Learning Management System

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Chapter Overview



Biological Molecules Are Joined Together or Broken Apart by Removing or Adding
There Are Several Monosaccharides with Slightly Different Structures
Disaccharides Consist of Two Single Sugars Linked by Dehydration Synthesis
Polysaccharides Are Chains of Single Sugars
Proteins Are Formed from Chains of Amino Acids
Amino Acids Are Joined to Form Chains by Dehydration Synthesis
A Protein Can Have Up to Four Levels of Structure
The Functions of Proteins Are Linked to Their Three-Dimensional Structures

Learning Objectives
Understand the structure of carbohydrates and lipids and their roles in living organisms
Understand the structure of proteins and their roles in living organisms
Know the importance of water in living organisms
Carry out laboratory work to identify the biological molecules

Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this topic you should be able to:
 Classify the different types of carbohydrates – monosaccharides, disaccharides and
polysaccharides and describe their roles in living organisms
 Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats and their roles in living organisms
 Illustrate that different functions of protein depend on their shape
 Distinguish that life depends on water
 Identify the different biological molecules in the laboratory through experiments
4. Carbohydrates
A. Carbohydrate can be simple sugar or a larger molecule compound od sugar units.
1. Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules.
2. Carbohydrates serve as energy sources or have structural roles.
Last update: 16 December 2010
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3. 2. Glycogen is a storage form of glucose found in animal tissues. A oligosaccharide is a short chain resulting from the covalent bonding of two or three monosaccharides. Saturated fatty acids have only single C-C bonds in their tails. Ribose and deoxyribose (five-carbon backbone) are building blocks for nucleic acids. unbranched hydrocarbon with a –COOH group at one end. C. A polysaccharide consists of many sugar units (same or different) covalently linked. Page 2 of 7 . A monosaccharide – one sugar unit – is the simplest carbohydrate. The sterols are important in the formation of hormones. 2. A fatty acid is a long. Fats and Energy-Storing Lipids 1. 3. are solids at room temperatures. and are derived from animal sources. 2. Do not print and distribute. 2. Lipids A. Lipids are composed mostly of hydrocarbon and are hydrophobic. 4. 1. Glucose(six carbon backbone) is the primary energy source and precursor of many organic molecules. B. 5. Sugars are soluble in water and may be sweet-tasting. Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. Polysaccharides: Sugar Chains that Store Energy 1. Lactose (milk sugar) is glucose + galactose D. Simple Sugars – The Simplest Carbohydrates 1. Sucrose (table sugar) is glucose + fructose 3. a. Starch (energy storage in plants) and cellulose (structure of plant cell walls are made of glucose units but in different bonding arrangements.Learning Management System B. Oligosaccharides : Short Chains that Store Energy 1. They form the basic structures of membranes and have roles in energy metabolism.

Triglycerides. an acid group. b. Or three fatty acids attached to one glycerol. C. as hormones. The most diverse of the large biological molecules. A phospholipid has a glycerol backbone. Do not print and distribute. They are important components of cell membranes. are the body’s most abundant lipids. as storage and transport agents. The sequence of Amino Acids in a Protein’s Primary Structure 1. The amino acids are linked together in a definite sequence by peptide bonds between an amino group of one and an acid group of another. On a per-weight basis. which have three fatty acids attached to one glycerol. Proteins are Built from Amino Acids 1. They form large polymers called proteins. and a small hydrophilic group. and one of twenty varying “R” groups 2. and as structural material throughout the body. two fatty acids. B. two. these molecules yield twice as much energy as carbohydrates. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds between the carbons that permit “kinks” in the tails. in cell movements. a hydrogen atom.Learning Management System b. Page 3 of 7 . A Protein’s Function Depends on its Shape Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. Primary structure is defined as the chain (polypeptide) of amino acids. they tend to come from plants. Proteins: Biological Molecules with Many Roles A. Fats are lipids which have one. proteins function as enzymes. a phosphate group. 6. 1. 2. are the body’s most abundant lipids. 7. 2. a. Amino acids are small organic molecules with an amino group. 2. Pospholipids are Key Building Blocks of Cell Membranes. as antidisease agents. C.

and ultimately its function in two ways: 1. 3. 2. E. which is often irreversible. is an example of a protein with quaternary structure – the complexing of two or more polypeptide chains to form globular or fibrous proteins. 2. Page 4 of 7 . Proteins can consist of More Than One Polypeptide Chain 1. The primary structure determines the protein’s shape. Lipoproteins have lipids 1. 2. B. Certain proteins combine with triglycerides. Glycoproteins form when polypeptide chains are added to proteins. Hydrogen bonding along the polypeptide chain is the key to secondary structure. C. Many Proteins Undergo Second and Third Rounds of Folding.Learning Management System A. 1. Do not print and distribute. Normal functioning is lost upon denaturation. the oxygen-carrying protein. Secondary Structure is he helical coil or sheetlike array that will result from hydrogen bonding of side groups on the amino acid chains. 2. Tertiary structure is caused by interactions among R groups. Disrupting a Protein’s Shape Denatures It 1. Glycoproteins have sugars attached. D. High temperatures or chemicals can cause the three-dimensional shape to be disrupted. cholesterol. KEY TERMS Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. resulting in a complex three-dimensional shape. by positioning groups so that hydrogen bonds can form between different amino acids in the chain. 2. and phospholipids to form lipoproteins for transport in the body. Hemoglobin. by putting R groups in positions that force them to interact. Hemoglobin has four polypeptide chains (globins) each coiled and folded with a heme group at the center.

including fats. The simplest carbohydrate. phospholipids. One of a group of compounds. A structural polysaccharide. that mix poorly. with water. A double sugar. A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls. in which case it is also called a dehydration reaction A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes. such as hormones. A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers. hydrophilic head. consisting of amino sugar monomers. A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids. or splits. A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides). A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule. A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. found extensively in connective tissue and bone. functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers. The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer. hydrophobic tails. also known as a triacylglycerol or triglyceride. found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods. and steroids. the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. A chemical process that lyses. consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar. Page 5 of 7 . while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar. formed by a dehydration reaction. monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another.Learning Management System TERMS amino acid carbohydrate cellulose chitin cholesterol collagen condensation reaction dehydration reaction disaccharide fatty acid glycosidic linkage hydrolysis lipid monomer monosaccharide peptide bond phospholipid DEFINITIONS An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. if at all. usually water. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds. A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. molecules by the addition of water. three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule. consisting of glucose monomers joined by β glycosidic linkages. active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Do not print and distribute. Also known as simple sugars.

repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of the backbone. John Wiley & Sons. Page 6 of 7 . thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton. also called a fat or a triglyceride. The particular shape of a complex. McGraw Hill Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes.Learning Management System polypeptide polysaccharide primary structure protein quaternary structure saturated fatty acid secondary structure starch tertiary structure trans fat Triacylglycerol unsaturated fatty acid biological membranes. ionic bonds.. defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits. consisting entirely of glucose monomers joined by a glycosidic linkages Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions. Inc. Thomson Brooks/Cole  Human Biology by Sylvia S. The localized. A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. formed by dehydration reactions. 8th Ed. A storage polysaccharide in plants.. An unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds. hydrogen bonds. Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.. REFERENCES  Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and Experiments by Gerald Karp 2005. aggregate protein.  Human Biology by Cecie Starr & Bevery McMillan 2007. 7th Ed. and disulfide bridges. A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds. Mader 2004. The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure. Do not print and distribute. each a polypeptide. 3rd Ed. A polymer of many monosaccharides. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.

Do not print and distribute. Page 7 of 7 .Learning Management System Last update: 16 December 2010 This material is only for viewing purposes.