036 0 1.555 1.6 345.4 80.8 97.8 108 194.8 0 1. Lux Annual Oper.6 518.684 0.8 6.216 0.072 0.296 0.072 0.756 1.6 1.072 0. of Fixtures No.8 64.2 kW Ground Floor G360 G350 G370 G340 G330 G320 G310 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE CLASS OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE . kW Consump.2 43. Hours OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS Comp-Lab Comp-Lab 7 7 7 64 66 66 65 101 98 290 100 1800 1650 W.036 0.333 129.2 1.216 0.288 0.144 0.756 0.6 1.6 129.672 kWh/ year 86.008 1.972 0.108 0.8 64. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.8 4.4 1.648 0.C 10 260 100 1800 1070 W.108 0.504 0.2 172.C 15 310 100 1800 Corridor 476 18 18 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 18 600 600 600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1800 1800 14 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 250 250 250 300 300 300 300 500 500 W.8 345.18 0.432 0.036 0.972 0.8 0 32.6 1.288 259.072 0.333 2.288 0.C 2 2 2 9 9 9 9 18 18 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 2 51 1110 1100 1050 620 600 950 690 630 600 1640 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL FL 300 150 24 20 27 40 18 19 19 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 6 4 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 18 18 18 36 18 18 18 710 740 540 590 860 600 450 250 250 250 300 250 250 250 Area # Area Type 1540 1550 1560 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving Removed Lamps Consump.555 1.036 0.756 0.8 129.8 64.18 0.8 64.2 1.216 0.8 230.4 86.944 64.592 43.4 64.555 1.036 3.209.08 43.072 0.4 0 32.2 43.054 0.8 259.144 0.8 64.209. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.6 0.072 0.036 0.2 64.072 0.4 108 129.216 0.036 0.036 2.814.037 172.8 172.08 0.8 8 6 6 4 6 4 4 0.6 64.296 1.288 0.072 0.972 1.555 2.036 0.8 172.036 0.148 Area m2 Lamp Type No.4 388.6 460.4 0 64.018 0 0.8 97.972 0.036 0.288 0.036 0.216 172.4 1.288 0.2 345.072 0.2 43.6 0.6 64.665.6.144 0.8 64.018 0 0.610 4 4 4 6 6 8 6 8 6 4 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 60 0.036 0.054 0. Lux Stand.8 64.432 0.209.

036 0.054 0.8 0 97.8 194.296 0.333 1. Lux Stand. Hours FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL 4 6 6 6 6 9 9 9 9 1 6 6 6 9 18 18 9 9 12 46 4 2 6 2 6 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 1 2 1 2 1 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 430 930 560 460 400 880 670 660 520 235 735 750 740 930 450 500 800 500 420 450 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 500 500 300 300 300 150 600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1800 1800 1600 1600 1600 1800 330 100 1800 250 100 1800 270 100 1800 G300 G010 G020 G030 G040 G240 G230 G220 G210 G060 G070 G080 G090 G110 G160 G150 G120 G130 G140 OFFICE CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS COM-LAB COM-LAB CLASS CLASS CLASS Corridor 17 41 10 41 40 61 65 65 61 12 68 68 68 67 98 101 68 70 67 417 G170 W.149 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.2 64.648 0.6 172.2 0 .209.8 172.8 4 8 6 3 3 9 6 6 6 0 6 6 6 9 0 0 9 6 3 60 4 0 6 0 6 0 0.216 0.6 1.2 864 864 1.324 0 0 0.4 0 0 518.037 1.232 0.962 129.036.972 0.037 1.324 0.4 64.8 4. of Fixtures No.324 0.2 460.4 129.216 0.555 1.432 0.216 0.6 129.209.6 1.037 1.08 0.037 1.648 0.4 345.054 0.2 1.555 1.6 518.8 2.108 0.072 0.972 0.216 0 0.8 1.432 0.648 0.555 1.312 0.8 518.8 1.036.8 97.648 0.288 0.036.54 0.2 0 97.296 1.108 0.8 97.6 576 691.648 0.054 0 43.54 0.C 15 G180 W.108 0.846 3.648 0.216 0.36 0.209.108 1.072 0.432 0.4 64.6 64.216 0.2 1.354 5.036 172.288 0.036 129.8 1.8 64.6 1.6 64.6 345.756 0.C 31 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.036 0.6 345.216 0.2 691.972 0.944 64.756 0.333 2.972 0.432 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.216 0.216 0.555 115.C 31 G250 W.756 0.209.8 0.180.037 1. Lux Annual Oper.037 1.8 194.036 0.296 1.972 1.072 0.2 691.2 64.333 2.648 0.6 0 345.756 0.648 0.333 1.648 0.036 0.972 0.8 129.6 172.648 1.555 1.017.6 115.037 1.2 691.738 2.036 0 0.296 0.054 0 0.8 1.036 0.6 129.555 2. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.108 0.555 1.072 0.972 0. kW Consump.

972 0.324 0.555 1.555 1.036.036 0.756 0.756 0.8 172.555 1.4 21.555 1.2 64.209.864 0.864 1.4 64.8 3.4 0 0 B1020 B1030 B1040 B1050 B1140 B1130 B1120 B1070 B1090 B1100 B1110 CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS SERVER ROOM OFFICE EMPTY PH-LAB PH-LAB CLASS COM-LAB COM-LAB RES-LAB CLASS CLASS CLASS 17 17 38 39 60 60 60 32 65 65 65 320 100 1800 B1070 W.360.555 1.216 0.216 0.216 0.864 0.8 4 0 0.036 0.972 0.648 0.685 B1010 .6 64.8 194.756 0.036 2.108 0.216 0.2 1.8 0 97.6 64.6 1.382.4 1.864 0.324 0.036 0.108 0.C 3 3 9 9 9 12 12 3 9 9 9 4 2 6 2 6 2 38 280 360 750 800 800 550 550 340 800 840 900 B1060 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL FL 350 150 1800 0.C 31 240 100 1800 Corridor 334 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 36 9 18 9 18 9 18 18 600 100 1800 1800 1600 1800 1800 1800 1600 1600 1600 15 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 250 200 500 500 300 500 500 500 300 300 300 W.756 0.036 0.8 97.8 194. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.8 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.4 64.6 1.6 518.240 0 0.6 1.8 388.750 1. kW Consump.036 129.6 0 0 0 345.054 0 0.555 1.972 0.756 0.036 0.972 1.8 0 300 300 300 300 1600 1600 1600 1600 0.6 1.972 0.4 0.209.925 0 3 6 6 6 0 0 0 6 6 9 4 0 6 0 6 0 52 0.8 4.324 0.072 14.054 0 0.555 1. Lux Stand.972 0.209.2 0 97.8 1.108 0.972 0.750 1.972 0.036 0 0.8 97.216 0 0 0 0.072 14.054 0.6 345.8 64.972 0.2 0 1.8 64.756 0.864 0.555 129.036 0 64.324 0.036 64.8 194.108 518.2 64.036 0.072 0.972 0.216 0.4 0 0.324 0.8 64.2 1. Lux Annual Oper.555 1.150 Area # G050 Area Type W.036 1.864 0.555 583.4 1.4 345.648 0.4 64.8 388.C 31 220 100 1800 B1120 W. of Fixtures No.4 32.209.C Area m2 Lamp Type No.382.072 0.054 0.8 B1 Floor B1220 B1210 B1200 B1190 7 FL 1 4 18 300 200 200 0.6 172.8 345.216 0.360. Hours 15 PL PL 4 2 2 1 9 18 310 100 35 35 35 35 FL FL FL FL 9 9 9 9 3 3 3 3 36 36 36 36 700 600 490 460 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.8 1.324 0.936 0 10.555 583.036.555 9 6 3 3 0.736 194.6 1.108 0.8 1.324 0.

6 777.6 648 777.4 583.750 64.432 0.8 0 0.333 86.216 0.432 0.4 777.4 86.108 0.324 0.324 0.144 0.749.2 43.750 1.4 2.036.324 0.972 0.072 0.036 0 194.4 1.4 324 2.6 1.4 36 0 250 1000 0.2 43.4 230.4 1.216 0.324 1.6 1.432 0.144 0. RES-LAB RES-LAB RES-LAB RES-LAB CLASS .4 86.4 64.144 0.144 0.2 1.324 0. of Fixtures No.144 0.432 0.333 1.036 0.108 0.144 1.144 1.144 1.2 583.8 64.648 0.4 B2 Floor B2260 B2250 B2240 B2230 B2251 B2241 B2010 B2020 B0300 B2032 B2031 B2040 B2160 B2150 B2170 B2180 B2130 B2120 B2140 B2111 B2050 B2060 B2070 B2080 B2090 BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB OFFICE OFFICE STORE STRILIZE.6 1.209.144 0.972 0.072 72 0.4 86.166.6 518.6 21.750 1.072 72 500 250 150 500 500 500 500 300 1600 600 1600 1800 1800 1800 1800 1600 0.144 0.756 0.972 0.324 0 21.144 0.750 1. Lux Stand.2 777.555 0 2 4 0 4 0 0 9 0.108 0.151 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.324 0 0.6 216 1.6 43.108 0.555 1.2 0 129.144 144 4 0.432 0.432 0.2 345.8 108 583. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 1800 1800 1800 600 600 100 1000 1800 600 600 1800 1600 1600 1000 1000 0.2 1.432 0.972 0.324 0.972 0.750 86. kW Consump.972 0.072 0.8 108 144 0.108 0.036.166.6 777.072 0 0.296 0.648 230.8 21.108 0. BIO-LAB OFFICE OFFICE BIO-LAB CLASS CLASS INCBATO INCBATO ColdRoom PREPAR.6 10.972 0.072 0.6 1.555.108 0.6 115.296 0. Hours 62 57 57 62 12 12 34 34 85 11 11 85 39 39 8 8 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 9 9 9 9 2 2 3 3 12 2 2 12 9 9 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 36 36 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 18 18 36 36 36 18 18 620 825 820 480 500 450 380 820 800 500 840 720 600 810 290 250 500 500 500 500 250 250 200 500 500 250 250 500 300 300 200 200 11 FL 2 4 18 415 11 11 11 17 17 17 17 39 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 9 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 36 500 420 320 380 580 360 520 750 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.555 144 144 3 9 9 0 2 2 3 3 9 4 4 9 6 9 2 0 0.972 0.864 0.036 0.2 43.972 0.072 0. OFFICE INSTRU.8 115.2 583.2 0 21.072 0.36 0.648 0.6 0 0 518. Lux Annual Oper.648 0.4 32.749.036 0.072 0 0 0.6 777.972 230.216 0.6 777. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.

8 97.2 583.756 0.360.296 0.072 0.296 0.4 0 1.4 64.2 1.750 0 0 9 4 4 4 4 0 0 6 6 6 6 0. Lux Stand.8 1. TECHNIC.072 0.4 115.2 72 72 0 0 388.972 0.8 388.8 64.756 0.6 64.8 32.C 7 B2280 W.108 0.8 388.750 1.054 0.8 64.8 0 97.072 0 0 0.C 15 B2200 W.036 0 0. of Fixtures No.144 0.8 194. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.072 0. BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB BIO-LAB .8 64.4 64.036 0.4 14.972 0.018 0.018 0.972 0.216 0.4 144 144 2.972 0.2 115.324 0.036 1.8 64.216 0.8 97.2 0 32.750 1.8 3. Hours 9 4 2 6 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 30 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 36 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 18 880 300 1600 300 100 1800 240 100 1800 250 100 1800 350 100 1800 340 100 1800 380 150 3 3 12 2 2 2 2 12 9 9 9 9 9 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 36 36 36 18 18 18 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 400 490 700 660 1000 650 640 460 300 775 755 750 740 500 500 300 300 200 300 300 500 500 500 500 500 500 B2100 CLASS 39 B2110 W.2 583.036 0.8 32.216 0 0 518.C 31 B2210 W.8 0 0 0.233 230.324 0.072 0.216 0.8 64. STERILIZ.8 64.324 1.4 0 32.036 0.324 0.972 583. kW Consump.972 0.324 0.648 0.4 64.036 2.233 1.972 0.296 1800 1800 1600 1600 100 1000 1000 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 0.2 64.036 0.C 7 Corridor 274 FL PL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL FL 17 17 61 7 7 7 7 61 31 39 39 39 39 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.036 0.144 1.750 1.8 194.360.750 1.108 0.233 1.360.018 0 0.2 2.8 B3 Floor B3290 B3280 B3270 B3274 B3271 B3273 B3272 B3260 B3300 B3250 B3240 B3230 B3220 RES-LAB RES-LAB CLASS PREPAR.036 0.072 1.018 0 0.360.4 64.036 0.C 31 B2270 W.2 0 97.2 72 72 2.160 1.072 0.72 518.972 0.888 9 4 0 6 0 6 0 2 0 2 0 40 0. Lux Annual Oper.072 0.592 0.2 7.756 583.750 1.324 0.8 2. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.4 64.296 0.036.072 0.036 0.8 1.144 0.555 129.036 0.152 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No. INCUBAT.054 0.2 7.756 0.2 64.8 1.555.144 0.036 0.8 388.054 0 0.054 0 0.036 0.44 1.

6 32.166 583.432 0.072 0.6 0.324 0.144 1.6 43.8 2.2 583.8 0 48.036 0 0.8 43.2 115.756 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.2 28.648 0.6 230.144 0.4 43.324 0.2 583.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 9 6 4 4 0 0.2 0 500 1800 1.555 129.018 0.027 0 0.8 172.4 7.072 0.296 0.C 10 B3020 W.216 0.6 0 2. Lux Annual Oper.216 0 0.296 0.036 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ Year 600 600 1800 1600 100 1800 200 1600 1800 600 600 600 1600 0.176 1.288 1.072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21.324 0.2 583. Lux Stand.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0 518.153 Area m2 Lamp Type No.2 1.18 0.6 64.324 0.6 115.2 64.144 0.324 0.144 0.108 0.C 10 Corridor 604 FL FL FL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL FL 6 3 9 9 4 2 3 1 3 1 58 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 36 36 36 36 9 18 9 18 9 18 18 Area # B3040 B3050 B3060 B3070 B3080 B3170 B3172 B3171 B3160 B3180 B3190 B3152 B3151 B3150 Area Type Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump. of Fixtures No.4 48.2 28.036 0.8 64.144 0.027 0 1.072 0.6 0 48.2 1.6 64.036 0.027 0.296 0.4 97.333 0 1.2.665.054 0.851 . STORE CH-LAB TECHNIC. INGRLAB LAB RES-LAB CLASS CLASS 20 16 34 34 B3090 W.144 86.288 0.209.216 0.749.288 1.072 0.072 0.018 2.288 0.144 86.2 32.333 172.296 2.8 2.018 4.6 32.972 0.972 0. kW Consump.296 2.2 43.4 230.027 0.2 115.018 0.6 64.4 345.333 259.6 583.648 0.8 86.072 0.2 115. CH-LAB OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE PREPAR.054 0.108 0.8 1. PREPAR.4 4.6 108 129.036 0.4 2.8 97.584 388.333 7.972 0.4 43.C 15 B3010 W.324 0.072 0.072 0.592 777.555 1.8 48. Hours 10 8 18 8 39 42 5 5 42 8 8 8 8 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 1 3 1 4 12 2 2 12 4 4 2 2 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 18 18 36 18 18 36 18 18 36 18 18 18 18 220 120 400 180 230 450 900 650 950 650 330 650 270 250 250 500 300 200 500 200 300 500 250 250 250 300 53 FL 12 3 36 500 B3110 B3120 B3130 B3140 Cold Room Dark Room COM-LAB PREPAR.2 32.333 0 0 810 280 830 680 500 500 300 300 1800 1800 1600 1600 350 100 1800 220 100 1800 210 100 1800 400 150 1800 0.2 230.2 1.036.072 0.517 6 0 9 6 4 0 3 0 3 0 88 0.

216 0.620 0.8 0 7.6 1.750 1.108 0 0.8 2.037 1.4 28.750 1.324 0.739 6 6 6 6 6 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 6 9 4 4 9 6 0 2 0 0 88 0.6 32.4 0 0 0 0 0 172. Lux Annual Oper. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.2 1.972 0.036 0 0 1.8 64.555 1.555 43.4 2.296 0.756 0.972 0.972 0.209.2 2.592 1. kW Consump.6 1. Hours 39 39 39 39 39 31 42 42 42 42 71 71 25 25 25 61 7 7 61 8 8 8 8 61 531 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 9 9 9 9 9 4 9 9 9 9 8 8 6 6 6 15 2 2 15 3 2 2 2 12 52 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 2 4 4 3 4 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 36 18 36 18 18 36 18 640 820 860 780 800 280 590 580 520 500 450 400 270 380 580 880 460 500 900 740 270 350 320 380 400 300 300 300 300 300 200 500 500 500 500 500 500 200 500 450 500 300 200 500 250 250 200 300 500 150 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 100 1800 1800 1800 1800 1600 1600 1600 1800 1600 1800 1600 200 1800 600 600 200 1600 1800 1800 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 1.750 1.382 1.864 0. CH-LAB Corridor FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL .750 1.108 0.154 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.2 14.108 0.108 0.072 0.4 2.324 0. Lux Stand.2 64.8 86.864 0.432 1.216 0.144 1.144 1.144 0.756 0. CH-LAB OFFICE OFFICE TECHNIC.6 86.756 0.333 6.8 115.0 0.382 864 1.744 1.972 0.432 0.037 2.555 1.6 10.382 1.6 0.2 0 0 2.2 1.972 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.144 0.54 0.620 0.648 0.166 1.216 0.216 0.584 345.144 0.972 0.209.864 0.144 0.4 1.6 230.108 0 0.332.296 3.555.072 0.750 1.750 1.324 0.916 129.864 0.6 1. CH-LAB PREPAR.4 583.648 1.296 2.6 345.209.555 1.648 0. TECHNIC.4 21.665.2 115.216 0.8 230.209.864 0.555 1.972 0.756 0.296 0.6 345.972 0.8 194.108 0.972 0. PREPAR.216 0.972 0. of Fixtures No.648 0.209.0 0 0 0 0.166 691.972 0.216 0.851 B4 Floor B4250 B4240 B4230 B4220 B4210 B4260 B4200 B4190 B4180 B4170 B4280 B4290 B4040 B4050 B4070 B4160 B4161 B4162 B4150 B4110 B4120 B4141 B4142 B4140 CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS STORE CH-LAB CH-LAB CH-LAB CH-LAB HALL HALL ROOM COM-LAB INSTRU.144 1.382 1.333 4.750 1.8 0 345.916 230.6 1.756 0.972 0.6 583.2 14.072 0.4 28.6 345.332.6 345.4 2.

2 32.027 0 0.2 0 0.LAB Glass-Ws STORE STORE Dark Room Dark Room ROOM ROOM CH-LAB TECHNIC.432 0.2 194. of Fixtures No.4 97.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43.432 0.916 28.216 1.6 32.144 0.018 97.072 0.2 777.C 10 B4080 W.2 7.LAB RESE.4 14.216 0.144 0.027 0 0.4 86.2 43.LAB RESE.432 0.2 B5 Floor B5190 B5192 B5191 B5180 B5170 B5160 B5150 B5200 B5040 B5050 B5080 B5070 B5080 B5090 B5140 B5142 B5141 ELEC-SH OFFICE STORE RESE.2 777..2 32. 43 4 6 13 13 13 13 42 16 11 7 7 10 17 91 9 9 .027 0.972 0.555 43.155 Area # Area Type Area m2 B4010 W.6 0 48.288 0.072 0 43.018 0. Hours 220 100 1800 210 100 1800 250 100 1800 230 100 1800 500 750 160 420 445 450 430 420 180 130 450 450 275 280 650 440 600 450 250 200 500 500 500 500 450 200 200 250 250 200 200 500 200 300 1600 600 100 1800 1800 1800 1800 1600 100 100 600 600 1600 1600 1800 200 1600 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.432 0.4 7.072 0.6 777.6 777.555 43.144 1.4 48.4 345.072 0.6 345.555 43.216 0.432 0.072 0.432 0.432 0.072 0.2 28.432 0.C 10 B4270 W. PREPAR.6 460.054 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.054 0.6 777.072 0.6 2.4 97.2 32.4 48.4 115. kW Consump.144 0.4 48.054 0.108 0.027 0 0.027 0.2 115.6 0 48.018 0.972 0.072 0.144 0.6 0 48.620 0.6 1.027 0 48.584 0.555 86.6 777.6 129.432 0.018 0.072 0.6 32.027 0.4 0.8 230.216 0.8 86. of lamps /Fixture Rating W PL FL PL FL PL FL PL FL 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 18 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 9 2 1 6 6 6 6 9 6 4 3 3 4 6 15 2 2 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 36 18 36 18 18 18 18 36 36 36 18 18 18 18 36 18 18 Measur.2 32.2 115.018 48.6 32.LAB RESE.018 0.2 2.072 0.432 0.C 10 B4020 W.018 0. 432 1.018 0.972 0.072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.288 0.8 691.6 14.6 32.4 115.054 0.972 0.072 1.027 0.4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 0.4 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 0. Lux Annual Oper.6 1. Lux Stand.4 97.6 777.2 28.8 129.6 777.721.6 0 0.C 10 Lamp Type No.288 0.

156

Area
#

Area Type

Area
m2

Lamp
Type

No. of
Fixtures

No. of
lamps
/Fixture

Rating
W

Measur.
Lux

Stand.
Lux

Annual
Oper.
Hours

FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
FL
FL

15
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
8
41

3
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
2

36
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
18
18
36

850

500

1800

260

100

1800

250

100

1800

250

100

1800

240

100

1800

400
420

150
150

1800
1800

FL
FL
FL
FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
PL
FL
FL

15
2
2
15
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
40

3
4
4
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

36
18
18
36
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
18
36

600
480
390
560

500
200
500

1800
200
1600
1800

240

100

1800

240

100

1800

270

100

1800

260

100

1800

420

150

1800

1,926

6,160

B5130

CH-LAB

91

B5110

W.C

10

B5120

W.C

10

B5030

W.C

10

B5020

W.C

10

Corridor
Corridor

84
304

Consumption

Recommended Condition

Saving

kW

kWh/
year

Removed
Lamps

Consump.
kW

Consump.
kWh/year

kW

kWh/
year

1.620
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
0.576
2.952

2,916
97.2
23.4
97.2
23.4
97.2
23.4
97.2
32.4
1,037
5,314

12
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
16
30

1.188
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
0.288
1.872

2,138.4
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
518.4
3,369.6

0.432
0.027
0
0.027
0
0.027
0
0.027
0
0.288
1.08

777.6
48.6
0
48.6
0
48.6
0
48.6
0
518.4
1,944

1.620
0.144
0.144
1.620
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
0.054
0.018
2.880

2,916
28.8
259.2
2,916
97.2
32.4
97.2
23.4
97.2
32.4
97.2
23.4
5,184
230,4
81

0
4
4
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
32

1.620
0.072
0.072
1.620
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
0.027
0.018
1.728

2,916
14.4
115.2
2,916
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
48.6
32.4
3,110.4

0
0.072
0.072
0
0.027
0
0.027
0
0.027
0
0.027
0
1.152

0
14.4
115.2
0
48.6
0
48.6
0
48.6
0
48.6
0
2,074

1,642

119.664

178,504

36.3
42

51,9
77

B6 Floor
B6080
B6082
B6081
B6070

CH-LAB
TECHNIC.
PREPAR.
CH-LAB

100
11
11
100

B6060

W.C

10

B6050

W.C

10

B6090

W.C

10

B6010

W.C

10

Corridor

304

Total

156.
006

157

Faculties of Fine Arts, Graduate Studies, and Law
Area
#

Area Type

Area
m2

Lamp
Type

No. of
Fixtures

No. of
lamps
/Fixture

Rating
W

Measur.
Lux

Stand.
Lux

Annual
Oper.
Hours

FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
HL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL

4
4
4
8
4
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
6
8
4
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
36
18
18
18
18
18
18
50
18
18
18
36
18
18
18
18

620
760
900
260
670
665
650
500
670
665
740
700
630

250
250
250
250
250
250
250
200
250
250
250
250
250

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
100
600
600
600
600
600

450

250

600

570
920
800
550
650
540
600
650

250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600

Consumption

Recommended Condition

kW

kWh/
year

Removed
Lamps

Consump.
kW

0.288
0.288
0.288
0.576
0.288
0.216
0.216
0.288
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.432
0.576
0.200
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.144
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216

172.8
172.8
172.8
345.6
172.8
129.6
129.6
28.8
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
259.2
345.6
120
129.6
129.6
129.6
86.4
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6

6
8
8
0
6
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
8
6
2
4
6
6
0
4
4
6
6

0.180
0.144
0.144
0.576
0.180
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.108
0.144
0.324
0.468
0.100
0.144
0.108
0.108
0.144
0.144
0.144
0.108
0.108

Consump.
kWh/year

Saving
kW

kWh/
year

0.108
0.144
0.144
0
0.108
0.072
0.072
0.144
0.072
0.072
0.108
0.072
0.144
0.108
0.100
0.072
0.108
0.108
0
0.072
0.072
0.108
0.108

64.8
86.4
86.4
0
64.8
43.2
43.2
14.4
43.2
43.2
64.8
43.2
86.4
64.8
60
43.2
64.8
64.8
0
43.2
43.2
64.8
64.8

3rd Floor
3010
3020
3030
3420
3040
3050
3060
3430
3070
3080
3090
3100
3110

OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
STORAGE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE

14
14
14
34
14
9
9
42
9
9
9
8
24

3120

OFFICE

50

3130
3140
3150
3480
3490
3500
3510
3180

OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE

9
8
9
10
9
9
9
9

108
86.4
86.4
345.6
108
86.4
86.4
14.4
86.4
86.4
64.8
86.4
194.4
280.8
60
86.4
64.8
64.8
86.4
86.4
86.4
64.8
64.8

158

Area
#

Area Type

Area
m2

Lamp
Type

No. of
Fixtures

No. of
lamps
/Fixture

Rating
W

Measur.
Lux

Stand.
Lux

Annual
Oper.
Hours

FL
FL
FL
HL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL

3
3
8
4
6
6
3
3
3
3
9
3
3
3
3
9
3
3
3
3
6
8
8
56
2
4

4
4
4
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
3
1
1

18
18
18
50
18
18
18
18
18
18
36
18
18
18
18
36
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
36
18

670
700

250
250

600
600

500

300

1600

610
570
675
720
700
730
790
770
780
720
700
620
680
700
720
700
650
600
560
400

250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
300
600
600
150

600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
1800
1800
1800
1800

250

100

1800

3170
3160

OFFICE
OFFICE

9
8

3190

CLASS

50

3200
3201
3210
3220
3230
3240
3560
3250
3260
3270
3280
3570
3290
3300
3310
3320
3330
3340
3350

OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
OFFICE
GUEST
COUNCIL
COUNCIL
Corridor

18
25
8
8
8
9
58
9
8
9
9
58
9
9
8
9
38
49
49
386

3140

W.C

15

Consumption

Recommended Condition

Saving

kW

kWh/
year

Removed
Lamps

Consump.
kW

Consump.
kWh/year

kW

kWh/
year

0.216
0.216
0.576
0.200
0.432
0.432
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.972
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.972
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.324
0.576
0.576
3.024
0.072
0.072

129.6
129.6
921.6
320
259.2
259.2
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
583.2
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
583.2
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
583.2
1,037
1,037
5,443
129.6
129.6

4
6
8
2
8
8
6
6
6
6
9
6
6
6
6
9
6
6
6
6
6
0
0
84
0
2

0.144
0.108
0.432
0.100
0.288
0.288
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.648
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.648
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.216
0.576
0.576
1.512
0.072
0.036

86.4
64.8
691.2
160
172.8
172.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
388.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
388.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
388.8
1,036.8
1,036.8
2,721.6
129.6
64.8

0.072
0.108
0.144
0.100
0.144
0.144
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.324
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.324
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0.108
0
0
1.512
0
0.036

43.2
64.8
259.2
160
86.4
86.4
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
194.4
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
194.4
64.8
64.8
64.8
64.8
194.4
0
0
2,722
0
64.8

159

Area
#

Area Type

Area
m2

3150

W.C

15

3360

W.C

15

3370

W.C

15

Lamp
Type

No. of
Fixtures

No. of
lamps
/Fixture

Rating
W

FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL

2
4
2
4
2
4

1
1
1
1
1
1

36
18
36
18
36
18

FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
2
52
3
4

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
1
1

36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
18
36
18

Measur.
Lux

Stand.
Lux

Annual
Oper.
Hours

220

100

1800

260

100

1800

240

100

1800

720
630
726
710
690
590
690
515
570
580
620
590
540
485
490
560
305
350

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
250
150

1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
1600
600
1800

310

100

1800

Consumption

Recommended Condition

Saving

kW

kWh/
year

Removed
Lamps

Consump.
kW

Consump.
kWh/year

kW

kWh/
Year

0.072
0.072
0.072
0.072
0.072
0.072

129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6
129.6

0
2
0
2
0
2

0.072
0.036
0.072
0.036
0.072
0.036

129.6
64.8
129.6
64.8
129.6
64.8

0
0.036
0
0.036
0
0.036

0
64.8
0
64.8
0
64.8

0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.864
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.972
0.864
0.144
2.808
0.108
0.072

1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,382
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,555
1,382
86.4
5,054
194.4
129.6

9
6
9
9
9
6
9
6
6
6
9
6
6
6
6
6
0
78
1
2

0.648
0.756
0.648
0.648
0.648
0.756
0.648
0.756
0.756
0.756
0.648
0.756
0.756
0.756
0.756
0.648
0.144
1.404
0.072
0.036

1,036.8
1,209.6
1,036.8
1,036.8
1,036.8
1,209.6
1,036.8
1,209.6
1,209.6
1,209.6
1,036.8
1,209.6
1,209.6
1,209.6
1,209.6
1,036.8
86.4
2,527.2
129.6
64.8

0.324
0.216
0.324
0.324
0.324
0.216
0.324
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.324
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0.216
0
1.404
0.036
0.036

518.4
345.6
518.4
518.4
518.4
345.6
518.4
345.6
345.6
345.6
518.4
345.6
345.6
345.6
345.6
345.6
0
2,527
64.8
64.8

2nd Floor
2020
2170
2160
2030
2040
2060
2070
2090
2100
2080
2110
2120
2100
2130
2140
2150
2200

CLASS
CLASS
STUDIO
CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
STUDIO
STUDIO
STUDIO
STUDIO
STUDIO
STUDIO
STUDIO
OFFICE
Corridor

78
78
76
76
78
78
78
76
78
69
63
63
64
62
79
70
20
376

2050

W.C

13

555 1.4 691.2 115.756 0.2 115.6 21.2 115.648 0.160 Area # 2180 Area Type W.072 0.072 0.2 115.756 0.972 0.2 115.972 0.072 194.216 0.2 518.108 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.555 1.6 518.6 1 2 0.216 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.036 0.972 0.756 0.072 1.8 864 864 1.2 691.216 0.2 115.2 115.072 0.324 0.072 0.144 0.072 0.072 0.648 0.2 115.8 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 100 600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 0.072 0.2 115.216 0.2 115.972 0.6 1.4 43.C Area m2 Lamp Type No.036 64.072 0.8 1. Lux Stand.2 345.209.2 115.072 0.555 115.2 115.216 0.144 0.555 1.2 43.432 0.2 115.2 115.2 115.072 0.2 6 9 12 12 6 6 0 2 2 9 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.972 0.6 345.2 115.2 115.072 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1st Floor 1060 1040 1030 1020 1280 1250 1320 1330 1310 1050 1070 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1410 CLASS CLASS STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO MARSAM STORE Office STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO .324 0.209.072 0.756 0.4 345.209.972 0.036.072 0.4 1.2 115.036 129.036.072 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.216 0 0.209.6 345.2 0.555 1.540 0.8 64.072 0.972 0.6 115.540 0.2 115.072 0. kW Consump.072 0.6 64.2 115.432 0.2 115.6 0 7.2 115.072 0.4 129. Lux Annual Oper. Hours 13 FL FL 3 4 1 1 36 18 300 100 80 80 65 65 65 65 39 31 22 65 66 6 6 5 5 6 5 5 6 5 6 6 5 6 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 3 2 9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 620 770 760 800 630 550 420 420 501 800 630 330 310 340 325 330 360 370 380 350 340 320 330 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 500 200 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.972 0.2 115.216 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 345.072 0.8 0.6 14.6 86.072 0.072 0.555 1.072 0.072 0.072 0.555 345.2 115.555 1.072 0.6 1. of Fixtures No.2 1.

072 0.6 1.072 0.072 0.072 0.756 0.4 Ground Floor 110 120 10 20 30 50 60 CLASS CLASS CLASS COM-LAB COM-LAB CAFTERI.072 0.072 0.072 0.6 0 0 1.4 129.072 0.2 115.750 1.333 1.216 0.072 0.072 0.2 194.216 0 0 0.209.638 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 87 0.972 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.6 1.072 0.296 0.209.2 115.036 0.972 1.072 0.072 0.750 1.2 115.499 1.036 0.072 0.2 115.108 0.555 1.072 0.2 115.648 0.944 0.108 0.972 0.756 0.555 1.072 0.2 115.750 2.972 0.072 0.2 115.8 64. of Fixtures No.2 129.6 194.6 64.072 0.2 115.819 1600 1600 1600 1800 1800 1800 1600 0.555 1.2 115.6 345.972 1.324 345.972 1.2 115.818.2 115.2 115. CLASS .072 0.161 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.6 1.2 115.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 115.2 115.8 64.2 115.C 13 1570 W.6 5.566 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64.2 115.072 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 0.750 3.209. kW Consump.648 1.072 0.072 0.8 129.132 115.072 0.166 518.2 115.2 115.072 3. Lux Stand.2 115.036 1.756 0. Lux Annual Oper.216 0.2 115.4 129.8 2.972 0.6 345.072 0.072 0.2 115.555 6 6 6 0 0 18 9 0.566 115.2 115.072 0.2 115.036 0.2 115.2 115.C 13 Corridor 384 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 79 77 84 78 77 195 80 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.036 1.036 0.6 64.8 68 2.8 0.972 0. Hours 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 3 4 58 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 3 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 36 18 36 18 18 310 315 345 355 360 340 320 330 300 310 315 345 355 360 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 320 100 1800 330 100 1800 320 150 9 9 9 9 9 18 9 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 560 545 600 510 540 410 550 300 300 300 500 500 150 300 1420 1430 1450 1460 1470 1480 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO STUDIO 6 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 1080 W.036. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.072 0.

4 345.108 0.224 0.036 0.864 0.8 583.078 0.504 0.6 0 0 B1 Floor B04 B05 B06 B10 B11 Music Chamber Music Chamber Mechanical Room Store Electrical Room .2 2.620 4.018 0.4 16 6 3 0 28 2 3 0.8 2 0.108 0.216 21.972 777.4 748.6 0.2 194.548 1.4 540 2.6 0.2 120 300 100 1800 380 100 1800 350 500 400 150 150 150 1800 1800 1800 0.576 57.238. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 100 0.209. Lux Stand. kW Consump.138 0.972 0.188 129.4 83.036 0.6 194.072 7.2 48 FL 4 2 36 200 200 100 0.036.900 2.036 0.728 0.C 21 120 W.432 43.036 1.576 0.2 1.6 64.6 1.216 21.6 0.080 2.8 57.018 0.2 1. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.555 1.6 0.138 160 W.555 388.3 1. of Fixtures No.C 21 Corridor Corridor Corridor 35 70 261 FL FL FL FL PL HL FL 95 FL 16 4 18 650 350 800 1.756 0.765 832 14.156 0.216 0.8 129.8 140.4 583.958.8 600 600 0.4 64.376 194. Hours 60 76 30 45 12 9 3 9 24 20 2 4 3 2 3 4 1 2 18 36 36 36 18 26 36 350 560 465 470 100 300 150 500 1800 1600 1800 600 900 300 1600 20 FL FL FL FL FL CFL FL 500 200 195 HL 12 1 50 700 3 3 3 3 9 12 44 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 36 18 36 18 26 75 18 120 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.288 0.6 0 0.216 0.6 194.036 0.4 240 0.216 21.8 12 0.4 280.108 0.382 10 1.8 32.072 0.2 10.6 64.4 0.8 32.152 921.108 518.8 1.520 0.144 1.18 144 450 FL 24 4 18 520 350 800 1.8 1.4 97.108 0 0.972 1.468 0.054 0.18 144 248 FL 14 2 36 300 150 100 1.4 97. Lux Annual Oper.2 32 FL 3 2 36 180 150 100 0.6 10 0.054 0.4 0 806.728 1.288 28.188 64.2 421.008 100.972 1.072 0.052 0.600 360 4 0.277 1 1 1 1 6 8 66 0.234 0.162 Area # 70 80 90 100 130 40 150 Area Type MOSQUE CLASS SHOP CONCIL Lecture Hall STORE Exhibition Hall Area m2 Lamp Type No.

072 0.144 115. of Fixtures No.432 43.2 7.576 0.2 1.85 .072 7.2 7.2 170 150 50 0.6 0.144 0.2 4 0.2 115.144 14. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 100 0.216 1.08 0 0 0 7.2 0 388.08 115.432 43.126 64.504 25.072 0. Lux Annual Oper.144 0.28 38.144 115.044 84.2 70 1.216 1.144 0.2 14.072 7.072 3.2 0. kW Consump.944 PL HL 260 190 1 1 26 50 400 150 1800 500 6.2 0 0 3 2 36 400 350 800 0.8 2 0.037 388.160 115.576 28.2 0.8 0.473 78.2 7.144 0.576 0.56 4. Hours 52 FL 6 2 36 250 150 57 FL 6 2 36 230 69 FL 8 2 36 21 FL 2 2 15 FL 2 18 FL 10 10 8 22 63 56 226 1600 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.750 60 90 5.500 1.944 0 0 0 0.144 0.8 2 0.493 3.072 0.4 2 0. B12 Room B09 Store Changing B15 Room Changing B01 Room B02 Actor B07 Actor B08 Store B03 Store B15 Workshop Corridor Corridor Restaurant B13 Restaurant Total Area m2 Lamp Type No.36 3.144 115.250 1.4 1.07 106.360 2. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.2 0 0.808 2.5 2.76 9.072 57.163 Area # Area Type Generator Room Transform.8 1.216 172.2 5 9. B14 Room Main Elec.4 150 100 0.6 36 300 200 100 0.144 14.432 2.2 2 36 360 350 800 0.888 0 0 0 2 0 12 30 0.343 30.8 1.5 12168 4.288 28.6 3.2 2 0.072 7.037 777.072 0 0.6 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 2 2 1 2 8 8 30 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 36 36 36 36 36 18 36 530 550 330 400 370 300 250 500 500 200 200 300 150 150 800 800 100 100 1800 1800 1800 0.2 0. Lux Stand.2 115.

4 86.144 0.108 0.072 0.072 0.8 86.4 64.288 0.8 0 43. Hours 10 10 12 9 10 16 8 10 18 9 10 20 24 8 8 10 8 20 16 7 9 26 23 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 4 4 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 520 530 370 345 371 840 480 300 520 405 420 825 900 320 330 540 490 491 770 745 670 530 960 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.8 3 3 0 2 2 3 3 0 3 2 2 3 8 3 3 3 2 4 4 1 2 8 10 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.036 0.288 0.144 0.180 64.072 0.8 43.144 0.8 172.288 0.8 0.108 0.144 0.288 0.8 64.2 43.144 0.4 86.144 0.108 108 108 86.108 0 0.8 172.144 0.4 86. kW Consump.18 0.4 108 2nd Floor 2030 2040 2270 2280 2290 2050 2060 2300 2070 2310 2320 2080 2120 2130 2140 2330 2340 2150 2160 2360 2370 2170 2180 OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE .072 0.108 0.4 172.072 0.8 43.18 0.4 108 108 108 43.072 0.288 0.8 64.072 0.4 172.18 0.4 86.4 86.072 0.2 108 108 86.18 0.18 0.18 0.4 108 43.108 0.2 43.4 86.144 0.8 172.144 0.144 0.072 0.144 0.2 43.288 0.8 86.8 64.2 86. Lux Annual Oper.4 43.18 0.8 0 64.288 0.8 172.4 172.8 172.144 0.8 86.8 172.8 172.072 0.108 0 0.164 Faculties of Pharmacy.2 86.144 0.2 43.4 64.6 43.4 172.2 64.8 86. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.144 0.288 172.288 0.108 0.8 64.144 0.144 0.2 86.144 0.4 64.2 108 86.108 0.288 0.072 0.8 43. of Fixtures No.288 0.2 86.288 0.4 172.2 64.8 86.144 0.288 0.18 0.144 0.072 0.108 0.18 0.4 21.8 172. Lux Stand.288 0.108 0.8 86. and Medicine Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.

of Fixtures No.800 0.008 0.8 72 43.072 0.108 0.144 0.2 72 250 250 1st Floor 1010 1020 1030 1270 1040 1280 1050 1300 1060 1310 1070 LECTURE HALL LAB OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE STORE SEMINAR OFFICE SEMINAR OFFICE SEMINAR 107 46 19 10 15 9 10 9 8 9 19 .504 0.8 72 43.8 14.6 640 259.072 0.6 86.6 32 0.8 46.8 226.2 86.8 129.8 86.288 1.2 43.504 388.108 0.2 0.4 0 226.864 691.2 0.4 64.324 194.2 115.6 70.6 144 86.072 0. 17 6 10 10 44 84 FL FL FL FL FL FL 6 1 2 2 10 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 36 36 36 36 36 36 545 220 490 460 986 420 300 76 FL 18 4 18 1050 2090 W.72 7.072 0.8 86.2 72 0.8 453.144 0.288 0.280 1.4 0.144 0.864 460.216 0.252 0.072 345.C 17 2350 W.072 0 0.108 0.144 0.432 0.36 0.072 0.2 0.C 20 Corridors Lobby 200 50 PL PL PL PL PL PL 6 2 7 3 28 14 2 1 2 1 2 2 18 13 18 13 18 18 FL HL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 18 8 8 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 1 4 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 18 100 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 Area # 2120 2221 2223 2222 2241 2230 2010 Area Type Annual Oper.072 0.2 144 64.072 691.026 0.432 0.6 172.288 0.144 0.2 115.216 0.4 144 129.144 0 0.165 Area m2 Lamp Type No.4 230.2 86.8 23.2 115.8 115.2 216 691.288 0.2 1.8 46.18 194.144 0.814 907.2 6 0 7 1 28 10 0.072 0.072 0.013 0.108 0.108 0.4 907.504 0.2 216 0 700 100 1.216 0.072 0.144 0.2 0 64.576 57.4 0 43. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1600 1600 600 1600 600 800 0.8 907.026 0. Hours Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.2 4 0 2 2 10 0 0. Lux CLASS ROOM OFFICE ROOM OFFICE MEETING VIDEO CONFER.296 129.039 1.216 0.4 7.4 7.4 64.144 0.36 0 230.037 1.4 0.2 583.108 0 0.2 640 777.576 0. Lux Stand.6 320 100 1800 390 100 1800 460 510 150 150 1800 1800 0.037 172.026 0.144 0.144 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.144 0.072 0. kW Consump.4 288 12 4 8 4 3 4 2 0 3 2 2 2 0.4 46.4 432 691.432 0.126 0.144 0.2 324 500 300 1600 880 820 645 960 480 450 810 805 900 730 500 250 250 250 200 400 250 400 250 400 1800 600 600 600 100 1000 600 1000 600 1000 0.126 0.720 0.648 0.

814 907.4 46.8 172.8 46.072 0.072 0.6 70. Lux Stand.2 43.8 172.6 86.144 0.4 388.144 0.288 0.144 0.2 43.504 0.4 43.4 86.2 86.4 0 842.8 86.144 0.072 0.2 302.4 43.648 1.8 172.144 0.54 0.072 0.252 0.288 0.144 0.288 28.288 0.072 0.216 0.144 0.144 0.072 0.166 8 8 0.8 453.4 518.8 129.108 0.2 86. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 1800 1800 0.4 0.072 0.8 46.216 0.2 86.144 0.4 129.144 0.072 0.468 0.072 1.504 288 86.6 43.216 0.4 43.144 0.2 2 2 8 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 6 4 6 0 7 1 0 26 12 0.144 0.6 43.144 0.8 86.C 20 410 100 1800 1090 W.2 43.288 0.4 0 226.026 0.144 0.2 259. Lux Annual Oper.2 129.288 0.216 0.8 28.6 129.8 Ground Floor G0150 G0140 MOSQUE MOSQUE .288 518.2 43.072 0.4 43. of Fixtures No.216 0.4 86.4 259.4 432 172.2 129.166 Area m2 Lamp Type No.4 129.2 129. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.720 0.026 0.6 1.039 0.216 0.8 1800 1800 0.4 172.288 0.4 86.013 0 0.072 0.4 194.6 86.288 0.144 0. Hours SEMINAR OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE 18 9 23 23 19 23 10 15 18 10 10 16 16 10 10 49 16 400 100 1800 1260 W.2 43.072 0.072 0.8 23.216 0.6 129.648 0.6 43.126 0.288 0.4 194.4 86.216 0.072 0.008 0.2 129.216 72 43.8 172.4 0.108 0 0.026 0.288 0.126 0.6 972 518.288 0.2 86.432 0.C Corridors Lobby 6 204 50 36 36 18 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 18 13 18 13 18 18 18 1000 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 17 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 400 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 W.8 388.432 0.288 216 43.166 1.C 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 10 4 6 2 7 3 2 28 14 780 810 690 875 470 720 770 640 560 840 440 665 560 420 650 640 790 1250 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL 250 540 610 100 150 150 72 72 FL FL 9 9 2 2 36 36 320 350 100 100 Area # Area Type 1080 1320 1120 1130 1140 1330 1340 1150 1160 1360 1370 1170 1180 1222 1223 1241 1240 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.072 0.072 0.4 172.216 0.2 86.4 86.2 86. kW Consump.072 0.8 226.144 0.

4 460.288 0.2 806.648 0.6 162 0 226.936 0.648 0. of Fixtures No.072 1.039 0.144 0.8 226. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 60 FL 9 2 36 510 500 1800 0.468 0.648 0.504 691.036.6 45 60 72 72 78 79 71 92 85 8 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL 9 9 9 9 12 12 9 12 12 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 36 36 36 36 36 18 36 18 36 36 440 670 390 480 570 405 420 920 480 250 500 500 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 200 1800 1800 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 100 0.648 0.216 0.037 1. Lux Annual Oper.8 3.6 1.432 0.144 0.648 0.864 0.6 921.166 1.864 0.576 0.864 0.8 453.6 345.576 0.026 0.504 0.166 0 0.2 691.166 907.2 4 6 6 4 16 6 12 2 5 0 7 1 26 14 0.648 1.216 0. Lux Stand.2 1.2 0 0.09 0 0.648 0.864 0.6 70.382 1.4 453.216 0.432 0.166 1.8 230.216 0.4 345.216 0.2 806. Hours Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.2 1.037 1.6 460.864 0.216 0.382 1.288 0.468 0.166 0 0 G0010 G0011 G0080 G0090 G0070 G0160 G0100 G0110 COMP LAB CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS Comp-Lab ROOM 71 60 78 80 85 86 120 10 380 100 1800 G0190 W.8 226.4 842.4 453.288 0.8 7.166.036.126 0.144 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.864 0.8 345.144 0.8 460.C 30 420 100 1800 Corridors Lobby 183 50 36 36 36 36 18 36 18 18 18 13 18 13 18 18 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1800 100 28 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 300 300 300 300 300 300 500 200 W.648 1.288 0.C 6 6 9 9 12 12 12 2 6 2 7 3 26 14 720 850 470 450 870 645 740 300 G0180 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL PL PL PL PL PL 610 700 150 150 1800 1800 0.026 0.8 46.8 46.252 230.4 388.4 10.648 0.4 460.8 345.864 0.288 0.648 0.108 0.382 7.504 0.382 1.4 921.4 691.8 23.685 907.8 345. kW Consump.126 0.252 460.8 46.555 14.6 1.648 0.013 0.072 1.252 0.8 1.4 921.432 0.432 0.6 230.576 0.2 0.6 0 G0030 B1 Floor B1030 B1040 B1090 B1160 B1170 B1110 B1090 B1080 B1020 B1010 Comp-Lab Comp-Lab CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS STORE .037 1.216 0 0 259.382 1.167 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.216 0.2 921.126 0.026 0.6 806.6 691.2 0 4 4 6 8 16 4 16 6 0 0.2 230.036 0.504 0.648 0.504 0.648 0.382 1.037 1.4 345.037 1.8 842.144 0.144 0.6 388.576 0.

144 388.864 0.648 0.216 0.166 388.396 0.8 46.648 0.166 1.8 226.C 30 Corridors Lobby 198 42 .4 1.648 0.144 0.166 21.648 0.126 0 0 0.2 0.072 0 0 0.8 0 0 648 259.288 1.864 0. Hours FL PL PL PL PL PL 11 7 2 2 22 8 2 2 1 1 2 2 36 18 13 75 18 18 630 500 1800 410 100 1800 500 600 150 150 1800 1800 FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL PL PL PL PL 9 3 9 9 3 9 9 3 3 9 12 3 2 9 9 7 4 20 8 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 18 36 36 36 36 18 36 36 36 36 18 36 36 36 36 18 13 18 18 295 320 395 310 340 410 385 285 290 310 520 400 420 330 350 500 200 500 500 500 500 500 200 200 500 500 200 200 500 500 1800 100 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 100 100 1800 1800 100 100 1800 1800 380 100 1800 520 600 150 150 1800 1800 B1030 LAB 108 B1050 W.2 1.166 1.426 518.8 712.6 21.026 0.144 1. Lux Stand.648 0.144 0.0.252 0.026 0.216 0.6 1.648 0.2 0 0.166 226. kW Consump.144 0.6 259.126 0.720 0.4 14.8 270 777.072 0.6 14.144 0.166 14.4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 7 2 18 8 0.648 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 0.2 0 0 226.166 1.648 0.8 1.288 1.555 21.166 1.648 0.126 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.216 0.792 0.648 0.144 1.4 1.432 0.166 1.072 0 0 0.052 0.2 7.072 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 46.8 270 1.6 1.296 518. of Fixtures No.144 0.216 0.168 Area # Area Type Area m2 Lamp Type No.792 0.555 14.C 29 Corridors Lobby 200 42 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.166 21.648 0.166 14.2 0 0 7.6 1.166 1.6 93.166 388.576 0.6 46.026 0.8 46.166 453.4 7.2 B2 Floor B2110 B2101 B2100 B2090 B2081 B2080 B2040 B2031 B2050 B2030 B2020 B2210 B2200 B2070 B2060 LAB STORE LAB LAB LAB LAB LAB STORE STORE LAB LAB STORE STORE LAB LAB 59 24 66 66 59 62 68 24 22 60 64 30 16 62 61 B2010 W.126 0.150 0.648 0.426 543.324 0. Lux Annual Oper.2 259.072 0.072 0.036.026 0.166 1.36 0.648 0.4 1.216 0.648 0.648 0.4 6 7 0 0 20 8 0.648 0.150 0.8 583.144 0 7.216 0.2 0.216 0.252 0.2 7.8 259.8 226.2 0 0 0 0 0 7.166 1.8 1.

072 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Measur.288 28. Lux Annual Oper.8 518.2 46.C 14 Corridors Lobby 50 45 Total .026 0.072 7.104 678 36.224 129.216 0.2 4 0.2 13 FL 2 2 36 260 200 100 0.144 14.2 700 1000 0.2 0.144 14.843 20 0.8 403. Room Electrical Room STORE DOCTOR ROOM IDENIFI.4 0 0 18 FL 4 4 18 440 400 1800 0.792 1.6 259.2 0 0 PL PL PL PL 4 2 5 15 2 1 4 1 18 13 18 28 340 100 1800 800 620 150 150 1800 1800 0.216 21.185 Area # B3 Floor B3020 B3050 B3010 B3120 B3040 B3060 B3140 B3150 B3130 B3160 B3190 B3180 B3070 LAB LAB DISSECT.8 2 0.360 0.144 0.8 Area Type 53.072 7.026 0.144 0.6 46.288 518.8 1.36 576 36 320 150 100 0.267.072 7.8 388.144 129.144 14.288 288 0.8 648 756 4 0 8 7 0.108 108 0.6 0. kWh/year kW kWh/ year 1800 1800 0.4 0 0. of Fixtures No.2 352.861 Area m2 68.288 388.2 0.144 14.420 259. Lux Stand.432 518.432 43.463 2.144 14.4 0 0.169 No.072 7.2 0.144 1444 2 0.4 0.4 2 0.288 518.811.152 1.167 19.144 14. kW Consump. HALL LECTURE HALL Generator Room Boiler Room Transform.072 0.6 4 8 0.324 49.4 0 0 FL 2 2 36 350 150 100 0.288 0.4 0 0 12 FL 2 4 18 350 300 1000 0.2 0 0.4 0 0.072 7.978.4 2 2 36 280 150 100 0. Hours 22 30 FL FL 4 6 4 4 18 18 880 930 500 500 40 FL 6 4 18 1050 69 FL 16 4 18 17 FL 4 2 41 FL 6 12 FL 9 Consumption Recommended Condition Saving kW kWh/ year Removed Lamps Consump.432 432 8 0.288 28.216 0.144 144 860 300 1600 1.8 0.2 2 36 400 150 100 0.6 0 259.072 0 0. DARK ROOM W.8 Lamp Type 16.196 129.4 777.036 36 6 FL 1 2 36 180 250 100 0.

5 9.400 4.680 Lamp Type .200 1.648 43.200 10.672 0.6 1.000 38.170 Exterior lights Consumption No.8 0. of lamps /Fixture Rating W Annual Oper.800 2.42 121.688 2.800 18.3 2. of Fixtures No.7 4. Hours kW kWh/ year HPS Projectors MH Projectors Ground Spot light Yards light Yards light HPS Projectors 2D Side lamps 27 2 18 45 48 16 24 18 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 400 150 150 100 100 75 28 18 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 10.2 0.592 Total 198 264 30.

171 Appendix 3 Measured Weekly Load Curve .

9 222.88 0.9 0.77 26.9 227.6 52.81 28.7 21.1 228.6 201.89 0.3 227.22 109.8 227 225.5 17.96 0.5 226.3 230 228.4 225.89 0.67 26.94 24.5 16.5 19.6 Inull Avg (A) 57.7 230.65 14.28 43.5 157.6 21.04 27.1 272.4 229.97 0.4 77.65 32.5 19.3 76.7 196 184.5 187.3 230.2 232.89 0.29 144.9 204 174.9 221.7 224.9 85.57 22.97 0.7 17.2 230.4 229.95 0.96 .6 222.5 224.89 0.9 0.77 43.22 25.4 230.51 130.1 44.5 231.36 23.3 228.82 26.2 61.6 227.89 0.46 18.8 17.5 229.95 0.62 20.2 225.1 122.95 0.9 44.6 225.83 24.5 228.2 32.4 232.89 0.7 173.1 26.89 0.8 12.13 21.2 12.97 178.6 220.7 154.8 171.88 0.88 0.9 12.83 25.8 230 228.59 38.7 226.5 228.55 17.1 228.88 0.91 0.8 219.3 232.4 92.1 60.1 197.7 226.5 12.93 31.88 0.7 13.47 14.91 20.21 71.9 223 224.6 195 219.46 21.97 0.1 231 232.53 26.8 84.09 24.5 227.4 43.58 32.74 20.7 14.92 39.55 25.88 0.53 28.65 30.39 21.06 199.172 Faculty of Engineering Date & Time 12/02/2007 15:08 12/02/2007 16:08 12/02/2007 17:08 12/02/2007 18:08 12/02/2007 19:08 12/02/2007 20:08 12/02/2007 21:08 12/02/2007 22:08 12/02/2007 23:08 13/02/2007 00:08 13/02/2007 01:08 13/02/2007 02:08 13/02/2007 03:08 13/02/2007 04:08 13/02/2007 05:08 13/02/2007 06:08 13/02/2007 07:08 13/02/2007 08:08 13/02/2007 09:08 13/02/2007 10:08 13/02/2007 11:08 13/02/2007 12:08 13/02/2007 13:08 13/02/2007 14:08 13/02/2007 15:08 13/02/2007 16:08 13/02/2007 17:08 13/02/2007 18:08 13/02/2007 19:08 13/02/2007 20:08 13/02/2007 21:08 13/02/2007 22:08 13/02/2007 23:08 14/02/2007 00:08 14/02/2007 01:08 14/02/2007 02:08 14/02/2007 03:08 14/02/2007 04:08 14/02/2007 05:08 14/02/2007 06:08 14/02/2007 07:08 14/02/2007 08:08 14/02/2007 09:08 14/02/2007 10:08 14/02/2007 11:08 14/02/2007 11:18 14/02/2007 12:08 St/ Avg (VA) 94200 47440 21010 20690 20270 19650 18470 18890 18310 18440 19760 18610 19310 19100 18430 20210 34530 91540 119500 128500 138000 44950 144700 134400 112000 45230 20320 16640 14310 13420 13190 12920 12940 13250 13330 13170 13200 14120 12730 13770 32410 107100 135700 148500 160500 156200 144800 Pt/ Avg (W) 88740 45460 19010 18890 18160 17470 16480 16750 16270 16200 17330 16480 17310 17090 16390 18320 32770 88510 115700 125000 134200 42690 140000 130400 108000 43190 19180 15510 12880 11880 11710 11470 11540 11660 11640 11630 11680 12440 11360 12100 31150 100500 128700 141100 153000 150000 139300 Qt/ Avg (VAR) 31620 13570 8936 8420 9017 8984 8321 8737 8403 8803 9491 8644 8548 8516 8424 8534 10860 23360 29920 29400 32320 13800 36560 32520 29760 13430 6699 6011 6223 6236 6074 5940 5852 6277 6499 6177 6157 6680 5741 6591 8956 37030 42990 46110 48400 43510 39500 V1 Avg (V) 229 228 228 230 231 234 232 232 231 232 230 230 230 230 228 227 228 227 224 224 222 124 226 227 230 233 231 230 231 234 231 230 228 231 232 230 231 230 227 230 229 225 223 228 226 224 226 V2 Avg (V) 228.12 18.6 38.1 102 75.02 32.89 29.5 222.8 230.6 152.9 228.02 71.89 0.13 24.78 176.76 29.9 12.7 18.12 16.9 16.8 221.85 36.1 223.8 122.2 75.2 38.8 12.9 226.08 20.8 228.55 29.6 230.1 19 18.1 279.4 233.7 233.54 24.88 0.6 V3 Avg (V) 226.38 21.3 17.96 0.56 24.6 27.9 68.8 256.22 27.75 22.82 34.2 229.3 225.07 24.8 88.87 0.68 32.1 223.47 14.3 230.6 226.3 12.4 228.7 221.7 54.77 18.15 56.75 14.8 92.8 227.45 18.5 I1 Avg (A) 156.97 21.9 20.93 0.09 18.3 224.1 227.7 229.99 32.41 18 18.16 19.97 0.4 123.93 23.95 0.88 0.8 158 144.6 Pft+ Avg () 0.4 265 231.94 0.4 229.89 0.44 14.1 228.3 11.88 0.36 32.7 224.1 224.8 227.16 27.22 169.5 228.4 234.84 24.42 14.7 17.4 17.1 225.95 0.2 231.4 226.3 17.9 I3 Avg (A) 147.62 32.6 52.14 22.5 224.29 14.58 15.5 70.38 32.2 229.9 225.5 229.85 17.09 32.96 0.58 14.59 35.89 0.91 0.6 240.9 227.97 0.52 151 189 199.1 232.11 29.1 16.96 20.7 230.3 231.9 227.85 28.4 I2 Avg (A) 108.6 42.8 13.89 14.6 226.94 0.6 47.8 224.1 201 211.1 231.5 230.89 0.2 230 230.8 19.68 38.96 0.97 0.98 0.8 12.1 81.59 14.8 255.5 248.3 227.94 0.1 225.02 29.1 223 221.9 0.

5 45.12 13.75 16.9 23.88 0.97 9.42 19.83 0.7 226.6 11.06 12.3 229 227.2 230.88 0.12 24.6 9.14 16.49 19.71 11.1 228.12 19.87 0.72 21.45 23.6 226.2 228.72 7.89 0.3 14.13 23.9 20.8 229 226.93 9.9 0.75 6.8 226.77 0.9 17.86 0.87 0.37 9.99 69.31 9.4 229.53 16.2 12 6.84 0.77 29.8 229.1 229.85 29.6 229.56 29.5 19.6 19.89 58 50.6 14.94 0.6 17.68 7.11 53.8 232.88 0.46 19.2 229.6 226.7 227.07 20.35 15.4 24.5 9.87 0.83 0.27 44.2 10.47 0.4 233 229.68 19.8 54.58 67.6 177.8 226.77 .3 227.49 15.94 0.88 0.93 23.76 0.8 226.2 232.5 10.37 24.65 11.3 13.3 18.5 226 225.9 230.4 10.02 25.9 14.7 7.6 230.29 23.5 229.57 24.98 13.77 10.4 227 236.3 230.87 0.2 224.76 0.1 227.88 0.42 13.87 19.9 12.27 51.5 22.37 17.4 233.84 9.173 14/02/2007 13:08 14/02/2007 14:08 14/02/2007 15:08 14/02/2007 16:08 14/02/2007 17:08 14/02/2007 18:08 14/02/2007 19:08 14/02/2007 20:08 14/02/2007 21:08 14/02/2007 22:08 14/02/2007 23:08 15/02/2007 00:08 15/02/2007 01:08 15/02/2007 02:08 15/02/2007 03:08 15/02/2007 04:08 15/02/2007 05:08 15/02/2007 06:08 15/02/2007 07:08 15/02/2007 08:08 15/02/2007 09:08 15/02/2007 10:08 15/02/2007 11:08 15/02/2007 12:08 15/02/2007 13:08 15/02/2007 14:08 15/02/2007 15:08 15/02/2007 16:08 15/02/2007 17:08 15/02/2007 18:08 15/02/2007 19:08 15/02/2007 20:08 15/02/2007 21:08 15/02/2007 22:08 15/02/2007 23:08 16/02/2007 00:08 16/02/2007 01:08 16/02/2007 02:08 16/02/2007 03:08 16/02/2007 04:08 16/02/2007 05:08 16/02/2007 06:08 16/02/2007 07:08 16/02/2007 08:08 16/02/2007 09:08 16/02/2007 10:08 16/02/2007 11:08 16/02/2007 12:08 16/02/2007 13:08 16/02/2007 14:08 16/02/2007 15:08 16/02/2007 16:08 144400 108600 87650 43010 14620 13010 13280 13310 13270 12980 14880 13270 13300 13600 13370 13450 13010 14340 21220 24770 34340 31310 32300 33520 28720 24300 21690 18440 12810 11640 11780 11360 11670 12610 12180 11870 12010 11270 11070 11000 10960 12310 12160 12130 11970 11160 9164 9281 8981 9517 9519 9027 138600 105100 84340 40970 13220 11490 11660 11610 11540 11420 12970 11790 11730 11950 11800 11860 11570 12880 19950 23370 32760 29510 30330 31780 27350 22990 20540 17210 11170 9645 9658 9415 9592 10410 10140 9847 10350 9188 9002 8943 8964 10750 10350 10580 10530 9348 7022 7013 7025 7340 7246 6961 40290 27480 23850 13100 6235 6094 6356 6500 6549 6167 7285 6096 6259 6504 6277 6339 5951 6324 7244 8216 10290 10460 11100 10660 8769 7863 6966 6646 6273 6517 6744 6366 6648 7119 6744 6640 6087 6530 6446 6415 6319 5992 6391 5947 5701 6103 5888 6079 5595 6058 6173 5747 226 227 229 228 228 229 231 234 233 230 233 229 230 230 232 231 230 227 229 227 229 231 231 232 231 232 229 228 230 231 233 230 231 229 233 232 230 231 230 230 229 228 231 226 227 230 231 233 228 230 233 230 225.8 229 230.19 23.77 18.2 225.4 228.56 15.6 229.22 43.88 0.4 228.1 226.5 29.28 13.9 19.5 228.25 30.2 227.3 226.7 224.38 16.3 225.29 15.7 35.84 17.49 32.3 228 227.4 229.23 17.68 24.6 230.55 44.9 13.7 177.1 226.87 68.7 228.9 230.82 9.5 229.9 228.8 230.69 11.87 0.4 228.72 7.27 14.6 227.82 0.3 227.87 0.18 14.7 49.29 65.51 7.8 228.1 227.5 139.4 228.5 23.95 0.26 15.85 10.3 14.95 0.52 14.6 121.95 0.1 231.82 15.61 7.6 229.8 180.94 0.64 19.1 225.68 11.2 229.26 14.3 12.6 227.3 232.3 15.4 30.91 20.39 13.7 138.55 7.15 21.62 17.79 20.55 7.8 226.6 9.9 225.59 19.77 8.48 20.17 49.9 229.3 229.7 226.39 23.51 12.4 40.7 14.4 229.9 224.88 0.3 33.09 14.7 233.95 0.33 9.61 30.81 0.63 14.1 230.9 224.2 11.7 231.63 14.59 17.69 11.15 6.23 33.61 15.9 19.82 0.3 27.2 9.6 17.1 106.26 17.8 232.6 228.36 22.09 34.95 0.95 7.2 230.88 19.58 9.39 20.6 227.96 19.51 44.36 9.88 0.4 227.44 19.18 9.96 0.82 0.2 85.4 230 230.99 17.45 31.27 16 16.03 17.4 227.95 0.74 24.6 224 225.8 13.69 19.77 9.6 18.8 7.2 228.6 33.6 31 29.9 20.83 0.9 231.89 0.9 230.51 9.34 26.5 230.37 55.58 227.25 45.3 228.82 0.59 18.4 227.6 231.52 7.38 69.42 19.81 0.4 225.1 227.39 9.7 17.75 0.1 230.81 14.9 228.8 7.5 19.3 28.8 225.4 63.7 230.3 231.36 29.78 0.93 0.96 24.96 0.59 10.46 29.9 0.73 11.12 26.8 36.64 11.83 0.77 24.94 0.49 25.85 0.81 0.37 9.1 10.97 0.8 20.

67 27.1 78.03 19.7 11.39 7.9 222.9 18.7 229.38 20.16 18.2 229.76 19.4 225.87 19.2 226.8 241.96 0.5 88.2 230.96 28.89 0.64 16.4 224.9 0.7 227.7 15.8 71.8 0.3 18.29 13.61 11.9 229.82 197.4 227.174 16/02/2007 17:08 16/02/2007 18:08 16/02/2007 19:08 16/02/2007 20:08 16/02/2007 21:08 16/02/2007 22:08 16/02/2007 23:08 17/02/2007 00:08 17/02/2007 01:08 17/02/2007 02:08 17/02/2007 03:08 17/02/2007 04:08 17/02/2007 05:08 17/02/2007 06:08 17/02/2007 07:08 17/02/2007 08:08 17/02/2007 09:08 17/02/2007 10:08 17/02/2007 11:08 17/02/2007 12:08 17/02/2007 13:08 17/02/2007 14:08 17/02/2007 15:08 17/02/2007 16:08 17/02/2007 17:08 17/02/2007 18:08 17/02/2007 19:08 17/02/2007 20:08 17/02/2007 21:08 17/02/2007 22:08 17/02/2007 23:08 18/02/2007 00:08 18/02/2007 01:08 18/02/2007 02:08 18/02/2007 03:08 18/02/2007 04:08 18/02/2007 05:08 18/02/2007 06:08 18/02/2007 07:08 18/02/2007 08:08 18/02/2007 09:08 8647 10600 10600 10930 11280 11050 11850 11220 10890 10620 11050 12280 10870 11580 28160 106900 144300 154900 163500 154900 143900 123900 107500 59660 20610 16380 14830 14990 14660 14580 14740 15810 15820 15220 14530 15110 14940 13850 39480 124800 144500 6789 8724 8672 8793 9043 8842 9614 8900 8830 8649 8910 9932 8830 9728 26150 100500 138300 148800 155300 149300 138400 120000 102400 57770 19000 14760 13400 13410 13180 13100 13160 14150 14290 13750 13230 13640 13500 12540 38210 119000 139000 5356 6037 6110 6495 6747 6635 6934 6835 6384 6166 6545 7223 6341 6292 10430 36580 41090 43230 50950 41210 39520 31060 32630 14880 7983 7084 6352 6712 6437 6403 6641 7045 6800 6516 6020 6513 6396 5864 9928 37600 39670 227 228 229 230 232 231 233 233 229 230 231 230 229 226 230 225 223 226 228 224 225 228 227 227 229 232 232 234 232 230 233 232 228 230 231 231 229 230 226 225 223 227.2 229.9 232.1 227.1 225.4 230 231 230.1 179.07 17.1 111 84.9 226.96 .05 17.39 29.4 128.6 231.9 14.85 16.69 7.2 53.9 180.29 11.72 13.64 10.3 228.16 32.9 230.4 227 227.22 19.6 217 184.56 19.8 231.88 11.7 13.5 224.8 27.3 228.06 17.8 228.1 229.4 36.9 220.1 17.63 18.3 227.5 262.9 0.46 11.8 228.31 21.5 15.9 17.2 20.74 18.6 229.38 7.44 153.5 223.92 0.9 224.5 228.1 230.22 134.81 0.96 19.9 189.3 96.99 6.33 16.61 11.92 28.7 228.81 0.59 7.95 0.5 7.53 170.8 0.4 20.6 216.14 85.9 248.4 222.58 29.7 223.88 18.98 27.72 29.79 0.96 0.9 225.28 7.82 18.5 164.2 229.4 231.9 224.1 220.97 0.44 30.2 14.7 260.4 230 230.4 227.2 14.3 9.91 0.98 17.5 186.54 35.78 0.66 19.4 14.8 227.02 11.1 230.62 12.81 20.1 255.94 0.8 15.6 224.6 7.4 86.8 228.25 18.9 0.9 96.4 222.2 13.9 0.5 7.9 29.95 0.3 231.95 0.64 17.5 229.82 0.67 7.5 178.31 36.84 0.7 15.38 11.2 245.5 233.8 0.1 226.5 228.3 227 226.44 16.59 20.3 196.82 7.81 0.08 20.5 138.9 226.9 0.5 229.3 229.49 16.5 21.1 224.22 11.5 224.97 17.93 0.34 17.89 0.8 60.82 0.8 226.1 232.2 229.03 55.1 160.81 0.3 228.5 229.7 288.4 229.97 0.96 0.03 15.96 0.5 23.9 46.09 64.75 18.84 19.1 224.31 11.1 245.9 0.19 205.15 17.1 231.27 29.3 45.96 16.9 0.9 230.5 0.88 27.9 0.4 15.89 0.1 14.8 223.9 233.7 14.54 28.8 227.93 18.77 23.52 9.3 231.06 15.1 222.73 172.31 19.81 0.77 16.8 17.77 7.4 234.9 0.24 20.4 93 66 35.8 0.5 223.13 24.5 14.8 227.27 28.8 228.97 0.1 233.8 222.38 14.65 18.11 35.97 18.5 14.

3 232 229.2 229.93 0.65 82.02 7.99 0.24 24.8 230.8 227.9 228.89 21.92 11.37 6.73 67.61 12.6 82.04 11.2 231.22 4.7 231.99 11.96 8.87 2.8 227.35 12.7 226.2 226.54 12.2 228.98 83.5 231.1 229.5 6797 2586 5395 4641 3521 1302 29.06 18.6 53.9 230.5 8.1 227.7 226.39 5.5 226.38 8.2 231.8 230.5 228 226.29 17.98 0.03 12.8 230.3 V3 Avg (V) 223.97 3.45 12.5 228.13 33.01 8.8 227.8 229.57 12.1 229.63 18.1 227.73 12.9 231.8 229.79 12.37 79.07 68.7 230 228.74 10.6 232.5 230.5 225.85 9.32 11.23 11.1 105.62 11.9 229.9 230.72 8.9 229.29 13.55 12.3 229.78 I2 Avg (A) 87.5 226.12 13.6 227.06 12.57 12.98 0.73 89.4 225.86 5.11 33.2 32.5 227.9 12.6 I1 Avg (A) 103.7 230.98 5.7 229.56 61.12 9.7 230 229.1 232.56 12.67 16.36 0 107.64 73.4 230.99 1 1 1 1 1 0.2 233.09 44.62 3.44 17.1 230.9 224.1 230.81 18.56 8.8 226.74 80.3 229.97 76.41 29.08 5.175 Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine Date & Time 18/02/2007 11:26 18/02/2007 11:36 18/02/2007 11:46 18/02/2007 11:56 18/02/2007 12:06 18/02/2007 13:06 18/02/2007 14:06 18/02/2007 15:06 18/02/2007 16:06 18/02/2007 17:06 18/02/2007 18:06 18/02/2007 19:06 18/02/2007 20:06 18/02/2007 21:06 18/02/2007 22:06 18/02/2007 23:06 19/02/2007 00:06 19/02/2007 01:06 19/02/2007 02:06 19/02/2007 03:06 19/02/2007 04:06 19/02/2007 05:06 19/02/2007 06:06 19/02/2007 07:06 19/02/2007 08:06 19/02/2007 09:06 19/02/2007 10:06 19/02/2007 11:06 19/02/2007 12:06 19/02/2007 13:06 19/02/2007 14:06 19/02/2007 15:06 19/02/2007 16:06 19/02/2007 17:06 19/02/2007 18:06 19/02/2007 19:06 19/02/2007 20:06 19/02/2007 21:06 19/02/2007 22:06 19/02/2007 23:06 20/02/2007 00:06 20/02/2007 01:06 20/02/2007 02:06 20/02/2007 03:06 20/02/2007 04:06 20/02/2007 05:06 20/02/2007 06:06 St/ Avg (VA) 66400 68920 67870 63910 70430 59920 49480 35350 14220 7809 11400 9479 9340 8887 9069 8779 10960 8913 8913 8685 9166 8733 6215 8480 36010 43660 49040 53260 54520 50480 23830 19220 11080 7038 10250 9287 9287 9592 9983 9119 9921 9020 9482 9181 9314 5988 6331 Pt/ Avg (W) 65240 67740 66510 63590 69250 59760 49470 35350 14220 7802 11400 9479 9340 8887 9069 8779 10960 8913 8913 8685 9166 8733 6213 8422 35360 43580 48740 53060 54410 50470 23590 19220 11080 6682 10250 9287 9287 9592 9983 9119 9921 9020 9482 9181 9314 5983 6324 Qt/ Avg (VAR) 12360 12690 13520 6309 12840 4372 696.25 9.4 225.7 225.05 60.27 8.79 88.11 7.13 6.39 5.22 77.6 11.36 18.48 56.7 227.7 100.84 15.99 0.71 12.4 227.18 6.14 12.02 7.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .44 9.35 12.7 228.04 5.47 17.5 105 93.92 8.29 26.4 6.1 230.49 21.7 228.3 228.47 17.28 20 13.71 17.33 17.24 13.13 12.6 231.7 233.18 6.84 9.21 5.21 10.7 231 230.59 13.9 I3 Avg (A) 104.06 67.39 94.1 10.55 36.86 9.94 10.1 233 233 231.5 90.4 229.6 0 24.51 11.94 11.32 3.8 226.42 9.2 106.39 64.5 68.42 6.31 9.3 229 226 224.4 229.6 110.87 17.9 233.5 225.34 16.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.21 17.6 227.61 8.54 8.74 91.99 17.4 228.55 12.5 231 229.35 32.11 46 49.1 36.58 0 0 0 0 0 8.65 V1 Avg (V) 225.01 7.1 229.02 10.25 10.98 1 0.22 79.9 229.4 230.47 9.16 22.02 27.34 7.87 18.25 7.27 7.6 229.8 18.2 232.6 227.53 11.96 9.09 20.87 17.85 58.48 Inull Avg (A) 35.85 70.09 5.8 226.15 12.9 230.16 12.44 21.85 17.8 230 229.9 224.2 22.8 88.17 7.07 17.81 9.4 226.6 233.48 6.45 42.64 5.8 227 230.07 31.3 226.74 1724 3.5 229 233 229.4 231.3 229.67 18.1 229 226.36 3.02 7.67 12.6 228.3 231.9 229.26 9.7 230.25 9.9 231.65 0 0 0 8.03 6.1 226.38 28.06 33.57 102.47 18.87 35.73 9.1 V2 Avg (V) 224.75 6.4 231.71 10.88 30.9 228.62 5.7 227.6 224.6 227 230.6 224.1 233.9 233 229.8 227.1 224.6 225.43 17.72 96.91 35.23 32.6 227 225 228.9 227.3 231.1 230.5 228.6 107.7 228.93 7.76 12.48 8.6 225.23 31.8 228.86 22.47 4.88 23.98 0.75 11.4 230.67 18.21 90.47 6.3 225.69 Pfti+ Avg () 0.74 12.4 228 228.

99 0.29 21.15 23.36 8.37 12.49 15.9 225.2 228.33 38.19 9.36 8.57 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.7 226.91 65.9 6.1 227.2 17.88 8.99 0.3 230.8 230.84 18.3 15.6 231.5 222.65 46.7 227.1 228.51 70.55 9.4 229.43 9.2 226.4 229.77 48.4 17.19 20.47 7.95 11.09 12.04 9.96 0.91 19.3 225.12 9.36 34.8 227.14 28.98 0.4 227.46 4.71 17.16 8.42 3.57 65.39 15.6 555 360.89 45.1 900.7 230.38 13.18 467.2 230.94 6.39 18.39 7.57 84.49 38.82 4.99 1 1 1 1 .35 9.9 227.4 230 228.4 17.99 8.7 226.07 17.4 9.1 230.2 223.3 228.92 6.17 291.42 72.96 0.09 8.97 9.35 31.1 229.7 7.42 12.176 20/02/2007 07:06 20/02/2007 08:06 20/02/2007 09:06 20/02/2007 10:06 20/02/2007 11:06 20/02/2007 12:06 20/02/2007 13:06 20/02/2007 14:06 20/02/2007 15:06 20/02/2007 16:06 20/02/2007 17:06 20/02/2007 18:06 20/02/2007 19:06 20/02/2007 20:06 20/02/2007 21:06 20/02/2007 22:06 20/02/2007 23:06 21/02/2007 00:06 21/02/2007 01:06 21/02/2007 02:06 21/02/2007 03:06 21/02/2007 04:06 21/02/2007 05:06 21/02/2007 06:06 21/02/2007 07:06 21/02/2007 08:06 21/02/2007 09:06 21/02/2007 10:06 21/02/2007 11:06 21/02/2007 12:06 21/02/2007 13:06 21/02/2007 14:06 21/02/2007 15:06 21/02/2007 16:06 21/02/2007 17:06 21/02/2007 18:06 21/02/2007 19:06 21/02/2007 20:06 21/02/2007 21:06 21/02/2007 22:06 21/02/2007 23:06 22/02/2007 00:06 22/02/2007 01:06 22/02/2007 02:06 22/02/2007 03:06 22/02/2007 04:06 22/02/2007 05:06 22/02/2007 06:06 22/02/2007 07:06 22/02/2007 08:06 22/02/2007 09:06 22/02/2007 10:06 6127 38710 41360 45610 50420 49950 46070 40070 26870 15870 4807 11180 9613 9395 9031 9399 9347 11320 9359 9656 9146 9412 9240 7197 9134 34000 39800 46160 46680 47090 42570 36380 17710 10210 5234 8300 9009 9459 9338 9011 9126 11190 9183 9300 9093 9148 8987 6793 7955 11850 12850 12430 6124 38710 41330 45220 50390 49890 45680 39770 26470 15870 4679 11180 9613 9395 9031 9399 9347 11320 9359 9656 9146 9412 9240 7197 9129 33970 39510 46130 46260 46880 42310 36380 17710 10040 4715 7957 8932 9378 9267 8943 9071 11120 9129 9256 9076 9141 8987 6776 7892 11840 12840 12420 19.21 14.3 228.4 230.06 67.7 231.3 22.61 8.8 230 229.11 3.9 226.08 11.12 18.9 224.4 12.1 231.3 228.34 8.4 228.55 13.41 8.62 11.57 25.76 17.56 6.5 49.6 230.84 73.69 8.93 18.4 230.7 227.98 0.2 225.6 231.4 231.58 46.4 230.41 45.3 231 227.4 227.97 47.45 181.18 38.5 230.3 568.32 15.41 8.8 227.53 13.2 23.7 230.75 10.3 26.29 44.6 228.17 8.5 20.03 10.7 225.07 13.07 12.7 223.8 229.02 9.72 3.4 230.84 30.6 230.4 227.6 230.7 232.1 225 229.22 71.2 226.68 15.9 223.1 10.81 27.98 10.51 47.5 229.8 228.9 229.1 228.7 226.1 229.3 223.28 18.4 230.6 229.19 14.39 8.1 231.12 9.4 227.7 226.4 229.31 15.9 228.1 43.47 10.7 7.83 8.23 12.1 3.8 230.8 227.23 17.4 228.66 15.83 7.03 43.3 230 230.4 229 229.7 7.82 71.05 77.94 17.9 96.88 15.78 14.89 20.13 18.35 5.84 27.06 43.76 10.92 71.1 226.9 229.64 65.72 70.4 232.6 228 227.43 20.53 12.5 5.5 226 225.36 46.3 231.25 34.1 227.82 38.87 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.6 232.82 48.1 9.99 1 1 0.18 12.63 6.2 18.4 226.9 226.1 65.7 231.4 231.98 0.6 230.07 12.1 227.76 18.17 72.16 7.31 7.3 226.1 226.88 1678 1263 2306 1176 1235 1151 1100 1001 1245 995.67 5.86 22.75 27.52 7.47 26.6 228 225.28 6.27 7.73 83.3 230.08 50.1 230.6 229.9 231.54 58.7 228.61 41.3 231.2 231.1 53.4 223.6 228.71 49.21 42.71 14.98 0.01 9.99 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2 231.2 230.86 12.9 228 230.04 18.57 16.1 80.7 228.6 12.3 231 230.7 8.66 14.66 95.9 225.35 10.24 15.26 9.1 22.46 15.17 7.39 9.6 230.63 15.44 11.62 8.5 225.76 29.3 229.79 73.09 6.2 231.4 228.05 18.06 7.72 8.25 9.8 230.31 8.34 19.36 14.11 17.96 8.1 233.14 84.4 7.88 15.06 15.1 222.3 227.4 229.58 18.6 227.1 227.9 226.3 229.46 5.7 230.65 9.8 231.7 229 231.98 53.92 15.09 16.9 229.32 12.71 31.99 0.19 10.95 8.57 61.7 230.74 12.92 78.6 230.4 492.3 32.47 8.2 229.3 227.36 2.5 224.61 19.4 233.8 229.6 224.7 230.65 71.49 6.98 0.34 15.82 7.4 231.5 229.67 8.5 229.1 227.4 230.08 12.8 27.8 228.1 56.7 227.51 49.1 232.53 6.

9 6.58 2.67 19.5 227.28 7.7 230.43 13.9 230.5 713.1 225.99 0.19 12.84 8.99 0.86 8.48 368.99 1 1 0.1 7.95 0.2 228.18 3.37 11.15 17 17.11 9.1 11.44 54.44 8.6 229.78 18.3 2191 607.98 0.6 227.63 8.12 18.28 19.9 6.57 12.1 229.7 230.95 18.5 76.6 226.32 7.5 224.9 229.21 12.55 190.06 7.6 228.6 230.45 7.3 785.45 21.92 7.9 230.75 17.76 11.3 228.7 232.1 5.6 26.5 5.39 20.05 14.15 7.64 7.5 228.78 18.21 7.47 7.44 12.6 228.68 10.4 232.97 0.9 229.1 228.25 4.97 139.4 1759 1472 1238 136 2141 588.3 228.94 1 0.2 230.86 8.85 8.34 8.8 228.39 7.99 0.68 7.3 230.93 6.2 231.97 11.4 231.6 228.54 15.7 233 227.9 227.01 7.7 229.17 8.86 18.08 7.59 10.6 15.13 2.53 12.4 76.8 227 229 229.99 0.99 1.13 2.46 5.2 7.67 5.4 226.58 8.44 12.51 18.51 6.43 9.8 76.3 256.8 7.83 18.51 6.6 228.34 12.8 229.48 7.54 17.5 227.96 12.1 1349 1839 0 0 227.01 12.18 12.25 11.92 67.3 230.59 52.34 32.2 230.86 12.18 38.27 17.1 231.35 26.01 74.7 229.97 0.55 8.3 224.36 8.177 22/02/2007 11:06 22/02/2007 12:06 22/02/2007 13:06 22/02/2007 14:06 22/02/2007 15:06 22/02/2007 16:06 22/02/2007 17:06 22/02/2007 18:06 22/02/2007 19:06 22/02/2007 20:06 22/02/2007 21:06 22/02/2007 22:06 22/02/2007 23:06 23/02/2007 00:06 23/02/2007 01:06 23/02/2007 02:06 23/02/2007 03:06 23/02/2007 04:06 23/02/2007 05:06 23/02/2007 06:06 23/02/2007 07:06 23/02/2007 07:16 23/02/2007 07:26 23/02/2007 14:06 23/02/2007 15:06 23/02/2007 16:06 23/02/2007 17:06 23/02/2007 18:06 23/02/2007 19:06 23/02/2007 20:06 23/02/2007 21:06 23/02/2007 22:06 23/02/2007 23:06 24/02/2007 00:06 24/02/2007 01:06 24/02/2007 02:06 24/02/2007 03:06 24/02/2007 04:06 24/02/2007 05:06 24/02/2007 06:06 24/02/2007 07:06 24/02/2007 08:06 24/02/2007 09:06 11960 14110 12410 10680 5121 4875 9142 10530 8643 8595 8559 8923 8546 10600 8712 8672 8839 5152 5000 6949 4060 4013 1119 3023 4806 4849 3806 8131 8776 8247 8157 8185 8524 8901 8465 8374 8368 8911 8175 4401 6747 32420 42250 11900 14110 12410 10580 5090 4860 9047 10520 8643 8595 8541 8923 8546 10600 8704 8671 8835 5034 4916 6911 4043 4013 1070 3003 4473 4620 3599 8130 8511 8226 8156 8183 8488 8626 8444 8345 8337 8716 8134 4189 6491 32330 41970 1213 90.4 225.3 233.9 194.99 0.64 13.3 229.99 1 0.3 228.6 231.1 231.4 228 225.89 0.2 222.94 8.17 29.49 7.9 6.2 228.1 12.33 8.8 230.32 9.45 13.63 8.1 10.65 8.4 2.99 0.26 16.47 13.95 0.12 16 4.51 8.8 231 232.02 17.12 8.6 226.1 228.3 17.13 12.6 226.4 229.97 13.6 224.98 11.53 8.21 21.4 226.3 223.53 20.98 0.4 224.22 1316 324 7.77 17.9 724.91 9.93 9.83 7.1 230.8 224.47 7.3 227.99 4.27 13.6 231.9 230.9 230.38 7.8 227.92 8.93 7.94 12.9 228.2 224.5 226.45 7.2 225.11 18.35 7.3 231.5 97.8 227.9 10.4 7.2 7.13 4.21 13.9 223.35 8.23 5.36 8.3 696.6 227.98 0.19 9.99 0.91 7.96 1 1 .5 231.1 230.38 46.93 0.2 346.99 1 1 1 0.36 190.46 10.9 372.8 230.88 8.1 229.44 21.2 7.4 231.7 4.9 229.18 5.26 7.05 12.7 231.1 1097 912.2 230.7 228 226.1 229.47 12.1 226.7 232.23 5.99 1 1 0.2 225.1 228 230.9 20.78 9 7.7 1855 823.3 230.8 1411 523.72 7.1 228.75 189.9 158.6 7.7 225.2 17.8 227.6 229.2 230.24 8.37 327.98 7.52 4.2 229.23 8.2 231.3 230 230.14 560.34 6.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 231.7 228.3 230 230.9 121.99 0.13 8.73 8.89 6.62 9.4 227.65 7.33 7.29 6.71 16.3 230.6 228.54 18.4 230.9 228.2 230.99 1 0.1 226.2 225.5 230.06 7.83 17.7 224.13 16.23 2.2 227.

7 63.02 0.94 17.94 21.83 38.54 0.85 0.91 21.97 38.87 32.28 61.98 54.4 50.47 55.72 45.08 42.32 50.96 11.5 65.22 0.38 0.36 65.75 0.36 58.92 15.94 19.84 47.83 36.9 185.92 14.26 53.92 14.6 45.77 66.33 0.27 60.87 64.96 0.5 98.96 49.11 0.18 55.66 61.43 45.99 0.06 32.9 0.93 11.31 44.46 47.97 67.16 56.49 54.76 64.92 0.7 0.19 48.62 46.33 60.07 43.92 19.4 110.47 23.7 53.38 61.28 50.32 51.96 47.23 45.2 45.6 132.02 78.3 0.6 183.92 15.5 127.93 44.97 46.39 47.15 64.47 63.36 47.71 43.33 0.93 16.94 15.69 0.9 14.86 56.6 109.45 0.94 15.18 54.9 175.92 14.93 19.75 0.78 44.8 175 190.24 0.25 52.08 49.48 43.72 0.57 52.77 52.4 0.5 55.91 62.46 55.04 43 45.12 48.92 17.57 0.69 47.2 170.58 0.02 31.01 0.5 63.6 55.42 45.97 54.29 0.98 0.67 0.1 46.96 49.94 19.178 Faculties of Fine Arts.4 172.94 18.93 13.98 44.3 0.64 54.75 56.59 46.94 17.47 55.96 48.74 45.35 41.94 11. Graduate Studies.13 55.89 42.8 194.94 12.93 14.94 18.92 15.77 50.64 0.28 54.48 45.94 14.62 0.48 0.34 48.97 46.02 42.9 203.55 55.18 Inull Pfti+ Avg Avg (A) () 47.77 33.9 195.2 75.94 17.55 67.34 43.1 63.94 12. and Law Date & Time 24/02/2007 10:09 24/02/2007 11:09 24/02/2007 12:09 24/02/2007 13:09 24/02/2007 14:09 24/02/2007 15:09 24/02/2007 16:09 24/02/2007 17:09 24/02/2007 18:09 24/02/2007 19:09 24/02/2007 20:09 24/02/2007 21:09 24/02/2007 22:09 24/02/2007 23:09 25/02/2007 00:09 25/02/2007 01:09 25/02/2007 02:09 25/02/2007 03:09 25/02/2007 04:09 25/02/2007 05:09 25/02/2007 06:09 25/02/2007 07:09 25/02/2007 08:09 25/02/2007 09:09 25/02/2007 10:09 25/02/2007 11:09 25/02/2007 12:09 25/02/2007 13:09 25/02/2007 14:09 25/02/2007 15:09 25/02/2007 16:09 25/02/2007 17:09 25/02/2007 18:09 25/02/2007 19:09 25/02/2007 20:09 25/02/2007 21:09 25/02/2007 22:09 25/02/2007 23:09 26/02/2007 00:09 26/02/2007 01:09 26/02/2007 02:09 26/02/2007 03:09 26/02/2007 04:09 26/02/2007 05:09 26/02/2007 06:09 26/02/2007 07:09 26/02/2007 08:09 St/ Avg (VA) 115000 119200 124200 126900 132700 83180 60680 53930 35970 34600 34550 32590 33860 34130 33550 34560 35740 36140 35010 33440 24520 33700 37890 37400 34710 37010 34220 34580 47110 31780 31230 40020 32400 36660 33740 35220 36050 36580 34980 35110 33100 34320 33280 32300 27240 26660 23370 Pt/ Avg (W) 111400 115900 119900 121900 127300 79870 57200 50890 32580 31920 31610 30300 31220 31490 30930 31960 32830 33300 32340 30800 22520 31830 35680 35370 32780 34740 31720 32050 45480 29450 28360 37530 30090 34530 31810 33130 33790 34260 32980 32960 30750 32420 31290 30530 25280 24420 21010 Qt/ Avg (VAR) 28560 27970 32380 35030 37440 23240 20270 17840 15240 13350 13930 11980 13110 13170 12990 13160 14110 14050 13390 13010 9686 11060 12740 12150 11410 12740 12860 12970 12290 11950 13080 13900 12000 12300 11240 11940 12570 12820 11650 12080 12240 11280 11320 10530 10160 10690 10230 V1 V2 V3 Avg Avg Avg (V) (V) (V) 224 224 222 226 226 224 227 227 226 227 228 226 227 227 226 225 225 224 226 227 226 224 224 223 227 227 225 226 226 225 230 229 228 227 227 226 230 230 229 228 228 227 228 228 228 229 229 229 231 231 231 230 231 230 229 230 229 227 228 227 225 225 224 224 225 224 227 227 226 224 224 223 225 225 224 226 227 226 227 227 226 226 227 226 227 227 226 228 228 227 231 231 230 226 225 224 230 229 228 231 230 229 228 227 226 229 229 228 230 230 229 231 231 230 227 227 227 228 229 228 230 230 230 226 227 226 225 226 225 223 224 223 227 228 227 227 228 227 226 227 226 I1 Avg (A) 167.34 39.44 52.43 0.86 54.19 46.73 52.94 18.14 46.42 0.94 14.8 206.96 49.13 0.89 48.73 43.69 47.21 0.23 48.93 20.57 77.2 48.86 55.19 55.81 0.46 0.96 37.8 0.68 29.92 15.25 51.96 48.82 0.43 0.4 169.96 65.93 16.65 I2 Avg (A) 169.13 38.79 43.3 60.6 83.29 45.92 15.92 14.3 44.92 13.36 48.63 0.91 0.97 0.94 15.93 53.94 39.48 0.9 .57 44.21 59.86 0.99 53.33 0.37 0.98 I3 Avg (A) 177.

92 0.9 0.44 39.96 17.28 36.63 32.95 16.179 26/02/2007 09:09 26/02/2007 10:09 26/02/2007 11:09 26/02/2007 12:09 26/02/2007 13:09 26/02/2007 14:09 26/02/2007 15:09 26/02/2007 16:09 26/02/2007 17:09 26/02/2007 18:09 26/02/2007 19:09 26/02/2007 20:09 26/02/2007 21:09 26/02/2007 22:09 26/02/2007 23:09 27/02/2007 00:09 27/02/2007 01:09 27/02/2007 02:09 27/02/2007 03:09 27/02/2007 04:09 27/02/2007 05:09 27/02/2007 06:09 27/02/2007 07:09 27/02/2007 08:09 27/02/2007 09:09 27/02/2007 10:09 27/02/2007 11:09 27/02/2007 12:09 27/02/2007 13:09 27/02/2007 14:09 27/02/2007 15:09 27/02/2007 16:09 27/02/2007 17:09 27/02/2007 18:09 27/02/2007 19:09 27/02/2007 20:09 27/02/2007 21:09 27/02/2007 22:09 27/02/2007 23:09 28/02/2007 00:09 28/02/2007 01:09 28/02/2007 02:09 28/02/2007 03:09 28/02/2007 04:09 28/02/2007 05:09 28/02/2007 06:09 28/02/2007 07:09 28/02/2007 08:09 28/02/2007 09:09 28/02/2007 10:09 28/02/2007 11:09 28/02/2007 12:09 24270 23570 23460 21700 23140 25990 24960 24500 28480 32530 34790 34200 35360 37690 34480 33360 33490 32930 33080 30900 32010 22650 30830 95050 105700 114400 119800 117100 118100 101700 83180 56780 34800 31940 30400 34260 33160 34660 33290 30930 30400 33290 33140 33370 31080 21210 23530 27550 30820 30490 27190 25440 21930 21160 21160 19380 20940 23760 22360 22330 26280 30440 32760 32090 33230 35700 32260 31320 31340 30560 31110 28990 29850 20510 28580 89120 99650 107000 112400 110400 111200 100300 79870 53570 33120 30230 28650 32440 31330 32450 31350 28980 28300 31110 30990 31230 29270 19550 21510 24950 28310 28450 25100 23650 10400 10370 10130 9765 9862 10530 11090 10090 10970 11470 11700 11820 12070 12090 12190 11490 11800 12270 11250 10680 11570 9606 11570 33050 35240 40460 41540 38960 39550 15730 23240 18800 10680 10300 10170 11020 10870 12180 11190 10820 11100 11850 11740 11730 10430 8226 9535 11700 12190 10950 10460 9373 227 226 226 225 224 228 229 226 226 228 229 227 229 231 230 227 228 230 225 224 227 224 226 222 223 227 227 224 224 228 225 230 225 226 228 230 226 230 229 226 228 230 230 229 227 225 229 229 225 224 225 225 228 227 226 226 225 228 230 227 226 228 229 227 229 231 231 227 229 231 226 225 228 225 226 223 223 227 227 224 224 227 225 230 225 225 228 229 226 230 229 227 228 231 230 230 228 225 230 229 225 225 225 225 226 225 225 224 223 226 228 226 225 226 228 226 228 230 230 226 228 230 225 224 227 224 225 221 221 225 226 222 222 226 224 228 224 224 227 228 225 229 228 226 228 230 230 229 227 224 228 228 224 223 224 224 32.83 42.97 38.71 52.94 0.28 34.96 0.51 41.9 0.73 41.62 60.94 0.28 19.76 47.92 0.52 48.28 21.95 0.13 48.6 155.93 0.96 32.71 34.94 50 25.76 46.74 38.49 55.2 186.95 15.41 41.67 31.06 32.2 69.6 173.9 0.41 62.93 18.4 173.86 15.48 48.66 42.89 46.94 0.08 51.37 39.78 63.94 0.34 44.06 59.1 168.57 12.8 33.83 51.94 0.25 32.9 142.07 15.12 21.88 0.62 48.94 0.5 175.96 19.81 43.3 49.9 54.81 5.34 52.61 43.95 61.11 42.4 158.44 52.91 0.02 56.86 14.9 0.97 142.94 17.62 35.97 32.59 38.92 0.61 31.64 52.08 20.1 41.16 40.52 32.42 47.9 0.48 50.64 16.38 23.66 35.69 42.25 13.66 46.88 39.68 47.5 132.15 40.47 33.67 45.54 44.08 45.82 15.34 5.7 39.93 0.89 0.94 0.95 0.92 40.15 136.27 32.99 54.93 0.31 14.89 0.95 0.06 39.93 0.44 8.17 40.7 34.35 32.5 127.89 7.95 0.45 52.94 0.94 0.94 0.36 38.75 51.07 51.1 34.93 .14 54.94 0.32 5.44 48.41 16.87 53.94 0.94 0.75 43.63 47.44 57.94 0.9 177.59 8.06 30.92 0.6 32.36 10.83 48.94 0.11 13.86 27.63 42.64 48.17 13.94 0.08 16.94 0.64 32.8 47.98 0.6 160.51 40.52 7.91 38.02 40.91 0.05 74.94 0.05 37.57 10.22 40.91 0.64 24.6 179.6 81.34 40.86 14.68 51.7 51.45 60.28 56.41 46.01 9.02 15.8 167.02 53.93 0.22 34.43 60.87 58.63 38.67 55.34 31.37 30.65 64.23 46.94 0.15 41.05 39.9 0.94 0.45 46.9 158.5 15.93 0.04 33.85 32.29 60.11 46.11 66.38 52.8 149 110.17 8.83 51.6 97.94 0.94 0.96 47.4 153.1 17.86 149.33 49.48 10.81 16.17 17.99 59.57 31.72 61.7 180 187 178.21 12.96 33.15 47.94 0.38 42.94 0.4 13.72 48.47 41.4 44.22 49.

96 46.9 0.94 0.6 11.14 30.24 11.61 7.9 0.64 13.14 45.77 50.64 44.7 38.11 45.71 9.92 44.12 33.06 30.65 48.91 0.91 0.52 32.94 0.7 45.95 0.81 42.37 56.92 0.180 28/02/2007 13:09 28/02/2007 14:09 28/02/2007 15:09 28/02/2007 16:09 28/02/2007 17:09 28/02/2007 18:09 28/02/2007 19:09 28/02/2007 20:09 28/02/2007 21:09 28/02/2007 22:09 28/02/2007 23:09 01/03/2007 00:09 01/03/2007 01:09 01/03/2007 02:09 01/03/2007 03:09 01/03/2007 04:09 01/03/2007 05:09 01/03/2007 06:09 01/03/2007 07:09 01/03/2007 08:09 01/03/2007 09:09 01/03/2007 10:09 01/03/2007 11:09 01/03/2007 12:09 01/03/2007 13:09 01/03/2007 14:09 01/03/2007 15:09 01/03/2007 16:09 01/03/2007 17:09 01/03/2007 18:09 01/03/2007 19:09 01/03/2007 20:09 01/03/2007 21:09 01/03/2007 22:09 01/03/2007 23:09 02/03/2007 00:09 02/03/2007 01:09 02/03/2007 02:09 02/03/2007 03:09 02/03/2007 04:09 02/03/2007 05:09 02/03/2007 06:09 02/03/2007 07:09 02/03/2007 08:09 02/03/2007 09:09 02/03/2007 10:09 02/03/2007 11:09 02/03/2007 12:09 02/03/2007 13:09 02/03/2007 13:59 02/03/2007 14:09 02/03/2007 15:09 24970 22120 20000 18790 28190 29520 30650 29680 29750 29570 30520 30370 30060 31280 29200 28970 28040 20520 24850 23520 25090 26640 29650 33140 24270 23400 25170 19240 27110 29460 29990 31750 29770 32060 30980 29270 29170 29320 28170 27660 27540 18540 19600 18790 19150 22540 19340 18100 20270 22840 23400 20160 23020 19950 17880 16730 26420 27600 28650 27970 27750 27370 28650 28200 28000 29470 27210 27010 26130 18440 22300 21320 22800 24810 27730 31580 22600 21880 23410 17470 25530 27850 28390 29960 28230 30410 29540 27490 27520 27600 26440 25910 25710 16620 17700 16920 17140 20940 17660 16200 18520 21170 21720 18160 9666 9543 8947 8553 9820 10460 10900 9925 10740 11190 10500 11280 10930 10480 10590 10470 10170 8991 10960 9930 10480 9701 10500 10050 8844 8312 9252 8052 9141 9590 9689 10490 9447 10140 9353 10040 9681 9883 9709 9705 9875 8230 8437 8184 8539 8351 7874 8072 8246 8567 8708 8748 226 228 226 226 226 227 230 226 230 230 229 230 230 229 230 230 228 228 227 223 223 227 227 228 230 226 226 228 227 227 228 232 227 229 226 229 228 230 229 229 228 229 228 225 227 225 224 226 227 228 229 228 227 229 227 227 227 226 230 226 230 230 230 230 231 230 231 230 229 228 228 223 223 227 226 228 230 226 227 228 228 226 228 231 227 229 227 229 228 231 229 230 228 229 228 225 227 225 224 226 227 228 229 228 226 228 226 226 225 225 229 225 229 230 229 229 230 229 230 230 228 227 227 222 222 226 225 227 228 224 225 227 226 225 227 230 226 228 226 228 227 230 229 229 228 229 227 224 227 225 223 225 226 227 228 227 32.68 47.81 18.3 16.46 40.3 13.93 0.43 41.04 44.94 0.71 14.62 26.87 27.74 43.91 0.2 36.69 40.78 46.9 0.07 26.93 0.93 0.2 32.1 28.41 41.93 0.6 28.71 36.28 14.3 49.44 43.76 27.19 39.15 33.1 26.11 39.79 12.02 57.05 13.94 0.47 39.64 8.12 12.94 0.99 55.5 30.91 0.69 42.57 28.94 0.01 36.15 10.94 0.34 42.23 32.21 40.69 34.63 40.01 13.87 35.94 0.27 5.63 27.9 0.84 32.89 0.93 0.92 38.09 41.93 0.32 36.08 32.99 31.99 10.94 0.4 47.98 11.24 30.02 41.35 17.7 44.31 11.43 27.64 47.9 0.43 37.12 8.35 9.03 38.11 41.47 30.09 40.08 30.08 36.94 0.56 39.6 43.96 11.93 0.93 0.93 0.77 39.26 18.03 10.28 14.49 39.36 28.93 0.66 48.06 28.38 28.94 0.94 0.16 32.45 30.2 40.45 5.94 50.06 36.28 39.93 0.45 0.88 11.32 9.49 41.38 58.64 9.83 47.86 40 40.05 40.82 26.93 0.14 7.27 42.89 0.15 27.35 26.89 0.95 12.88 42.56 45.07 12.05 28.49 27.48 14.57 42.44 16.91 0.25 39.52 9.98 14.84 11.93 0.59 17.3 40.83 39.37 39.93 0.89 0.72 27.81 47.65 11.74 31.27 10.92 37.98 39.71 28.67 41.52 11.55 36.83 29.93 49.95 0.7 38.18 41.46 45.77 40.07 45.2 28.04 49.55 41.65 10.57 52.56 46.67 39.93 0.17 38.04 41.84 11.12 48.23 28.22 25.44 41.36 30.03 38.9 .25 39.15 50.11 42.9 0.94 0.95 0.76 26.93 0.33 15.34 41.4 48.89 27.55 38.32 15.44 34.24 31.93 0.29 26.68 32.76 11.89 28.39 34.56 37.15 27.73 36.23 42.85 41.43 28.33 10.25 8.9 51.78 9.37 16.95 0.95 0.28 41.

2 59.1 204.1 102.95 77.64 42.2 73.93 20.5 242.92 0.9 103.91 0.27 76.63 39.8 107.18 61.1 51.1 67.13 26.91 0.97 0.91 0.9 95.89 Inull Avg (A) 138.45 72.2 68.9 I2 Avg (A) 325.91 0.97 0.181 Faculties of Science.3 92.45 77.04 55.1 95.95 0.88 78.1 57.9 0.61 56.35 85.77 60.9 251.9 0.59 40.37 20.83 63.97 0.4 153.81 58.93 0.4 69.72 23.97 78.78 103.92 0.7 102.4 113.97 0.29 43.7 I3 Avg (A) 412 441.7 56.96 0.54 51.97 0.95 .09 24.95 0.6 52.4 83.36 38.93 56.34 20.3 74.9 0.95 0.1 73.4 158 121.9 67.87 77.64 79.2 163 244 264 270 242 213 226 125 61.95 0.25 25.9 0.9 0.9 0.29 38.96 0.91 0.38 60.26 27.3 102.6 106.41 60.91 0.83 47.7 240.8 245.2 73.88 23.97 0.51 51.4 74.97 0.94 0.97 0. IT.8 51.8 309.87 39.9 104.2 66.4 72.19 Pfti+ Avg () 0.96 0.02 65.12 24.85 55.22 90.37 47.39 45.2 444.3 51.2 72.95 0.4 275.4 221.16 23.27 25.47 117.1 104.47 61.66 24.8 279.4 82.97 0.68 54. and Optometry Date & Time 14/03/2007 10:45 14/03/2007 11:45 14/03/2007 12:45 14/03/2007 13:45 14/03/2007 14:45 14/03/2007 15:45 14/03/2007 16:45 14/03/2007 17:45 14/03/2007 18:45 14/03/2007 19:45 14/03/2007 20:45 14/03/2007 21:45 14/03/2007 22:45 14/03/2007 23:45 15/03/2007 00:45 15/03/2007 01:45 15/03/2007 02:45 15/03/2007 03:45 15/03/2007 04:45 15/03/2007 05:45 15/03/2007 06:45 15/03/2007 07:45 15/03/2007 08:45 15/03/2007 09:45 15/03/2007 10:45 15/03/2007 11:45 15/03/2007 12:45 15/03/2007 13:45 15/03/2007 14:45 15/03/2007 15:45 15/03/2007 16:45 15/03/2007 17:45 15/03/2007 18:45 15/03/2007 19:45 15/03/2007 20:45 15/03/2007 21:45 15/03/2007 22:45 15/03/2007 23:45 16/03/2007 00:45 16/03/2007 01:45 16/03/2007 02:45 16/03/2007 03:45 16/03/2007 04:45 16/03/2007 05:45 16/03/2007 06:45 16/03/2007 07:45 16/03/2007 08:45 St/ Avg (VA) 238600 247900 246800 207800 153600 84930 56930 46620 52380 54120 54370 54590 53580 54590 53840 57100 61490 54460 51600 42870 65150 122100 171300 184200 193800 171100 160100 169700 105900 51450 38300 41320 47120 47200 47290 54080 47310 47690 47250 47210 47580 47310 43820 35090 35030 34880 35330 Pt/ Avg (W) 231200 240600 239600 202200 147900 81050 54300 43260 48270 49460 49540 49720 48950 49600 49060 51770 55760 49600 47580 40300 62990 118600 166000 178500 187900 166400 155000 162700 100600 49290 36700 38010 42630 42660 42730 48740 42940 43000 42640 42710 43000 42730 40230 33230 33300 33290 33660 Qt/ Avg (VAR) 58990 59500 59150 48010 41510 25360 17120 17390 20340 21960 22390 22520 21790 22800 22170 24080 25910 22470 19970 14610 16640 28940 42470 45650 47490 39970 40040 48030 33080 14740 10940 16210 20070 20200 20270 23430 19850 20610 20360 20130 20370 20290 17370 11280 10870 10400 10710 V1 Avg (V) 224 224 222 223 226 230 230 226 227 230 230 231 228 230 228 230 229 229 227 226 226 225 225 224 225 224 225 227 229 229 227 230 231 230 230 230 229 229 229 228 228 228 227 228 227 227 228 V2 Avg (V) 223 223 221 222 225 229 229 224 225 228 228 229 227 229 228 229 229 229 227 226 226 224 224 224 224 223 224 226 228 227 225 228 228 228 228 229 228 229 228 228 228 228 227 227 226 226 226 V3 Avg (V) 222 221 220 220 224 227 228 223 224 227 228 229 227 228 227 229 228 228 226 225 225 223 223 222 223 222 223 224 226 226 224 228 228 228 228 228 227 228 227 228 228 227 227 227 226 226 226 I1 Avg (A) 334 337 334 272 191 104 73.92 0.6 73.96 37.94 56.9 0.97 40.91 0.13 47.64 46.2 325.67 22.8 282.97 0.96 0.9 0.4 103.5 73.38 60.1 280.9 67.4 270.73 105.93 77.12 45.9 73.97 0.6 56.5 159.7 157.17 77.81 38.6 92.5 55.41 23.1 86.29 177.2 392.82 46.1 338.74 38.65 56.91 0.64 87.94 39.33 53.9 107.89 65.3 72.18 100.6 282.5 78.7 160.2 104.9 73.7 63.8 51.2 336.7 72.89 58.37 50.2 181.79 37.32 56.16 71.91 0.61 54.74 44.9 0.2 209.2 57.5 99.2 73.95 0.6 74 74 73.91 0.62 20.7 280.92 0.89 68.9 77 84.3 74.71 24.

3 51.76 22.57 45.08 27.17 92.46 80.9 78.31 18.66 62.97 0.9 0.3 83.24 212 275.9 0.1 80.86 61 61.6 85.9 56.95 0.23 28.19 27.94 19.96 31.8 83.97 0.95 0.6 56.95 0.67 24.63 80.89 76.45 29.04 54.2 75.4 290.6 63.28 51.8 227 286 333 334 376 354 333 249 154 84.17 29.82 22.98 19.8 118.7 51.97 0.92 0.1 68.51 19.02 47.91 0.8 172.21 56.9 355.48 45.45 57.95 0.47 65.55 60.15 61.3 88.78 96.77 79.48 59.03 25.3 79.79 80.5 51.4 83.3 111 298.03 22.95 0.2 327.26 55.03 19.96 0.6 394.6 74.89 47.03 0.3 83.27 77.68 31.25 78.9 0.62 56.95 0.71 25.4 19.7 63.65 67.91 0.9 362.96 0.25 44.8 131.4 96.6 299.7 83.91 0.88 61.96 0.65 77.92 56.12 56.9 0.61 79.97 0.8 81.95 0.05 55.182 16/03/2007 09:45 16/03/2007 10:45 16/03/2007 11:45 16/03/2007 12:45 16/03/2007 13:45 16/03/2007 14:45 16/03/2007 15:45 16/03/2007 16:45 16/03/2007 17:45 16/03/2007 18:45 16/03/2007 19:45 16/03/2007 20:45 16/03/2007 21:45 16/03/2007 22:45 16/03/2007 23:45 17/03/2007 00:45 17/03/2007 01:45 17/03/2007 02:45 17/03/2007 03:45 17/03/2007 04:45 17/03/2007 05:45 17/03/2007 06:45 17/03/2007 07:45 17/03/2007 08:45 17/03/2007 09:45 17/03/2007 10:45 17/03/2007 11:45 17/03/2007 12:45 17/03/2007 13:45 17/03/2007 14:45 17/03/2007 15:45 17/03/2007 16:45 17/03/2007 17:45 17/03/2007 18:45 17/03/2007 19:45 17/03/2007 20:45 17/03/2007 21:45 17/03/2007 22:45 17/03/2007 23:45 18/03/2007 00:45 18/03/2007 01:45 18/03/2007 02:45 18/03/2007 03:45 18/03/2007 04:45 18/03/2007 05:45 18/03/2007 06:45 18/03/2007 07:45 18/03/2007 08:45 34800 34470 34150 35180 35480 34820 34470 36920 40520 47230 47150 55020 46760 46460 47300 47430 47680 47930 48220 44900 34980 70000 160600 193300 227900 236600 260100 254800 235300 177200 107500 53700 50760 52760 51620 52480 51440 51190 51190 51040 52150 51860 51640 48610 39550 71510 178100 207400 33200 33000 32630 33420 33710 33250 32890 34940 37370 42780 42640 49440 42340 42070 42620 42790 42850 42960 43320 41010 33270 67820 156100 187800 220900 228800 252100 247400 228000 170200 102100 51590 47350 48200 47330 47780 47100 46890 46750 46660 47390 47220 47120 44960 37840 69410 171600 200600 10430 9964 10070 10980 11040 10350 10300 11910 15660 20030 20120 24140 19830 19720 20500 20440 20890 21250 21170 18280 10790 17330 37840 46090 56060 60180 64050 60960 58120 49160 33610 14880 18280 21460 20600 21710 20690 20540 20840 20680 21760 21440 21140 18490 11530 17180 47860 52850 229 227 228 230 231 228 228 231 229 231 231 230 230 229 229 229 230 231 230 230 228 228 224 223 225 225 225 225 225 228 230 229 230 232 230 232 229 228 227 227 229 229 229 227 226 227 226 223 227 225 226 229 230 226 227 229 227 229 229 229 229 227 228 228 229 230 230 229 227 227 223 222 223 224 224 224 224 226 228 228 228 229 228 230 228 228 227 226 228 229 228 227 226 226 225 222 227 224 225 229 230 226 226 228 226 228 228 228 228 227 228 227 229 230 229 229 226 226 222 221 223 223 223 223 223 225 228 227 227 229 227 230 228 227 226 226 228 229 228 227 226 226 224 221 52.17 60.61 126.2 73.67 84.92 0.2 421.6 52.06 30.72 61.76 29.59 28.6 332 244.9 71.9 0.27 20.97 0.47 93.6 73.2 83.3 83.84 47.2 119.1 62.5 39.76 25.41 75.93 54.92 77.97 55.9 0.56 31.75 24.61 44.8 51.71 57.91 0.92 0.5 75.97 0.94 78.74 56.95 57.9 0.03 102.95 0.34 25.56 74.36 20.69 61.79 82.1 95.32 23.3 310.2 143.5 53.7 429.4 385.17 81.03 23.2 51.91 0.91 0.86 45.92 0.2 331.87 20.28 54.25 75.9 0.7 74 73.36 76.4 86 84.4 321.59 57.95 0.5 365.96 0.17 81.71 24.38 88.25 45.93 0.91 0.97 0.96 0.1 113.91 0.17 28.92 0.1 87 73.58 108.9 0.57 80 77.97 0.97 .61 55.52 45.59 62.9 0.6 74.7 282.8 51.4 246 303 44.5 247.6 80.4 55.03 21.35 51.51 23.97 0.88 80.57 62.

183 Appendix 4 Sample of Measured Illumination .

184 Sample of Measured Illumination Date / Time 05/17/08 10:00:05 05/17/08 10:00:15 05/17/08 10:00:25 05/17/08 10:00:35 05/17/08 10:00:45 05/17/08 10:00:55 05/17/08 10:01:05 05/17/08 10:01:15 05/17/08 10:01:25 05/17/08 10:01:35 05/17/08 10:01:45 05/17/08 10:01:55 05/17/08 10:02:05 05/17/08 10:02:15 05/17/08 10:02:25 05/17/08 10:02:35 05/17/08 10:02:45 05/17/08 10:02:55 05/17/08 10:03:05 05/17/08 10:03:15 05/17/08 10:03:25 05/17/08 10:03:35 05/17/08 10:03:45 05/17/08 10:03:55 05/17/08 10:04:05 05/17/08 10:04:15 05/17/08 10:04:25 05/17/08 10:04:35 05/17/08 10:04:45 05/17/08 10:04:55 05/17/08 10:05:05 05/17/08 10:05:15 05/17/08 10:05:25 05/17/08 10:05:35 05/17/08 10:05:45 05/17/08 10:05:55 05/17/08 10:06:05 05/17/08 10:06:15 05/17/08 10:06:25 05/17/08 10:06:35 05/17/08 10:06:45 05/17/08 10:06:55 05/17/08 10:07:05 05/17/08 10:07:15 05/17/08 10:07:25 05/17/08 10:07:35 05/17/08 10:07:45 05/17/08 10:07:55 05/17/08 10:08:05 Lux 1524 1520 1522 1527 1525 1524 1518 1518 1521 1523 1513 1512 1518 1515 1507 1504 1508 1512 1508 1508 1511 1507 1505 1505 1512 1505 1510 1511 1509 1508 1515 1520 1522 1520 1528 1526 1525 1522 1524 1523 1527 1523 1522 1525 1522 1521 1519 1519 1520 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:08:15 05/17/08 10:08:25 05/17/08 10:08:35 05/17/08 10:08:45 05/17/08 10:08:55 05/17/08 10:09:05 05/17/08 10:09:15 05/17/08 10:09:25 05/17/08 10:09:35 05/17/08 10:09:45 05/17/08 01:09:55 05/17/08 10:10:05 05/17/08 10:10:15 05/17/08 10:10:25 05/17/08 10:10:35 05/17/08 10:10:45 05/17/08 10:10:55 05/17/08 10:11:05 05/17/08 10:11:15 05/17/08 10:11:25 05/17/08 10:11:35 05/17/08 10:11:45 05/17/08 10:11:55 05/17/08 10:12:05 05/17/08 10:12:15 05/17/08 10:12:25 05/17/08 10:12:35 05/17/08 10:12:45 05/17/08 10:12:55 05/17/08 10:13:05 05/17/08 10:13:15 05/17/08 10:13:25 05/17/08 10:13:35 05/17/08 10:13:45 05/17/08 10:13:55 05/17/08 10:14:05 05/17/08 10:14:15 05/17/08 10:14:25 05/17/08 10:14:35 05/17/08 10:14:45 05/17/08 10:14:55 05/17/08 10:15:05 05/17/08 10:15:15 05/17/08 10:15:25 05/17/08 10:15:35 05/17/08 10:15:45 05/17/08 10:15:55 05/17/08 10:16:05 05/17/08 10:16:15 Lux 1520 1515 1518 1511 1512 1516 1517 1514 1530 1521 1522 1524 1525 1524 1523 1525 1527 1527 1527 1529 1526 1533 1528 1518 1520 1519 1517 1510 1520 1534 1518 1522 1518 1510 1511 1508 1508 1510 1508 1508 1512 1513 1519 1522 1524 1524 1521 1523 1521 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:16:25 05/17/08 10:16:35 05/17/08 10:16:45 05/17/08 10:16:55 05/17/08 10:17:05 05/17/08 10:17:15 05/17/08 10:17:25 05/17/08 10:17:35 05/17/08 10:17:45 05/17/08 10:17:55 05/17/08 10:18:05 05/17/08 10:18:15 05/17/08 10:18:25 05/17/08 10:18:35 05/17/08 10:18:45 05/17/08 10:18:55 05/17/08 10:19:05 05/17/08 10:19:15 05/17/08 10:19:25 05/17/08 10:19:35 05/17/08 10:19:45 05/17/08 10:19:55 05/17/08 10:20:05 05/17/08 10:20:15 05/17/08 10:20:25 05/17/08 10:20:35 05/17/08 10:20:45 05/17/08 10:20:55 05/17/08 10:21:05 05/17/08 10:21:15 05/17/08 10:21:25 05/17/08 10:21:35 05/17/08 10:21:45 05/17/08 10:21:55 05/17/08 10:22:05 05/17/08 10:22:15 05/17/08 10:22:25 05/17/08 10:22:35 05/17/08 10:22:45 05/17/08 10:22:55 05/17/08 10:23:05 05/17/08 10:23:15 05/17/08 10:23:25 05/17/08 10:23:35 05/17/08 10:23:45 05/17/08 10:23:55 05/17/08 10:24:05 05/17/08 10:24:15 05/17/08 10:24:25 Lux 1523 1524 1525 1526 1529 1528 1526 1526 1527 1528 1532 1528 1528 1525 1525 1526 1527 1525 1525 1525 1523 1517 1514 1510 1507 1499 1498 1501 1500 1505 1502 1501 1516 1512 1511 1518 1526 1522 1518 1511 1510 1519 1519 1515 1514 1510 1514 1521 1541 .

185 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:24:35 05/17/08 10:24:45 05/17/08 10:24:55 05/17/08 10:25:05 05/17/08 10:25:15 05/17/08 10:25:25 05/17/08 10:25:35 05/17/08 10:25:45 05/17/08 10:25:55 05/17/08 10:26:05 05/17/08 10:26:15 05/17/08 10:26:25 05/17/08 10:26:35 05/17/08 10:26:45 05/17/08 10:26:55 05/17/08 10:27:05 05/17/08 10:27:15 05/17/08 10:27:25 05/17/08 10:27:35 05/17/08 10:27:45 05/17/08 10:27:55 05/17/08 10:28:05 05/17/08 10:28:15 05/17/08 10:28:25 05/17/08 10:28:35 05/17/08 10:28:45 05/17/08 10:28:55 05/17/08 10:29:05 05/17/08 10:29:15 05/17/08 10:29:25 05/17/08 10:29:35 05/17/08 10:29:45 05/17/08 10:29:55 05/17/08 10:30:05 05/17/08 10:30:15 05/17/08 10:30:25 05/17/08 10:30:35 05/17/08 10:30:45 05/17/08 10:30:55 05/17/08 10:31:05 05/17/08 10:31:15 05/17/08 10:31:25 05/17/08 10:31:35 05/17/08 10:31:45 05/17/08 10:31:55 05/17/08 10:32:05 05/17/08 10:32:15 05/17/08 10:32:25 05/17/08 10:32:35 05/17/08 10:32:45 05/17/08 10:32:55 Lux 1532 1533 1538 1534 1531 1533 1534 1533 1534 1533 1529 1530 1529 1527 1528 1527 1538 1516 1515 1521 1520 1531 1524 1526 1525 1529 1532 1527 1528 1527 1529 1542 1541 1540 1530 1534 1524 1527 1526 1529 1533 1536 1531 1533 1533 1528 1524 1528 1536 1530 1539 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:33:05 05/17/08 10:33:25 05/17/08 10:33:35 05/17/08 10:33:45 05/17/08 10:33:55 05/17/08 10:34:05 05/17/08 10:34:15 05/17/08 10:34:25 05/17/08 10:34:35 05/17/08 10:34:45 05/17/08 10:34:55 05/17/08 10:35:05 05/17/08 10:35:15 05/17/08 10:35:25 05/17/08 10:35:35 05/17/08 10:35:45 05/17/08 10:35:55 05/17/08 10:36:05 05/17/08 10:36:15 05/17/08 10:36:25 05/17/08 10:36:35 05/17/08 10:36:45 05/17/08 10:36:55 05/17/08 10:37:05 05/17/08 10:37:15 05/17/08 10:37:25 05/17/08 10:37:35 05/17/08 10:37:45 05/17/08 10:37:55 05/17/08 10:38:05 05/17/08 10:38:15 05/17/08 10:38:25 05/17/08 10:38:35 05/17/08 10:38:45 05/17/08 10:38:55 05/17/08 10:39:05 05/17/08 10:39:15 05/17/08 10:39:25 05/17/08 10:39:35 05/17/08 10:39:45 05/17/08 10:39:55 05/17/08 10:40:05 05/17/08 10:40:15 05/17/08 10:40:25 05/17/08 10:40:35 05/17/08 10:40:45 05/17/08 10:40:55 05/17/08 10:41:05 05/17/08 10:41:15 05/17/08 10:41:25 05/17/08 10:41:35 Lux 1538 1541 1531 1534 1536 1534 1538 1540 1539 1534 1533 1532 1534 1535 1536 1541 1542 1540 1533 1531 1527 1529 1529 1532 1531 1534 1535 1536 1534 1533 1530 1527 1528 1532 1537 1534 1538 1539 1535 1542 1543 1544 1545 1536 1538 1540 1539 1534 1536 1533 1532 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:41:45 05/17/08 10:41:55 05/17/08 10:42:05 05/17/08 10:42:15 05/17/08 10:42:25 05/17/08 10:42:35 05/17/08 10:42:45 05/17/08 10:42:55 05/17/08 10:43:05 05/17/08 10:43:15 05/17/08 10:43:25 05/17/08 10:43:35 05/17/08 10:43:45 05/17/08 10:43:55 05/17/08 10:44:05 05/17/08 10:44:15 05/17/08 10:44:25 05/17/08 10:44:35 05/17/08 10:44:45 05/17/08 10:44:55 05/17/08 10:45:05 05/17/08 10:45:15 05/17/08 10:45:25 05/17/08 10:45:35 05/17/08 10:45:45 05/17/08 10:45:55 05/17/08 10:46:05 05/17/08 10:46:15 05/17/08 10:46:25 05/17/08 10:46:35 05/17/08 10:46:45 05/17/08 10:46:55 05/17/08 10:47:05 05/17/08 10:47:15 05/17/08 10:47:25 05/17/08 10:47:35 05/17/08 10:47:45 05/17/08 10:47:55 05/17/08 10:48:05 05/17/08 10:48:15 05/17/08 10:48:25 05/17/08 10:48:35 05/17/08 10:48:45 05/17/08 10:48:55 05/17/08 10:49:05 05/17/08 10:49:15 05/17/08 10:49:25 05/17/08 10:49:35 05/17/08 10:49:45 05/17/08 10:49:55 05/17/08 10:50:05 Lux 1534 1538 1541 1541 1543 1535 1536 1532 1531 1535 1538 1536 1540 1535 1538 1541 1533 1534 1542 1541 1536 1543 1544 1543 1545 1553 1541 1539 1547 1544 1540 1542 1545 1549 1554 1545 1544 1548 1556 1557 1543 1552 1547 1536 1537 1540 1543 1545 1541 1544 1549 .

186 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:50:15 05/17/08 10:50:25 05/17/08 10:50:35 05/17/08 10:50:45 05/17/08 10:50:55 05/17/08 10:51:05 05/17/08 10:51:15 05/17/08 10:51:25 05/17/08 10:51:35 05/17/08 10:51:45 05/17/08 10:51:55 05/17/08 10:52:05 05/17/08 10:52:15 05/17/08 10:52:25 05/17/08 10:52:35 05/17/08 10:52:45 05/17/08 10:52:55 05/17/08 10:53:05 05/17/08 10:53:15 05/17/08 10:53:25 05/17/08 10:53:35 05/17/08 10:53:45 05/17/08 10:53:55 05/17/08 10:54:05 05/17/08 10:54:15 05/17/08 10:54:25 05/17/08 10:54:35 05/17/08 10:54:45 05/17/08 10:54:55 05/17/08 10:55:05 05/17/08 10:55:15 05/17/08 10:55:25 05/17/08 10:55:35 05/17/08 10:55:45 05/17/08 10:55:55 05/17/08 10:56:05 05/17/08 10:56:15 05/17/08 10:56:25 05/17/08 10:56:35 05/17/08 10:56:45 05/17/08 10:56:55 05/17/08 10:57:05 05/17/08 10:57:15 05/17/08 10:57:25 05/17/08 10:57:35 05/17/08 10:57:45 05/17/08 10:57:55 05/17/08 10:58:05 05/17/08 10:58:15 05/17/08 10:58:25 05/17/08 10:58:35 Lux 1553 1554 1555 1550 1547 1556 1557 1557 1556 1546 1541 1547 1554 1555 1551 1553 1548 1550 1556 1557 1560 1563 1560 1556 1561 1564 818 819 816 814 814 811 808 807 808 809 815 812 815 815 817 815 810 812 804 799 810 815 817 822 821 Date / Time 05/17/08 10:58:45 05/17/08 10:58:55 05/17/08 10:59:05 05/17/08 10:59:15 05/17/08 10:59:25 05/17/08 10:59:35 05/17/08 10:59:45 05/17/08 10:59:55 05/17/08 11:00:05 05/17/08 11:00:15 05/17/08 11:00:25 05/17/08 11:00:35 05/17/08 11:00:45 05/17/08 11:00:55 05/17/08 11:01:05 05/17/08 11:01:15 05/17/08 11:01:25 05/17/08 11:01:35 05/17/08 11:01:45 05/17/08 11:01:55 05/17/08 11:02:05 05/17/08 11:02:15 05/17/08 11:02:25 05/17/08 11:02:35 05/17/08 11:02:45 05/17/08 11:02:55 05/17/08 11:03:05 05/17/08 11:03:15 05/17/08 11:03:25 05/17/08 11:03:35 05/17/08 11:03:45 05/17/08 11:03:55 05/17/08 11:04:05 05/17/08 11:04:15 05/17/08 11:04:25 05/17/08 11:04:35 05/17/08 11:04:45 05/17/08 11:04:55 05/17/08 11:05:05 05/17/08 11:05:15 05/17/08 11:05:25 05/17/08 11:05:35 05/17/08 11:05:45 05/17/08 11:05:55 05/17/08 11:06:05 05/17/08 11:06:15 05/17/08 11:06:25 05/17/08 11:06:35 05/17/08 11:06:45 05/17/08 11:06:55 05/17/08 11:07:05 Lux 822 820 819 816 816 815 815 814 814 808 810 813 812 814 808 808 811 813 803 802 814 802 797 794 795 802 798 798 801 797 795 795 802 794 799 798 800 803 805 810 812 810 818 816 815 816 814 813 817 813 812 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:07:15 05/17/08 11:07:25 05/17/08 11:07:35 05/17/08 11:07:45 05/17/08 11:07:55 05/17/08 11:08:05 05/17/08 11:08:15 05/17/08 11:08:25 05/17/08 11:08:35 05/17/08 11:08:45 05/17/08 11:08:55 05/17/08 11:09:05 05/17/08 11:09:15 05/17/08 11:09:25 05/17/08 11:09:35 05/17/08 11:09:45 05/17/08 11:09:55 05/17/08 11:10:05 05/17/08 11:10:15 05/17/08 11:10:25 05/17/08 11:10:35 05/17/08 11:10:45 05/17/08 11:10:55 05/17/08 11:11:05 05/17/08 11:11:15 05/17/08 11:11:25 05/17/08 11:11:35 05/17/08 11:11:45 05/17/08 11:11:55 05/17/08 11:12:05 05/17/08 11:12:15 05/17/08 11:12:25 05/17/08 11:12:35 05/17/08 11:12:45 05/17/08 11:12:55 05/17/08 11:13:05 05/17/08 11:13:15 05/17/08 11:13:25 05/17/08 11:13:35 05/17/08 11:13:45 05/17/08 11:13:55 05/17/08 11:14:05 05/17/08 11:14:15 05/17/08 11:14:25 05/17/08 11:14:35 05/17/08 11:14:45 05/17/08 11:14:55 05/17/08 11:15:05 05/17/08 11:15:15 05/17/08 11:15:25 05/17/08 11:15:35 Lux 813 812 811 809 809 810 811 805 808 801 802 806 807 804 820 811 812 814 815 814 813 815 817 817 817 819 816 823 818 808 810 809 807 800 806 824 808 812 808 800 801 788 798 800 798 798 802 803 809 812 814 .

187 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:15:45 05/17/08 11:15:55 05/17/08 11:16:05 05/17/08 11:16:15 05/17/08 11:16:25 05/17/08 11:16:35 05/17/08 11:16:45 05/17/08 11:16:55 05/17/08 11:17:05 05/17/08 11:17:15 05/17/08 11:17:25 05/17/08 11:17:35 05/17/08 11:17:45 05/17/08 11:17:55 05/17/08 11:18:05 05/17/08 11:18:15 05/17/08 11:18:25 05/17/08 11:18:35 05/17/08 11:18:45 05/17/08 11:18:55 05/17/08 11:19:05 05/17/08 11:19:15 05/17/08 11:19:25 05/17/08 11:19:35 05/17/08 11:19:45 05/17/08 11:19:55 05/17/08 11:20:05 05/17/08 11:20:15 05/17/08 11:20:25 05/17/08 11:20:35 05/17/08 11:20:45 05/17/08 11:20:55 05/17/08 11:21:05 05/17/08 11:21:15 05/17/08 11:21:25 05/17/08 11:21:35 05/17/08 11:21:45 05/17/08 11:21:55 05/17/08 11:22:05 05/17/08 11:22:15 05/17/08 11:22:25 05/17/08 11:22:35 05/17/08 11:22:45 05/17/08 11:22:55 05/17/08 11:23:05 05/17/08 11:23:15 05/17/08 11:23:25 05/17/08 11:23:35 05/17/08 11:23:45 05/17/08 11:23:55 05/17/08 11:24:05 Lux 814 811 813 811 813 814 815 816 819 818 816 816 817 818 822 818 818 815 816 818 817 815 815 815 813 807 804 800 801 804 805 806 808 810 814 812 815 805 806 804 806 808 808 810 811 809 811 810 812 815 814 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:24:15 05/17/08 11:24:25 05/17/08 11:24:35 05/17/08 11:24:45 05/17/08 11:24:55 05/17/08 11:25:05 05/17/08 11:25:15 05/17/08 11:25:25 05/17/08 11:25:35 05/17/08 11:25:45 05/17/08 11:25:55 05/17/08 11:26:05 05/17/08 11:26:15 05/17/08 11:26:25 05/17/08 11:26:35 05/17/08 11:26:45 05/17/08 11:26:55 05/17/08 11:27:05 05/17/08 11:27:15 05/17/08 11:27:25 05/17/08 11:27:35 05/17/08 11:27:45 05/17/08 11:27:55 05/17/08 11:28:05 05/17/08 11:28:15 05/17/08 11:28:25 05/17/08 11:28:35 05/17/08 11:28:45 05/17/08 11:28:55 05/17/08 11:29:05 05/17/08 11:29:15 05/17/08 11:29:25 05/17/08 11:29:35 05/17/08 11:29:45 05/17/08 11:29:55 05/17/08 11:30:05 05/17/08 11:30:15 05/17/08 11:30:25 05/17/08 11:30:35 05/17/08 11:30:45 05/17/08 11:30:55 05/17/08 11:31:05 05/17/08 11:31:15 05/17/08 11:31:25 05/17/08 11:31:35 05/17/08 11:31:45 05/17/08 11:31:55 05/17/08 11:32:05 05/17/08 11:32:15 05/17/08 11:32:25 05/17/08 11:32:35 Lux 813 809 808 811 813 815 815 816 817 812 805 807 805 803 806 808 810 806 806 809 808 804 802 802 803 804 805 807 810 808 808 809 812 811 810 813 809 813 813 814 815 814 816 815 812 813 816 814 817 817 818 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:41:05 05/17/08 11:41:15 05/17/08 11:41:25 05/17/08 11:41:35 05/17/08 11:41:45 05/17/08 11:41:55 05/17/08 11:42:05 05/17/08 11:42:15 05/17/08 11:42:25 05/17/08 11:42:35 05/17/08 11:42:45 05/17/08 11:42:55 05/17/08 11:43:05 05/17/08 11:43:15 05/17/08 11:43:25 05/17/08 11:43:35 05/17/08 11:43:45 05/17/08 11:43:55 05/17/08 11:44:05 05/17/08 11:44:15 05/17/08 11:44:25 05/17/08 11:44:35 05/17/08 11:44:45 05/17/08 11:44:55 05/17/08 11:45:05 05/17/08 11:45:15 05/17/08 11:45:25 05/17/08 11:45:35 05/17/08 11:45:45 05/17/08 11:45:55 05/17/08 11:46:05 05/17/08 11:46:15 05/17/08 11:46:25 05/17/08 11:46:35 05/17/08 11:46:45 05/17/08 11:46:55 05/17/08 11:47:05 05/17/08 11:47:15 05/17/08 11:47:25 05/17/08 11:47:35 05/17/08 11:47:45 05/17/08 11:47:55 05/17/08 11:48:05 05/17/08 11:48:15 05/17/08 11:48:25 05/17/08 11:48:35 05/17/08 11:48:45 05/17/08 11:48:55 05/17/08 11:49:05 05/17/08 11:49:15 05/17/08 11:49:25 Lux 820 819 820 821 823 822 825 826 829 828 829 827 828 828 826 827 829 831 831 829 830 833 832 834 831 829 830 829 829 829 834 833 831 832 833 834 835 833 834 836 831 834 833 834 831 832 834 837 836 835 838 .

188 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:49:35 05/17/08 11:49:45 05/17/08 11:49:55 05/17/08 11:50:05 05/17/08 11:50:15 05/17/08 11:50:25 05/17/08 11:50:35 05/17/08 11:50:45 05/17/08 11:50:55 05/17/08 11:51:05 05/17/08 11:51:15 05/17/08 11:51:25 05/17/08 11:51:35 05/17/08 11:51:45 05/17/08 11:51:55 05/17/08 11:52:05 05/17/08 11:52:15 05/17/08 11:52:25 05/17/08 11:52:35 05/17/08 11:52:45 05/17/08 11:52:55 05/17/08 11:53:05 05/17/08 11:53:15 05/17/08 11:53:25 05/17/08 11:53:35 05/17/08 11:53:45 05/17/08 11:53:55 05/17/08 11:54:05 05/17/08 11:54:15 05/17/08 11:54:25 05/17/08 11:54:35 05/17/08 11:54:45 05/17/08 11:54:55 05/17/08 11:55:05 05/17/08 11:55:15 05/17/08 11:55:25 05/17/08 11:55:35 05/17/08 11:55:45 05/17/08 11:55:55 05/17/08 11:56:05 05/17/08 11:56:15 05/17/08 11:56:25 05/17/08 11:56:35 05/17/08 11:56:45 05/17/08 11:56:55 05/17/08 11:57:05 05/17/08 11:57:15 05/17/08 11:57:35 05/17/08 11:57:45 05/17/08 11:57:55 05/17/08 11:58:05 Lux 836 837 834 833 834 838 839 838 839 839 839 840 841 842 840 841 839 839 842 843 844 844 843 843 842 843 844 842 845 844 846 847 848 849 848 850 851 853 854 852 851 850 849 853 854 855 856 854 853 855 852 Date / Time 05/17/08 11:58:15 05/17/08 11:58:25 05/17/08 11:58:35 05/17/08 11:58:45 05/17/08 11:58:55 05/17/08 11:59:05 05/17/08 11:59:15 05/17/08 11:59:25 05/17/08 11:59:35 05/17/08 11:59:45 05/17/08 11:59:55 05/17/08 12:00:05 05/17/08 12:00:15 05/17/08 12:00:25 05/17/08 12:00:35 05/17/08 12:00:45 05/17/08 12:00:55 05/17/08 12:01:05 05/17/08 12:01:15 05/17/08 12:01:25 05/17/08 12:01:35 05/17/08 12:01:45 05/17/08 12:01:55 05/17/08 12:02:05 05/17/08 12:02:15 05/17/08 12:02:25 05/17/08 12:02:35 05/17/08 12:02:45 05/17/08 12:02:55 05/17/08 12:03:05 05/17/08 12:03:15 05/17/08 12:03:25 05/17/08 12:03:35 05/17/08 12:03:45 05/17/08 12:03:55 05/17/08 12:04:05 05/17/08 12:04:15 05/17/08 12:04:25 05/17/08 12:04:35 05/17/08 12:04:45 05/17/08 12:04:55 05/17/08 12:05:05 05/17/08 12:05:15 05/17/08 12:05:25 05/17/08 12:05:35 05/17/08 12:05:45 05/17/08 12:05:55 05/17/08 12:06:05 05/17/08 12:06:15 05/17/08 12:06:25 05/17/08 12:06:35 Lux 854 856 857 857 858 869 870 868 871 869 867 869 872 1580 1578 1581 1583 1584 1579 1579 1580 1584 1583 1584 1586 1583 1582 1582 1581 1580 1581 1582 1584 1581 1584 1583 1582 1585 1580 1580 1579 1578 1580 1579 1578 1578 1580 1581 1584 1582 1582 Date / Time 05/17/08 12:06:45 05/17/08 12:06:55 05/17/08 12:07:05 05/17/08 12:07:15 05/17/08 12:07:25 05/17/08 12:07:35 05/17/08 12:07:45 05/17/08 12:07:55 05/17/08 12:08:05 05/17/08 12:08:15 05/17/08 12:08:25 05/17/08 12:08:35 05/17/08 12:08:45 05/17/08 12:08:55 05/17/08 12:09:05 05/17/08 12:09:15 05/17/08 12:09:25 05/17/08 12:09:35 05/17/08 12:09:45 05/17/08 12:09:55 05/17/08 12:10:05 05/17/08 12:10:15 05/17/08 12:10:25 05/17/08 12:10:35 05/17/08 12:10:45 05/17/08 12:10:55 05/17/08 12:11:05 05/17/08 12:11:15 05/17/08 12:11:25 05/17/08 12:11:35 05/17/08 12:11:45 05/17/08 12:11:55 05/17/08 12:12:05 05/17/08 12:12:15 05/17/08 12:12:25 05/17/08 12:12:35 05/17/08 12:12:45 05/17/08 12:12:55 05/17/08 12:13:05 05/17/08 12:13:15 05/17/08 12:13:25 05/17/08 12:13:35 05/17/08 12:13:45 05/17/08 12:13:55 05/17/08 12:14:05 05/17/08 12:14:15 05/17/08 12:14:25 05/17/08 12:14:35 05/17/08 12:14:45 05/17/08 12:14:55 05/17/08 12:15:05 Lux 1580 1580 1580 1581 1579 1578 1577 1578 1579 1580 1582 1584 1583 1584 1585 1585 1583 1586 1587 1584 1583 1587 1588 1589 1590 1588 1587 1589 1586 1588 1587 1588 1589 1590 1590 1591 1589 1590 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1590 1591 1591 1589 1588 1590 1589 1592 .

189 Date / Time 05/17/08 12:15:15 05/17/08 12:15:25 05/17/08 12:15:35 05/17/08 12:15:45 05/17/08 12:15:55 05/17/08 12:16:05 05/17/08 12:16:15 05/17/08 12:16:25 05/17/08 12:16:35 05/17/08 12:16:45 05/17/08 12:16:55 05/17/08 12:17:05 05/17/08 12:17:15 05/17/08 12:17:25 05/17/08 12:17:35 05/17/08 12:17:45 05/17/08 12:17:55 05/17/08 12:18:05 05/17/08 12:18:15 05/17/08 12:18:25 05/17/08 12:18:35 05/17/08 12:18:45 05/17/08 12:18:55 05/17/08 12:19:05 05/17/08 12:19:15 05/17/08 12:19:25 05/17/08 12:19:35 05/17/08 12:19:45 05/17/08 12:19:55 05/17/08 12:20:05 05/17/08 12:20:15 05/17/08 12:20:25 05/17/08 12:20:35 05/17/08 12:20:45 05/17/08 12:20:55 05/17/08 12:21:05 05/17/08 12:21:15 05/17/08 12:21:25 05/17/08 12:21:35 05/17/08 12:21:45 05/17/08 12:21:55 05/17/08 12:22:05 05/17/08 12:22:15 05/17/08 12:22:25 05/17/08 12:22:35 05/17/08 12:22:45 05/17/08 12:22:55 05/17/08 12:23:05 05/17/08 12:23:15 05/17/08 12:23:25 05/17/08 12:23:35 Lux 1591 1593 1590 1592 1594 1596 1595 1595 1593 1594 1592 1594 1596 1597 1598 1596 1594 1596 1594 1596 1595 1595 1594 1592 1590 1591 1593 1594 1596 1597 1596 1598 1598 1596 1595 1598 1599 1598 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1600 1601 1601 1601 1601 1602 1600 1599 Date / Time 05/17/08 12:23:45 05/17/08 12:23:55 05/17/08 12:24:05 05/17/08 12:24:15 05/17/08 12:24:25 05/17/08 12:24:35 05/17/08 12:24:45 05/17/08 12:24:55 05/17/08 12:25:05 05/17/08 12:25:15 05/17/08 12:25:25 05/17/08 12:25:35 05/17/08 12:25:45 05/17/08 12:25:55 05/17/08 12:26:05 05/17/08 12:26:15 05/17/08 12:26:25 05/17/08 12:26:35 05/17/08 12:26:45 05/17/08 12:26:55 05/17/08 12:27:05 05/17/08 12:27:15 05/17/08 12:27:25 05/17/08 12:27:35 05/17/08 12:27:45 05/17/08 12:27:55 05/17/08 12:28:05 05/17/08 12:28:15 05/17/08 12:28:25 05/17/08 12:28:35 05/17/08 12:28:45 05/17/08 12:28:55 05/17/08 12:29:05 05/17/08 12:29:15 05/17/08 12:29:25 05/17/08 12:29:35 05/17/08 12:29:45 05/17/08 12:29:55 05/17/08 12:30:05 05/17/08 12:30:15 05/17/08 12:30:25 05/17/08 12:30:35 05/17/08 12:30:45 05/17/08 12:30:55 05/17/08 12:31:05 05/17/08 12:31:15 05/17/08 12:31:25 05/17/08 12:31:35 05/17/08 12:31:45 05/17/08 12:31:55 05/17/08 12:23:45 Lux 1598 1599 1598 1599 1599 1600 1601 1602 1600 1598 1597 1599 1600 1601 1603 1602 1605 1604 1603 1602 1600 1599 1598 1600 1599 1599 1598 1598 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1600 1605 1606 1607 1607 1606 1606 1605 1603 1602 1605 1604 1605 1604 1603 1602 1598 Date / Time 05/17/08 12:32:05 05/17/08 12:32:15 05/17/08 12:32:25 05/17/08 12:32:35 05/17/08 12:32:45 05/17/08 12:32:55 05/17/08 12:33:05 05/17/08 12:33:15 05/17/08 12:33:25 05/17/08 12:33:35 05/17/08 12:33:45 05/17/08 12:33:55 05/17/08 12:34:05 05/17/08 12:34:15 05/17/08 12:34:25 05/17/08 12:34:35 05/17/08 12:34:45 05/17/08 12:34:55 05/17/08 12:35:05 05/17/08 12:35:15 05/17/08 12:35:25 05/17/08 12:35:35 05/17/08 12:35:45 05/17/08 12:35:55 05/17/08 12:36:05 05/17/08 12:36:15 05/17/08 12:36:25 05/17/08 12:36:35 05/17/08 12:36:45 05/17/08 12:36:55 05/17/08 12:37:05 05/17/08 12:37:15 05/17/08 12:37:25 05/17/08 12:37:35 05/17/08 12:37:45 05/17/08 12:37:55 05/17/08 12:38:05 05/17/08 12:38:15 05/17/08 12:38:25 05/17/08 12:38:35 05/17/08 12:38:45 05/17/08 12:38:55 05/17/08 12:39:05 05/17/08 12:39:15 05/17/08 12:39:25 05/17/08 12:39:35 05/17/08 12:39:45 05/17/08 12:39:55 05/17/08 12:40:05 05/17/08 12:40:15 05/17/08 12:32:05 Lux 1603 1600 1601 1603 1604 1605 1607 1608 1607 1609 1610 1609 1605 1607 1606 1607 1608 1609 1607 1609 1608 1610 1611 1614 1613 1615 1610 1609 1608 1610 1611 1612 1610 1613 1613 1613 1614 1615 1616 1611 1612 1613 1611 1612 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1609 1603 .

190 Appendix 5 Sensors Drawing .

191 W.C 1210 1220 Head of Department 1230 Class Room First Floor Faculty of Engineering An-Najah National University New Campus Eng. with Light Level WT1105 Ultrasonic Sensor B220E-P Power Pack S120/220/400-P Slave Pack J S Lighting Panel Junction Box Wall Switch Low Voltage Wire Line Voltage Wire . Mohammad Mubayed 1/100 PP SP Legend DT200 Dual Technology Sensor.

192 Appendix 6 XPort Direct+ Data Sheet .

193 XPort Direct+ Integration Guide/Data Sheet .

. integrated package. and an integrated 10/100 Ethernet MAC/PHY. This miniature serial-to-Ethernet converter enables original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to quickly and easily go to market with networking and web page-serving capabilities built into their products. 16 Kbytes of boot ROM.194 Description and Specifications The XPort Direct+ embedded device server is a complete networkenabling solution enclosed within a compact. Figure 1: XPort Direct+ Block Diagram XPort Direct+ Block Diagram The following drawing is a block diagram of the XPort Direct+ showing the relationships of the components. which has 256 KB zero wait-state SRAM. The following diagram shows the side view of the XPort Direct+ with measurements in inches. The XPort Direct+ The XPort Direct+ contains Lantronix's own DSTni-EX CPU.

ground.3V. The serial interface pins include +3.195 Figure 2: XPort Direct+ Block Diagram PCB Interface The XPort Direct+ has a serial port compatible with data rates up to 921 Kbaud. For applications requiring an external cable running with RS-232 or RS422/485 voltage levels. the XPort Direct+ must interface to a serial transceiver chip. and reset. . such as the UART port of the host device's microcontroller. The serial signals usually connect to an internal device.

3V power in External reset in Serial data out (driven by DSTni’s builtin UART) Serial data in (read by DSTni’s built-in UART) Flow control out: RTS (Request to Send) output driven by DSTni’s built-in UART for connection to CTS of attached device.18. Flow control in: CTS (Clear to Send) input read by DSTni’s built-in UART for connection to RTS of attached device. RJ45 connector.22 Reserved 4.6. 20 No Connect Pins Reserved Pins. .16.12. 14. RTS is used as transmit enable in RS485 mode.3V Reset# Direct Pin # 1.196 Table 1: PCB Interface Signals Signal Name GND 3. Modem control: DTR (Data Terminal Ready) output driven by DSTni’s builtin UART for connection to DCD of attached device. Data Out 7 Data In 9 RTS 11 DTR 13 CTS 15 NC 17 Reserved CP3 (DATA) 19 General Purpose IO pin CP2 21 General Purpose IO pin CP1 23 General Purpose IO Pin Chassis 24 Chassis Ground Pin NC 10.2 3 5 Primary Function Circuit ground +3.8. and Ethernet status LEDs are all integrated in the XPort Direct+. Do not connect The Ethernet interface magnetics.

197 Figure 3: RTS Connection for RS485 Mode Table 2: Ethernet Interface Signals (Industry Standards) Signal Name TX+ TXRX+ RXNot used Not used Not used Not Used SHIELD DIR Contact Out Out In In 1 2 3 6 4 5 7 8 Primary Function Differential Ethernet transmit data + Differential Ethernet transmit data Differential Ethernet receive data + Differential Ethernet receive data Terminated Terminated Terminated Terminated Chassis ground LEDs The XPort Direct+ contains the following LEDs: Link (Green LED) Activity (Yellow LED) Table 3: LEDs Link LED Status Off Green Meaning No link Link established Link LED Status Off Blink yellow Meaning No Activity Activity .

198 Figure 4: XPort Direct+ LEDs Dimensions The following drawings show the dimensions of the XPort Direct+ (in inches): Figure 5: Front View .

.199 Figure 6: Bottom View Figure 7: Side View Recommended PCB Layout The following drawing shows the hole pattern and mounting dimensions for the XPort Direct+.

200 Figure 8: PCB Layout (Top View) Demo Board Schematics Technical Specifications Figure 9: XPort Direct+ Demo Board .

201 .

202 .

Reset is extended for ~200ms after power returns or Reset# is deasserted. CMOS (Asynchronous) 3.3V-level signals Rate is software selectable: 300 bps to 921Kbps Data bits: 7 or 8 Stop bits: 1 or 2 Parity: odd. CTS/RTS (hardware).complies with EN55024:1998 RF Common Mode Conducted Susceptibility . locking features Weight 15. ICMP. UDP/IP.203 Technical Specifications Table 4: Technical Specifications Category CPU. 4 Mbit SPI Flash.complies with EN55024:1998 RF Electromagnetic Field Immunity . BOOTP. even.6V or when pin Reset# is asserted low.5g (0. LEDs Management Security SMTP. Email 10Base-T and 100Base-TX Link Activity. HTTP.3 (electrical).complies with EN55024:1998 Shock/Vibration Warranty Included Software EMI Compliance . TFTP. 256 KB zero wait state SRAM.complies with Class A limits of EN 55022:1998 Direct & Indirect ESD . 16 KB boot ROM operating at up to 88 Mhz Upgradeable via TFTP and serial port Reset is initiated when the power input drops below 2. Auto IP. DHCP. None RJ45 Ethernet 10Base-T or 100Base-TX (auto-sensing) Ethernet: Version 2. Full/half duplex Serial login.55 oz) Material Temperature Plastic shell -40°C to 85°C (-40°F to 185°F) operating temperature -40°C to 85°C (-40°F to 185°F) storage temperature Non-operational shock: 500 g's Non-operational vibration: 20 g's One year limited warranty Windows™ 98/NT/2000/XP-based Device Installer configuration software and Windows™-based Com Port Redirector Radiated and conducted emissions .0/IEEE 802. modem_control_in XON/XOFF (software). TCP/IP. Telnet. Memory Firmware Reset Circuit Serial Interface Serial Line Formats Data Rates Modem Control Flow Control Network Interface Compatibility Protocols Supported Description Lantronix DSTni-EX 186 CPU. Telnet login Password protection.complies with EN55024:1998 Power Frequency Magnetic Field Immunity . Ethernet II frame type ARP.complies with EN55024:1998 Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity . none 300 bps to 921 Kbps DTR.

you must set the way the unit will respond to serial and network traffic. You can change the configuration at any time. and when to start or close a connection.204 Configuration Using Web Manager You must configure the unit so that it can communicate on a network with your serial device. The unit’s configuration is stored in nonvolatile memory and is retained without power. Figure 10: Lantronix Web-Manager The main menu is in the left pane of the Web-Manager window. For example. The unit performs a reset after you change and store the configuration. how it will handle serial packets. .

205 Network Configuration The unit’s network values display when you select Network from the main menu. The following sections describe the configurable parameters on the Network Settings page. The following sections describe the configurable parameters on the Server Settings page. Figure 11: Network Settings Server Configuration The unit’s server values display when you select Server from the main menu. .

Figure 13: Channel Serial Settings .206 Figure 12: Server Settings Channel Serial Configuration The Channel 1 configuration defines how the serial port responds to network and serial communication.

207 Appendix 7 DT-200 Occupancy Sensor Data Sheet .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-28VDC/VAC. . . . . . . . . . . .40kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . .10FC to 300FC) Time Delay Adjustment . . . .Automatic or Low (DIP switch setting) Ultrasonic Coverage (Typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000 ft2 Sensitivity Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upon initial power-up or DIP switch reset PIR Coverage (Typical) . . . . . half wave rectified AC Current Consumption .1A @ 30VDC/VAC Operating Temperature . . . . . .43mA Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .5 to 30 minutes Walk-Through Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Mode . . . . . .Minimum to Maximum (trimpot) Frequency . . . .The Watt Stopper Power Packs Isolated Relay Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isolated Relay and Manual On features SPECIFICATIONS Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32° to 131°F (0° to 55°C) Light Level One-Step Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 minutes if no activity after 30 sec. . . . . . . . . . .208 DT-200 version 2 Dual Technology • Low Voltage Occupancy Sensor with Light Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-1200 ft2 Sensitivity Adjustment . . . . . .. .

Dense Wide Angle Lens up to 2000 sq ft for walking motion up to 1000 sq ft for desktop motion . coverage size may decrease. COVERAGE PATTERN The DT-200 provides an elliptical coverage pattern. DT-200 sensors also have an isolated relay with Normally Open and Normally Closed contacts for interfacing with HVAC or EMS. The DT-200 offers numerous operating modes that can be combined to create the ideal custom control. and hold it on as long as either or both technologies detect occupancy. The coverage shown represents walking motion at a mounting height of 10 feet. The DT-200 turns lighting systems on and off based on occupancy and ambient light levels. The sensors can be configured to turn lighting on. if no activity is detected after 30 seconds of an occupancy detection. SmartSet automatically adjusts the time delay and PIR sensitivity to usage patterns in the controlled space. The DT-200 operates on 24VDC supplied by The Watt Stopper Power Packs. The light level feature can be used to keep lights from turning on if the ambient light level is sufficient. The combination of these technologies helps to eliminate false triggering problems even in difficult applications. For building spaces with lower levels of activity or with obstacles and barriers. After no movement is detected for the user specified time or SmartSet time (5 to 30 minutes) the lights are switched off. A “walkthrough” mode can turn lights off after only 3 minutes.209 UNIT DESCRIPTION The Watt Stopper DT-200 Dual Technology occupancy sensors combine advanced passive infrared (PIR) and ultrasonic technologies into one unit. SmartSet™ technology allows the sensor to be installed with minimal adjustments.

When the Red LED stops flashing. Occupancy indications from the LEDs are disabled during setup. Open the Front Cover and locate the Light Level pushbutton.Momentarily press the Light Level pushbutton.210 LIGHT LEVEL FEATURE The Light Level feature holds lights off upon initial occupancy if adequate ambient light exists. The LED will flash throughout the setup process. 4. When the light level is set it is written to memory so that in the event of a power failure the setting is not lost. It will not turn the lights off if they are on. . meaning that even the brightest ambient light will not hold the lights off. replace the Front Cover. Do not exceed 4 seconds. * Pressing the pushbutton for 5 seconds or more resets the light level to the default. The default setting is for maximum. 3.* The sensor enters setup mode. (See Sensor Adjustment. The Green LED flashes rapidly for 10 seconds after the setting has changed. then averages the readings and automatically sets the light level function.) 2. 1. • Avoid mounting the sensor close to lighting fixtures. Move away from the sensor to avoid interference with light level detection. • Adjust during daylight hours when ambient light in the area is at desired level. The sensor measures the light level for a 25 second period. as indicated by the rapidly flashing Red LED.

if one is installed. This bypasses the occupancy and light level control functions of the sensor. Wall: Orient the Base Bracket’s Half-Circle Notch. and the supplied junction box cover plate if necessary. Orient the Base Bracket’s Half-Circle Notch in the direction that the sensor will point. have a person walk back and forth at the far end of the space.211 MOUNTING THE SENSOR The DT-200 sensors can be mounted to walls or ceilings with the supplied swivel bracket. Sensor Angle Adjustment While watching the LEDs for flashes (Red LED indicates activation from the PIR sensor. Increase or decrease mounting angle as needed until the desired coverage is achieved. but still allows the lights to be manually controlled with a light switch. Green LED indicates activation from the ultrasonic sensor). Override To override all sensor functions. . Tighten the Tightening Screw to hold this position. Ceiling: It is best to leave approximately six inches between the sensor and the wall so that the Tightening Screw can be easily accessed. set the Ultrasonic Sensitivity trimpot to the fully counterclockwise (Override) position. Mounting at fixture height is most effective. up.

toggle DIP switch #5 ON then back to the OFF position. see “Troubleshooting.”) 6. 3. See the Light Level Feature section of this document for instructions. The red and green LEDs should not flash. reset DIP Switches and Light Level to the desired settings. or customizing the sensor’s settings can be done using the following procedures. 2. and the HVAC systems are in the overridden/on position. Ensure the PIR and Ultrasonic Activity LEDs are enabled (DIP switch 7 ON) and PIR Sensitivity is set to MAX (DIP switch #8 ON). & 6 are OFF). Adjust the Ultrasonic Sensitivity as necessary to provide the desired coverage (Green LED indicates activation from the ultrasonic sensor). The lights should come on. open the Front Cover with a small screwdriver. When testing and adjustment is complete. Move about the coverage area. Ensure that the Ultrasonic Sensitivity trimpot is set to about 90%. This provides a 5 minute test period. The lights should turn off after 5 seconds. and replace the cover on the sensor.212 SENSOR ADJUSTMENT The sensors are factory preset to allow for quick installation in most applications. (DIP switches 4. clockwise. the Time Delay is only 5 seconds. VAV systems should be set to their highest airflow. Ensure that the Light Level is at default (maximum). During the test period. lighting circuits are turned on. To make adjustments. There is a 30 second warm-up period when power is first applied. 5. Set the Logic Configuration and Time Delay to the desired settings. Remain still. Verification of proper wiring or coverage. Ensure the Time Delay is set for Test Mode* using the “5 seconds/SmartSet” setting. Before making adjustments. (If not. 5. 4. To Test Occupancy Sensors 1. Make sure the office furniture is installed. . * If you need to invoke the Test Mode and the DIP switches are already set for 5 seconds/SmartSet.

2 & 3. Time Delay: Switches 4. requires activation of the Manual Switch. . then set the DIP switches accordingly. the selected time delay applies. the sensor will turn the lights off. • Man. • Ultra requires detection by the Ultrasonic. The sensor can select the time delay using SmartSet. If motion continues beyond the first 30 seconds. • SmartSet records occupancy patterns and uses this history to choose an optimal time delay from 5 to 30 minutes. Walk-through mode turns the lights off three minutes after the area is initially occupied.213 OCCUPANCY LOGIC The DT-200 has 8 logic configurations for Occupancy triggers. or you can select a fixed time delay. Determine the appropriate Occupancy Logic Option using the Trigger matrix. SmartSet behavior starts immediately and is refined continually as history is collected. Maintain Occupancy: The method indicating that The area is still occupied and the lights remain on. Initial Occupancy: The method that activates a Change from “Standby” (area unoccupied and loads are off) to “Occupied” (area occupied and loads are on). detection by the selected technology Within number of seconds indicated turns the lights back on. if no motion is detected after the first 30 seconds. • PIR requires detection by the PIR. • Either requires detection by only one technology. After no motion is detected for the length of the time delay. 6 The sensor will hold the lights on as long as occupancy is detected. set with DIP switches 1. The time delay countdown starts when no motion is detected. 5. Re-trigger: After the time delay elapses and the Lights turn off. • Both requires detection by PIR and Ultrasonic.

214 Appendix 8 Software Sample Codes .

215 .

216 .

217 .

218 .

219 .

220 .

‬ﺴﺎﻤﺭ ﻤﻴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﻴل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﻫﻨﺩﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗـﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻴﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ – ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪2008‬‬ .‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺁﻟﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺨﻠﻴل ﺴﻌﺩﻱ "ﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ"‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .

‬‬ ‫باإلض افة إل ى ذل ك ‪ ،‬نجحن ا ف ي تط وير برن امج جدي د إلدارة الطاق ة وال ذي يس تخدم لتق دير‬ ‫إجم الي ت وفير الطاق ة م ن ك ل حال ة ف ي ھ ذه الدراس ة‪ ،‬ولھ ذا البرن امج ع دة مزاي ا م ن خ الل جدول ة‬ ‫كمي ات كبي رة م ن بيان ات اس تخدام الطاق ة‪ ،‬والتقلي ل إل ى أدن ى ح د م ن األخط اء الحس ابية ‪ ،‬وتق ديم‬ ‫بيانات موثوقة ومرتبة ومنظمة الستخدامھا في تحليل واستكشاف األخطاء وإصالحھا‪.‬ﺴﺎﻤﺭ ﻤﻴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫حالة الطاقة في فلسطين‪ ،‬كفاءة استخدام الطاقة‪ ،‬وحفظ الطاقة في الجامعات‪ ،‬ليس في وض ع‬ ‫أفضل من معظم البلدان النامية‪ .‬‬ ‫في ھذه األطروحة أيضا ً قمنا بتصميم وتنفيذ نظام آلي للمراقبة وال تحكم بنظ ام اإلن ارة ع ن‬ ‫طري ق اإلنترن ت‪ ،‬م ن اج ل الح د م ن اس تھالك اإلض اءة ‪ ،‬م ع مراع اة الج دول الزمن ي للقاع ات‬ ‫الدراسية‪ ،‬مجسات الحركة‪ ،‬وتوزيع ضوء النھار‪ ،‬ھذا النظام أدى إلى توفير إضافي بلغ ‪.‬وضعنا في ھذه األطروحة خطوة البداية نح و كف اءة اس تخدام الطاق ة‬ ‫وحف ظ الطاق ة ف ي العدي د م ن الجامع ات م ن خ الل إج راء ت دقيقات الطاق ة ف ي بع ض كلي ات جامع ة‬ ‫النج اح الوطني ة ‪ ،‬الت ي تعتب ر مس تھلكه عالي ة للطاق ة وإمكاني ة تخص يص الف رص المتاح ة لتحقي ق‬ ‫التوفير في الطاقة‪.٪45‬‬ .‫ب‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺁﻟﻲ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺨﻠﻴل ﺴﻌﺩﻱ "ﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺽ"‬ ‫ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺩ‪ .‬‬ ‫لقد نجحن ا ف ي ھ ذه األطروح ة ف ي إثب ات أن ھن اك إمكان ات كبي رة لت وفير الطاق ة ف ي قط اع‬ ‫الجامعات الفلسطينية )‪ ،(٪25-15‬من خالل تنفيذ بعض إجراءات حف ظ الطاق ة )م ع أو ب دون تكلف ة‬ ‫استثمار( على أكثر المعدات اس تھالكا ً للطاق ة مث ل المراج ل‪ ،‬مكيف ات الھ واء‪ ،‬ونظ ام اإلن ارة‪ ،‬حي ث‬ ‫حققنا نسبة توفير ‪ ٪24‬في نظام اإلنارة )تكلفة منخفضة(‪ ٪7 ،‬في نظ ام التبري د )ب دون تكلف ة(‪ ،‬و‪٪5‬‬ ‫في نظام التدفئة )بدون تكلفة(‪.