Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of
Degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Electrical engineering





Future with wireless power transmission

Page no.


Candidate declaration
What is witricity?
Principle behind witricity.
MIT’s experiments.
Design descriptions.


How safe is witricity? 11. Khaleequr Rehman Niazi. Ritesh (2012UEE1347) This is hereby approved for the submission. Department of Electrical Engineering. Khaleequr Rehman Niazi . 9. Results. Is witricity a new concept? 10.9. References. Future of witricity. DATE: 22 February 2016 Dr. 12. Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. 15 18 19 20 21 Page: 1 Candidate Declaration I hereby certify that the work presented in the seminar titled ‘Wireless Power Transmission (WITRICITY)’ is in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology and submitted in Department of Electrical Engineering of National Institute of Technology Jaipur. Professor. under the supervision of Dr.

the drawers are overflowing with all sorts of wires. However. etc. In fact. laptops. as time's progressing we are getting used to these devices. haven't you wished for your cell phone battery to get 'self charged'. Now this is what you call invention! However. iPods. were invented our antennas tweaked.S upervisor Page: 2 ABSTRACT Our forefathers marveled at the invention of glowing light bulbs by Thomas Edison in 1879. . cell phones. to us 21st centurions. Well your plight has been heard by doctor 'WiTricity'. the light bulb is nothing out of the ordinary. charging all these appliances has become so very cumbersome Each appliance has its own set of chargers. and with every family member owning their cell phones. How many times have you wished if there could be some way to do away with all the wiry lutter? When you are on the way to work and your cell phone beeps in hunger for a battery charge. When computers.

Department of Electrical Engineering. Last but not the least I express my sincere and hearty thanks to all those who have directly or indirectly helped me in completing this seminar presentation and report successfully. for his valuable and inspiring guidance towards the progress on the topic ‘WIRELESS ELECTRICITY or WiTricity’ and providing valuable information for the development of my report. Professor. Khaleequr Rehman Niazi. DATE: 22 February 2016 Ritesh (2012UEE1347) Page: 4 INTRODUCTION .Page: 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to my concerned teacher and guide Dr.

It all started a few years ago when Marin Soljac`´ic´.Today we do live in the “wireless age”. Unlike information. this is also an age where mobile phones. However. Back in the 1890s Nikola Tesla. once again. The next morning. This would be achieved using big. which were meant to propagate most likely either via conduction through the ionosphere (presumably including gigantic sparks) or through the Earth (possibly via intermediate coupling to the Earth’s . An exhaustive literature search soon revealed that wireless transmission of power was not an original idea. electrical energy is still physically confined to these borderline anachronistic appliances. Page: 5 Instead. he dreamed of a way of transferring electrical energy wirelessly over long distances. should be delivered to every house. a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) in the US. laptop computers and domestic robots exist alongside old-fashioned power wires and bulky batteries. he returned to his office at the MIT determined to find a solution to the problem. in every city. then a newly found form of energy. It then suddenly occurred to Soljac`´ic´how great it would be if the mobile phone could take care of its own charging. in every country on the planet. However. Tesla did not foresee that people would be willing to drag wires around the entire globe to use electricity. It was the annoying reminder that the battery was running out. Overcoming these last obstacles would finally make this a truly wireless world. MP3 players. coupled electromagnetic resonators able to generate very large electric fields. was driving back home one cold winter night and he heard an unfriendly beep from his mobile phone. one of great pioneers of electromagnetism. was the first to envisage that electricity. in which the air that we breathe probably contains more information than oxygen.

charge resonances. J P Morgan’s objections meant a premature end to the first attempt at wireless electricity. In the near future. a 57 m high structure in Long Island that was meant to deliver electricity to the entire planet. the famed financier and banker J P Morgan. Nevertheless. The construction was interrupted in about 1905. Nowadays. so-called Schumann resonances). The epitome of Tesla’s efforts to achieve his goal was Wardenclyffe Tower. not because the method was considered impractical or dangerous. was concerned that there would be no way to bill remote electricity users. Page: 6 What is WiTricity? . wireless electricity could replace the ubiquitous power cable. electricity reaches nearly every home through a global electrical grid. more than a century after Tesla. but because the funder.

However.Wireless Electricity. eliminating the need of plugging them in. WiTricity will ensure that the cell phones. The concept behind this fascinating term is a little complex. because of WiTricity some of the devices won't require batteries to operate. these words are simpler said than done. One copper wire is connected to the power source WiTricity transmitter). Consider two self resonating copper coils of same resonating frequency with a diameter 20 inches each. Even better. while the other copper wire is connected to the device (WiTricity Receiver). iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own. Page: 7 What's the Principle behind WiTricity? WiTricity . try and picture what I state in the next few lines. laptops. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity. . if you want to understand it.Figure1: Possible future with wireless power transmission WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity.

The electric power from the power source causes the copper coil connected to it to start oscillating at a particular (MHz) frequency. Subsequently. Since this coil is also of the same frequency. the space around the copper coil gets filled with nonmagnetic radiations. Page: 8 The Brain behind WiTricity? . This generated magnetic field further transfers the power to the other copper coil connected to the receiver. This is known as ‘coupled resonance' and is the principle behind WiTricity. it starts oscillating at the same frequency as the first coil.

Page: 9 MIT's Experiment . He didn't just stand there wondering. is the one who has proved that magnetic coupled resonance can be utilized in order to transfer energy without wires. Marin soljacic from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). here is where the difference between Soljacic and any of us comes in. However. What's even more interesting is how he came about this idea. He remembered Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831) and used it to come up with WiTricity. instead he tried to figure out if there existed any physical phenomenon which could be of some help. just like any of us was fed up of his 'low battery' beeping cell phone and wondered just like any of us if there was a way to get rid of this 'charging problem'. Soljacic.Prof.

Practically it can be achieved by following design which consisting of: . and did not radiate to the surrounding environment. National Science foundation and the Department of Energy) and experimentally demonstrated transfer of electricity without the use of wires. The system worked with 40% efficiency and the power that wasn't utilized remained in the vicinity of the transmitter itself. The bulb glowed even when different objects (like a wooden panel) were placed between the two coils. and were made to resonate at a frequency of 10 MHz. Page: 10 Design description The design that had been developed in order to carry out the Wireless power Transmission is capable of incandescent light bulb. with absolutely no physical contact between the bulb and the power source. These researchers were able to light a 60W bulb from a source placed seven feet away. Marin Soljacic led a five member team of researchers at MIT (funded by Army Research Office. The first copper coil (24 inches in diameter) was connected to the Power source and the second was connected to the bulb.In 2007.

• Light a 0.18 W light bulb. • Hewlett-Packard DC power supply. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a wireless power transmitter and receiver system. distance of electromagnetic radiation patterns.• Agilent 33220A Function generator. • Measure the relative near fields around coils. WPT with standard Page: 11 Figure 2: The wireless power device showing the transmitter and receiver. Several coils were constructed from copper and were tuned to 10 MHz using the . • Microchip 25 dB RF power amplifier. • Copper coils. They had following goals: • Transmit power over a distance less than two meters. • Compare power vs.

and safety. Since this is a proof of concept design.physical parameters of coil. For purposes of the far field or long distance WPT. Page: 12 The distance that power could be transmitted was 1. the focus was on efficiency. . While for near field or short range WPT. The system was not practical enough to implement in common household and commercial electronic devices due to its large size. Wireless power transmitter and receiver used 60 cm coils as the helical coils for transmitting power. A sine wave is generated and transmits power of a distance 1. Transmitting signals over a distance requires that the transmission beam have a high degree of directionality and a large gain requiring a larger size coil. practicality. helical coils provide better gain and power transfer. The device was able to provide a useful amount of power on the receiving coil. The 60 cm coils achieved the goal of having a resonant frequency of approximately 10 MHz. Several iterations of coils size were tested.9 and 12. The wireless power receiver was designed to illuminate a small light bulb. The function generator is connected to the transmitting coil. The high frequencies produced by the wireless power transmitter were measured to ensure that they were contained.2 MHz for the 60 cm coil.27 m to the receiving coil which the load is attached to.27 m with an average efficiency of approx 40%. wide angle dipole coils are better suited for the task. An Agilent 33220A function generator was implemented as an oscillator with a frequency ranging between 9.

the frequency must be kept high (10 MHz). the diameter of the helical coils was 60 cm.18 W light bulb. The purpose of using a helical coil is to get higher gain through better directionality and longer wavelength which allows the signal to travel farther. . To achieve this. The helical coils must have the same resonant frequency in order to achieve inductive coupling. In order to illuminate a 0.Page: 13 For this application two helical coils were used.

Due to our frequency range. the light bulb will have a reactance component and the team did not account for reflected power. . the input power was needed. therefore this figure of input power may not be accurate. In order to do this.Result: Page: 14 Plots of 1/r. the light bulb was connected directly to the RF power amp which was connected to the function generator and input power is calculated. It was also desirable to calculate the efficiencies at each of the previous data points. 1/r3 were included for a comparison between standard electro-magnetic field dissipation in the near field. 1/r2. To estimate the input power.

Page: 15 The results are obtained during experiment which is as follow: Measuring the electric fields around the coils was done not only for experimental purposes.  To map the field. but for safety purposes also. The data was collected in an excel sheet and a three dimensional graph was constructed. The z axis n this graph is the field magnitude (it is not the three dimensional representation of the radiation pattern). . Firgure:3D view of relative magnitude of electric field plot. the floor tiles of our lab were utilized as our x and y axis.

it can be inferred that the near fields are relatively contained.Page: 16 Figure: Relative magnitude of electric field plot with coil positions From above figure. the demonstration was carried out and power was transferred wirelessly by illuminating a 60 W light bulb. The various graph was analyzed for making various modifications and improvement. Page: 17 Is WiTricity a New Concept? . Also note that the fact that the system was being probed with a physical cable which limits the validity of the data due to the fact that a cable will pick up some radiation from the coils. At last. Note the large spike in between the coils and on the receiving coil.

In addition. Dave Gerding coined the term WiTricity which is being used by the MIT researchers today. apart from requirement of uninterrupted line of sight (obstacles hinders the transmission process).based systems instead of resonance magnetic fields to transfer wireless power. we all are aware of the use of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) which is quite well known for wireless transfer of Information. this concept of wireless electricity is not new.No. In fact it dates back to the 19th century. when Nikola Tesla used conduction. it is also very dangerous. in 2005. And in the case of lasers. radio waves are not feasible for power transmissions because the nature of the radiation is such that it spreads across the place. Page: 18 Why was WiTricity not developed before? . However. resulting into a large amount of radiations being wasted. Moreover. lasers have also been used to transmit energy without wires. Further.

How safe is WiTricity? Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter and receiver do not hinder the transmission of power.It is often said 'necessity is the best teacher' and can be applied in this case as well. However. spearheaded by the agony caused by the cumbersome charging of endless devices. has the need for wireless electricity emerged so rapidly. Only in this century. so they didn't think about it. Earlier people didn't need it. and so are not prone to cause any damage to any living beings. They say that the magnetic fields tend to interact very weakly with the biological tissues of the body. does magnetic coupling or resonance coupling have any harmful effects on humans? MIT's researchers are quite confident that WiTricity's coupling resonance' is safe for humans. Page: 19 What's the Future of WiTricity? .

laptops. Imagine cell phones. The team's next aim is to get a robotic vacuum or a laptop working. 20. Patent 645 576.S. charging devices placed anywhere in the room and even robots on factory floors. digital camera's getting self charged! Wow! Let's hope the researchers will be able to come up with the commercial system soon.” [Organization Website]. if successful will definitely change the way we Available HTTP: http://ecjones. “The Basics of Radio Wave Propagation. Till then. [Cited 1 September 2008]. "System of Transmission of Electrical Energy. The researchers are also currently working on the health issues related to this concept and have said that in another three to five years time. .MIT's WiTricity is only 40 to 45% efficient and according to Solace. Jones. WiTricity.html [2]N. Mar." U. Tesla. they will come up with a WiTricity system for commercial use. they have to be twice as efficient to compete with the traditional chemical batteries. we wait in anticipation! Page: 20 References [1]E.

vol. 317. Bacon.who." Journal Science. Langer. ViaSat Coil Engineer. “Wireless Power & “Sensitive” Robots” [4]Tracking Advances in VCO Technology. [6]FCC Standard/regulation: Available HTTP: http://www. 1768. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health. July 2007 Page: 21 .html [8]A.pdf [7] Author unknown. pp 1-3. [Cited 1 September 2008].yahoo.1900 [3]M. [5]A. June). Personal 29 August 2008. WHO Fact Sheet [online document].gov/oet/info/rules/part15/part15-9-20-07.. Kuris et al. (2007. Available HTTP: http://news. "Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances.. Available HTTP: http://www. pp 83-85. [Organization Website]. Maxim Microchip Corp. No 322. Appl.