SNHS

Samal National High School
Science Investigatory Project
a Research Requirement
Grade 10

Saltwater
Power
Proponents :
Hazel Trabajo
Ronald Pellano
Jeanessa May Catito

ABSTRACT

1

Although not completely researched upon, saltwater has a low voltage reading,
which indicates that it has some electric potential. The main goal of this Investigatory
Project is to make that potential known and put it to good use through research and
experimentation. As saltwater may be a new environmentally-friendly, cheap source of
energy, its usage will definitely help our future generations and contribute to the welfare
of the Earth.
People are already noticing the effects of their never-ending usage of the natural
resources of the world, and they also know the current energy shortages that the world
is facing. Now, with the introduction of this new kind of renewable energy, the world’s
supply of energy will finally be met if this proposal will push through. Since saltwater is
renewable, there are already some technologies that can harness it and convert it to
electricity for the world to use. With this in mind, we hope to answer and find a solution
to world’s energy crisis through this project.
The results of the experimentation were obtained by setting up a saltwater
mixture and connecting this to a voltmeter through copper wires, alligator clips, and iron
& magnesium electrodes. A reading is seen in the voltmeter to confirm the theory that
saltwater has electrical conductive/generating properties.
In conclusion, as saltwater was found to have electrical readings. It is possible
that electricity may one day come not from fossil fuels, coil, oil, but rather, from
saltwater, a renewable, green, and plentiful source of power.

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher duly acknowledges the magnanimity of various editors and
authors in permitting this writer to use excerpts of their published materials with due
acknowledgements.
Thanks are also due to our friends, classmates, Einstein Piyok for lending us
some help for the success of our study. And especially for our neighbour who doesn’t
know how to put password for his Wi-Fi which makes the researcher share with it and to
be able to search further research related to our study. Thanks are also due to our
parents who fully supported us financially.

Especially, to our Almighty Father who guides us from the very start of this study
until success comes over it.

3

DEDICATION

This study is dedicate to the Almighty God ,
To the beloved families and friends of the researcher ,
without whose caring support it would not have been possible
to pursue the present study.

Hazel , Ronald , Jeanessa May

4

Table of Contents A Preliminaries  Title page  Abstract  Acknowledgement  Dedication  Table of Contents Page 1 … Page 2 … Page 3 … Page 4 … Pages 5-6 B Chapter 1  Introduction  Statement of the problem & Specific Questions  Significance of the Study  Delimitation of the Study  Definition of terms Pages 7-9 Page 10 … Page 11 … Page 12 … Pages 13-14 C Chapter 2  Review of Related Literature a Local b Foreign c Other Readings Pages 15-32 D Chapter 3  Research design  Respondents/Content of the study  Sampling techniques  Experimental Procedures Page 33 … Pages 34-36 Page 37 … Pages 37-38 E Chapter 4  Result and Discussions  Analysis & Interpretation Pages 39-40 Pages 41-43 F Chapter 5 Conclusion Page 44 … G Chapter 6 5 .

food.     Bibliographies Others : Appendices Curriculum Vitae Questionnaire / Interviewer Guide Readings & other Document Pages 45. the many nations and countries of the world will have to deal with water. This Project presents a new. this 6 . This would help reduce damaging emissions being added to our atmosphere. as an effect of overpopulation. More and more people can look into this study in the future to ensure reliable energy supplies to their homes. As a result. or salt water . derived energy source. inorganic ions. The researcher were inspired to investigate the alternative energy source because the world’s main energy resources . It will also discuss the methods and ways we can utilize this environmentallyfriendly resource to produce an efficient yet clean source of energy. is a geological term that refers to naturally occurring solutions containing large concentrations of dissolved. life and resources. like coal and oil are rapidly depleting.46 INTRODUCTION The world we live in is abundant with food. Saltwater. In addition. but we continue to use up non-renewable resources in massive amounts. and energy shortages.

For example. in which the total concentration of ionic solutes is typically about 35 grams per liter (also expressed as 3. in inland saline waters. Some lakes and ponds. Therefore.4 g/L. sometimes containing much larger concentrations of salt than the oceans .5%. Other natural waters can also be salty.term is often used as an adjective in biology. freshwater floats above saltwater in poorly mixed situations where the two types meet.028 g/L at 4° C) is slightly greater than that of freshwater (1. These water bodies typically occur in a closed basin. ionic solutes.00 g/L). with inflows of water but no outflow except by evaporation .4 g/L). respectively. Saltwater most commonly refers to oceanic waters. Other important ions are sulfate (2. and calcium and potassium (both 0. potassium. saline ponds in Westphalia. having concentrations of 10.7 g/L). calcium. can have very large concentrations of dissolved. the Great Salt Lake of Utah and the Dead Sea in Israel have salt concentrations exceeding 20%. as in saltwater fish. known as salt or brine surface waters. Consequently. However. magnesium. 7 . In oceanic waters. sulfate. As a result of these large concentrations of dissolved ions. chloride. as in estuaries and some underground reservoirs. sodium and chloride are the most important ions. the salt concentration of their contained water increases progressively over time.8 g/L and 19. usually to refer to marine organisms. The ions with the largest concentrations in marine waters are sodium. the concentrations and relative proportions of these and other ions can vary widely. the density of saltwater (1.3 g/L). and carbonate. Germany. which leaves salts behind. and elsewhere in the world. as do smaller. magnesium (1. or 35 parts per thousand).

especially after the hydrocarbon resource has been exhausted by mining. the world’s supply of energy will finally be met if this proposal will push through. we hope to answer and find a solution to world’s energy crisis through this project. With this in mind. 8 . Both surface and underground salt waters are sometimes "mined" for their contents of economically useful minerals . with the introduction of this new kind of renewable energy. there are already some technologies that can harness it and convert it to electricity for the world to use. and spoil the quality of the aquifer for most uses.Underground waters can also be extremely salty. Since saltwater is renewable. Saltwater intrusions can be an important environmental problem. which can degrade water supplies required for drinking or irrigation. Now. Underground saltwaters are commonly encountered in petroleum and gas well-fields. Saltwater intrusions are usually caused by excessive usage of ground water for irrigation in agriculture. This allows underground salt waters to migrate inland. People are already noticing the effects of their never-ending usage of the natural resources of the world. or by excessive demands on freshwaters to supply drinking water to large cities. Saltwater intrusions are caused in places near the ocean where there are excessive withdrawals of underground supplies of fresh waters. and they also know the current energy shortages that the world is facing.

General Objectives: After experimenting on the probability of saltwater as an alternate source of energy. A good example is to utilize the long coastlines to achieve development without too much damage to the environment. we now know that they cause the release of excessive amounts of greenhouse gases and other harmful pollutants when energy is environment by conserving our natural resources. is burned in tremendous amounts. hopefully.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM - What particular chemicals do saltwater contain to be a good source of electricity? - OBJECTIVE: Statement of the objective: As all other countries in the world do. Fossil fuel. Although this is what the general population of the world also depend on. it can be seen as beneficial to the world because of its high potential of being used to make electricity. the Philippines is also faced with the problem of the rapid depletion of natural resources. 9 . especially coal.

resulting in a cleaner and more hospitable environment. and so that if there will be discoveries made. In addition. the usage of saltwater as an alternative source can answer many of the world’s energy demands since seawater is readily available and renewable. As a direct result.Specific Objectives: The purpose of the experiment is so that a competent individual will be able to recreate the experiment. less crude oils and coal-burning will take place. it can be used by the world to help them benefit more on relaying on renewable energy sources like saltwater. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study can greatly benefit the society in terms of environmental conservation and energy sufficiency because this may drastically reduce the consumption of nonrenewable energy resources. 10 .

11 . IGaCoS . The study was conducted in Peña Plata. The aspects looked into were the saltwater power. The main purpose of the study is to know the potential of saltwater as a good source of electricity.DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study was conducted to investigate how real the saltwater can be a source of electricity. and the performance of the product and the problems and proposed solution of our product. 28 th of January. how it gives benefits in the society .

Above that level precipitation creates a salt plain.DEFINITION OF TERMS Saline water (also called salt water. Salt water used for making or preserving food. is less salty than seawater. It often means the water from the seas (sea water) and oceans. therefore the typical diets of nomads who subsist 12 . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater. Brackish water. Fresh water has a density of 1 g/ml. salt-water or saltwater) is water with salt in it. salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. When scientists measure salt in water. a salinity of 3. This means that it has more matter per its volume. Most sea water is about 35 ppt salt.025 g/ml. is usually saltier than sea water and is called brine. where it is the main mineral constituent. while salty seawater has an average density of about 1.2 oz) of solids per litre. in contrast. the open ocean has about 35 grams (1. a chemical belonging to the larger class of salts. they usually say they are testing the salinity of the water: salinity is measured in parts per thousand or ppt. Salt is essential for animal life. Salt lakes can be up to ten times as salty.5%. Salt water is denser than fresh water. Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl).

lakes. For this reason they are often called ionic solutions. static electricity. such as lightning. however there are some cases where the electrolytes are not ions. The voltage that is needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential. Electrolyte Solution. a water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. An electrolyte solution is a solution that generally contains ions. As a chemical compound. and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms. whereas cereal-based diets require supplementation. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known effects. oceans and rain. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell.and salting is an important method of food preservation. electromagnetic induction and electric current. and is electrically conductive. atoms or molecules that have lost or gained electrons. In chemistry and manufacturing. Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of food seasonings. 13 . Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams.on their flocks and herds require little or no added salt.

John Kanzius set on fire a vial with saltwater using a radio frequency generator. to his surprise. a professor at Penn State University. 2007. Roy says that he will continue to investigate on this. Another recent breakthrough in relation to this topic is the topic on Power Generation. but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state. While doing so. and he can see the potential applications of this process of burning saltwater as a source of alternative energy. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE There have been several breakthroughs in this research of saltwater being converted into electricity. A team of researchers from the US and China have discovered a new 14 . steam (water vapour). and. ice. The first one presented is an accidental discovery made in the Erie. Pennsylvania. in fact. It was. He explained that the salt water wasn’t actually burning. Rustum Roy. the radio frequency that helped weaken the bonds holding together the salt water’s constituents. it actually worked. Kanzius was experimenting with desalinate seawater. tried this experiment in the lab at the university.Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure. he found he could keep the water “burning” as long as it was exposed to the proper frequencies from his machine. and gaseous state.

salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. the other water. a salinity of 3. and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Previously. They say that it still isn’t practical to use a process like this. Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl). but with this new technique uses organic matter to remove most of salt from brackish water or seawater. most desalination plants need electricity and high pressure to desalinate saltwater. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater. Salt is essential for animal life. a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. but the new process uses 3 chambers one containing saltwater. They did this by modifying a microbial fuel cell. which are separated by the membranes. The older process uses 2 chambers in the microbial fuel cell. one can desalinate saltwater and produce electricity while removing the organic material from the saltwater. the open ocean has about 35 grams (1.5%. The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. therefore the typical diets of nomads who subsist 15 . where it is the main mineral constituent. Some are consumed at the electrodes – desalinating the water in the central chamber and generating a current. which are separated by ion-specific membranes.2 oz) of solids per litre. Bruce Logan from Pennsylvania State University says that desalination of saltwater uses a lot of electricity. but their main goal was only to see whether bacteria can do this or not.desalination process that could produce electricity and clean water. but by using the microbial desalination cells. the ions become charged. and the last one containing seawater in between the other chambers. which is used to desalinate saltwater into drinkable water. The process goes like this: When the bacteria “consume” the wastewater.

and across the Sahara in camel caravans. a saltworks in China has been found which dates to approximately the same period. and the elimination of toxins. and hydration is essential to good health. When these fluids do not have enough water. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8. When there is not enough water in 16 . Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. whereas cereal-based diets require supplementation. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews. the Romans. along specially built salt roads. stress and depression. the water in the fluid surrounding your cells remains at an almost constant level. including high blood pressure. These are simply our bodies telling us they need more water.on their flocks and herds require little or no added salt. Every function in your body depends on an efficient flow and distribution of water.000 years ago. diabetes. Salt is also used in religious ceremonies and has other cultural significance. various body conditions develop as a response. the Byzantines. when people living in Romania were boiling spring water to extract the salts. So we can see that dehydration is one of the basic causes of bad health. high blood cholesterol. the Greeks. This includes the process your cells use to produce energy. In order to maintain life. The scarcity and universal need for salt has led nations to go to war over salt and use it to raise tax revenues. asthma and other allergies. the Hittites and the Egyptians. so the blood and lymph can continue to flow without becoming excessively thick. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea.

the health implications of excess salt intake represent an area of continued investigation among scientists. but to utilize that water. it needs salt. the water level inside the cells drops because all available water is needed in the fluid surrounding the cell.the body. Getting enough water into your body is one requirement. and we feel this as pain. Natural salt is ESSENTIAL for food and nutrient absorption! Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. and public health experts (1). Have you ever wondered how water gets inside a cell? It moves through the process of osmosis. The broad spectrum of minerals found in “The Original” Himalayan Crystal Salt is ideal nutrients to aid the cells in attracting water. and osmosis is managed by the salt concentration present in the cells. For a cell to "attractor "pull" water inside. The tight regulation of the body's sodium and chloride concentrations is so important that multiple mechanisms work in concert to control them. Although scientists agree that a minimal amount of salt is required for survival. This is known as dehydration--not enough water inside the cells. they start screaming for water. water follows salt. This in turns helps to absorb all other nutrients given to the body with food or supplements. Function 17 . When water levels in the cells get really low. clinicians. Water is always moving from a cell with lower salt concentration to a cell with higher salt concentration--essentially. our cells also need salt.

Tight control of cell membrane potential is critical for nerve impulse transmission. As such. A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane. Potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than outside cells. they play critical roles in a number of life-sustaining processes (2). The large proportion of energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life. potassium-ATPase pumps. muscle contraction. and cardiac function Nutrient absorption and transport 18 .Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) are the principal ions in the fluid outside of cells (extracellular fluid). Their activity has been estimated to account for 20%-40% of the resting energy expenditure in a typical adult. while sodium concentrations are more than ten times lower inside than outside cells. The concentration differences between potassium and sodium across cell membranes create an electrochemical gradient known as the membrane potential. which includes blood plasma. while sodium is the principal cation in extracellular fluid. These pumps use ATP (energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium (Figure 1). especially the sodium. Potassium is the principal positively charged ion (cation) inside of cells. Maintenance of membrane potential Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes.

Chloride. Angiotensin I is split into a 19 . 5). serious blood loss or dehydration). sodium retention results in water retention and sodium loss results in water loss (4. glucose. and water. In general. pressure receptors (baroreceptors) sense changes in blood pressure and send excitatory or inhibitory signals to the nervous system and/or endocrine glands to affect sodium regulation by the kidneys. the kidneys release renin into the circulation. Renin is an enzyme that splits a small peptide (Angiotensin I) from a larger protein (angiotensinogen) produced by the liver. in the form of hydrochloric acid (HCl). is also an important component of gastric juice. In the circulatory system. amino acids.. a number of physiological mechanisms that regulate blood volume and blood pressure work by adjusting the body's sodium content. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system In response to a significant decrease in blood volume or pressure (e.Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of chloride. 5). Maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure Because sodium is the primary determinant of extracellular fluid volume. Below are descriptions of two of the many systems that affect blood volume and blood pressure through sodium regulation. including blood volume.g. Similar mechanisms are involved in the reabsorption of these nutrients after they have been filtered from the blood by the kidneys. which aids the digestion and absorption of many nutrients (2.

Angiotensin II is also a potent stimulator of aldosterone synthesis by the adrenal glands. an enzyme present on the inner surface of blood vessels and in the lungs. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water (4). and kidneys. Deficiency Sodium (and chloride) deficiency does not generally result from inadequate dietary intake. Retention of sodium by the kidneys increases the retention of water. Hypernatremia Hypernatremia defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 136 mmol/liter.smaller peptide (angiotensin II) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). resulting in increased blood volume and blood pressure (4). resulting in increased blood pressure. Dilutional hypernatremia may be due to inappropriate anti20 . Angiotensin II stimulates the constriction of small arteries. even in those on very low-salt diets(5). may result from increased fluid retention (dilutionalhyponatremia) or increased sodium loss. Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) Secretion of ADH by the posterior pituitary gland is stimulated by a significant decrease in blood volume or pressure. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium. liver.

disorientation. the use of some diuretics. and some forms of kidney disease. ultramarathons. excessive water intake may also lead to dilutional hypernatremia.diuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. coma. and Ironman triathlons. nausea. It has been speculated that the use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of exercise-related hyponatremia by impairing water excretion (9). In 1997. Acute or severe hypernatremia may be fatal without prompt and appropriate medical treatment (6). Symptoms of hypernatremia include headache. Conditions that increase the loss of sodium and chloride include severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrheal. Prolonged endurance exercise and hypernatremia Hypernatremia has recently been recognized as a potential problem in individuals competing in very long endurance exercise events. excessive and persistent sweating. fatigue. such as marathons. which is associated with disorders affecting the central nervous system and with use of certain drugs (see Drug interactions). Complications of severe and rapidly developing hypernatremia may include cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain). In some cases. and fainting. Participants who developed hyponatremia during an Ironman triathlon had evidence of fluid overload despite relatively modest fluid intakes. seizures. 25 out of 650 participants in an Ironman triathlon (almost 4%) received medical attention for hyponatremia (7). muscle cramps. and brain damage. vomiting. suggesting that fluid excretion was inadequate and/or the fluid needs of these ultra-distance athletes may be less than currently recommended (8). but firm evidence is presently lacking 21 .

22 . Considerable evidence exists that early nomads and hunters took advantage of this fact to lure and capture animals by locating areas with salt and waiting for animals to come there periodically. salt supplementation is a critical part of a nutritionally balanced diet for animals.For thousands of years it has been known that domestic and wild animals need salt just as man does. The ability of muscles to contract is dependent on proper sodium concentrations. the other half in bones. Animals deprived of salt will risk grave danger or resort to unusual behaviour to obtain it. Sodium makes up about 93% of the basic mineral elements in the blood serum and is the chief cation regulating blood pH. Sodium plays major roles in nerve impulse transmission and the rhythmic maintenance of heart action. About half of the sodium in the body is in the soft tissues of the body. In addition. it is essential for life and is highly regulated. Asia and North America recorded observations of grazing animals traveling to salt springs or deposits to satisfy ravenous appetites for salt.2% sodium. it can be used as a delivery mechanism to ensure adequate intake of less palatable nutrients and as a feed limiter. Salt is unique in that animals have a much greater appetite for the sodium and chloride in salt than for other minerals. Because most plants provide insufficient sodium for animal feeding and may lack adequate chloride content. The virtues of salt for animals were extolled by the ancient Greeks. Even though the body only contains about 0. and not just for flavour. because animals have a definite appetite for salt. Early explorers in Africa.

a chloride deficiency can also develop when low levels of salt are fed. and represents about two thirds of its acidic ions. the chloride requirement will automatically be met also. Belgian studies showed a close correlation between potassium and chloride in the urine of cows. movement of chloride in and out of the red blood cells.Efficient absorption of amino acids and monosaccharides from the small intestine requires adequate sodium. dehydration and reduced blood chloride. Chloride is also a necessary part of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach which is required to digest most foods. is essential in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood. nervous symptoms. Ruminants have such a strong appetite for sodium 23 . For example. since many ruminant feedstuffs are quite high in potassium. reported that a chloride deficiency in chicks results in extremely poor growth rate. Therefore. In monogastrics. They concluded that the necessity for the ruminant to eliminate high amounts of dietary potassium (as potassium chloride) can dramatically increase the chloride requirement. chloride is also essential for life. Unfortunately. The chloride shift. the potassium-to-chloride ratio in the diet is important. Chloride is the primary anion in blood. However. Animals have a more well defined appetite for sodium chloride than any other compound in nature except water. it is often assumed that if the sodium requirement is met. The other nutrient in salt. Leach and Nesheim. high mortality. recent evidence indicates this may not always be the case.

but where a natural appetite is lacking. For example. This natural appetite for salt is what makes salt such an excellent delivery mechanism for other nutrients that need to be consumed regularly. The 1984 NRC Beef Cattle committee recognized this fact in stating that minerals lacking in the diet can be provided by "self-feeding" common salt-mineral mixtures when the mixture is consumed in amounts to satisfy the animals' appetite for salt. too much water will be removed from a cell for it to stay alive or reproduce.that the exact location of salt source is permanently imprinted into their memory which they can then return to when they become deficient. Salt draws water out of cells via the process of osmosis. horses do not develop a preference for calcium supplements when fed a calcium deficient diet. If you add enough salt. Bell showed that when steers were trained to receive their sodium in response to pressing a panel. Steers would quickly choose the water containing sodium salts without having to taste the water sources. Sodium deficient steers were offered a cafeteria of 12 buckets of water with only one containing moderate levels of sodium salts. Lower concentrations inhibit microbial growth. water moves across a cell membrane to try to equalize the salinity or concentration of salt on both sides of the membrane. Essentially. Cattle also have a keen sense of smell for sodium. on a sodium deficient diet. A concentration of 20% salt will kill bacteria. Organisms that decay food and cause disease are killed by a high concentration of salt. This is not true for the other nutrients. until you get down to the salinity 24 . Horses have been shown to have a specific appetite for salt if the diet is deficient in sodium. maximum effort to receive the sodium occurred at eight days and after.

25 . sodium still plays a role in reducing the growth of pathogens and organisms that spoil products and reduce their shelf life. sodium levels remain high because salt plays additional functional roles. and the relatively low cost of enhancing the palatability of processed foods has become a key rationale for the use of salt in food (Van der Veer. the main reason for the addition of salt to food was for preservation. but sodium levels. The second part of the chapter briefly discusses the role that sodium plays in various food categories and provides examples of the sodium content of various foods. A number of other sodiumcontaining compounds are also used for increasing the safety and shelf life of foods or creating physical properties. remain high. 2007). As discussed in Chapter 3. Because of the emergence of refrigeration and other methods of food preservation. 1985). the tastes and flavors associated with historical salt use have come to be expected. taste is not the only reason for the continued use of high levels of sodium in foods. This chapter begins with a review of the non-taste or flavor-related roles of salt and other sodium-containing compounds in food. which may have the opposite and undesirable effect of providing ideal growing conditions! Historically. In other applications. the need for salt as a preservative has decreased (He and MacGregor. For some foods. especially in processed foods. such as improving texture. However.of the cells.

1995). It has also been suggested that for some microorganisms. Other sodium-containing compounds with preservative effects are also used in the food supply. which acted to prevent spoilage. Adding salt to foods can also cause microbial cells to undergo osmotic shock. salt may limit oxygen solubility. Although modernday advances in food storage and packaging techniques and the speed of transportation have largely diminished this role. and promoting the growth of desirable microorganisms in various fermented foods and other products. interfere with cellular enzymes. salt does remain in widespread use for preventing rapid spoilage (and thus extending product shelf life). salt was one of the best methods for inhibiting the growth and survival of undesirable microorganisms. Potter and Hotchkiss. Salt’s Role in the Prevention of Microbial Growth Salt is effective as a preservative because it reduces the water activity of foods. Salt’s ability to decrease water activity is thought to be due to the ability of sodium and chloride ions to associate with water molecules (Fennema. or force cells to expend 26 . Prior to refrigeration.FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION As mentioned previously. the first major addition of sodium to foods was as salt. 2001). resulting in the loss of water from the cell and thereby causing cell death or retarded growth (Davidson. 1996. The water activity of a food is the amount of unbound water available for microbial growth and chemical reactions. creating an inhospitable environment for pathogens.

2000). products that are sufficiently thermally processed to kill pathogenic organisms (e. and extend product shelf life. For many foods. and other additives are examples of hurdles that can be used for preservation. a food might be protected by a combination of salt. and a chemical preservative. For example.or low-temperature processing and storage. 2005). Salt. acidic foods (pH < 3. However. no single preservation method alone would create a stable product. all of which can reduce the rate of growth (Shelef and Seiter. 1991.energy to exclude sodium ions from the cell. For these foods. Such foods include frozen products. foods with low water activity due to high sugar content) (Reddy and Marth. product reformulation. high. reducing the sodium content of the product should not create food safety or spoilage concerns.. stable.g. refrigeration. when combined. however. As shown in Figure 4-1. For other foods. these methods result in a desirable. and changes in handling may be required to ensure that the 27 . and foods in which water activity remains low when sodium is removed (e. Stringer and Pin. redox potential.. increase food safety. changes in processing. salt remains a commonly used component for creating an environment resistant to spoilage and inhospitable for the survival of pathogenic organisms in foods.g. pH. canned foods). 2005). Today. pH. few foods are preserved solely by the addition of salt. reducing sodium content has the potential to increase food spoilage rates and the presence of pathogens.8). Products in the modern food supply are often preserved by multiple hurdles that control microbial growth (Leistner. and safe product.

resulting in a product that spoils more rapidly (Roberts and McClure.) may work only in combination with the original sodium level. Such efforts do incur additional costs and require careful attention to ensure that new formulations and processes are sufficient to ensure product safety. These issues are discussed further in Chapters 6 and 8. since changing the sodium content alters the impact (or height) of the water activity hurdle. rather than spoilage. salt reduction efforts in chilled. If such additional measures are not taken during sodium reduction efforts. Changing this single hurdle may impact the safety and quality of the food because other hurdles that are present (pH. in cured meats.product has an adequate shelf life and to prevent pathogen growth. In the United Kingdom. temperature. good-quality product. may become a concern. 1990. etc. For example. 2005). Foods using sodium as a hurdle to retard microbial growth and survival present a reformulation challenge. reducing the sodium content (by removing both salt and sodium nitrite) could allow for rapid growth of lactic acid bacteria and action by proteolytic microorganisms. pathogen growth. reformulation may have to include the introduction of additional hurdles or an increase in the impact of existing hurdles. In some foods. There is speculation that some past salt reduction efforts may not have adequately accounted for the need to adjust additional hurdles to microbial growth. To maintain a safe. the remaining products may not be stable. ready-to-eat foods were cited as one factor that may have contributed to an increase in the incidence of listeriosis from 2001 to 2005 (Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of 28 .Stringer and Pin.

0 percent salt addition.5 percent. 1995). botulinum spores and have little oxygen present. 2008). 29 . meat products (Barbut et al. and sous vide products (products that are prepared in vacuum-sealed plastic pouches and heated at low temperatures for long times1) have been recognized as having potential for C. For example.5 to 1..0 percent by weight greatly reduced the time needed for C. which has a high thermal stability and is able to grow and survive at refrigeration temperatures and elevated salt levels (Zaika and Fanelli. Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes. 1995). 2008)..Food. a draft report of the United Kingdom’s Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food called on the Food Standards Agency to work closely with food manufacturers to ensure that the microbial safety of food products would not decrease with changes in formulation to reduce salt (Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food. 1985). There is also evidence suggesting that reductions in salt might result in greater risk of toxin formation by Clostridium botulinum (the organism responsible for botulism) in certain foods if additional hurdles are not incorporated.. At salt concentrations at or above 1. botulinum control problems when sodium is reduced (Simpson et al. decreases in salt content from 1. botulinum type A and B spores to produce toxins in sous vide spaghetti and meat sauce products when stored at typical refrigeration temperatures. while at 1. Karahadian et al. Processed cheese (Glass and Doyle.. 1986). 2005. This is particularly the case for foods that have not been heated sufficiently to inactivate C. toxins were produced within 21 days (Simpson et al. 2003). To decrease the risk of listeriosis. no toxin production was detected from the inoculated products during the 42-day storage period.

Clostridiu m perfringens. turkey frankfurters inoculated with C.5 percent than when it was 4. Just as we developed cattle and crops to advance from caves and savannas to villages and cities.0 percent (Barbut et al. the growth of other foodborne pathogens may be more rapid in foods with reduced contents of salt and other sodium-containing preservatives.. Salt defines us as a species. and technology. botulinum and held at 27°C showed more rapid toxin production when salt content was 2. culture. to adore it.Similarly. to view it with something akin to lust. In addition to C. and Arcobacter (D’Sa and Harrison. A number of hurdles can be added or increased when sodium is reduced to ensure that a product’s safety is maintained.. Virtually every society in 30 . Reddy and Marth. Aeromonashydrophila. but to need it.Staphylococcusaureus. 1991). salt is entwined with our evolution. Examples of additional hurdles are listed in Table 4-2. 1991. electron beam irradiation) that may have wider applications in the future. high-pressure processing. Stringer and Pin. Yersiniaenterocolitica. We are hard wired not just to want salt. monocytogenes. 2005. 1986). botulinum and L. 2005). This list includes a number of emerging technologies (e. product developers and researchers have been able to accomplish sodium reductions even in products such as processed cheese and processed meats (Reddy and Marth. While the pathogens described above must be taken into account. These pathogens include Bacillus cereus.g. Salt's diversity is a crystalline reflection of the world's geography.

a barely perceptible crunch? How prominent a role do you want to allot to it: do you wish to hear 31 . It found no correlation between moderate salt intake and hypertension. but most often.human history that could make salt. It can be monolithic or fractured. It is essential as a seasoning. What do you want salt to do for your dish? Do you want the salt to spark and vanish or persist and penetrate? Do you want to build a crescendo or diminuendo of flavour? What textures do you want: a quick snap. rose. grey. Salting. Salt crystals come in huge blocks and in microscopic fronds. varied and essential that we have been lulled into believing we know how to do it. Shapes range from pyramids to flakes to clumps to cubes. a preservative and a nutrient. A new major study of 3. As the most potent flavour enhancer. they even form naturally into near-perfect spheres the size of golf balls. silver. the simple act of adding salt to food. orange or purple. a voluptuous crackle. salt is also among the weirdest and most unpredictable of all the world's foods. And it might not be that bad for us. in the instance of a rare African salt from Lake Assal called Djibouti Boule. Salting is an opportunity. is so ancient. Salt can be blue. did. Those without the resources or skill to make salt needed to trade for it.681 peoplepublished last week in the Journal of the American Medical Association has again seriously undermined the prevailing attitude among media and public health officials. green. red. bent on disproving the laws of physics and human expectations. Salt crystallisation seems intent on going rogue. after all. we don't. white.

a flicker of salt . I believe salt awakens us to our senses and our instincts like no other edible substance.. and a selgris for everything else.only the voices of the other ingredients.. food and salt combine – first a flash of salt . unexpected aromas and a heightened awareness of the process of tasting food.. RESEARCH DESIGN 32 . The rewards: increased intensity and complexity of flavour.. salt and your palate into the most intimate possible contact.. There are thousands of salts in the world.. salting effectively can be achieved with the simplest of resources: A fleur de sel for finishing fine foods. the relationship of salt and food evolves with every bite. then a faint spark of salt catching at the complex afterglow of the food. Appreciating salt and using it well begins with a glimpse at the cultural and economic centrality of this essential mineral. then the food . and there is no reason not to explore as many as inspire you. When salt is allowed to play a finishing role in the dish. or even grab the microphone for a verse? It is right and proper to use as much salt as you want so long as you are the one salting your food. On the other hand.. It brings food. It also connects us to our environment and our traditions. As you eat. now fuller food flavours . Finishing with salt rather than salting your food during cooking is one of the most effective ways we have of playing sensually with what we eat. or can salt chime in as a chorus. a flake salt for snappy contrast on fresh vegetables. surprising textures..

Respondents/Contents of the Study 33 .The researcher made use an experimental quantitative research utilizing descriptive correlation techniques and use a standard format. This hypothesis must be provable by mathematical and statistical means. with a few minor interdisciplinary differences of generating a hypothesis to be proved or disproved. Quantitative experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a series of qualitative experiments. and is basis around which the whole experiment is designed. leading to a final answer. This design was appropriate in this investigatory project. and a tightening down of possible directions for follow up research to take.

Favia √ √ X √ X 16.Reynaldo Cal √ √ 18. Bonifacio P.Delia V. Tapia Can salt electricity have better power than electricity from plant? √ 17.Demetria P.Elsa V.Gloria V. Uyangguren 9. Villamor Jr. Bejod √ √ 11. 7. Hermoso √ √ 10.Edgar A. Villamor 14. Navaja 5.Dina H. Regato N O X √ 6. Bastasa √ 15. Juliet P. Elma M.Lilybeth P. Madayag N O X X 3. Pellano √ 2. Mahipus √ 4.Jhecyll P. Culverwell Y E S √ X X √ X √ √ X X X 8.Name Questions: (Mark Check if yes and x if no) Can salt electricity is better than hydroelectricity? Y E S 1.Nestor A. Patula √ √ 34 .Lanie M. Villamor √ √ X 13. Ezequiel A.Gina P.Cyrene M. Villamor √ √ 12.Jessica T.

the first question.In the table above. connect them correctly. Experimental Procedures Prepare the materials needed. about 67% answer yes while about 33% answer no. Connect the other another wirings that are connected to the saltwater. 60% answer yes while 40% answer no. After that. Then. 35 . you can screw the light bulb on the miniature base. if the connections are securely and correctly connected finally. prepare the electrical materials. In second questions.

 Voltmeter (borrowed)  Graph paper. optional Experimental Procedure: 36 .Materials:  Water  Small glass jar  Salt  Measuring spoons  Zinc-coated nail  Tape  Copper-coated wire  2 insulated wires with alligator clips on both ends.

This will be the negative electrode. and attach it to the negative pole of the voltmeter. This will be the positive electrode. and attach it to the end of the zinccoated wire sticking out of the solution.1 Make a saltwater solution by mixing a small jar of water with a teaspoonful of salt. and tape it to the other side of the cup securely. 3 Place a copper-coated wire into the solution. 37 . and tape it to one side of the cup securely. 4 Open the alligator clip on one wire by squeezing it. 5 Open the alligator clip on the other end of the wire. 2 Place a zinc-coated nail into the solution. 6 Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to connect the copper-coated nail to the positive pole of the voltmeter.

6 minutes 38 . the results will be shown and after this. it will be discussed. Table 1: The table of the researcher’s observation in the 1 st trial Amount of Water Amount of salt Brightness Time lasted (light 500 ml 5 teaspoonful Dim 2 minutes Table 2: The table of the researcher’s observation in the 2 nd trial Amount of Water Amount of salt Brightness Time lasted (light 500 ml 7 teaspoonful Brighter 3.Results and Discussions In this chapter. Through tabular form.2 minutes Table 3: The table of the researcher’s observation in the 3 rd trial Amount of Water Amount of salt Brightness Time lasted (light 500 ml 10 teaspoonful Brighter 4. the results of the experiment will be observed by the researcher.

more amount of salt which is 7 teaspoonful was used. more amount of salt was added (10 teaspoonful). 5 teaspoonful of salt was used in the experiment. The brightness was the same as the second trial but the time was longer. In the first trial. 39 . In the third trial. The brightness was affected by the different amount salt and the time was longer than the first trial result. In the second trial.In the experiment. the amount of water used is constant of 500ml. the amount of salt used affects the brightness and the time lasted by the bulb to light. Based on the results observed.

so a tremendous amount of saltwater is needed to produce sustainable power. By adding ordinary table salt to distilled water. it becomes an electrolyte solution that can conduct electricity. Materials and Equipment 40 . The present study was found to be a good source of electricity . Interpretation The gathered was seriously interpreted: a The present study is not harmful in the environment for it is natural and ecofriendly. c Ensures reliable energy source. stirring the saltwater will increase its potential electric energy.Analysis & Interpretation Data Analysis: When the volume of saltwater. the power of the electricity in the saltwater also increases a notch. Therefore. Finally. Stirring the saltwater will increase its potential electrical energy. Water is comprised of two elements – hydrogen and oxygen. Distilled water is pure and free of salts. b The present study can help reduce damaging emissions being added to our atmosphere. through this experiment. it was observed that the electrolysis method was used to produce the electricity from saltwater. can performed the said its potential to conduct electricity. thus it is a very poor conductor of electricity. which may be caused by the activation and pronunciation of the saltwater’s molecules.

41 . The name of the materials and amount used to conduct this study. Trial 1 Amount of Water 500 ml Amount of salt 5 teaspoons Amount of Water 500 ml Amount of salt 7 teaspoons Amount of Water 500 ml Amount of salt 10 teaspoons Trial 2 Trial 3 Table 2 The equipment and their function used in conducting the study. 1.Below are the listed materials and equipment needed in this study to obtain saltwater power experiment.

Used to tape the copper-coated wire Used in voltage readings produced by the saltwater.Small glass jar teaspoonful tape voltmeter Storage of water Used in measuring the salt being added and to stir the solution. Conclusion 42 .

The main goal was to find an alternative source of energy and to be able to see if saltwater can be used as the alternative source of energy. Southern India. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 33. Online publication date: 1-Oct-2015. Antony Ravindran and N. the researcher conclude after the hard investigation produce on how to prove that saltwater can be a good conductor of electricity. which can be used as an alternative source of power. Arriving at the results and outputs . and so affordable that can be an alternative energy in conducting electricity and since the main material is in our sorroundings. It is safe as well as in the environment for it is natural and no harmful substances. C. Based on experimentation. Mondal. 1335-1350. effectively. Moreover. (2015) Geotechnical Investigation for Resort Construction Using Resistivity and Granulometric Studies in Pattinamaruthur Coast. The researcher found out that the present product can truly. it is proven that it is not harmful to any respondents who test the present product. 43 . we found out that saltwater has potential electrical energy. Bibliographies A.

com/Video/How-Saltwater-Can-Be-turned-Into-Energy-11495570&gt. Saleh Qaisy. Awni Batayneh. Saad Mogren. Eslam Elawadi. Batayneh. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 21. Ibrahim Bahkaly and Ahmed Al-Taani. Issue 6: pp. (2015) Groundwater resource evaluation in the western part of Kushtia district of Bangladesh using vertical electrical sounding technique. (2015) Assessing of Metals and Metalloids in Surface Sediments along the Gulf of Aqaba Coast. 163-176. Mumnunul Keramat and Shamsuddin Shahid. Journal of Coastal Research. “How Saltwater Can Be turned Into Energy. 1079 – 1084.” Mach 8. Batayneh. (2015) Integrated resistivity and water chemistry for evaluation of groundwater quality of the Gulf of Aqaba coastal area in Saudi Arabia. Yousef Nazzal. Taisser Zumlot. Alexey. 97-110. Nozibul Haque. Ahmed A. Yousef Nazzal and Mahmoud Elwahaidi. Elawadi. Online publication date: 31-Oct-2015. Batayneh. Online publication date: 4-Jun-2014 M. Eslam Elawadi. Awni T. Online publication date: 2-Jan-2015. 75-87.Awni T.5min. 2009. Jordan. Journal of Coastal Conservation. 44 . Journal of Coastal Research: Volume 26. Haider Zaman. Online publication date: 5-Jun-2013. Journal of Coastal Research. Batayneh and Ahmed Abdulkareem Al-Taani. and Nasser S. Geosciences Journal. Al-Arifi (2010) Use of Geoelectrical Technique for Detecting Subsurface Fresh and Saline Water: A Case Study of the Eastern Gulf of Aqaba Coastal Aquifer. Awni T. 3 September 2009. Eslam A. (2014) Hydrochemical Facies and Ionic Ratios of the Coastal Groundwater Aquifer of Saudi Gulf of Aqaba: Implication for Seawater Intrusion. Saad Mogren. <http://www. Awni T. Al-Taani. Taisir Zumlot. Habes Ghrefat. Habes Ghrefat. Northwestern Saudi Arabia. (2013) The estimation and significance of Dar-Zarrouk parameters in the exploration of quality affecting the Gulf of Aqaba coastal aquifer systems. Haider Zaman.

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