Learning Management System

Subject Name

The Cell






Chapter Overview



Characteristics of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Detailed structure of typical animal and plant cells as seen under light and electron microscope
Using the light microscope for measuring cells
Outline functions of organelles in plant and animal cells:-Fluid Mosaic Model; the movement of
substances into and out of cells

Learning Objectives
Understand the characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
Detailed structure of an Animal Cell and a Plant Cell and their differences
Using the light microscope for measuring cells
Outline functions of organelles in plant and animal cells
Fluid Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane
Movement of substances into and out of cells
Replication and division of nuclei and cells - MITOSIS

Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this topic students should be able to:

Differentiate Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

Recognise Animal and Plant cells

Measure the cells using a Light Microscope and state the magnification

State the functions of the organelles in plant and animal cells

Describe the structure of the Fluid Mosaic Model of the plasma membrane and relate
how substances move into and out of cells

Recognise the different stages of Mitosis in a cell

Last update: 16 December 2010
This material is only for viewing purposes. Do not print and distribute.

Page 1 of 9

Why Are Cells Small? 1. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life. If phospholipid molecules are surrounded by water. 2. All cells come from pre-existing cells. Organelles separate reactions with respect to time (allowing proper sequencing) and space (allowing incompatible reactions to occur in close proximity). 2. this means that the interior will not be so extensive that it will not be able to exchange materials efficiently through the plasma membrane. Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) do not have a separation of the DNA from the remainder of the cell parts. their hydrophobic fatty acid tails cluster and a lipid bilayer results. DNA carries the hereditary instructions. and contains receptors that can affect the cell’s activities. 1. 2. Because of their small size. hydrophilic heads are at the outer faces of a two-layer sheet. Page 2 of 9 . All eukaryotic cells contain organelles. Do not print and distribute. D. Cells are necessarily small so that the surface-to-volume ratio remains low. C. 3. Eukaryotic cells have a definite nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. A large portion of the cell membrane is composed of phospholipids. permits the flow of molecules across the membrane. 2. The Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell A. Organelles form compartmentalized portions of the cytoplasm. 2. A plasma membrane separates each cell from the environment. The cytoplasm containing a semifluid matrix (cytosol) and organelles is located between the plasma membrane and the region of DNA B There are Two Basic Kinds of Cells 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell theory: has three generalization: 1. B. Cells: Organized for Life A. most cells can only be seen by using light and electron microscopes. 1. The Structure of a Cell’s Membranes Reflects Their Function 1. 3.Learning Management System Introduction A. B. The small size if the most cells necessitates the use of some type of microscope. All Cells Are Alike in Some Ways 1. each composed of a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails. 2. A diagram of a typical animal cell and brief descriptions are below Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. 2.

Page 3 of 9 . and are found on one-celled protistans and animal sperm cells. slender threads. spin. recognition proteins. Flagella are quite long. receptor proteins. microfilaments and intermediate filaments – all assembled from protein subunits. A. which also results from short-tailed lipids and unsaturated tails (kink at double bonds). 1. C. 4. they diffuse sideways. and flex their tails to prevent close packing and promote fluidity. The Cytoskeleton: Support and Movement A.Learning Management System 3. Cilia are shorter and more numerous and can provide locomotion for free-living cells or may move surrounding water and particles if the ciliated sell is anchored. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. Bilayers of phospholipids. The microtubules of flagella and cilia arise from centrioles which are associated with basal bodies. Without a bilayer . B. 2. such as filaments operational in muscle contraction. Do not print and distribute. are the structural foundation of cell membranes. The Plasma Membrane: A Lipid Bilayer. 1. The Plasma Membrane is a Mix of Lipids and Proteins 1. phospolipids show quite a bit of movement. such as the “spindle” microtubles used in chromosome movement during cell division. and adhesion proteins. 2. Membrane Proteins (most are glycoproteins) serve as transport proteins. 2. B. Membrane Proteins Carry Out Most Membrane Functions 1. The cytoskeleton is an inter connected system of bundled fibers. 2. interspersed with glycolipids and cholesterol. are usually not numerous. others are permanent. The main components are microtubules. The scattered islands of protein in the sea of lipid creates a “mosaic” effect. Flagella and cilia are microtubular extensions of the plasma membrane have 9+2 crosssectional array and are useful in propulsion. lattices extending from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. Some portions are transient.

Within the cytoplasm. D. Smooth ER has no ribosomes: it is the area from which vesicles carrying proteins and lipids are budded. The Cytomembrane System A. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. C. The Golgi bodies resemble stack of flatten sacs whose edges break away as vesicles. A Variety of Vesicles 1. Golgi Bodies: Packing and Shipping 1. Page 4 of 9 . In the Golgi bodies. and packaging. oligosaccharide groups are attached to polypeptides as they pass through on their way to other organelles or to secretory vesicles. 2. or bacteria and foreign particles. 2. Rough ER consists of stacked. it also inactivates harmful chemicals. Lysosomes are vesicles that bud from Golgi bodies. 3. Do not print and distribute.Learning Management System Fluid Mosaic Model of a Cell Membrane 5. B. The endoplasmic reticulum is a collection of interconnected tubes an flattened sacs. continuous with the nuclear membrane. newly formed polypeptide chains assembled on the ribosomes may enter the cytomembrane system. ER: A Protein and Lipid Assembly Line 1. proteins and lipids undergo final processing. flattened sacs with many ribosomes attached. sorting. worn-out cell parts. they carry powerful enzymes that can digest the contents of other vesicles.

Page 5 of 9 . C. 3. Molecules constantly collide and tend to move according to existing concentration gradients. HCO3-)must be moved by membrane transport proteins. Peroxisomes are membrane-bound sacs of enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids.Learning Management System 2. b. Exocytosis moves substances from cytoplasm to plasma membrane during secretion. Other Ways Substances Cross Cell Membranes A. 2. can transport and store substances within the cytoplasm.” 2. electrically neutral molecules (for example. Osmotic movements are affected by the relative concentrations of solutes in the fluids inside and outside the cell (tonicity) a. Ca+. Moving Substances Across Membranes By Diffusion and Osmosis A. carbon dioxide. d. 3. small sacs made of membranes. solutes pass through channel proteins in accordance with the concentration gradient. Cell membranes show selective permeability 1. An isotonic fluid has the same concentration of solutes as the fluid in the cell. Lipid-soluble molecules and small. and ethanol) cross the lipid bilayer by simple diffusion. example: Na+ -K+ B. Gradients in pressure. 2. Larger molecules (such as glucose) and charged ions (such as Na+. 7. Osmosis: How Water Crosses Membranes 1. 6. cells immersed in it may swell. Vesicles. In active transport. c. Diffusion: A Solute Moves Down a Gradient 1. immersion in it causes no net movement of water. Osmosis is the passive movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane in response to solute concentration gradient. In passive transport. 2. Osmotic water movements across a membrane produce osmotic pressure (the tendency of water to move from a hydrostatic pressure. A Vesicles Transport Larger Solutes 1. also called : “facilitated diffusion. B. The net movement of like molecules down a concentration gradient (high to low) is simple diffusion. A hypotonic fluid has a lower concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cell. temperature. solutes can move against concentration gradients with assistance from transport proteins that can change their shape with energy supplied by ATP. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. Do not print and distribute. Small Solutes Cross Membranes Through Transport Proteins 1. 2. oxygen. A hypertonic fluid has a greater concentration of solutes than does the fluid in the cells. cells in it may shrivel. and electric charge can also influence movement. Endocytosis (also known as phagocytosis) encloses particles in small portions of plasma membrane to form vesicles that then move into cytoplasm.

DNA is Organized in Chromosomes 1. which contains the code for proteins assembly. 9. The nuclear membrane helps regulate the exchange of signals between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. D. Do not print and distribute. B. 2. In this region. Chromatin describes the cell’s collection of DNA plus the proteins associated with it. Mitochondria: The Cell’s Energy Factories A. Each mitrochondrion has compartments formed by inner folded membranes (cristae) surrounded by a smooth outer membrane. Mitochondria make ATP. ATP Forms in an Inner Compartment of the Mitochondrion 1. from the sites (ribosome in cytoplasm) where proteins will be assembled. 2. 2.Learning Management System 8. A Nuclear Envelope Encloses the Nucleus 1. Page 6 of 9 . Mitrochondria have their own DNA and some ribosomes. Each chromosome is one DNA and its associated proteins. The nucleolus appears as a dense mass inside the nucleus. The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayers with pores. which leads scientists to believe they may have evolved from ancient bacteria. 1. 1. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. The nucleus encloses DNA. Its membrane isolates DNA. 2. 1. B. C. The envelope membranes are continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. The Nucleus A. 2. Oxygen is required for the release of this energy. subunits of ribosomes are prefabricated before shipment out of the nucleus. 2. Proteins and RNA are Built in the Nucleolus. the building code for cellular proteins. Mitochondria are the primary organelles for transferring the energy in carbohydrates to ATP.

The quantity of mitochondria within cells varies with the type of cell. "Microvillus" is the singular form. Cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance that is sometimes described as "the cell-matrix". which is the area through which diffusion of materials both into. It holds the organelles in place within the cell. allowing materials to move both into and outside of the cell. "Mitochondria" is a plural term. They generate energy in the form of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP). A prokaryotic organism. These are the energy producers within the cell. Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek meaning truly nuclear). the more energy a cell needs. Lysosomes are tiny sacs filled with enzymes that enable the cell to utilize its nutrients. A cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus or membranebounded organelles. The cell membrane keeps the cell together by containing the organelles within it. which is appropriate as these are not found alone. the cell is possible. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. structures within the cell that are specialised for particular functions. Generally. Microvilli are finger-like projections on the outer-surface of the cell. Page 7 of 9 . Lysosomes also destroy the cell after it has died. Their function is to increase the surface area of the cell. which are responsible for cell-division. which functions it is performing and in which part of the body). The golgi apparatus of a cell is usually connected to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) because it stores and then transports the proteins produced in the ER. Prokaryotic cells are thus more primitive than eukaryotic cells. The centrosomes contain the centrioles. consists of single prokaryotic cell. the more mitochondria it contains. Cell membranes are selectively-permeable. such as a bacterium. though there are some circumstances (diseases/conditions) in which lysosomes begin to 'break-down' living cells. which evolved from them. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleus and the nucleolus from the rest of the contents of the cell. "Microvilli" is the pural form. and out of. They can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus. Do not print and distribute. Not all cells have microvilli.Learning Management System KEY TERMS TERMS Cell Structure Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell organelles Cell Membrane Centrosomes Cytoplasm Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Microvilli Mitochondria Nuclear Membrane DEFINITIONS/FUNCTIONS The structure of cells varies according to the type and purpose of the cell (for example.

etc. Information is carried on chromosomes.g. The endoplasmic reticulum is where proteins and lipids are produced within the cell. Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration. and out of.). which contains DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes. as required. and cellular information) to pass both into. and also information for the formation of proteins. Page 8 of 9 . Ribosomes Ribosomes interpret cellular information from the nucleus and so synthesize appropriate proteins. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients. Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Nucleus The nucleus is the "Control Center" of the cell. which are a form of DNA. "Smooth" indicates that there are no ribosomes attached to the surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum. and is also concerned with the transport of these materials within the cell. waste. Membranes & Cell Transport TERMS Selective permeability DEFINITIONS allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others Passive Transport The movement of a substance across the membrane with no energy investment Spontaneous process by which molecules move from a region where they are highly concentrated to a region in which their concentration is lower. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) "Rough" indicates that there are ribosomes attached to the surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum. energy is Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. Do not print and distribute.Learning Management System Nuclear Pore Nucleolus Nuclear pores permit substances (such as nutrients. ribosomes. the nucleus. lysosomes. and is also concerned with the transport of these materials within the cell. The nucleolus is responsible for the cell organelles (e.The endoplasmic reticulum is where proteins and lipids are produced within the cell.

"bulk-phase pinocytosis". Do not print and distribute. 3rd Ed. non-adsorptive pinocytosis". moves substances out of the cell Substances to be released are enclosed within a membrane sac which migrates to the plasma membrane. McGraw Hill Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. or to break down. meaning eating. Phagocytosis (from Greek phago. (moving it from low concentration to high). Page 9 of 9 . fuses.  Human Biology by Cecie Starr & Bevery McMillan 2007.. John Wiley & Sons. pinocytosis ("cell-drinking". meaning vessel. 8th Ed.Learning Management System not required. Mader 2004. "nonspecific.. REFERENCES  Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments by Gerald Karp 2005. Thomson Brooks/Cole  Human Biology by Sylvia S. Active Transport Exocytosis Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Energy is expended by the cell to move a molecule across its membrane against its concentration gradient. The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localised regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle. cyte. 7th Ed. Inc. "fluid endocytosis") is a form of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell suspended within small vesicles that subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze.. the particles. and then ruptures releasing the contents of the sac. and osis meaning process) is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internal phagosome by phagocytes and protists.