Who/Whom

Run-Ons
Fragments
Sentence Variety

Who/Whom

Who vs. Whom



I love you.
Subject is the person doing something
I am performing the love; therefore I am the subject
Object is having something done to them
You are the object of my affection

Who vs. Whom

Use who when referring to the subject of a clause
Who loves you?

Use whom when referring to the object of a
clause

Whom do you love?

Who vs. Whom
He/Him trick




Him and whom both end with the letter m
When trying to choose between who or whom, ask if
the answer to the question would be he or him
Who (or whom) do you love?
Answer is I love him, so whom is correct
Who (or whom) broke her heart?
Answer is he broke her heart, so who is correct

Who vs. Whom Practice
1. Susan is the chef ___ will create an exquisite menu for
our ten-year reunion.
Who
2. ____did Mom invite to Marcela’s birthday party?
Whom
3. Janice is the student ____ has read the most books.
Who
4. Robert Anderson is the running back ____ the Pittsburgh
Steelers drafted in the second round.
Whom
5. Before signing up for the class, students wanted to know
____ would teach the class.
Who
6. ______ will the attorney call to testify?
Whom

Grammar Task

Create a who/whom worksheet

Fragments

Fragments
A sentence is a group of words that has three
elements:
Subject
Verb
And a Complete thought
A fragment seems to be a complete sentence but it
lacks either a
Subject
Verb
Or a complete thought.

Fragments
What are the two basic ways to correct sentence
fragments?
Add what is missing (subject, verb, or both)
Attach fragment to sentence before or after it

Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible
fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with a preposition

I ran as fast as I could. To the police station.
*correct by joining*
I ran as fast as I could to the police station.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible
fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word

Spotting Fragments

A word group that begins with a dependent word
Since I stole the candy. I was arrested for
shoplifting.
Common Dependent words: after, although, as/as if/
as though, because, before, how, once, since, that,
unless, while, until, etc.
*Correct by joining*
Since I stole the candy, I was arrested for
shoplifting.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible
fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
“-ing” verb form

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with an “-ing” form verb
I claimed self-defense. Hoping to be found not guilty.

*Correct by joining*
I claimed self-defense hoping to be found not guilty.
*correct by adding missing elements*
I claimed self-defense. I was hoping to be found not
guilty.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible
fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
“-ing” verb form
“to” and a verb

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with “to” and a verb

He hired a lawyer. To defend him in court.
*correct by joining*
He hired a lawyer to defend him in court.
To defend him in court, he hired a lawyer.
*correct by adding elements*
He hired a lawyer. He needed a lawyer to defend
him in court.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible
fragments?
A word group that begins with a(n)
Preposition
Dependent word
“-ing” verb form
“to” and a verb
an example or explanation

Spotting Fragments
Word groups that are examples or explanations

There are many categories of crimes. Such as
misdemeanors and felonies.
*correct by joining*

There are many categories of crimes, such as
misdemeanors and felonies.

Eng 102
Run-ons

Run-Ons
1. What’s another name for a sentence?
Independent clause
2. What term describes two complete sentences
joined without any punctuation?
Fused run-on

The first public screening of a projected motion
picture was held on December 28, 1895 within one
year, the earliest known pornographic movie was
released.

Run-Ons
3. What term describes two complete sentences
joined by only a comma?
Comma splice run-on
The first public screening of a projected motion
picture was held on December 28, 1895, within
one year, the earliest known pornographic movie
was released.

Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons?
Add a period
The first public screening of a projected motion picture
was held on December 28, 1895.Within one year, the
earliest known pornographic movie was released.
Add a semicolon
The first public screening of a projected motion picture
was held on December 28, 1895; within one year, the
earliest known pornographic movie was released.
Add a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma
The first public screening of a projected motion picture
was held on December 28, 1895; moreover, within one
year, the earliest known pornographic movie was
released.

Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons?
Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction
The first public screening of a projected motion
picture was held on December 28, 1895, and
within one year, the earliest known pornographic
movie was released.
Add a dependent word
After the first public screening of a projected
motion picture was held on December 28, 1895,
within one year, the earliest known pornographic
movie was released.

Grammar Task

Write three sentence fragments.
Write three comma-splice run-ons. Write three
fused run-ons.

Sentence Variety
Use a variety of sentence structures
 Simple

subject, verb, complete thought
 I like to read.

Compound

2 independent clauses joined by a coordinating
conjunction
 I like to read, and I also like to write.

Sentence Variety
Use a variety of sentence structures
 Complex
 Has an independent clause joined by one or
more dependent clauses

always has subordinators such as because, since,
after, although, when,
Or has relative pronouns such as that, who, or which


I prefer to read books that are bestsellers.

Compound-complex
uses one of words in complex AND contains two
independent clauses joined with a conjunction.

Although I prefer to read books that are bestsellers, I do
like to read old Agatha Christie mysteries, and I also like
some science fiction.

Sentence Variety
Use a variety of sentence structures

Move adverbial modifiers
 Adverbs usually end in –ly and describe a verb
 A few drops of sap eventually began to trickle into the
bucket.
 Eventually a few drops of sap began to trickle into the
bucket.

Move adjectives and participial phrases
 Adjectives describe nouns
 Edward, dejected and withdrawn, nearly gave up his search
for a job.
 Dejected and withdrawn, Edward nearly gave up his search
for a job.

Sentence Variety
Invert sentences
 Move the dependent clause in front of the
independent clause.

The cork broke his nose when Morgan opened the
bottle of wine.
When Morgan opened the bottle of wine, the cork
broke his nose.

Grammar Tasks

Communicate to a pen pal using each type of
sentence variety (7 varieties) (could make a
blog, series of texts, email, FaceBook message or
status)

For Thursday…
(We have made some changes)

Critique essay rough drafts due
Turn in Grammar Portfolio for 10 bonus points

For Tuesday 3/8
 Critique final copy
 Grammar Portfolio official due date
 Summary mulligans
 Read Analysis chapter