Good Duct Design Increases Efficiency

Buildings for the
21st Century
Buildings that are more
energy efficient, comfortable,
and affordable… that’s the
goal of DOE’s Building
Technologies Program.
To accelerate the development
and wide application of energy
efficiency measures, the
Building Technologies Program:
• Conducts R&D on technologies
and concepts for energy
efficiency, working closely with
the building industry and with
manufacturers of materials,
equipment, and appliances
• Promotes energy/money
saving opportunities to both
builders and buyers of homes
and commercial buildings
• Works with state and local
regulatory groups to improve
building codes, appliance
standards, and guidelines for
efficient energy use

T e c h n o l o g y F a c t S h e e t
Central heating and cooling systems use an air
distribution or duct system to circulate heated
and/or cooled air to all the conditioned rooms
in a house. Properly designed duct systems
can maintain uniform temperatures
throughout the house, efficiently and quietly.
The efficiency of air distribution systems has
been found to be 60­75% or less in many
houses because of insufficient and/or poorly
installed duct insulation and leaks in the duct
system. Properly designed and installed duct
systems can have efficiencies of 80% or more
for little or no additional cost, potentially
saving a homeowner $50­200 or more per year
in heating and cooling costs. Moreover,
efficient duct system designs can reduce
equipment size, further saving money for new

or replacement equipment.
Duct systems that leak and/or do not
distribute air properly throughout the house
may make some rooms too hot and others too
cold. Leaky and unbalanced duct systems may
force conditioned air outside and
unconditioned air into the house. This
increases heating and cooling costs and may
also draw humidity, dust, mold spores, and
other contaminants into a home from the attic,
crawlspace, or garage and radon gas from the
soil. In extreme cases, poorly designed and
installed duct systems can induce
backdrafting—spillage of flue gases from
combustion appliances (e.g., furnace, water
heater, fireplace) into the living space—
primarily when atmospheric or natural­draft
flues are used rather than powered
combustion systems.
Duct systems that are undersized, are pinched,
or have numerous bends and turns may lead
to low air flow rates and high air velocities.
Low air flow rates cause the heating and
cooling equipment to operate inefficiently.
High air velocities increase noise.
The objectives of good duct design are
occupant comfort, proper air distribution,
economical heating and cooling system
operation, and economical duct installation.
The outcome of the duct design process will
be a duct system (supply and return plenums,
ducts, fittings, boots, grilles, and registers)
• Provides conditioned air to meet all room
heating and cooling loads.
• Is properly sized so that the pressure drop
across the air handler is within manufacturer
and design specifications.
• Is sealed to provide proper air flow and to
prevent air from entering the house or duct
system from polluted zones.
• Has balanced supply and return air flows to
maintain a neutral pressure in the house.
• Minimizes duct air temperature gains or
losses between the air handler and supply
outlets, and between the return register and
air handler.

Page 2
Supply ducts deliver air to the spaces that are to be
conditioned. The two most common supply duct systems for
residences are the trunk and branch system and the radial
system because of their versatility, performance, and economy.

The spider and perimeter loop systems are other options.





In the trunk and branch system, a large main supply trunk is
connected directly to the air handler or its supply plenum and
serves as a supply plenum or an extension to the supply plenum.
Smaller branch ducts and runouts are connected to the trunk.
The trunk and branch system is adaptable to most houses, but
it has more places where leaks can occur. It provides air flows
that are easily balanced and can be easily designed to be
located inside the conditioned space of the house.
There are several variations of the trunk and branch system. An
extended plenum system uses a main supply trunk that is one
size and is the simplest and most popular design. The length of
the trunk is usually limited to about 24 feet because otherwise
the velocity of the air in the trunk gets too low and air flow into
branches and runouts close to the air handler becomes poor.
Therefore, with a centrally located air handler, this duct system
can be installed in homes up to approximately 50 feet long. A
reducing plenum system uses a trunk reduction periodically to
maintain a more uniform pressure and air velocity in the trunk,
which improves air flow in branches and runouts closer to the
air handler. Similarly, a reducing trunk system reduces the
cross­sectional area of the trunk after every branch duct or
runout, but it is the most complex system to design.



A spider system is a more distinct variation of the trunk and
branch system. Large supply trunks (usually large­diameter
flexible ducts) connect remote mixing boxes to a small, central
supply plenum. Smaller branch ducts or runouts take air from the
remote mixing boxes to the individual supply outlets. This system
is difficult to locate within the conditioned space of the house.



In a radial system, there is no main supply trunk; branch ducts
or runouts that deliver conditioned air to individual supply
outlets are essentially connected directly to the air handler,
usually using a small supply plenum. The short, direct duct
runs maximize air flow. The radial system is most adaptable to
single­story homes. Traditionally, this system is associated
with an air handler that is centrally located so that ducts are
arranged in a radial pattern. However, symmetry is not
mandatory, and designs using parallel runouts can be
designed so that duct runs remain in the conditioned space
(e.g., installed above a dropped ceiling).



 Grilles through doors or walls or jumper ducts can reduce house pressures and improve circulation. rigid fiberglass duct board. and installation requirements. They must also be carefully and completely sealed during construction/installation. using approved tapes or preferably mastic. However. Screws should be used to mechanically fasten all joints. RETURN AIR TECHNIQUES Closed interior doors create a return­air blockage in systems with only one or two returns. joint. branches. Return duct systems are generally classified as either central or multiple­room return. M ULTIPLE ­ . Sheet metal ducts have a smooth interior surface that offers the least resistance to air flow. panned floor joists) as supply or return ducts can be relatively inexpensive to install. S HEET M ETAL Sheet metal is the most common duct material and can be used on most all supply and return duct applications (for plenums. Even return plenums built under a stairway or in a closet. should be avoided if a completely ducted system is possible. or flexible nonmetallic duct. Designs that use the house structure or building framing (e. closets. they must be insulated with either an interior duct liner or exterior insulation. because such systems tend to be rough and have many twists and turns. and runouts). wall stud spaces. it is difficult to design them so as to ensure good air distribution.S YSTEM A perimeter loop system uses a perimeter duct fed from a central supply plenum using several feeder ducts. building cavities. When located in an unconditioned space. Spider Radial Trunk and Branch Perimeter Loop Page 3 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ DUCT MATERIALS Air distribution ducts are commonly constructed from sheet metal. because each connection. platform returns.g. and seam has potential leakage. performance. RETURN DUCT SYSTEMS Return ducts remove room air and deliver it back to the heating and cooling equipment for filtering and reconditioning. for example. In addition. trunks. raised­floor air handler plenums. Selection of duct material is based on price.. This system is typically limited to houses built on slab in cold climates and is more difficult to design and install. they should be avoided because they are difficult to seal and cannot always be insulated.

Transfer grilles are through­the­wall vents that are often located above the interior door frames. under stairway) and often close to the air handler. improves privacy. and is quiet. hallway. Jumper ducts are short ducts routed through the ceiling to minimize noise transfer. Connections should be mechanically . transfer grilles or jumper ducts must be installed in each room (undercutting interior doors to provide 1 inch of clearance to the floor is usually not sufficient by itself). and plenums. It is usually used to form rectangular supply and return trunks. However. and higher friction losses can increase blower requirements.ROOM R ETURN S YSTEM A multiple­room return system is designed to return air from each room supplied with conditioned air. minimizes pressure imbalances. When properly designed and installed. C ENTRAL R ETURN S YSTEM A central return system consists of one or more large grilles located in central areas of the house (e. To ensure proper air flow from all rooms. especially those that can be isolated from the rest of the house (except bathrooms and perhaps kitchens and mechanical rooms). this is the ultimate return duct system because it ensures that air flow is returned from all rooms (even with doors closed). design and installation costs of a multi­room return system are generally higher than costs for a central return system. Transfer grille Jumper duct Door undercut Wall  grille Door  grille Supply air ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○○○○○○○ Page 4 AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN F IBERGLASS D UCT B OARD Fiberglass duct board is insulated and sealed as part of its construction. branches. In multi­story houses. although they can be installed in a full wall cavity to reduce noise transmission. especially when doors are closed.. a central return is often located on each floor.g. The wall cavity must be well sealed to prevent air leakage. although it can be used for runouts as well.

 Flex duct is factory­insulated and has fewer duct connections and joints. although air distribution may suffer. a chase furred­up in the attic. and insulated to ensure they are not connected to unconditioned spaces. Consequently. air­sealed. A supply outlet is positioned to mix conditioned air with room air and is responsible for most of the air movement within a room. Ducts should not be run in exterior walls as a means of moving them into the conditioned space because this reduces the amount of insulation that can be applied to the duct and the wall itself. or other such chases. crushed. • Locate ducts between the floors of a multi­story home (run through the floor trusses or joists). With this design. Flex duct is also commonly used as a return duct. if any at all. Fiberglass duct board provides excellent sound attenuation. • Locate ducts in a specially­constructed sealed and insulated crawlspace (where the walls of the crawlspace are insulated rather than the ceiling). these connections and joints must be mechanically fastened using straps and sealed using mastic. There are several methods for locating ducts inside the conditioned space. dropped ceiling in a hallway). F LEXIBLE N ONMETALLIC D UCT Flexible nonmetallic duct (or flex duct) consists of a duct inner liner supported on the inside by a helix wire coil and covered by blanket insulation with a flexible vapor­barrier jacket on the outside.fastened using shiplap or V­groove joints and stapling and sealed with pressure­activated tapes and mastic. any duct leakage will be to the inside of the house. • Place the ducts in a furred­down chase below the ceiling (e. etc. The exterior walls of these floor cavities must be insulated and sealed to ensure they are within the conditioned space. and lower operating costs. Holes in the cavity for wiring.. smaller and less duct work. if used. or damaged during installation. These chases must be specially constructed. Also. trunks. plumbing. Flex duct is easily torn. Flex duct is often used for runouts. and branches constructed from sheet metal or duct board. with metal collars used to connect the flexible duct to supply plenums. However. DUCT AND REGISTER LOCATIONS Locating the air handler unit and air distribution system inside the conditioned space of the house is the best way to improve duct system efficiency and is highly recommended. it must be properly specified and installed. It has the highest resistance to air flow. pinched. ducts located inside the conditioned space need minimal insulation (in hot and humid climates). The cost of moving ducts into the conditioned space can be offset by smaller heating and cooling equipment. must be sealed to prevent air exchange with unconditioned spaces. but its longevity is highly dependent on its closure and fastening systems. .g.. It will not significantly affect the energy efficiency of the heating and cooling system because the conditioned air remains inside the house. reduced duct insulation.

 and installation and operating costs. ceiling diffusers or high wall outlets that discharge air parallel to the ceiling are typically installed. In hot climates. and Efficiency by Design can assist in this selection.g. air conditioner). perimeter floor outlets that blanket portions of the exterior wall (usually windows) with supply air are generally preferred. electricity). However. To prevent supply air from being swept directly up by kitchen. and impact other considerations such as aesthetics. Outlet locations near interior walls can significantly reduce duct lengths (decreasing costs). zoning requirements. The location of the return register has only a secondary effect on room air motion. in today’s better insulated homes. Air Quality. 3.g. DUCT DESIGN METHOD The air distribution system should be designed at the same time the house plans are being developed. The heating and cooling equipment should be selected based on occupant preferences. installation costs. the local climate. or other exhaust fans. thermal losses (if ducts are located outside the conditioned space). the distance between supply registers and exhaust vents should be kept as large as possible. The general designs and duct materials for the supply and return duct systems should be selected after considering the type of equipment selected and its location. Select the general type of air distribution system (supply and return duct systems).. bathroom. the location of the return register can be determined by what will minimize duct runs. ACCA’s Manual G: Selection of Distribution Systems and Manual RS: Comfort. following the procedures in the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA’s) Manual D: Residential Duct Systems. and electrical wiring simultaneously avoids conflicts between these systems. the architectural and structural features of the house. improve air circulation and mixing of supply air. Select the general type of heating and cooling equipment (e.. outlet location is less critical. upper­level returns should be placed high and lower­level returns should be placed low. 2. and operating costs. In cold climates.Occupant comfort requires that supply register locations be carefully selected for each room. structural framing. the need to locate outlets near DUCTS INSIDE CONDITIONED SPACE Page 5 AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN the perimeter where heat loss occurs is becoming less important. returns can help defeat stratification and improve mixing of room air if they are placed high when cooling is the dominant space­conditioning need and low when heating is dominant. Calculate the design heating and cooling loads of each room of the house and the loads that are associated with the entire house using ACCA’s Manual J: Residential Load Calculation (eighth edition). furnace. In multi­story homes with both heating and cooling. Otherwise. Planning locations for ductwork. plumbing. Room loads are used to determine the air flow . availability of different fuels (e. In moderate climates. The following eight steps should be followed in the design of an air distribution system to ensure efficiency and comfort: 1. heat pump. and blower requirements. natural gas. However.

 lengths of straight duct runs. electric resistance heater. Be sure to account for the direction of joists. supply outlets. This precedes the duct sizing calculations Or refer to A Builder’s Guide to Residential HVAC Systems NAHB Research Center 800­638­8556 www. Written and prepared for the U. Determine the size of all the ducts based on the room loads.needed for each room. These must be selected to maintain air velocities below values that will cause noise but.epri. pressure drops of additional components or devices..southface. cooling coil) that was not included when the blower data and their associated pressure drops were developed. grilles. location of duct runs. Size and select the specific models of the heating and cooling equipment using ACCA’s Manual S: Residential Equipment Selection. Select the insulation levels for the duct system in accordance with the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code. 5. Department of Energy by: Southface Energy Institute 404­872­3549 www. Select and size the air distribution system devices (return grilles and supply air diffusers. and equivalent lengths of the fittings. 6. and the house loads are used to size and select specific heating and cooling equipment models. Page 6 For more .gov Or visit the Building Technologies Program Web site at www.g. filter. sufficiently high so that air is disbursed to exterior walls or ceilings as desired. Develop a scale drawing or rough sketch of the air distribution system showing the location of the air handling equipment.eere. fitting types. in the case of supply outlets. the blower (fan) data of the selected equipment establish the duct design criteria. and other potential obstructions such as two­story foyers or rooms. return openings. identify any component or device (e. loads and air flow rates associated with each supply and return contact: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) 1­800­DOE­3732 www. and equivalent duct lengths following the procedures in ACCA’s Manual D: Residential Duct Systems. in residential applications. In addition.nahbrc. 7. blower data. humidifier. and registers) using ACCA’s Manual T: Air Distribution Basics for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings. Or refer to the Residential Duct Design: A Practical Handbook (Report CU­7391) Electric Power Research Institute 800­313­3774 press 2 www. roof hips. Several duct layouts may need to be examined before reaching a final design.S.

 nor any of their employees. RS. completeness. • Consider supply outlet locations near interior walls to reduce duct lengths. or assumes any legal liabil­ ity or responsibility for the accu­ racy. NW.S. • In two­story and very large houses. www. wall stud spaces.intlcode. In two­story homes. panned floor joists. consider the following recommendations before finalizing the design: • Design the air distribution system to be located inside the conditioned space of the house to the greatest extent possible. should not be used). G. apparatus. NOTICE: Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof. express or implied. consider using two or more separate heating and cooling systems. building cavities.e.. 703­931­4533 www. etc. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. makes any Manuals D. upper stories tend to gain more heat in summer and lose more heat in winter.U. • Locate supply outlets as far away from exhaust vents as possible in bathrooms and kitchens to prevent supply air from being . closets. March 2003 DOE/GO102002­0782 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS AND KEY DESIGN ELEMENTS In designing the air distribution using ACCA’s Manual D: Residential Duct Systems. including returns (i. S. and T can be obtained from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America 1712 New Hampshire Ave. Washington. www. DC 20009 202­483­9370. including 20% postconsumer waste. platform The International Energy Conservation Code can be obtained from the International Code Council. or process dis­ closed. • The entire air distribution system should be “hard” ducted. for example. each with its own duct system. Do not locate ducts in exterior walls. product.. raised­floor air handler plenums. AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN Printed with a renewable­source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper.ornl.. so the best comfort and performance is often achieved by using separate systems for the upper and lower stories. or usefulness of any information. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Buildings Technology Center 865­574­5206.

 include (a) a return on each level of a multi­story house. and (c) if at all possible. • When using a central return system.swept directly up by the exhaust fans. preferably with mastic and fiberglass mesh. • Consider installing volume dampers located at the takeoff end of the duct rather than at the supply register to facilitate manual balancing of the system after installation. Consider testing of ducts using a duct blower to ensure that the air distribution system is tight. a return in all rooms with doors that require two or more supply ducts. Lower air flows provided by variable­speed heating and cooling systems to improve operating efficiency increase the resident time of air within the air distribution system. In addition. and Geoffrey C. Small ductwork is often routed circuitously. PE Energy Efficiency and Air Distribution Air distribution through a laboratory is critical to the facility's safety and energy efficiency. • Specify that all duct joints must be mechanically fastened and sealed prior to insulation to prevent air leakage. especially if ducts are unavoidably located in an unconditioned space. resulting in significant energy waste. Ph.D. nonetheless. Volume dampers should have a means of fixing the position of the damper after the air distribution system is balanced. Tsal. (b) a specification to install transfer grilles or jumper ducts in each room with a door (undercutting interior doors to allow 1 inch of clearance to the floor is usually not sufficient). especially when variable­speed air handling equipment is being used. the . Attic insulation placed over ducts helps where it is possible. • Specify higher duct insulation levels in ducts located outside the conditioned space than those specified by the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code. Bell. A typical requirement is that duct leakage (measured using a duct blower in units of cubic feet per minute when the ducts are pressurized to 25 Pascals) should not exceed 5% of the system air flow rate. which in turn increases thermal losses in the winter and thermal gains in the summer. Air Distribution By: Robert J. air distribution systems are typically treated as an afterthought in the design process.

the reduction in fan static pressure of just 0. [Houghton.000 ft2 (929m2) clean room. [Naughton." which incorporates life-cycle cost. Naughton.9 tons (13. dampers. For cleanrooms. or other exhaust devices. 1992] Air distribution components typically used in the research laboratory include: Air handler with fan.1 in. each 0. round ductwork. A key to saving energy is to reduce the friction loss of the air distribution system by using large-diameter.1 in WC (24. In addition to fan horsepower savings. in "HVAC Systems for Semiconductor Cleanrooms . Variable air volume (VAV) terminals or air balancing devices.200 per year of savings for a 10. laminar volumes of air for contaminant removal. WC (24. Cooling/heating coils. Ductwork or plenums. However. When hundreds of thousands of cfm are involved. and filters. facilitated with the "T-Method. biological safety cabinets. energy efficiency is increased with efficient ductwork design and lower face velocities for coils.9 Pa) can result in $7. Air filters.7 kW) of air-conditioning savings due to the reduced fan heat load. lower coil and filter face velocities." 1990] Laboratory cleanrooms require special consideration because of the need to move large. "HVAC Systems… Part 1. Duct fittings. Fire and smoke protection devices (supply side only). and energy-efficient noise attenuators. efficient fittings.system air velocity is usually selected by rule-of-thumb and its noise impact is addressed afterward. the design of an energy-efficient air distribution system should be an iterative process. and Fume hoods.Part 1" (1990) notes that. Sound attenuators. et al.9 Pa) will also produce 3. More: Ductwork Design Fundamentals Low-velocity Duct Design Ductwork System Effect Ductwork Pressure Balancing Ductwork Air Leakage Duct Construction and Leakage Duct Leakage and Laboratory Isolation Ductwork Material and Construction Ductwork Layout Recommendations Duct Shape Considerations Duct Fittings Duct Fittings and Economics .

which allows a user to select duct sizes and fan pressure. "…the size and the energy use of the fan can be about 45 to 75 percent smaller with [the] T-method…" than with the conventional "equal friction" sizing method. adding. closing and opening dampers. (1995). Tsal. The program should provide an opportunity to model control dampers. 1995. window-driven. and how they differ from a preceding design. velocities. energy cost. simulation methods can only model ductwork systems. No simulation method by itself produces an optimized air distribution system and no "standard" optimization program currently exists. and return systems using ducts of any shape. pressure profiles. [Tsal. and hours of operation—into the analysis of ductwork and fan selection. a simulation program is user-friendly. and changing fans or motors. Ducted Designs Computerized Ductwork Simulation Various methods and computer programs can be used to simulate airflow through a duct system. The system total pressure is optimally derived while costs are minimized. and capable of calculating supply. [Scott. and it should help evaluate and improve ductwork layout.. Ideally. 1994] More: Existing Duct Simulation Methods T-Method Computerized Duct Simulation T-Method Ductwork Simulation Program T-Method Capabilities . 1995] Quality duct design can be achieved only by using a comprehensive computer simulation program. This design technique was incorporated into the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. In other words. [Shepard et al. Finally. According to Shepard et al. 1999] [T-DUCT. A comprehensive simulation program allows an engineer to model changing cross sections.Duct Insulation Guidance Ductwork Sizing Computerized Ductwork Simulation Ductwork Optimization Economic Duct Optimization for California Laboratories Displacement Air Flow Cleanroom Air Distribution Cleanrooms—Pressurized Plenum vs. The T-method integrates the life-cycle cost of the air distribution system—first-cost. for duct simulation and "generalized" optimization that minimizes life-cycle cost. 1986] The ASHRAE Handbook recommends the T-Method. removing. exhaust. a good simulation program performs air balancing based on mass flow rate rather than on volumetric flow. However. acceptance of the T-method has not been widespread because hand calculation of the results is time-consuming. A good computer program adjusts the fan-system operating point and shows new airflow quantities. and modifying fittings and duct-mounted equipment. a comprehensive computer simulation program allows design engineers to model "what-if" in order to design laboratory environments that are as energyefficient and flexible as possible. However. selecting different diffusers. and fire/smoke dampers. A comprehensive simulation program requires an extensive library of fittings and duct roughness.

2. economizer. Specific examples of fitting performance based on energy consumption are provided elsewhere in this chapter. extractors. 1994] lists the dynamic loss coefficient. and scoops are counterproductive. face and bypass.Duct Fittings The resistance of duct fittings must be determined carefully so air flow at outlets will be the same as called for in the building design. Coefficients will vary with area ratios and velocity ratios. Turning vanes have been known to become dislodged and have substantially blocked airflow because of seismic disturbance. and splitter dampers. An elbow with a centerline radius (r/D or r/W) of 1. C. When more than one type of fitting can be used equally. back-draft. In this case. The DFDB [ASHRAE. Devices to reduce this dynamic loss include splitter dampers. Most dampers are designed to restrict or stop airflow. cones. A double thickness turning vane is more costly and its performance is much poorer than that of a single vane.19) and should be used in cases where duct air velocity is 13 m/s (2. These include flow-control. however. a 45° tap in is both economical and efficient (C=0. However. so factory-made or carefully fabricated shop units are necessary.7). a basic straight 90° take off falls in the middle of the list with C=1. and 45° and radiused tap-ins. the fitting with the smaller loss coefficient should be chosen. There are almost always alternatives to the mitered elbow and vane combination. balancing.23). 1974] Dampers A typical HVAC system contains numerous dampers. a higher-pressure-loss fitting may be desirable if the fitting is located in a branch near a fan or helps provide pressure balancing. . scoops.500 fpm) or higher. A very short radiused elbow with a single fully radiused vane (C=0. Long radiused elbows are most efficient. extractors. a turning vane should not be used in a transitional (drop check) elbow or an elbow with an angle other than 90°. Improperly installed turning vanes can be counterproductive. [Rozell. a double thickness vane is required when spanning 0.0) is more economical and only slightly less efficient (C=0. Splitter dampers.43) is often a good compromise. elbows. Listed in order of improving performance. Accurate turning vane installation is critical to performance.5 is very efficient (C=0. A standard radiused elbow (r/D of 1. Elbows Elbow types range from mitered to long radius. it is generally preferred. More: Branch take offs Elbows Dampers Diffusers Stack discharge fittings Branch take offs Connecting a straight duct to the side of a trunk duct is similar to connecting a branch take off. a dynamic loss is experienced when the air must turn 90°.9 m (3 ft) or more because of structural needs. Many dampers are installed to maintain airflow balance but could be eliminated if different design principles were used. However. a turning vane will reduce pressure losses if properly installed. for 228 duct fittings. Sometimes only a mitered elbow (C=1.15) will fit into the space provided.

in a fixed ceiling. it should be accessible. and at high angles. Opposed blade dampers. not simply the pressure introduced by the fan during normal operation. Wherever a balancing or volume damper is located.3 . Their biggest problem is a ripple effect on system balance if the splitter moves. Figure 7. Lay-in ceiling tiles provide good access. A better location is in the final branch near the connection to the trunk duct. At low angles. Stack discharge fittings The purpose of a stack discharge fitting is to keep rain out of a discharge stack.The rule of thumb for splitter dampers is: never use them. an access door is needed. Dampers located directly behind an outlet tend to be noisy. Fan discharge diffusers and other connections are discussed elsewhere in this Section. particularly if a system is poorly balanced.0D . The performance of a vertical air inlet with a conical cap (C=1.00 to 0. the best choice for airflow are effective only through the center one-third of the 90° travel. Maximum static pressure usually occurs when all dampers in a system are closed except those on one flow path. Other dampers are built to stop airflow and should be factory manufactured so that performance data are available. Computer modeling is recommended for studying these damper effects. their dampening effect is negligible. A duct diffuser is an expansion of duct size where the duct takes in or discharges air to a large space (usually the atmosphere). Diffusers A duct diffuser is different from a room outlet. Although commonly used. cone caps have negative effects on the exhaust airflow path. It keeps almost 100% of rain out (rain usually falls at an angle) at virtually no dynamic loss other than that caused by the velocity head. heavy-gauge steel. A stack discharge diffuser with a 14° included angle that doubles the duct area at the discharge reduces the C from 1. Use the UL approved alternative -. A 25-mm (1") clearance around the closed balancing damper and duct is usually acceptable and very easy to install.1. Dampers must be installed in places where airflow needs to be controlled and/or blocked. The maximum static pressure is the maximum that can be experienced in a system. Dampers can be a source of noise. Stack discharge diffusers are discussed below.a properly supported. Balancing dampers should always be loose fitting in order to restrict but not stop air flow. flow rates change too rapidly compared to the angular displacement or travel of the damper. Simulation computer modeling (T-Duct. Dampers should not be installed in hood exhaust systems even if the exhaust duct passes through a firewall.3). Another device will always work better.2) can be improved by installing a 1. Placing an inverted cone inside a cone cap helps somewhat but not usually enough. Dampers have to withstand the maximum static pressure in a system.0. unobstructed duct. C=1. A vertical stack head (Figure 3) 25 mm (1") larger in diameter than the stack and four diameters long is recommended. 1994) can calculate maximum conditions.33.25D cone diffuser on the inlet end of the duct (C=0.

then the less costly fitting has better economic performance. The least expensive transition maintains three sides straight while changing the fourth side. Automated fitting fabricating machines have reduced the . the choice is rarely this simple. Some specific examples of economic considerations installation and performance of in duct fittings are: More: Transitions Filter-Bank Connections Flexible duct Transitions Transitions are usually placed in a trunk or branch duct following a tap-in or branch because the airflow rate is reduced.Duct Fittings and Economics Clearly. if two fittings can be used interchangeably and their performance is equal but one costs less to install than the other. An expanding transition at the fan discharge is usually used to reduce the main trunk velocity and its associated pressure drop. The changing of two or more sides presents both a layout and an installation challenge. However.

Building a tapered connection in a length of less than 1.4 Filter-Bank Connections Typically. install a plenum box on the filter bank. Filter-Bank Connections Typically.085. C=0. while reducing pressure drop. To improve construction economy.2 m (4 ft) (Figure 4) causes sharply angled (60°) sides in a four-sided connection. a change in one dimension on one side in a onesection transition should create no more than a 5° angle (C=0. To improve construction economy. C= (C varies with angle and area ratio). Figure 7. large changes in duct size occur in connections from a filter bank to a duct trunk. or bell mouth. C=0. while reducing pressure drop.02). for the duct entry (Figure 5).85 (C varies with angle and area ratio).085. and add a cone. C=0. C=0.2 m (4 ft) (Figure 4) causes sharply angled (60°) sides in a four-sided connection. Building a tapered connection in a length of less than 1. for the duct entry (Figure 5). Ideally. C=0. and add a cone. Figure 7. or bell mouth. install a plenum box on the filter bank.magnitude of this problem but it still exists. large changes in duct size occur in connections from a filter bank to a duct trunk.4 .

Figure 7.5 .

. outlet performance will be compromised. this arrangement also reduces system first cost. Flexible duct lengths should be limited to 2 m (6 ft) and sharp bends should be avoided.Flexible duct Ceiling outlets need to be well coordinated with duct locations to prevent excessive offsets in duct drops. Using flexible duct for the drop relieves contractors of the fear of missing an outlet with a duct-run centerline. a small box with a round collar facing the flexible duct can be provided. Insulation reduces the rate of thermal loss to those surroundings. If a flexible duct is to be run horizontally through a confined space to an outlet. however. most ceiling outlets can be equipped with a round collar for connection to a flexible duct. Without insulation. Additionally. Duct Insulation Guidance Insulation is applied to ductwork to enhance thermal performance and prevent condensation and dripping. the air would need extra heating or cooling in order to arrive at the design supply air temperature. Exhaust air ducts normally do not need insulation. Duct thermal performance needs enhancement since air transported through a supply duct is at a temperature different than that of the surroundings. Supply air ducts may be left un-insulated if they run exposed through the space being conditioned. Return air ducts only need to be insulated if they pass through environments that adversely affect the return air temperature.

However. At this temperature. Special consideration must be given to ducts exposed to weather. should be included in insulation specifications. a one-inch-thick fiberglass blanket is almost always sufficient. Un-insulated cold air ducts very often have surface temperatures below the local dew point. presented in the ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals Handbook [ASHRAE. the recommended air velocity becomes a key factor in optimization. Since insulated duct costs much more than un-insulated. Care must be exercised to protect exterior insulation integrity where insulation comes in contact with hangers. Two of the most widely used duct sizing methods. duct insulation always presents an optimization problem. Ductwork Sizing A large number of different duct sizing methods use arbitrary initial parameters based on engineering experience. A protective cover with a vapor barrier such as an aluminum foil. sizing duct is still an art. Duct insulation eliminates the formation of condensate and consequently prevents rusting and staining. and other structural members. Interior duct insulation (lining) should not be used in laboratory or cleanroom applications because the insulation tends to entrain microscopic particles into the airflow. Static regain designs have been attributed to yielding more balanced systems that have better flow characteristics than equal friction systems. Extra heating (or cooling) energy required to compensate for reduced thermal performance of uninsulated duct has a negative effect on the HVAC system's life-cycle cost. a higher air velocity reduces duct surface area and thus insulation cost. the equal friction method can provide equally efficient designs when experienced engineers use careful initial design assumptions. Because there are practically an unlimited number of duct sizes and arrangements that will satisfy a facility's design air-flow requirements. However. Therefore. Insulation should be wrapped around the duct's exterior. For instance. The mathematical technique of "numerical analysis" incorporates iteration procedures that can provide a solution to duct-sizing problems. such as Equal Friction or Static Regain. The static regain ductwork design method has been the choice of engineers for many years even though it is more difficult and time-consuming than the equal friction technique. A correctly sized duct system appropriately distributes design airflows throughout the facility. causing an uncontrolled accumulation of moisture on the outside surface of the duct. A life-cycle cost analysis may be necessary to determine optimum insulation thickness when ducts encounter temperature extremes. More: Pressure Balancing Duct oversizing Iteration Process . are the Equal Friction and the Static Regain methods.Insulation prevents condensation and dripping from ducts. Because of the relatively small temperature differences between supply air ducts and the spaces through which they ductwork are routed. These parameters are either initial velocity or pressure loss per unit of length. condensate will form and eventually drip off. the solution is "constrained" by the "initial guess" which is provided by design engineers based on their individual experience. supports. referred to as FKS. do not minimize system lifecycle cost. Sizing the duct system requires selecting all duct cross sections to result in a pressure-balanced system for the facility. 2001]. it is important to remember that manual duct design methods. Lagging materials or heavy metal covers over the insulation are commonly used to protect ductwork. Also.

and noise considerations. For energy. Initial guess The first step of any mathematical iteration procedure is known as the "initial guess. Duct-sizing methods search for duct cross sections by using arbitrary data. For HVAC applications." . then resize sections to balance pressure losses at each junction. ductwork "oversizing" can be justified. velocity ranges. However. pressure balancing. 1985]: Diameter = 0. Typically. and cross-sectional areas. extending a duct plenum makes a larger but effective lower-pressure distribution system. an experienced engineer can calculate and design a duct system that satisfies duct design requirements. and geometrical constraints. Iteration is then conducted for crosssectional areas that will satisfy all system requirements including design airflow. Major unknown variables are duct cross-sectional areas and fan pressure. Iteration Process Efficient duct sizing is only performed through iterations because of the non-linear hydraulic characteristics of ducts caused by the interactions of pressures. "calculate the total pressure loss for all duct sections. In an integrated system design process that uses the concept of "right sizing". an engineer should after the initial sizing. the end of a critical duct path run should be slightly oversized to keep velocity and pressure losses lower." These include assigned pressure losses per 100 ft of length for the system's longest branch according to the Equal Friction Method. In general. ductwork size is minimized. In addition. It is usually more cost effective to maintain a duct size to the next branch or take-off rather than installing a fitting that would only reduce the trunk by 50 mm (2 inches). economic. Existing sizing methods are arranged to calculate based on an "initial guess. Regardless of the method used. it is necessary to check duct systems for pressure balancing because an unbalanced system will not perform as intended. or on the following formula [Coad. 2001]. for instance. it is generally advisable to reduce high air flows in ductwork by making ducts smaller rather than relying on dampers or orifices. existing duct-sizing methods do not explain how to perform iterations. The most difficult and important part of the calculation is that iteration leads to convergence that results in solutions for all variables in the equations.Initial guess Existing Duct Sizing Methods Pressure Balancing According to the ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals Handbook [ASHRAE." This is where initial values of unknown variables are selected.4 The initial guess is the starting point for a duct size calculation. based on "engineering experience. Sometimes an initial guess is based on a table in which diameters correspond to flow rates. Relatively small duct sizes require larger pressure drops and more fan energy than larger duct sizes." The handbook does not explain a pressure balancing procedure. Therefore. Unfortunately. existing duct-sizing methods have established guidelines for initial guesses. Another place where oversizing comes into play is noise elimination.85 (Flow)0. Duct oversizing In a typical design process. flows. an imbalance results from higher than expected air flow in branch duct runs. lower velocities prevent rumbling or whistles that would otherwise require energy-consuming sound attenuators to eliminate.

Select the "critical path" as the longest branch between fan and terminal outlets. Step 9. follows: Step 1. the pressure loss in the "critical path. Pressure loss in junctions cannot be calculated until branched cross sections are assigned.Continue this process until cross sections are calculated for all sections. A major problem in this process is to satisfy the noise and geometry criteria. or the same cross sections can be used in branches as in trunk ducts. This pressure loss should be larger than the initial pressure loss per unit length assumed for the main critical path in Step 2. This will be the new critical path and the node pressure is its root pressure.Existing Duct Sizing Methods The traditional duct sizing methods are Equal Friction and Static Regain [ASHRAE. node pressures must be dissipated in corresponding branch sections. Step 7. 2001]. will change because of the change of cross sections in the branches of junctions. a short section located close to the fan must be balanced with the long "critical path.Assign total pressure losses to each section of the "critical path" as the recommended pressure loss per unit of length multiplied by the actual section length. and correct these if necessary in order to satisfy velocity and geometrical constraints. At this time. For example. . Note that during such a calculation process. the pressure loss in junctions can be ignored. including system balancing." At this step the root pressure is the same as the fan pressure." which is the longest branch in an air distribution system. Step 5.1 in. It is assumed that the longest run will have the highest sum of total pressure loss. The engineer should achieve pressure balancing by selecting proper duct cross-sections rather than by using dampers. However. a constant pressure loss can be assumed for any junction.Assign a total pressure at each node of the critical path. Step 3. This pressure is called the "root pressure. however. this creates noise caused by high velocities in the damper." Often. Step 8. Step 6. The procedure for using the Equal Friction method for duct design. To achieve pressure balancing. this can only be done by dampening flow. Step 2. Both methods were developed as expedient practical procedures and neither addresses optimization. However. This length is selected for the "critical path. Step 4. Exclude sections that belong to the critical path and select the longest branch from the remaining sections. the longest run is not necessarily the run with the greatest friction loss. Available computer programs are simply automated versions of these manual procedures. fittings. If the selected fan does not satisfy the pressure requirement.Calculate the total pressure loss per unit length of the new branch as its root pressure divided by its length. because shorter runs may have more elbows. and other flow restrictions.Sum the pressure losses in the "critical path" and select a fan so that fan total pressure is close to the sum of total pressure losses in the critical path. starting from Step 2.Repeat the calculation process for the new critical path. WG) pressure loss per 30 m (100 ft) total length. The Equal Friction method creates an "initial guess" for duct sizing by establishing a constant pressure loss per unit of duct length. change the assigned pressure loss per unit length and repeat the process from Step 2. Calculate cross sections for the "critical path" using previously assigned total pressure losses. A number of sources recommend using 25 Pa (0." which is already calculated.

The method has been partially modified [Brooks. DUCTSIZE calculates noise levels and required attenuation and presents a list of required materials. for duct simulation and "generalized" optimization that minimizes life-cycle cost. input data can be taken directly from a duct drawing file created by AutoCAD. No simulation method by itself produces an optimized air distribution system and no "standard" optimization program currently exists. Popular traditional duct design methods. lowering fan pressure can prevent noise. which allows a user to select duct sizes and fan pressure. The static pressure should then be the same before each terminal and at each branch. these methods cannot. however. or terminal take off. 1986] The ASHRAE Handbook recommends the T-Method. A large number of duct-sizing computer programs are available commercially. The Static Regain method applies to supply systems only. Table 10 [ASHRAE. simulation methods can only model ductwork systems. This method provides a convenient means of designing a long duct run with several take offs so that the same static pressure exists at the entrance to each branch. after a number of iterations. 1988]. The ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals Handbook. or flat oval. This is used as the major principle for sizing the ducts so that the increase in static pressure at each branch offsets the friction loss in the succeeding section of the duct. Static Regain. This . can size a duct system up to 500 sections using the Equal Friction. costs. which states that when a reduction of velocities takes place. a conversion of dynamic pressure into static pressure occurs. rectangular. which is the velocity for the root section. higher air velocity is most economical. a lower initial air velocity is most economical. select the most economically efficient design. In addition. 2001] gives the suggested range of velocities based on "engineering experience. and overall system energy demands. However. The Static Regain method of duct sizing is based on Bernoulli's equation. provide engineers with design tools. can select cross sections that deliver the designed amount of flow to terminals. Like the Equal Friction method. 1997]. the DUCTSIZE computer program developed by Elite Software.1995] to compensate for some of these problems. This analysis shows that these methods.(Velocity)22] x (Density) / 2 Both methods are based on an initial guess. including Equal Friction and Static Regain [ASHRAE. duct sizes. This method is also based on an arbitrary parameter. Tsal and Behls (1986) conducted a comprehensive analysis of existing duct-sizing methods . outlet. The major difference between the Static Regain and Equal Friction methods is that one uses the ratio of pressure loss to the length. Computerized Ductwork Simulation Various methods and computer programs can be used to simulate airflow through a duct system. Chapter 34. but more often it indicates that the layout of the system must be modified. these methods involve some engineering judgment and extensive manual recalculations. However. The Static Regain method has been shown to have a number of deficiencies [Tsal and Behls. the succeeding cross section is selected as a function of previously established air velocities at junctions: (Pressure loss)1-2 = [(Velocity)12 .Occasionally. Ducts can be round. One example. [Scott. Most are based on manual sizing techniques. or Constant Velocity techniques. For lower energy costs and high duct costs. the Static Regain method requires iterations." When energy cost is high and installed ductwork cost is low. so air distribution systems designed by different engineers for identical situations will turn out to have different fans. in the other. and.

Ideally. (1995). [Shepard et al. and modifying fittings and duct-mounted equipment. as well as the equivalent nozzle method. Finally. An important shortcoming of this method is that the use of Bless's formula results in pressure losses that differ by 20 percent from those found with the more accurate Colebrook (1938) ref168 or Altshul-Tsal [ASHRAE. Butakov (1949) ref165 developed the duct characteristics method. selecting different diffusers. adding. A comprehensive simulation program allows an engineer to model changing cross sections. was developed in Germany at the end of the 19th century by Bless [Lobaev. velocities. The intent of this method is to replace the resistance of the ductwork with the equivalent resistance of a nozzle. and fire/smoke dampers. closing and opening dampers. [Tsal. The T-method integrates the life-cycle cost of the air distribution system—first-cost. Tsal and Shor (1967) used the steepest descent method for duct simulation and implemented it in a computer program. The oldest method. This method. a good simulation program performs air balancing based on mass flow rate rather than on volumetric technique was incorporated into the 2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. window-driven. 1994] More: Existing Duct Simulation Methods T-Method Computerized Duct Simulation T-Method Ductwork Simulation Program T-Method Capabilities Existing Duct Simulation Methods There are a few numerical methods for calculating flow distribution in a duct system. The program should provide an opportunity to model control dampers. According to Shepard et al. a comprehensive computer simulation program allows design engineers to model "what-if" in order to design laboratory environments that are as energyefficient and flexible as possible. and changing fans or motors. 1959]. 2001] equations. is used in cases of quadratic law friction. However. Kamenev (1938) developed the unit flow method. removing. A comprehensive simulation program requires an extensive library of fittings and duct roughness. The system total pressure is optimally derived while costs are minimized. and how they differ from a preceding design. a simulation program is user-friendly.. This is the one of the best analytical methods for duct optimization. The computer program calculates the flow distribution in branches. exhaust. which applies only when duct velocity is greater than 70 m/s (13. 1995. called the equivalent nozzles method. 1995] Quality duct design can be achieved only by using a comprehensive computer simulation program. acceptance of the T-method has not been widespread because hand calculation of the results is time-consuming. "…the size and the energy use of the fan can be about 45 to 75 percent smaller with [the] T-method…" than with the conventional "equal friction" sizing method. 1999] [T-DUCT. A good computer program adjusts the fan-system operating point and shows new airflow quantities. This velocity is impractical for HVAC ducts. corrects to the . This method assumes flow through the terminal section is equal to one unit of flow. Lobaev (1959) developed the equivalent resistance method that can be used for duct sizing and system simulation. energy cost. The method is based on the quadratic law of resistance. and hours of operation—into the analysis of ductwork and fan selection. pressure profiles. Tsal. Butakov [Butakov. and it should help evaluate and improve ductwork layout. 1949]used the old friction coefficient formula developed by Bless and substituted it into the Darcy-Weisbach equation. and capable of calculating supply.700 fpm). and return systems using ducts of any shape. In other words. The descent step is normalized at each iteration as a function of maximum gradient-vector.

Unlike the condensing procedure. The T-Method incorporates the following major procedures:    System condensing. The well-known Equal Friction and Static Regain methods cannot simulate airflow. et al. Selection of an operating point. The Newton-Raphson method was first used for network simulation by Stoecker. Pressure balancing. et al. or Reynolds number. The actual system flow and pressure are determined by locating the intersection of the fan and system curves. Ccoefficients based on output flows must be recalculated and used as input data for the next iteration. velocity. The branched tree system is condensed into a single imaginary duct section with identical hydraulic characteristics and the same life-cycle cost as the entire system. Tsal and Chechik (1968) developed the algorithm for the dynamic programming method for flow distribution . The T-Method computerized duct simulation determines the flow within each section of a duct system for known duct sizes and fan characteristics. and calculates the required brake horsepower. the mass flow in and out must be equal. Fan and system characteristics. Tsal and Chechik. (1975) ref181 for duct systems. unlike some other methods. The T-Method duct simulation is based on the same tee-staging idea as Dynamic Programming [Bellman 1957 ref159. T-Method Computerized Duct Simulation The objective of duct simulation is to model airflows by obtaining pressure balancing [Tsal. Available fan pressure and flow depend on the fan characteristic curve. In other words. TVENT1P uses only fixed resistance coefficients. the program must be interrupted. The following requirements must be satisfied:    Kirchoff's first law. This method is more difficult to implement than the steepest descent method. 1992] . Major applications include industrial exhaust systems that convey dust and where dampers are prohibited. the expansion procedure starts at the root section where the fan is located and continues in the direction of the outlets. The condensed imaginary duct section is expanded into the original flow distribution system with appropriate airflow rates. which are interpreted as two sections (supply and return) connected in series. Fan flow and pressure must match the system flow rate and resistance. The system simulation solution is obtained when the total pressure loss for each system path is equal to the fan total pressure. the method was later translated into a computer code called TVENT1P. 1968]. for any node the total pressure losses for all paths must be the same. After each iteration. System expansion. [Farajian. To simulate a combined supply-return system. but. The total pressure loss in each pathmust be equal to the fan total pressure. and elbows when the C-coefficients are a function of flow. The main purpose of this program is the dynamic modeling of a duct system for tornado conditions using an electrical system analog for the airflow system in order to simulate the system's dynamics. (1974) ref205 for simulating central chilled-water systems and Gregory et al. et al. For each node. transitions. the distribution of the pressure losses between subsystems must be found. The T-Method can find the distribution by first condensing each subsystem separately and then expanding both condensed sub-roots. it has no convergence problems. operating point in the case of a change of flow. The expansion procedure distributes the fan airflow throughout the system's sections.1990]. Revised C-coefficients have to be calculated manually for all junctions.

et al. and an operating point on the fan performance curve. particularly for fittings and duct-mounted equipment. so the user can determine the need for corrective action. and has an efficient convergence process. a numerical/graphical postprocessor. "Duct Design" [ASHRAE. locate dampers. A full range of browse. and various other sources. and error-detection techniques saves time for inputting identical sections or branches. and a database of fittings. return. . Inch-Pound. and air density. usually requiring few iterations. including actual airflows and air velocities. can accommodate any fan characteristic curve. Calculations can be repeated without leaving the program. and changing fan characteristics.. The Data Base has a number of libraries containing fittings and duct-mounted equipment from the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook [ASHRAE.Duct Design" [SMACNA. The example was analyzed to determine the airflow rates when system dampers are fully opened. System analysis can also be done for situations such as partially occupied buildings. closing or opening dampers. copy. The program output also shows the percent airflow difference between design and actual performance for each duct section. T-Method Capabilities Another example that illustrates the T-Method's capability is a simulation of the example in the Fundamentals Handbook Chapter. total and static pressures. a calculation processor. Drastic differences were discovered where airflows changed from 23% to 37% compared to the original system design [Tsal. pressure at each node. The T-Method for duct simulation has also been used to analyze systems with: (1) fans working in parallel when one fan is shut down. and checks the brake horsepower of the existing fan. 1990]. The processor is an iterative procedure. It presents only fittings suitable for a particular duct section and can display fittings on the screen. Iterations allow for matching the fitting and equipment local resistance coefficients with the actual airflows for each section of the duct. The program calculates the actual airflow distribution throughout a system. and exhaust systems. The T-Method has a number of advantages compared to other simulation methods:       It It It It It It uses similar techniques for duct optimization and simulation. 1990]. material. erase.T-Method Ductwork Simulation Program The commercially available T-Method simulation program. The best way to perform duct calculations for laboratories is by using an appropriate computer program such as T-Duct. so engineers and contractors can predict flow distribution. The post-processor allows for correcting cross-sections. is appropriate for supply. 1994] The program's interactive preprocessor accepts a wide variety of data. is appropriate for any duct shape. the "HVAC Systems . and it has many help screens. [T-Duct Program. consists of four major parts: an interactive window-driven preprocessor. move. and sectional and fitting data. 2001]. recognizes variable C-coefficients. edit. and Metric). 1997]. The program can automatically convert data among three unit systems (SI. The post-processor is partially interactive. repositioning dampers and adjusting fan speed. It shows the actual operating point on fan and system curves. and (2) a VAV system working in the minimum and maximum flow regimes. T-Duct. and save energy by balancing the system. The convergence is very efficient. adjusts the fan operating point. The results of the simulation calculations are flow rate and pressure resistance of each section of duct.

and fits superior-performing round ducts into tight spaces in addition to maximizing the use of round ducts throughout the system. Analyzing pressure differences between adjacent confined spaces in a nuclear facility when a DBA occurs. The computer program selects optimum duct sizes. This is the operating point on a fan's curve that assures that a system supplies the necessary airflow to each terminal at a minimum life-cycle cost. Finding the operating point on the fan performance curve when duct size or damper blades angles are changed. A cocktail-straw system's energy cost is extremely high but construction cost is minimal. including:              Analyzing air-flow redistribution in a multiple-fan system when one or more fans shut down. This is the ratio between air velocities in all sections of a ductwork system that satisfies the requirements for minimum life. operating time period. and terminal boxes with run-out fittings in order to obtain . A duct optimization method determines duct sizes and selects a fan that minimizes system life-cycle cost. Analyzing the possibility for damper-generated noise. 3)System pressure balancing. One could theoretically design a particular ductwork system as large as subway tunnels or as small as cocktail straws. is dissipated by ductwork and fittings. Ductwork Optimization Inefficient ductwork system design results in either wasted energy or installation of excessive ductwork. Dean and Ratzenberger [Dean. Data variables needed for optimization include: initial cost. Optimization can compare system costs for different fan pressures. 2)Optimum duct velocity ratio. Analyzing smoke control system performance during a fire when some fire/smoke dampers close and others remain open. A further explanation of this ratio is presented in the referenced work by Tsal and Behls (1986). Analyzing air flow redistribution resulting from modifications to the HVAC system. Analyzing system air flow for partially occupied laboratories. According to Tsal and Behls (1986) the three major optimization objectives for a ductwork system are: 1)Optimum total fan pressure.. fittings. Determining the maximum static pressure that can be experienced by dampers when all system dampers are closed except one. escalation rate. et al. energy cost. The pressure provided by a system fan which delivers airflow to each outlet. A subway-tunnel system's cost is extremely high but energy cost is minimal. Analyzing the influence of a change in damper blade angle on air flow at existing terminal outlets. The best way to attain design airflow to each outlet is by pressure balancing through changing duct sizes rather than using dampers or other devices. Analyzing pneumatic conveying systems and manifolds.Duct system simulation is needed in several situations for HVAC designs. Somewhere in between the tunnel and the straw is the optimum system and duct size. Connecting additional terminal outlets to an existing system. Analyzing air-flow distribution in a VAV system when there is terminal box flow diversity. It selects all trunk duct diameters. with a computerized optimum design. created using the Equal Friction method. and interest rate. 1985 ref171] compare a "not optimum" duct design. helps improve ductwork layout.cycle cost. Determining the need for fan or motor replacement during retrofitting of an air distribution system.

S. years. The costs are adjusted for 500-kW demand for industrial consumers. More: Duct Optimization Principles Existing Tree-Network Optimization Methods T-Method Duct Optimization Optimization Calculation Forms Economical Analysis From Beta Software Duct Optimization Principles Mathematical programming states that any optimization problem can be defined as a process of minimization or maximization of an objective function in a space restricted by constraints. First year energy cost is determined by: Energy cost = x (Fan Pressure) Laboratory electrical unit energy cost depends on local industrial retail prices of electricity. operating cost. and noise level than the Equal Friction method design. [Fox. 1995]. Inc. the computerized design had substantially lower: first cost. an interest rate of 6% can be used. If the amortization period (a) is unknown. Data for the annual escalation rate (AER) are predicted by Utility Costs Forecasting [EIA. 1985 ref170]. which is given by: Life-cycle cost = (First year energy cost) (PWEF) + (Initial cost) where. The computer program analyzes both the air handling system and exhaust/return ductwork in combination. AER= annual escalation rate AIR = annual interest rate a= amortization period.approximately equal pressures at all terminal boxes for design load conditions. PWEF is the present worth escalation factor. including demand charges and consumption costs. electric utilities can be obtained from Electric Sales and Revenue [EIA. . Therefore. The accuracy of any calculation cannot be greater than the accuracy of the input data. The unit energy cost or electrical energy retail prices for all U. 1985 ref176] and Data Research Utility Costs Forecasting [Data Resources. When compared. The PWEF is: PWEF = x 100% where. 10 years can be used. Economic data are good only for current periods and cannot predict situations such as oil embargoes or Persian Gulf crises. 1971] The objective function for duct optimization is the life-cycle cost.. precise economic data are not needed for duct design. If the annual interest rate (AIR) is unknown. which includes laboratories.

More accurate optimization can be obtained by separating the cost of straight ducts from the cost of fittings. For each node. Installed duct prices are available from "Mechanical Cost Data" [Means. Architectural space limitations may restrict duct sizes. Nominal duct sizes. Labor is figured at $26. 1986). A comprehensive survey of existing numerical duct optimization methods was conducted by Tsal and Adler (1987).The initial cost includes the cost of ducts and HVAC equipment. These values are based upon a typical system layout. Duct costs include material. The main equipment included in the objective function is a system's central air-handling unit. Each diameter of a round duct or height and width of a rectangular duct is rounded to the near nominal lower or upper size. Air velocity restriction. . Alaska (50. terminal control boxes) is included in the duct sections where this equipment is located. In other words. shop labor. A detailed explanation of each constraint can be found in Tsal and Adler (1987). Including this additional cost could lead to reducing the size of ducts and thus increasing energy consumption. for any node the total pressure loss for each path is the same. Costs for ductwork range from $12. a ratio of 3.10 per square foot for 26-gauge spiral ducts. Equipment. These procedures are based on the classical calculus minimization technique of setting the first derivative to zero in order to find the diameter of the pipe or duct or to determine air velocity. Nominal duct sizes normally depend on manufacturers' standard increments. The constraints are:        Kirchoff's first law. Washington state (1. the mass flow rate "in" is equal to the mass flow rate "out. 25% of which is fittings. Combining the two ratios yields a potential factor of 122 to 1 depending on locale and type of ductwork. if saved space could be utilized. field labor. Because of the electrical energy and ductwork price variations. Pre-selected sizes. 1997]. shipping. The pressure loss of duct-mounted equipment (coils. 1997]. This cost can be ignored if the space cannot be otherwise utilized. Cost data for fittings are also available from "Mechanical Cost Data" [Means.50 per hour. adjusted for straight ducts and fittings. Duct diameters.66 c/kWh) and Douglas County.9 to 1 (Wendes. and/or widths can be pre-selected. An important factor in duct optimization is the cost of space required by ducts and equipment.62 c/kWh) is a factor of 31 to 1. Ducts are available in 1-inch diameter increments to 20-inches and 2-inch increments for sizes larger than 20-inches Standard sizes can differ by country. there is a great potential for reducing the life-cycle cost of different duct systems. silencers.02 per square foot for 10gauge galvanized iron to $3. The maximum difference in electric energy costs between industrial customers in Saint Paul City. The first optimization method was developed by Grashoff in 1875 for a single pipeline. shop drawings. The duct cost is presented as a function of the cost per unit area of duct surface. This is an acoustic (ductwork regenerated noise) or particle conveyance limitation. Central air-handling units and duct-mounted equipment must be selected from those produced by industry. Electrical energy retail prices vary widely." Pressure balancing. It is important in duct optimization to satisfy all necessary constraints. Construction restrictions. and a 35% markup on costs for overhead and profit. Existing Tree-Network Optimization Methods Many analytical and numerical methods for pipe and duct optimization have been developed during the last century. heights. Several of the calculation procedures for duct optimization attempt to minimize total cost by establishing optimum velocities or friction rates. The total pressure loss in each path must be equal to the fan total pressure. its cost must be included in the objective function. However.

reduced gradient. Kovaric. 1968]. acknowledges constraints (velocity and space limitations. It was applied for chilled water system optimization. Stoecker et al. 1987] -. There is no analytical or numerical method that can easily find the global minimum and satisfy all duct system constraints. Computer-aided numerical optimization methods are divided into two categories. 1998].. 1971]. rounds to nominal duct sizes. In addition. 1979 ref151] is one of the best computerizedtechniques for application to rectangular duct optimization. The T-Method incorporates the following major procedures: . is appropriate for supply. the three requirements for optimized designs -. (coordinate descent. exhaust. eliminates critical path selection.are satisfied by the T-method. 1968]. The modified Lagrange multipliers method has been applied for network optimization by Murtagh (1972) ref194. In general.. Lagrange multipliers. and T-Method) and continuous methods (penalty function. searching for the next duct section to be changed. and Mangel through cooperative research with ASHRAE [Tsal et al. A comprehensive analysis of a multi-path duct system was published by Bouwman (1982) ref162. 1969. An example in Tsal and Adler (1987) explains this phenomenon.optimum fan selection. dynamic programming. The coordinate descent method is the most common technique for duct optimization [Tsal and Chechik. A number of different techniques are based on this method for selecting initial conditions. includes pressure balancing. analytical approaches can be effectively used only to identify trends in system behavior. 1971 ref187. 1986]. discrete methods. T-Method Duct Optimization An advanced duct design optimization technique based on the T-Method is being developed by Tsal. Many of these methods can find the minimum of an unconstrained concave problem. and "freezing" selected diameters.The classical method of optimization for multi-path district heating systems was first applied by Shifrinson (1937) ref198 and for multi-path duct systems by Lobaev (1959) ref190. 1933 ref223. the objective function is not uniformly concave. Another way to directly optimize a network is by the Lagrange multipliers method [Zanfirov. return. This method has been applied to different networks by Tsal and Chechik (1968). pressure balancing. Dynamic programming is one of the most powerful methods for multi-path tree network optimization [Tsal and Chechik. by adding penalty coefficients to the objective function. These techniques are impractical for manual calculation. but most fail to yield a solution that can be successfully used in practice. selects optimum fan and motor or central air-handling unit. A technique called quadratic search was introduced for a concave problem optimization by Leah et al. optimizes the design for a pre-selected fan. It performs nonlinear optimization with equality constraints and then applies the Newton-Raphson technique to find an optimum solution. The reduced gradient method [Arklin and Shitzer. The T-Method has been expanded and found to be capable of optimizing duct systems with air leakage [Tsal et. al. and quadratic search). pre-selected or maximum sizes). and has an efficient convergence process. Bertschi ref161. and optimum sectional velocity ratios [Tsal and Adler.. Behls. The penalty function method transforms constrained problems into non-constrained problems. According to Tsal and Adler (1987). The economic analysis of the example from the Duct Design chapter of the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook(2001) re152 showed that significant initial or operating cost reductions are obtainable. (1987) ref189. The T-Method's advantages over other optimization methods are:          It It It It It It It It It is appropriate for any duct shape and material. and combined supply-return systems.

This movement from tee to tee is the source of the T-method's name. The T-Method shows that K-coefficients. sizes. For manual calculation. but the pressure loss increases and may cause fan pressure to increase.1)System condensing: Condensing a branched tree system into a single imaginary duct section with identical hydraulic characteristics and the same life-cycle cost as the entire system. 2)Air-handling unit selection: Selecting an optimal fan and establishing optimal system pressure loss. If the upper nominal size is selected. and coefficients of efficiency are known. all individual sections can be condensed into a single imaginary duct section.2 Similarly. size rounding is also relevant to optimization. the expansion procedure starts at the root section and continues in the direction of the terminals. the hydraulics characteristics of each section (which depend on flows. Fan and motor are pre-selected based on necessary fan pressure. Unlike the condensing procedure. and the sum of their initial costs. The cost of each fan and motor. The optimum fan pressure is calculated using the classical method where the first derivative is made to equal zero. pressure loss sum. as the individual sections. lengths and fittings) must satisfy the following: K1-2 = ( K10.833 + K20. The T-Method demonstrates that two duct sections connected in series can be condensed into a single imaginary duct section. the total fan pressure. Rounding means selecting a lower or higher nominal duct size.833 )1. two duct sections connected in parallel can be condensed into an imaginary duct section that has the same pressure loss as individual sections. a simplified procedure . The optimum fan is then selected at minimum cost. Case 1. The rounding procedure is efficient but complicates the calculations. Case 3. The relationship between K-coefficients must satisfy the following: K1-2 = K1 + K2 The T-Method identifies a duct tree system as a sequential number of sections connected in series and in parallel. This saved pressure means a smaller nominal size can be used in the next sections in the duct network. Therefore. A comparison is made of life-cycle costs of the system equipped with each fan. If the lower nominal size is selected. This process is performed numerically by a recursive procedure that starts from terminals and moves from tee to tee until it hits the root. Case 2. 3) System expansion: Expanding the condensed imaginary duct section into the original system with optimal distribution of pressure selected in step 2. An important advantage of the T-Method is that it can handle constrained optimization processes including non-linearity and integer duct-size rounding. the initial cost increases but the section pressure loss decreases. and initial cost. In a tree system. A number of central air-handling units or fans with motors are being considered. the sum of their flows. the initial cost decreases. In the T-method an expansion procedure distributes available fan pressure throughout the system sections. The imaginary section will have the same: flow. Most decisions about selecting an air-handling unit will fit into one of the following three categories. Once the desired fan pressure and flow are known. The T-Method contains a procedure that predicts the influence of the initial cost of different duct sizes for both a specific duct section and the remaining system. the fan can be selected from a catalog.

" the size difference between A and B is first divided into thirds. 1987]. offices. it is also able to select the optimum pressure for each system section while incorporating pressure balancing. laboratory support areas. The T-Method can optimize both the supply and return subsystems as one system. if the calculated size is less than A + 1/3. However. Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Architectural Programming Modern research facilities provide usable space for laboratories. Utility service coordination. Usually. five iterations are sufficient to obtain the optimum solution with a high degree of accuracy. A final advantage of the T-Method shows that it can optimize a duct system with air leakage [Tsal et. Minienvironments can reduce energy consumption greatly with their ability to confine energy-intense environments to small volumes. To optimize a combined supply-return system. Next.called the 1/3 boundary procedure is recommended. will reduce energy use by streamlining their layout and configuration. the pressure loss in the corresponding path may exceed the fan pressure capability. Then. Then. If the lower size is selected for a long duct with many local resistances. they have to be defined during the iterations. All existing analytical and numerical duct design methods except dynamic programming are iterative [Tsal and Adler.. For this procedure. both condensed sub-roots are interpreted as two sections connected in series and a condensed root section is substituted for them. The special equipment and environments required for research make these facilities complex and expensive to build and operate. if a choice is to be made between two commercially available duct sizes where duct "A" is smaller than duct "B. It is important that the facility be able to accommodate changes in use by including flexibility in the original design. If the calculated size is equal to or greater than A + 1/3. . The T-Method is iterative but relatively simple. The modular research laboratory provides an opportunity to arrange the environmental conditioning systems efficiently. a fan and motor or central airhandling unit is selected. by providing orderly pathways and routing. The T-Method converges efficiently. the facility's near-term energy use must not be overlooked even though the facility may plan for larger system capacity in the future. and the pressure is distributed for the supply and return subsystem as in an expansion procedure. al. Complying with building codes and considering building standards are part of the architectural programming process. However. 1998REFERENCES: Distribution Systems]. the distribution of the pressure losses between the supply and return subsystems must be optimized. and interactive spaces for formal and informal gatherings. The research organization priorities will set the tone for the incorporation of the energyefficiency measures (EEMs) for the facility. duct A is chosen. the 1/3 boundary procedure is just a rough approach. Many parameters such as C-coefficients for junctions and transitions depend on duct size and are not known at the beginning of the calculation process. Architectural arrangements that provide laboratory isolation can result in energy efficiency benefits by using a design concept that includes modular degrees of isolation for the required controlled environments. duct B is chosen. The T-Method does this by first condensing each of the subsystems.

all to achieve energy efficiency. [Cooper. Life-cycle cost analysis is a "yard stick" to measure the relative benefits of the choices . Recommended standards (see below) have a greater influence on the energy consumption of the laboratory facility. energy consumption and operating costs can be reduced through "right sizing. and Load Management Analysis. Diversity Analysis.Codes Energy Efficiency and Codes While it is a fact that codes and energy efficiency are inexorably linked. These conditions require sophisticated.. six to 10 times the number of BTUs consumed in a typical office building. Therefore. the energy engineer should study the requirements of each classification to be familiar with their potential energy impacts and relate these findings to the project design team. New Mexico. or H-7.000 BTUs per square foot per year or more. energy-intensive HVAC systems. Therefore. The energy engineer rarely will have a say in the determination of the facility's UBC classification. by allowing the recirculation of air within a laboratory rather than requiring 100% outside air at all times. Right sizing is an iterative process. However. 1994]  Life-cycle cost analysis Energy intensive environmental conditioning systems have high operational and first costs. B.000 to 400. However. The occupancy classification is the key to any impacts of a building standard on the facility's energy efficiency. The building standards that apply to all occupancies throughout the state of California appear in the California Code of Regulations and the California Health and Safety Code. the indirect benefits of a less stringent classification can reduce energy consumption. e. it is very important for the energy engineer to consider the optimum mix of operational and first costs to determine the system's life-cycle cost. typically fall into one of three classifications. A comprehensive example of incorporating right-sizing techniques is provided in a report by Wrons (1998)ref324 on Sandia National Laboratories' Process and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL) located in Albuquerque. 1997. although new techniques are developed continuously. see Lee.g. H-8. expensive." choosing the most efficient and cost effective combinations of equipment and equipment sizes as well as managing the laboratory load. the codes have few requirements that affect the facility's energy efficiency directly. the basic elements are: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. per the Uniform Building Code (UBC). For a general evaluation of codes and building energy-efficiency programs. Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis accounts for all costs incurred for the HVAC system from installation through a chosen period of time. usually 20 years. More: California Health and Safety Code Uniform Building Code Uniform Fire Code California Code of Regulations Research laboratories exist to provide the precise environmental conditions required for research. Conditioning System Capacity Analysis. Laboratory facilities. Laboratories typically consume 300.

24 hours per day. Cooper. gives better system control. When an energy-efficiency measure (EEM) happens to have the lowest first cost.available to the design team. in some cases. Studies and practical experience have shown that. at least 20 to 30 percent are closed or only partially used at any one time. Finally. To make these choices intelligently.  Diversity analysis Diversity analysis in a laboratory ventilation system accounts for the fact that not all laboratory spaces or fume hoods are operated at 100 percent. Airflow rate through the facility is a subject of considerable debate that is primarily driven by the air change rate per hour (ACH) and the design fume hood face velocity.  Conditioning system capacity analysis Estimating the conditioning capacity necessary for a laboratory includes a myriad of choices to determine the laboratory's HVAC system type and size. Therefore. and Smith. single-room laboratories should always be sized for full 100 percent capacity without downsizing. 1989] Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Direct Digital Control . increases system stability. The control scheme must address temperatures as well as safe ventilation and stable control of building pressures. and. and reduces mechanical space requirements. 1994]  Load management analysis A comprehensive analysis of the laboratory loads should include an interview between the researchers and the energy engineer. Taking advantage of diversity is particularly valuable when retrofitting existing facilities where available space is limited. the engineer must understand the variability of the laboratory facility's load profile. The larger the facility. [Lentz and Smith. duct static pressures. [Lentz. identification of equipment and occupancy schedules helps clarify system capacity needs. An in-depth examination of control systems is presented in Chapter 4. it is very important to consider diversity when sizing a large laboratory HVAC system. for large laboratories with many fume hoods. Small. HVAC systems can be sized for 70 to 80 percent of peak ventilation capacity. control is the single most important design variable in an HVAC system that meets a laboratory's exacting environmental requirements. and air migration patterns. Sizing the HVAC system at 70 percent of peak load decreases operational and first costs. reveals that demand-controlled ventilation is a viable option. the smaller the probability of simultaneous use of all available capacity. Such interviews often produce unexpected results and increased energy efficiency. 1989. Therefore. an LCC analysis is not necessary.

. An EMCS accepts analog.. below. precise temperature control. Depending upon budget and scope constraints. the energy engineer should give greater consideration to the operator interface. flexible system that can provide Total Laboratory Energy Management (TLEM) which is further described in Section 4. a DDC system can provide the core of a growing. While the structure/architecture of the DDC system is very important. The building of a comprehensive sequence of operations is the first step in the implementation of the laboratory Energy Monitoring and Control System (EMCS). called the Person/Machine Interface (PMI).g. A highlighting of DDC advantages and benefits follows: Centralized User Interface Dynamic. Precise Facility Control Coordination of Facility Systems Operation Speed and Reliability from Computational Power Optimizing Facility Diversity Durability and Flexibility Troubleshooting/Easing of maintenance Trending and History Data Logging Customized Energy Reporting Direct Digital Control (DDC) Advantages Energy Efficiency and DDC Advantages DDC EMCSs replace conventional pneumatic or electromechanical HVAC control systems with equipment capable of performing not only control but energy management and system diagnostic functions in the environment of a centralized computer network. while others have indirect energy consequences.4. processes the data. e.The overall impact of a DDC system upon the energy efficiency of a research laboratory is considerable and includes a broad range of positive benefits. consumption reporting. and digital input from remote sensors and devices. and then controls remote . There are particular advantages that the distributed DDC system has over a pneumatic system and individual controllers. e. Some impacts have a direct energy influence. discrete.g.

maintenance and recalibration problems common with pneumatic control systems. An EMCS inherently has more accurate control because it reduces the drift. and maintenance will all benefit from the increased information flow when it is properly managed. an EMCS can make all facilities function more efficiently when the gathered data are compiled into useful. and Energy Reporting. [Ruys. More than 60 percent of the energy consumed by a conventional lab or cleanroom is used to circulate air and to supply heating.mechanical equipment. DDC offers the following advantages: Control Precision. Additionally. Diversity Analyses. Trend Information and History data. Systems Coordination. More: DDC vs. 1990] Compared to conventional control systems. . conventional pneumatic controls DDC control integration Monitoring and maintenance Reporting Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Laboratory Supply Systems Energy engineers designing laboratory supply systems now have numerous opportunities for better contamination control and energy efficiency than in the past. System Load Tracking. Optimum Start. production. Retrofit Identification. Monitoring and Maintenance Information. pertinent reports. Quality control. cooling. research.

. Naughton. Neuman and Guven. 1990b] Air Systems Energy Efficiency and Air Systems The HVAC Air System can be considered the "lungs" of the facility. VAV systems reduce both operating energy costs and capital costs. As in the cases of chillers and boilers. so energy-efficient designs can result in substantial savings. so the cumulative effects of interactions among them must be considered. specialized cleanrooms (Class 1000 and cleaner). energy savings can be realized in air-handling by modularizing these systems. Brown. [Charneux. 1989. and Energy Recovery. however. design decisions for one category affect the energy use of the others. annual supply system energy costs are ranked from highest to lowest as follows: Cooling/Chillers. When diversity or varying loads are taken into account. We examine energy efficiency by reviewing major system requirements for laboratory and cleanroom environments. [Takenami et al. VAV systems save operating energy. is to supply vertical unidirectional air flow. the additional first cost of VAV systems can have life-cycle paybacks. aside from that used for manufacturing equipment. This chapter looks at four areas of supply systems that should be considered for energy efficiency: Plant Devices. the air-flow rate can be reduced to 50 . the reduction of the pressure loss and the higher degree of efficiency of the heat exchangers can more than compensate for the higher purchase costs of the VAV system. Outside working hours. the largest amount of energy. We analyze these categories separately. In large. Humidification. Air-Handling Units. 2001]  VAV systems Laboratory-type facilities benefit especially from VAV systems. Many major energy-using components are necessary to provide the desired environment. the energy consumed by humidification and heating varies depending on climatic conditions and can shift from season to season. 1994. Parker et al. 1993] [Basso. including operational energy savings. 1990. 1990a. Fan energy. Air Systems. 1997] When air-handling equipment is operated at low air-flow rates. Naughton.humidity.. [Atwell and McGeddy. Generally. and clean air. in less than six months. 1989. and Heating. By continuously adjusting to match the environmental conditioning required by the facility. In the case of cleanrooms.

resulting in an overall outside air demand reduction of 30 percent. dehumidify. 1991] More: VAV systems Make-up air systems Air recirculation systems Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Exhaust Systems . Make-up air units can use tremendous amounts of energy unnecessarily in part because of basic design decisions regarding the temperature and humidity tolerance allowed in the laboratory or cleanroom. "HVAC Systems … Part 1. The energy requirements to heat. [Schicht. As noted by Lacey (1997). consumes 10 percent of a conventional bulk ventilation system. which also uses air-to-air energy recovery. an innovative "focused" make-up ventilation system is used in an animal anatomy lab to provide "spot" ventilation. [Naughton. [Charneux. [Naughton. 1990] In cleanrooms. cool. 1990]  Cleanroom recirculation air systems Cleanrooms of class 1000 and cleaner have air change rates of 600 to 900 per hour. [Ciborowski and Pluemer. 1990] Major energy savings can be achieved by lowering system static pressure and improving fan efficiency. Naughton. air flow is a generally fixed parameter based on the air velocity desired. 2001] [Lacey.305 m/s).percent of the design value. Brown. Charneux (2001) describes an interesting laboratory design in which classroom and office area airflow is combined with supply make-up air for the facility's lab spaces. 1991. The energy required to overcome the system static pressure rises at a cubed rate. Significant energy savings are also possible when high-efficiency components are used for circulating these large quantities of air. 1990a. Large amounts of energy are necessary to transport these huge quantities of cleanroom air and remove fan heat. 1997] [Kruse. 1991]  Make-up air systems One of the largest subsystem energy users in a laboratory's space conditioning system is the makeup air-handling system. This system. The resulting energy consumption of the VAV system for conveying the air decreases to less than 25 percent of peak load. thus increasing energy requirements exponentially. Recirculation air systems for cleanroom designs can maximize energy savings by reducing both the unidirectional air-flow rate and the pressure drop in the air recirculation loop. or humidify the make-up air are considerable and can represent 30 percent to 65 percent of the total energy required to maintain the laboratory or cleanroom environment. "HVAC Systems … Part 1. Required fan horsepower can be reduced by one-third if the clean room is provided with a mixed HEPA filter air velocity and only the product and the production equipment are covered with 90 fpm (0.457 m/s) air flow while the remainder of the cleanroom operates at a lower velocity of 60 fpm (0.

Finally.In laboratory-type facilities. the most important energy-efficiency measure is to incorporate variable volume exhaust airflow that changes with the position of the protective sash. Manifolding can also reduce first costs and increase system flexibility. there are surprisingly few codes that stipulate the actual amount of exhaust for laboratory-type facilities. reduces exhaust system energy consumption. energyefficient exhaust system can be rendered ineffective if operators are not trained and motivated to use the system to its maximum potential. Code and certification requirements that determine the amount of exhaust need to be verified with the authority that has jurisdiction over the facility design and operation. Certification standards must be carefully understood to insure that they are appropriate for the actual activities for which laboratory equipment and space are being used. 2. Overview of Exhaust Systems As presented in the Laboratory Control and Safety Solutions Application Guide – Rev. even the most sophisticated. Optimizing stack heights and air stream exit velocities can minimize required energy to disperse exhaust stack effluent. when appropriate. Devices that exhaust air from a laboratory have evolved in response to concerns about safety and energy consumption. 1994 all exhaust systems for laboratory-type facilities must meet the following four fundamental requirements: . For fume hoods. however. a fundamental goal of energy engineers is to reduce the amount of exhaust air to the lowest safe level for any particular design because conditioned exhaust air is very energy intensive. Manifolding fume hoods.

life-cycle costs. and dampers must be able to withstand the corrosive or other adverse effects of the transported substances. air-flow tracking. The system must not leak or allow the exhaust air stream to re-enter the facility. one must also consider: first costs. space requirements. The pressure control system's efficient maintenance of laboratory conditions has a large effect on heating. These substances include one or a combination of chemical fumes. At an average cost of $3/cfm [to $7/cfm] each year. "Depending on the technology used. the air pressure control system contributes to the overall energy efficiency of the laboratory facility. In selecting an exhaust system. airborne biological substances and various particulate and radioactive elements. According to Grossman (1995). and air moving expenses. [Lunneberg. to do the job properly. and component reliability (see Chapters 2 and 3). each laboratory air-flow control system may require a different maximum volume of air measured in cfm." More: Laboratory pressure control objectives Static pressure force VAV and laboratory pressure control Application of pressure sensing Application of air-flow tracking Combined pressure sensing and air-flow tracking Enthalpy stabilization Noise Attenuation Energy Efficiency and Noise Attenuation . 1998] More: Exhaust System Configuration Exhaust air cleaning systems Specialized exhaust systems Room Pressure Control Energy Efficiency and Laboratory Pressure Control By insuring that the laboratory is safely and correctly isolated from adjacent spaces. maintainability. vapors. the differences between the energy costs associated with systems can often be quite dramatic. and combination pressure sensing/tracking. The system operation must not generate an unacceptable sound level or excessive vibration. fans. expansion possibilities. The techniques to provide laboratory pressure control include differential pressure sensing.    The system capacity and air velocity must transport all hazardous airborne substances away from their origin and discharge them sufficiently high above the facility. An energyefficient VAV supply and exhaust can be used to control this pressure. The advantages and drawbacks of these techniques make clear that the best choice for safe and energy-efficient laboratory operation is a combination of pressure sensing and air-flow tracking. The system's components such as ducts. cooling.

especially fume hoods. however. and reducing air-flow velocity by oversizing the ductwork. cutting velocity in half can extend filter life by a factor of four. usually those with deep. Active noise cancellation technology can reproduce low-frequency fan noise electronically and reintroduce the noise 180° out of phase. Numerous strategies exist for eliminating noise. ". increasing its energy consumption. HEPA filtration does not necessitate large pressure drops.since filter life is inversely proportional to the square of velocity. 1995.. Degree of Filtration Energy Efficiency and Degree of Filtration . canceling it without restricting air flow within the ductwork.. dampers. An engineer can make a system quieter by selecting low-noise fans. extended surfaces. underrating filter bank(s) by sizing for reduced volume compared to the rated filter volume. Handbook of Facilities Planning. Micro-Electronics Facility Efficiency Workshop. The Micro-Electronics Facility Efficiency Workshop (1995) points out that. Noise is caused by air movement and transmitted by vibrations to the ductwork from fans. incorporating round ductwork. [Wise and Dineen. these recommendations are usually shown to be cost effective when life-cycle cost analysis is done. The next step in designing energy-efficient filtration is reducing pressure loss in filter systems by selecting filters with the lowest pressure drop available." Some High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters cause less pressure drop than the filters typically included in conventional supply systems. Close attention to filtration efficiency will result in significant energy use reductions over the life of the facility. especially when the optimization of the filter's final pressure drop is calculated. it is preferable not to design a noisy system in the first place. and designing the filter bank for a low face velocity of no more than 300 feet per minute (100 feet per minute is best for energy-efficient design). and other components.Noise attenuation devices typically increase the pressure drop of the air distribution system. However. The features described above will cost more than conventional designs partly because of their requirements for increased duct size and filter area. 1990] More: Fans and noise Fume hoods and exhaust ductwork noise Active noise attenuation Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Air Filtration The first step in energy-efficient air filtration design is to determine accurately rather than estimate the filtration required for the laboratory's process needs and for safety. 1995.

The degree of air filtration needed is determined primarily by the process that the air stream serves
and is typically stipulated by codes or researcher requirements. In a typical laboratory, highefficiency filtration is not normally required. Filters with 30 percent ASHRAE efficiency (atmospheric
dust spot test method) provide adequate filtration for a reasonable first cost if maintenance is
provided at appropriate intervals. The type of laboratory isolation required, e.g., hazardous or
protective (see Chapter 2), will also determine the degree of filtration necessary. In a laboratory
isolated for hazardous research, the exhaust air steam may need to be filtered with High Efficiency
Particulate Air (HEPA) and activated-carbon filters. A research laboratory that is protectively isolated
may also require HEPA filtration of the supply air, as in the case of a cleanroom. For energy
efficiency, the filter system should be "underrated." [McIlvaine, 1992; NAFA Guide..., 1993; Bas,

Underrating filters

Underrating a filter system means passing less air through it than its rated capacity allows, that is,
less volume of air per unit time than the clean filter can manage at a specified pressure drop.
Because underrating means a lower pressure drop and increased dust holding capacity compared to
operation at rated capacity, the filter will have a longer life and a lower energy consumption during
its life. The NAFA Guide to Air Filtration (1993) points out that underrating means, "The time required
for a pressure drop increase due to captured dust will be extended."

Filtration overview
Cleanroom filtration

Abstract: Energy Efficiency and Lighting
By Doug Avery, Michael Siminovitch, Ph.D., and Geoffrey C. Bell. P.E.

Typically 10 to 20 percent less energy is consumed by lighting in laboratory-type facilities than by the
HVAC system. Nonetheless, efficient lighting systems provide significant energy savings. Efficient
lighting design begins with understanding the tasks to be performed in the laboratory. A design that
incorporates both dedicated task illumination and general ambient lighting is most energy efficient.
High-efficiency lighting components, such as T8 fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts, are the
starting point in energy-efficient lighting designs. Lighting energy is also dramatically reduced by
control systems that turn off lights based on occupancy or adjusts lighting in response to available
natural light. In some laboratories, a remote lighting system provides the benefit of isolating a large
portion of the lighting system from the laboratory space.

Lighting Design
Energy Efficiency and Lighting Design

Efficient laboratory lighting design first considers the task that occupants will perform in the space.
We review two lighting design approaches: general lighting and task-ambient lighting. The lighting
design approach determines the type of lighting calculation used. Lighting design affects other
energy-consuming systems in the facility. For instance, in cleanrooms, large ceiling luminaires reduce
ceiling area for HEPA filters. As filter area is reduced, filter exit velocity increases, increasing the
static pressure within the system, which causes fans to consume more energy. Finally, all heat
generated by the luminaires and the harder working fans affects cooling equipment sizing.
[McIlvaine, 1992; Eley et al., 1993]

Task identification
General lighting design
Task-ambient lighting

High-Efficiency Lighting Components
Energy Efficiency and Lighting Components
A number of lighting system components are available for installation in research laboratories. This
section will review the various lamps, ballast, and fixtures that are typically utilized to provide
general space illumination, with particular attention to the efficacy of specific lamp and ballast
combinations. Components designed to provide task lighting will also be examined, including
discussions of the relative efficiency of various products. [Catone, 2001]
According to Eley et al. (1993) ref145,
There are three primary means of improving the efficiency of a fluorescent lamp-ballast system:

Reduce the ballast losses.
Operate the lamp(s) at a high frequency.
Reduce losses attributable to the lamp electrodes.

Electronic ballasts

Diagonal air-distribution system for operating rooms: experiment and modeling
Monika Woloszyna, , , Joseph Virgonea and Stéphane Mélenb
Centre de Thermique de Lyon:UCBL, CNRS UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, bat. 307 20, av. A. Einstein,
69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, Jouy-en-Josas, France
Received 19 March 2003; revised 17 March 2004; accepted 24 March 2004. Available online 5 June


The airflow patterns and the diffusion of contaminants in an operating room with a diagonal airdistribution system were subjected to both experimental measurements and numerical modeling. The
experiments were carried out in MINIBAT test cell equipped with an operating table, a medical lamp and a
manikin representing the surgeon. Air velocity and tracer-gas concentration were measured automatically
at more than 700 points. The numerical simulations were performed using EXP′AIR software developed
by Air Liquide for analyzing air quality in operating rooms. Only isothermal conditions were investigated
in this comparison with the numerical software. The results showed that the contaminant distribution
depended strongly on the presence of obstacles such as medical equipment


Technology & Services
a report by 

William Lawrance
Product Manager, Fläkt Woods

Fläkt Woods Group has been supplying air­handling
units for hospitals for several decades. Indeed, even
today, a EU 2000 air­handling unit is being installed
somewhere in the world every 10 minutes. 
The EU 2000 generation of air­handling units have
now been on the market for over 10 years and are
installed in many hospitals all over Northern Europe
and Scandinavia. 
Fläkt Woods have been manufacturing air­handling
units for over four decades and some of the first units
installed are still running well today. 
The air handling unit and the air distribution
terminal devices are important parts of the ventilation
system and now Fläkt Woods is introducing a further
development in air distribution for demanding
indoor environments.
Generally, hospitals tend to have a large number of
relatively small air­handling units, each serving a
specific function within the building. The special
technical demands include hygiene, reliability, safety
and energy­related issues.
Fläkt Woods has some interesting solutions for filter
frames, high­efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter
installation, fans, cooling coils and heat recovery, as
well as silencers and the casing itself.
In a hospital environment, there tend to be high
concentrations of harmful micro­organisms. Their
routes to humans are either by physical contact or by
airbourne routes. In this environment they are
particularly dangerous because of reduced immunity
levels in patients. 
The risk of being infected through the airbourne
route is a function of particle concentration. The
chance of a particle that is carrying an organism
falling into an open wound increases with particle
By reducing the concentration we reduce the
chance of infection and, hence, the number of
patients infected.
Four main factors affect the local concentration
around a person in a room:
• firstly, the concentration of particles would tend
to increase with rate of production of particles in
the room;
• secondly, the proportion of supply and exhaust air
quantity in relation to the size of the room; 
• thirdly, the level of filtration of the supplied air

 European Committee for Standardization (CEN) EN 1822 gives a common standard within Europe and is based on the .will affect the ability of the ventilation system to dilute the room air particle concentration. HEPA filters are available in different grades. The Fläkt Woods patented HEPA filter frame eliminates the risk of bypass leakage while avoiding the use of liquid seals and offering clean and rapid filter replacement. flat belts produce considerably less Air Handling and Ventilation Systems for Hospitals Class Collecting Efficiency (%) at Most  Penetrating Particle Size H10 >85 H12 >99. The group has supplied equipment to a very large number of hospitals. Care must be taken when engineering such a solution since increasing the size of the shaft while avoiding the critical speed compensates for the additional forces on the shaft. and  • fourthly. as a minimum. For example. Ideally. the air handling unit should not produce any dust itself. The last three of these are attributes of the ventilation system that can be engineered to limit the effect of the first and the Fläkt Woods Group have systems and products to meet these engineering problems. limiting the concentration of particles entering the room from outdoors but also of keeping the air­handling unit components as clean as possible in order to reduce the risk of biological growth within the unit itself. This involves the use of a special fan with an extended shaft.  Fläkt Woods have some well­tested solutions that reduce the production of dust generated by the fan set.e. The motor can also be mounted on the outside of the air­handling unit casing so that we avoid mounting both the motor and the belt drive in the air stream. we are able to offer relevant advice based on that experience. the fan and motor assembly must also be fully isolated from the building structure. In addition. The standards used for determining the type of collecting efficiency of filters often differ between Europe and the US. which has given us very long and wide experience.5 Table 1 dust than normal v­belts and are more efficient at transmitting the power from the motor to the fan. air turbulence and air movement in the room can transport particles so the method of air distribution will affect local concentrations.  Final filtration can be used to substantially reduce the concentration of dust particles in the supply air and here the design of the filter frame and its installation can be decisive. but that is more or less impossible where moving parts are concerned i. the fan set. Direct driven fans avoid the use of belts and both plug fans and axial fans can be offered. Air­handling unit filters have the task of. Even within Europe there are different standards in different countries.

 The control system is programmed with a Fläkt Woods developed optimiser.3µm is used in the US. Particles with a size of 0. even if you are operating a variable air volume system. the operating cost will be much higher and the filtration performance reduced. valves. while air pressure drop is proportional to air velocity. Econet ® can be integrated with the chiller system by using warm . The system also offers considerable flexibility since the supply and extract need not be near each other and multiple heat exchangers can be used on either or both of the supply and extract. sensors and control system. Military Standard 282.3µm as a function of the airflow for one whole cassette. which can give substantial benefits in district heating systems. care should be taken when comparing the performance data for HEPA filters from different manufacturers. The return water will be as low as 15–20°C. As a result. dioctyl phthalate (DOP) 0. We also maintain the system after the contractor has installed it. Econet ® is a liquid­coupled heat recovery system with some additional benefits. That means that increasing the velocity (or reducing the overall filter area) may be a false economy since although the initial installation costs may seem lower. The system is delivered complete with a speed­controlled pump.filters’ ability to collect the most penetrating particle size (MPPS) or.3µm are not necessarily the most difficult to catch so for any given individual filter the test result will appear to be better when tested in accordance with the US standard than if tested to the European standard. Note that the collecting efficiency is inversely proportional to the air velocity. Another important advantage of Econet ® is that the system can be connected to a source of low­grade heat. in other words. It is possible to feed water with a temperature as low as 35°C into the heat recovery circuit to provide additional heating when the heat recovery system does not meet the demand. The pump is controlled to circulate the right quantity of water for the prevailing conditions of temperature and air flow rate. how good the filter is at stopping the particles that are most difficult to catch. The advantage of the liquid­coupled system is that there is no risk of transfer of air and contamination from the extract to the supply side. Figure 1 indicates the collecting efficiency for DOP 0. Econet ® is selected to give you a high temperature efficiency and the optimiser ensures that the system gives peak performance continually. Heat Recovery Fläkt Woods offers a full range of heat recovery systems and for hospitals would recommend either liquid coupled or plate heat exchangers.

water from the condensor. normally after .  Our air­handling unit selection program can automatically calculate LCC costs for units selected – ask your local Fläkt Woods representative to demonstrate the LCC program for you and ask for an LCC calculation with your tender bids. we can advise on the best system for your application and discuss the advantages of the different systems. All components are fully tested in our modern research and development (R&D) facility to the most rigorous and up­to­date international standards. the overall LCC is dominated by the cost of energy. Efficient fans and motors will obviously reduce energy cost but selecting a bigger unit will often have a greater impact on the specific fan power.  Technology & Services 2 B U S I N E S S B R I E F I N G : H O S P I T A L E N G I N E E R I N G & F A C I L I T I E S M A N A G E M E N T 2 0 0 3 Figure 1 Page 3 Air Handling and Ventilation Systems for Hospitals LCC = Investment cost + Energy cost + Service cost + Environmental cost + Taxes (if applicable) Over a 10­year period. Econet ® can also be used for cooling. It goes without saying that reliability and longevity are important issues in hospital systems. which is specifically engineered for reliability in operation. Cool  water can be injected into the circuit during the warm season. when this generation of air­handling units was being designed. That is why. the electrical energy used to drive the fan motors is often the largest part of the total energy cost. The EU 2000 unit is a standardised product with flexibility and variety built into the design platform. installing and running an item of equipment for a designated number of years. which can typically add up to over 80% of the total cost. The environmental cost can also be included in this sum. If an air­handling unit is easy to maintain then there is a good chance that it will be maintained. A well­maintained unit performs reliably and gives a long service life as well as good quality supply air. All air­handling units are supplied with order­specific installation instructions. we consulted facilities management companies and maintenance engineers for their input and advice as to the best possible features.  Life­cycle Cost Life­cycle cost (LCC) is the total cost of purchasing. However. Maintenance instructions and spare parts lists are also supplied. As we manufacture the three most important types of heat recovery. Regular and well carried out maintenance will also keep energy costs down. We manufacture all our major components within the Fläkt Woods Group and have full control over quality and performance.  Installing effective heat recovery equipment can reduce heating and cooling energy costs.

 Cleanrooms are. . generate the majority of particles in the occupancy zone itself and mixing systems tend to spread that pollution all over the room and even transmit it to other spaces in the building.  The EU 2000 unit meets all relevant CEN standards and is certified under Eurovent (www. rather expensive to install and run. The well­known Floormaster displace­ ment ventilation system was an innovative develop­ ment that has revolutionised comfort ventilation in many different building applications. Now it is time to take another huge step forward in the development in this system. Elea is uniquely equipped with newly developed low resistance HEPA filters and a room air re­circulation Both the supply and the re­circulated air pass through the filters so that the supply air is clean and particles produced in the room either from the people in it or from a process are filtered out. The documents can be supplied in paper form or in the form of an Acrobat file. Certificates of various types are also available on request. With conventional methods. Elea units can easily replace the existing displacement terminal units without any need for further alteration to the existing ducting and air handling system. HEPA filters and diffusers have only partly satisfied the need to control particle concentration in rooms. Such systems seek to ensure that the air entering the room is clean by diluting the concentration of particles in the room. Naturally.eurovent­ certification. While taking advantage of the displacement ventilation method. Elea CARE is a new air distribution system from Fläkt Woods. Cleanrooms with HEPA filter ceilings can solve the problem since they provide a laminar flow of air vertically down through the room and all contamination created within the room is carried away in the exhaust air. Customised Environment ® – Elea CARE Over the years Fläkt Woods has been a pioneer in air distribution. Fläkt Woods catalogues provide detailed information about all standard components and the company’s selection programs provide all performance data for the specific unit. The EU 2000 unit can also be selected to meet the requirements of the German hygiene standard VDI (Association of German Engineers) 6022. tools and machines etc. This is an important issue and there is a lot of interest in finding improvements in hospital ventilation because of growing concern over hospital­acquired infections. design and production is quality­certified under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 and Fläkt Woods have also attained certification under environmental standard ISO 14000.  3 B U S I N E S S B R I E F I N G : H O S P I T A L E N G I N E E R I N G & F A C I L I T I E S M A N A G E M E N T 2 0 0 3 Figure 2 Page 4 The problem is that people..

 a conventional ventilation system can be used to achieve clean air zones without the need to build expensive cleanrooms. a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) system­simulation tool has been developed by Fläkt Woods. If the air supplied to the displacement terminal has been through a HEPA filter then a relatively clean zone is created near to the terminal itself. Fresh air is passed through a HEPA filter before being supplied to the room using normal displacement technique while a small fan re­circulates room air through a second HEPA filter.95 % of all particles will be taken out of the air. s Technology & Services 4 B U S I N E S S B R I E F I N G : H O S P I T A L E N G I N E E R I N G & F A C I L I T I E S M A N A G E M E N T 2 0 0 3 Figure 3: Mixing Ventilation Figure 4: Displacement Ventilation Figure 5 air distribution system in hospitals About this book Search Books Constructio Methods.  With this system. covering most requirements. The pressure drop is low and the device is designed so that it can replace existing displacement terminals without any need to increase the supply airflow. air velocity and particle concentration in a room with a high accuracy and is backed up by well­documented laboratory testing that has been used to calibrate the CFD model.Displacement systems use the heat sources in the room to create a temperature gradient and a slow movement of air from the floor­mounted displacement terminal towards the ceiling. The depth of dirty air near the ceiling depends on the airflow rate and the rate of particle production in the room. The software tool simulates the spread of temperature. The device also features an integrated exhaust air section with a third HEPA filter to clean the air before removing it from the room. To help you design with Elea CARE.  Customised Environment ® Elea CARE addresses this problem by adding air  re­circulation with HEPA filtration within the room. which means that 99. Materials. a Techniques Preview this book By William Perkin Spence Page Exit full . Both the supply and the re­circulation filters are grade H12. Elea CARE is available in five sizes for airflows up to 540m3/h. Particles are carried up to the ceiling by the upward currents of air from the various heat sources in the room and the dirty air is extracted at ceiling level. Increasing the grade of filtration in the air­handling system does not improve the air quality significantly if the room has a high particle load.

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the control of airborne contaminants is a consideration in addition to the room comfort conditions. Concrete Repair Tekla Structures Commercial Concrete Masonry Repair Vacuum www. The system must also isolate and remove this contaminated air so it cannot mix with the clean supply air.freepatentsonline. A constant volume delivery duct is provided to counter the constant volume toilet exhaust. with a clean air supply and isolation from adjacent areas.Page 1047 is not part of this book preview. Hospital Operating Rooms [Component Selection] Hospital Operating Rooms Air distribution for hospital operating rooms is much more critical and specialized than for a typical air conditioned office building space. The room temperature is maintained by a variable volume system including a variable volume supply duct and a variable volume return duct.tekla. are the surgical team and patient. In an office building the air distribution system is designed to entrain room air into the supply air stream so as to rapidly mix the two air masses and create a more uniform temperature in a draftless occupied zone. Dampers in the variable volume ducts are controlled in unison to control the room temperature as desired while always maintaining equal inflow and outflow in the variable volume system to maintain the pressure level in the room. The function of the operating room’s air distribution system. In the hospital operating room. A specially constructed and partitioned terminal unit provides a terminal for the variable volume supply and return ducts and the constant volume supply Injection & Epoxy Injection The new generation of 3D modeling www. Opinions vary regarding the importance of airborne contamination with respect to postoperative Air delivery system for hospital rooms and the like Document Type and Number: United States Patent 4489881 Link to this page: http://www. therefore must be to carry away any contaminants expelled into the air by either the surgical team or the patient on the operating table. and the flow rates in the constant volume ducts are selected to maintain the desired pressure level in the This type of air distribution system is not suitable for a hospital operating room as it would cause the uncontrolled spread of airborne contaminants. It is generally agreed that the majority of infections are caused by contact contamination from the patient The largest sources of contamination in a sterilized operating room.balvac. The simplest way to reduce .html Abstract: A method and apparatus for delivering conditioned air to hospital patient rooms or clean rooms which are maintained at a higher or lower pressure level than the adjacent halls.

This practice of dilution has led to air supply exchange rates much in excess of those typically required for thermal control. Studies have also indicated a relationship between the incidence of infection and the level of air contamination. etc. While the validity of these results can be questioned due to changes in surgical gowns. The two primary sources of airborne contamination are generally considered to be micro-organisms present within the operating room and particles introduced into the operating room by ventilation or infiltration. The supply air for a laminar flow ventilation system is filtered by a HEPA filter bank located upstream of the operating room air distribution system. The high air change rates required to produce laminar flow over the entire room normally rule out this system due to high energy costs. The most effective laminar flow ventilation system would have the entire ceiling consisting of laminar flow diffusers to prevent entrainment. antibiotics. A complete ceiling of laminar flow panels would require much more air to develop a proper air pattern than is required to achieve the specified number of air Laminar Flow .themselves or the surgical team. Particles entering the operating room by ventilation can be controlled with the use of high efficiency particulate filters. Laminar Flow Systems The laminar flow ventilation system was Laminar Flow . Although laminar flow diffusers discharge air at low face velocity.Partial Ceiling Supply changes per hour. surgical techniques. By reducing the area of laminar airflow to the critical zone around the operating table. This should be considered when laying out the location for the laminar flow diffusers. This entrainment in combination with the temperature differential of the supply air causes the air pattern to angle towards the center of the discharge air envelope. An effective method of controlling the transport of airborne contamination is the introduction of supply air into the operating room at a low uniform velocity to promote a stable downward flow of air. As a result.Full Ceiling Supply developed to provide a method of controlling the transport of air contamination by introducing the supply air into the operating room at low uniform velocities promoting a stable downward flow of air. some entrainment of room air still occurs. the airborne contaminants present in the operating room is to increase the fresh air ventilation rate. In fact. As a result the clean zone is reduced as the distance from the face of the diffuser is increased. filter service and maintenance can be performed without entering the sterile . the total air requirements of the system can be reduced.. the consensus is simply that the air should be kept as clean as possible. these increased air exchange rates can lead to thermal discomfort due to drafts. while infiltration is controlled by maintaining a positive pressure in the operating room as compared to the surrounding spaces. an air distribution system for the operating room must be capable of introducing a large volume of supply air into the space in a controlled manner while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the occupied zone. or by HEPA filters which are an integral part of each of the laminar flow diffusers. With the HEPA filters located in a bank upstream of the operating room.

Typically the return system is sized for approximately 85% of the total supply airflow. Care must be taken that the differential between return and supply air volumes is not too great as this could impede the dilution of the contaminated air. approximately three to six inches above the floor. the surgical staff. maintaining a barrier between the clean zone around the operating table and the surrounding operating room. . The operating room return air system ideally consists of four return grilles. For this reason. laminar flow of clean air over the possible to have a return grille in each wall. where the laminar flow diffuser is most likely to entrain room air. next best option is to have two return grilles. When using only typically filtered using HEPA filters two return grilles if they were located on adjacent located upstream of the operating room air distribution system. Contamination entering the operating room by infiltration is controlled by keeping the operating room at a positive pressure in relation to the surrounding areas. one located in the Laminar flow diffusers installed in the center of each wall. between the laminar flow diffusers and the contaminated room air at the ceiling level. Laminar Flow with Air Curtain In many cases. The air curtain presents a physical barrier. The return grilles are mounted at low level. allowing room for the surgical staff and equipment to move and still be contained in the clean zone. In the case where it is not ceiling inside the air curtain provide low velocity. in the form of a clean air curtain.environment of the operating room. patient and operating table. This air curtain is created using linear slot diffusers on each of the four sides around the operating table. the return air volume must be slightly less than the supply air volume. located on opposite sides of the air curtain. Supply diffuser with room side replaceable integral HEPA filters offer ease of accessibility for filter service and change-out. but must be accessed from inside the sterile operating room. toward exhaust grilles. the ongoing energy costs associated with a full ceiling laminar flow ventilation system can be reduced by reducing the size of the area requiring laminar airflow. Of the total supply walls. Essentially. The linear air diffusers discharge the supply air at an angle of approximately 15° from vertical. In this location they exhaust both the contaminated air and any heavier-than-air gases. through the air curtain and the remaining 25 – 35% is distributed through the laminar flow diffusers. Alternatively. The Price HORD is an integrated system of laminar flow and linear slot diffusers that minimizes mixing of room and supply air to create a controlled operating room work area. thus speeding dilution of the contaminated room air. The air curtain entrains contaminated room air to its outer boundary layer and carries it way from the operating table work area. This is achieved by surrounding the operating table with an air curtain. 65 – 75% of the supply air is delivered contaminated air back into the operating area. the grilles could be located in The supply air for this type of system is opposite corners of the room. creating a clean zone around the operating table within the operating room. The linear slot diffusers are installed in the ceiling a minimum of 3 feet out from the sides of the operating table. this could result in the migration of air.

Sealed access doors in the drywall ceiling are installed near equipment requiring periodic maintenance and service. requiring removal of large portions of the drywall ceiling. Component Selection Air Curtain [Hospital Operating Rooms] . If equipment must ever be removed from the ceiling space. forming the seal. These are drywall ceilings. This is to prevent infiltration of contaminants from the ceiling space and to allow for pressurization of the operating room. the access doors may not be large enough to facilitate this. Ceiling panels are clipped in place. The drywall ceiling works well for sealing the operating room from the ceiling plenum. Panels are normally constructed of painted metal to facilitate cleaning. compressing the gasket between the panel and tee. panels and tees can be removed to allow access. This typically consists of the perimeter of the room being drywall and the center. The third type of ceiling system is the combination of drywall and gasketed t-bar ceilings. In the event equipment must be removed.Ceiling Construction The role of the ceiling in an operating room is to seal the room from the ceiling plenum. but can pose a problem when ceiling space access is required. There are typically three ceiling systems used in hospital operating rooms. This system provides easy access to equipment located above the tbar system. When it is necessary to get into the ceiling space. the clips are removed and the panels are lifted allowing access to the equipment installed above the operating room. above the operating table being gasketed t-bar as shown in the drawing. Combination Drywall / T-Bar Ceiling A gasketed T-bar ceiling also works well for sealing the operating room from the ceiling plenum and has the added advantage of allowing access to the ceiling space when required. gasketed t-bar ceilings and a combination of drywall and gasketed t-bar ceilings.

Air pattern “flows” over the operating table on its way to the floor. Low level exhaust grilles remove contaminated air and heavier-than-air gases from O.  System Overview  Perforated face discharges nonaspirating (non-mixing) vertical flow of clean air.R.  Terminal Units for Cleanrooms    LFD / LFDSS / LFD2 Laminar Flow Diffuser A variety of liner options are available.  Single or multiple side feeds from supply air plenum. Unitee CR Cleanroom Ceiling Systems    Prevents air leakage between plenum and operating room. Creates a “washing” and “rinsing” effect. Stainless steel construction ensures strength and ease of cleaning. Utilizes unique holddown clip and gasketed tee design. Creates a “room within a room” around perimeter of operating table work area. Reduces risk of micro-organism growth. 730 / 735 Series Stainless Steel Return Grilles   Prevents fibrous particles from entering supply air stream. Exhaust volume should be 15% lower than supply to ensure positive room pressure. Ceiling panels available specific to applications. .HORD Hospital Operating Room Diffuser    Linear slot discharges vertical curtain of clean air.

) Laminar Flow LFDC / LFDCD Laminar Flow Diffuser with High Efficiency Filters Terminal Units for Cleanrooms   A variety of liner options are available. Reduces risk of micro-organism growth.999%.  Houses a high efficiency filter with extraction efficiencies from 95% to 99. 730 / 735 Series Stainless Steel Return Grilles   Low level return grilles remove contaminated air from the room. Stainless steel construction ensures strength and ease of cleaning.Price offers a wide variety of products which meet the air distribution requirements of modern hospitals and medical facilities. UNITEE CR / UNITEE HDCR Clean Room Ceiling System    Prevents air leakage between plenum and cleanroom. Burn Wards. Ceiling panels available specific to cleanroom applications. Price specialized environment products and engineering expertise have been created to handle any critical hospital applications (Intensive Care units. Recovery Rooms. etc. Illustrated is a typical installation of a hospital operating room to meet stringent ventilation needs.  Provides a laminar or unidirectional flow of clean air over the operating table.  Prevents fibrous particles from entering supply air stream. Utilizes unique hold-down clip and gasketed tee design. .

Creates a “room within a room” around perimeter of operating table work area. Air pattern “flows” over the operating table on its way to the floor. 730 / 735 Series Stainless Steel Return Grilles Unitee CR Cleanroom Ceiling Systems .  Single or multiple side feeds from supply air plenum. This illustration is an example of a cleanroom where dust and microorganisms are removed from the supply air and the required level of cleanliness is maintained.System Overview Price has developed a series of components which can provide a supply of clean filtered air to today’s modern cleanrooms. Cleanroom components ensure that air is cleaned utilizing high efficiency filters at terminal diffusers. Creates a “washing” and “rinsing” effect. Component Selection [Hospital Operating Rooms] Air Curtain HORD Hospital Operating Room Diffuser    LFD / LFDSS / LFD2 Laminar Flow Diffuser Linear slot discharges vertical curtain of clean air.  Terminal Units for Cleanrooms  Perforated face discharges nonaspirating (non-mixing) vertical flow of clean air.

  Prevents fibrous particles from entering supply air stream. Burn Wards. Ceiling panels available specific to applications. . Reduces risk of micro-organism growth.    Exhaust volume should be 15% lower than supply to ensure positive room pressure. Stainless steel construction ensures strength and ease of cleaning.  Provides a laminar or unidirectional flow of clean air over the operating table.999%. Price specialized environment products and engineering expertise have been created to handle any critical hospital applications (Intensive Care units.) Laminar Flow LFDC / LFDCD Laminar Flow Diffuser with High Efficiency Filters Terminal Units for Cleanrooms   A variety of liner options are available. Reduces risk of micro-organism growth. Utilizes unique holddown clip and gasketed tee design. Recovery Rooms.  Low level exhaust grilles remove contaminated air and heavier-than-air gases from O.R.  Prevents fibrous particles from entering supply air stream.   A variety of liner options are available. Illustrated is a typical installation of a hospital operating room to meet stringent ventilation needs. System Overview Price offers a wide variety of products which meet the air distribution requirements of modern hospitals and medical facilities.  Houses a high efficiency filter with extraction efficiencies from 95% to 99. Prevents air leakage between plenum and operating room. etc.

O.. However very few .730 / 735 Series Stainless Steel Return Grilles   UNITEE CR / UNITEE HDCR Clean Room Ceiling System Low level return grilles remove contaminated air from the room. anytime and anywhere. cancer can affect anyone. The institute provides the treatment in the following major specialties: » Medical Oncology » Surgical Oncology » Pediatric Oncology » Radiation Oncology The word "Cancer" is widely associated with impending death amongst a large number of people.    Prevents air leakage between plenum and cleanroom. This is understandable as Cancer is a killer disease.H. Utilizes unique hold-down clip and gasketed tee design. globally one out of three women and one out of four men are likely to get cancer in their lifetime. System Overview Price has developed a series of components which can provide a supply of clean filtered air to today’s modern cleanrooms. Cleanroom components ensure that air is cleaned utilizing high efficiency filters at terminal diffusers. Stainless steel construction ensures strength and ease of cleaning. This illustration is an example of a cleanroom where dust and microorganisms are removed from the supply air and the required level of cleanliness is maintained. Apollo Cancer Institute Medical Oncology Pediatric Oncology Radiation Oncology Surgical Oncology Apollo Cancer Institute (Ext: 1970. With such a high probability rate. which is a comprehensive. advanced by latest technology with the most competent and highly skilled health care professionals. 1971) The Apollo Cancer Institute. multidisciplinary. Ceiling panels available specific to cleanroom applications. According to the W.

 From the beginning. An interview with  Dr. state-of-the-art facility. Y. It brings in the latest technology with the most competent and highly skilled health care professionals. in which the associated  morbidity is much lower than with other modalities of treatment. P. Bhatia and Dr..people know that cancer is curable in a large number of cases if detected early and a patient can lead a normal life. offer medical care at an affordable cost to patients. Although the prognosis of the disease is bad in an advanced stage. at the same time. BHATIA: We observed long ago that oncology services were lacking in Northern India. Interview conducted by Lalitha Maheshwaran. Following are some excerpts from the interview: MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: What is the overall mission of your institution? How does IMRT help to fulfill your objectives? DR. multidisciplinary. India. is one of the few medical centers in the country to have Intensity­Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) technology. this was our overall objective and IMRT was an important development because of its high­precision technique. and the demand for these Dr. which is a comprehensive. We therefore wanted to build a facility that would be compatible with global standards and. Page 2 SCIENCE RADIATION THERAPY MEDICAL SOLUTIONS RSNA 2004 93 services was increasing steadily. Advanced Radiation Therapy Treatments at the Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute. Anil Kumar Anand (left) and Dr. The Indraprastha Apollo Hospital. Anil Kumar Anand. Siemens Ltd. Bhatia (right)  at the interview with Medical Solutions. India additional topics of importance regarding advanced radiation therapy treatment in India today. This institute has the unique advantage of not being a stand-alone cancer unit but also having the most modern backup from all super specialties and diagnostics. today the use of modern technology has brought the cure rate of cancer to almost 70-80%. a dedicated oncology center in New Delhi. P. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: How has Siemens partnered with . New Delhi The Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute (RGCI). New Delhi has recently started the Apollo Cancer Institute. Y.

 It is expected that this will be completed in June or July of 2005. Additionally.  It is one of the most modern oncology centers in India. treats over 140 patients per day and. Kataria (radiation oncologist)  and physicist Mr. because cancer patients requiring radiation therapy are underserved in our area. BHATIA: Certainly there is a need for expansion. I spoke earlier about the need for maxi­ mum uptime. When we set up our institute. Page 4 SCIENCE RADIATION THERAPY MEDICAL SOLUTIONS RSNA 2004 95 there is the challenge of keeping spare parts available for our existing equipment. This would be a  natural expansion because we have already trained some of their doctors in clinical oncology. CANCERS OF THE HEAD. We need to continuously advance ourselves at every opportunity. and we have already moved ahead in that direction. we expected to handle seven or eight new patients per day.your institute in meeting these goals? THE RAJIV GANDHI CANCER Institute in New Delhi is one of the few oncology centers in India to provide IMRT. BHATIA: There are two issues that we need to handle simultaneously. clearly. Munjal (from left to right) discuss the treatment planning of a patient. Apart from this. The situation in other institutions is similar. and how the absence of this can become a hindrance to our goal of maximum treatment time. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: What are your major challenges? DR. BHATIA: The history of our association with Siemens dates back to the inception of the institute. BHATIA: The demand is steadily increasing. In order to remain compatible with world standards. Dr. neck and brain are the most common tumors. we are able to keep the downtime in our facility to a bare minimum. and their impact . MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: How has the demand for radiation oncology services increased compared to existing treatment facilities currently available in India? DR. IN INDIA. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: Could you explain your views on the role of health insurance providers in India. we were assisted by a soft loan from the German government to help purchase the technologies we required. a new extension is opening up in the same campus. we cannot afford a breakdown of the equipment â€“ even for one day â€“ as there would be sheer Page 3 SCIENCE RADIATION THERAPY 94 MEDICAL SOLUTIONS RSNA 2004 chaos if that were to happen. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: Is there need for major expansion of these facilities? If yes. We handle approximately 25 to 30 new patients each day. Dr. in what way? DR. Because of Siemens’ tremen­ dous uptime commitment. Siemens advanced radiation therapy equipment is an integral part of our system. we are putting together an outreach program. The linear accelerator. Today. Anand. we have to offer the latest equipment and technology to our patients. The second issue is the rapid obso­ lescence of technology. At that stage. which will have 120 additional beds and two new linear accelerators. for example. DR. but we actually receive approximately three to four times that number. and there are ongoing discussions with the  government of Meghalaya (a province in Eastern India) to build their own cancer control program. For example. One is the growing number of people who need oncology care services in the wide area that we have to cover in Northern India.

 with previous treatments. For the rest. this condition would distort the internal structure of the oral cavity. In a study of 19 cases. putting us fairly high up the learning curve. Could you explain the impact of IMRT in these cases? DR. We can design the treatment in such a way that the maximum dose follows the contour of the tumor. We now have  experience with IMRT treatment in more than 250 cases. With IMRT. the dose distribution is better and we can handle irregular tumors more effectively. neck and brain tumors. the parotid glands are spared and mouth dryness is avoided. Hence the patient remains comfortable and we can handle a greater number  of patients. For example. requiring us to be extremely cautious. any medical expense is an out­of­pocket expense to the patient. 140 PATIENTS per day are treated with the PRIMUS  linear accelerator. ANAND: In radiation therapy. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: What were the main considerations that prompted you to choose Siemens equipment? DR. radiologic technicians verify the individual settings for each patient. The tumor was very close to the optic nerve. it would signifi­ cantly help out a lot of people. it has a long way to go to become acceptable. so the patient is on the treat­ ment table for a shorter period of time. With earlier types of treatment. BEFORE THE RADIATION treatment begins. BHATIA: Health insurance in this country needs to mature a lot â€“ basically. If the insurance system were to become more widespread. . and we were quite happy â€“ a certain comfort level had developed over  the years. we were able to completely avoid this problem for 78 percent of the patients. One of the most common problems in head and neck cancer is dryness of the mouth. their technology is superior  to others. We can increase the dose even if there  are critical structures in the close vicinity. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: What are the most important tech­ nological advantages that IMRT offers compared to earlier techniques? DR. she was able to recover  completely. And. because it offers a number of advantages. only 12 percent of the population is covered. but with IMRT. The SIMTEC IM­MAXX technology allows us to provide faster delivery of IMRT. ANAND: We have had several cases. If you look at all types of insurance. including the schemes run by the Indian government. IMRT is the most important development since the introduction of the linear accelerator. More importantly. which results in very high uptime for our equipment.on patient care and treatment economics? DR. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: What was the most dramatic patient experience in terms of therapeutic effectiveness at your center? DR. but the one which particularly comes to mind is that of a 56­year­old woman who had a recurrent tumor in the paranasal sinus. ANAND: IMRT is most useful particularly in head. with minimum damage to the sur­ rounding normal tissue. MEDICAL SOLUTIONS: Head and neck cancer is one of the most common cancers in India. ANAND: We have had two previous experiences in deal­ ing with Siemens over the past seven years. Siemens has a significant presence in Northern India with very reliable service. this would not have been possible.