Department of Chemical Engineering


Prepared by:
Eunice A. Flores

Submitted to:
Engr. Roselle Y. Mamuad
Instructor, ChE Elective 3

Manufacturing Processes Involved in Food Production:
Chemical and Heat Treatment

Over the years, the industry of food manufacturing has become more
and more prevalent and in demand, leading to fast evolution and huge

There are 6 common types of manufacturing processes involved in food production: chemical treatment. namely Chemical Treatment and Heat Treatment. Although many farmers prefer and advocate the use of organic ones. I. The many other different variety of methods might be classified under these categories mentioned. heat treatment. Only two of these methods. we mean both plants and animals as sources or raw materials. An article by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and Chemical Heritage Foundation (2009) proudly claims that modern fertilizers stem from a chemical engineering breakthrough pioneered by . CHEMICAL TREATMENT Since we cover food production in this material. One of these is the commonly known application of fertilizers. not to mention its global impact on food production. even in preservation techniques for food products that will be available and appealing to many consumers. As many people are continually excited and interested with new products. It is also noteworthy to remind that chemical treatment in food production is not only limited to the processing part but from growing of the material to storing and packaging it for the consumer. industries constantly strive for better methods in producing innovative stuffs. drying. blast freezing. the use of inorganic fertilizers (chemicals) is inevitable today. GROWING a) Fertilizers A variety of chemical treatment methods are applied to crops while being cultivated. will be discussed.developments in food processing and production techniques. fermentation and pasteurization.

but also to the soil in which it was planted and grown. chemical sprays. tainting crops for which they were not intended. Benefits aside. or contaminating flowers and the honey derived from them. Chemicals used might be poisonous. they may drift for hundreds of yards. chemical sprays. Many of these substances are very persistent. on the other hand. The application of chemical sprays in agriculture is also as certain as the need for fertilizers. in some cases. also give off disadvantage or damages to food and environment. Haber scaled up the successful Haber-Bosch process that allows ammonia to be produced costeffectively in commercial quantities for use in nitrogen fertilizers. They are blown from powerful pumps. and even. however. or spread by aeroplanes. As beneficial as they are. Mercuric compounds are an example . for there is no certainty that some chemical has not been used which penetrates into the peel. if not all. and are not removed by rain or by washing. the use of inorganic fertilizers also provide a large dose of negative impacts not only to the food itself. are used in great profusion for the purpose of killing weeds. or are combined with other chemicals to make them adhere.Fritz Haber in 1908 who developed a process to synthesize ammonia by reacting hydrogen and nitrogen. or as insecticides or fungicides. Not to mention them popularly characterized as “highly toxic”. or killing bees and other useful insects. Working with industrialist Carl Bosch. into the flesh. or even for miles. b) Chemical Sprays In comparison to fertilizers. It is hardly safe to eat the peel of any fruit.

it has been authoritatively stated that it may have something to do with causing cancer and leukaemia. If that is so. The effect of it is to alter the function of the sex glands. PROCESSING In the stage of processing the food products. a) Synthetic dyes Synthetic food dyes are used to enhance the original colours associated with a given product. and hence may be found in tomato juice. there is a .of one of these things which is known to penetrate into the interior of tomatoes. it renders the male bird sterile and gives it female characteristics. emulsifiers and preservatives are only few of the many different agents that are applied to certain food products on processing. flavouring agents. the ingestion of even the smallest dose may be dangerous. The use of synthetic dyes. c) Synthetic hormones Not much information is common to many about synthetic hormones being injected to meat products. for it now appears that there is no minimum safe dose of cancer-inducing chemicals. Nevertheless. Apparently. such as one known as diethylstilboestrol is used in the rearing of chickens for table birds. II. An attractively colored food stimulates the appetite more than a discolored one. Synthetic sex hormones. and it is now almost impossible to buy a chicken which has not been subjected to this dangerous drug. Hormones have also been used extensively in beef production in the United States. again. many forms of chemical treatment is applied.

smokey . caramel Pyrazines Brown. the coloring of food is unavoidable. either because the food has lost some of its natural flavour by processing. b) Flavouring agents Flavouring agents are chemicals designed to mimic natural flavours. green Alcohols Bitter. Coloring fresh food is not permitted as a matter of principle. Another purpose of food coloring is to provide a more variable range of products. Despite some controversy in this area. coloring is used only for processed food with no color of its own or in which only residual amounts of color remain. which is especially important in the confectionery industry. burnt. which makes colouring agents extremely important to food manufacturers. CHEMICAL FLAVOUR Allylpyrazine Roasted nut Methoxypyrazines Earthy vegetables 2-Isobutyl-3 Methoxypyrazine Green pepper Acetyl-L-Pyrazines Popcorn 2-Acetoxy Pyrazine Toasted flavours Aldehydes Fruity. Downside is that they are often used for purposes of deception. caramel Phenolics Medicinal.relationship between the eye and the gustatory nerves. or because the natural flavour is not considered strong enough. The table below shows a list of artificial flavourings and their corresponding natural flavour. medicinal Esters Fruity Ketones Butter. As a rule.

Examples of selected preservatives include the following: a. Emulsifiers are used in ice creams. vinegar. (2) Esters of monoglycerides of fatty acids (Ice cream. They include: (1) Lecithin (salad dressings. traces of hydrogen cyanide which is a deadly poison can be found in it. When almond flavor is derived from nature. and catsup) . Benzoic acid or Sodium Benzoate (for fruit juices. However. Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate (used for meat curing) c. pepper (Common household preservatives) b. Sulphur dioxide and sulphide (inhibit discoloration of cut fruits and serve as anti-browning agent) d. no cyanide is produced. when this flavor is made artificially by mixing oil of clove and amyl acetate. and many emulsifiers used in modern food production are based on these natural substances.Terpenoids Citrus. cakes and margarines). bread and baked products. d) Preservatives Chemical preservatives are added to food to (1) prevent the growth of microorganisms that could lead to spoilage. sugar. baked goods and chocolate). piney It is also important to note that not all natural flavors are safe. jellies. They break up fats and oils and give them a creamy consistency. The emulsifiers that are used commercially come from both natural and synthetic sources. c) Emulsifiers Emulsifiers are chemicals that make emulsions happen. margarine. An example of this is almond flavoring.and diglycerides of fatty acids (breads. cakes and crisps) and (3) Mono. and (2) to extend the shelf-life of food products. Nature uses proteins and phospholipids. Salt.

According to the International Program on Chemical Safety. Controlled-atmosphere packaging Controlled-atmosphere packaging using plastic increased the shelf life of fresh food since the 1950s. and continually allows better storing and distribution of food to consumers. The process controls oxygen and carbon dioxide levels inside the packaging environment to limit respiration by fruits and vegetables (akin to human breathing) and reduces the amount of off-gas ethylene produced. Modified-atmosphere packaging . and Alum and soaked lime or apog (used as a firming agent for pickles and fruit preserves) III. Benzene is a carcinogen and is known to contribute to the formation of many different types of cancer. you can find sodium benzoate in the ingredients list as E211. forms benzene. when combined with vitamin C. has revolutionized along history. a. drinks and jellies). sodium benzoate is heavily used by the soft drink industry due to the demand of high-fructose corn syrup in carbonated drinks. Sodium benzoate. which is the number assigned to it as a food additive. However. Storing of food products. STORING Not only in direct processing does innovations and development in food manufacture show huge advances. the Food and Drug Administration states that food products that contain both vitamin C and sodium benzoate express benzene levels that are below the dangerous limit. which delays ripening and spoilage. On the back of a soda can. b. syrups. in fact. e. Citric and Tartaric Acids (provide the acid for flavour improvement in f.

The ingenious. widely used to package juice. and (3) hot air. Hot water (dips and sprays) . and aluminum with each layer playing a specific role. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES During the past few years there has been increasing interest in the use of heat treatments postharvest to control insect pests.Modified-atmosphere packaging. which also began to be used widely. Use of these protects contents from spoilage and provide extended shelf life without the need for refrigeration. There are three methods used as heat treatment: (1) hot water (2) vapour heat. prevent fungal rots and affect the ripening or response to temperature extremes of the commodity. c. tomato sauce. Brick Packs Brick Packs are multilayer packages. but also prevents many natural reactions that cause foods to spoil. in which the “head space” atmosphere within a food package or the transportation/storage vessel is modified by flushing it with a blend of inert (nonreactive) gases. a. and countless other products. HEAT TREATMENT I. is a more advanced variation of controlled-atmosphere packaging. milk. It not only slows ripening. plastic (such as low-density polyethylene). brick-shaped package is typically constructed from high-quality paperboard.

1998). Vapour heat Vapour heat is a method of heating fruit with air saturated with water vapour at temperatures of 40–50°C to kill insect eggs and larvae as a quarantine treatment before fresh market shipment. Then there is a holding period when the interior temperature of the produce reaches the desired temperature for the length of time required to kill the insect. Hot water dips for fruit require 90 min exposure to 46°C.Hot water dips are effective for fungal pathogen control. Studies have been conducted for using vapor or moist forced air to disinfest many fruits and vegetables from various insect pests. The last part is the cooling down period which can be air cooling (slow) or hydrocooling (fast). Thus. Heat transfer is by condensation of water vapor on the cooler fruit surface. b. Heated solutions (45°C) of sulfur dioxide. . The treatment consists of a period of warming (approach time) which can be faster or slower depending on a commodity’s sensitivity to high temperatures. there are a number of components of the treatment which can be manipulated to find the best combination for elimination of the insect pest without damaging the commodity (Lurie. generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds have been applied in hot water to improve the efficiency of their antifungal action. In addition. 1998). ethanol or sodium carbonate have been used to control green mold (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruits (Lurie. because fungal spores and latent infections are either on the surface or in the first few cell layers under the peel of the fruit or vegetable.

an increase in the sugar: acid ratio. heats more slowly than hot water immersion or forced vapor heat. FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS  3 h of 45°C water before cool storage of muskmelons prevented the  loss in sucrose which occurred in non-heated fruit. Exposing fruit to high temperatures attenuates some of these processes while enhancing others. The hot air chamber has been utilized to study physiological changes in fruits and vegetables in response to heat (Klein and Lurie. Fruits subjected to hot air treatments of 38 or 40°C often soften  more slowly than non-heated fruits. . sweeter and overall more acceptable than non-heated. Heat Treated Commodity Responses 1. 1992). although forced hot air will heat produce faster than a regular heating chamber. or by applying forced hot air where the speed of air circulation is precisely controlled. Heated apples (4 days at 38°C) were perceived as crisper. 1991.  Hot air treatment of 35–40°C inhibits ethylene synthesis within  hours in both apples and tomatoes. FRUIT RIPENING Ripening of most climacteric fruit is characterized by softening of flesh. This anomalous situation results in heated fruit being more advanced in some ripening characteristics than non-heated fruit while maintaining their quality longer during shelf life at 20°C. enhanced color development. Hot air. Hot air Hot air can be applied by placing fruit or vegetables in a heated chamber with a ventilating fan. and increases in respiratory activity and ethylene production. Heat treated apples are crispier than non-heated ones.c. whether forced or not. 2.

flavour and colour. mostly in the temperature range of 60 to 85°C. In the latter fruit the sweetness was due more to decrease in acidity than increase in sugar content. These are the more heat resistant spore forming types which survive boiling temperatures (100°C). in order to make meat products more palatable and appetizing for consumption. also called “pasteurization” or simply “cooking”. MEAT PRODUCTS Heat treatment in meat products serves as to the (1) enhancement of desirable texture. also called “sterilization”. Practically all meat products in hermetically sealed containers . and (2) reduction of microbial content thus achieving the necessary (a) preservation effects for an extended shelf life of the products. 2) Heat treatment at temperatures of above 100°C. TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT The difference between the two groups of heat treated meat products lays in their microbial status achieved. Cooked or pasteurized products still contain a certain amount of viable or “living” microorganisms. which determines how these products can be stored after thermal treatment. Their renewed growth in the finished and stored product can only be prevented by applying low temperatures. and (b) food safety effects by eliminating potential food poisoning agents. II. Such products must therefore be stored refrigerated (0°-5°C). 1) Heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C. Sterilized products are produced free of viable microorganisms and can therefore be stored under ambient temperature (“shelf stable”).

S. Microwaves can increase the temperature without affecting surrounding materials (as the food package). irrespective of its volume (as long as the food item is uniformly structured and homogeneous).(tin cans. glass jars. such as those of water. retortable pouches) are sterilized products and can be stored at ambient temperature. Postharvest Biology and Technology 14. especially thanks to so-called dielectric mechanisms (many molecules. The heat produced microwaves derives from the by the capacity of foodstuffs – or better. REFERENCES Lurie. are electric dipoles). One of the main advantages of this technology is that a food item can be heated quickly (with considerable reduction of processing times) and uniformly. Postharvest heat treatments. ALTERNATIVE METHOD IN HEAT TREATMENT  MICROWAVE COOKING Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. of their moisture content – of absorbing energy from these microwaves transforming it into heat. which is typical for traditional cooking methods (Ratti. 2014). generated by an electromagnetic field directly applied to foodstuff to be processed. 1998. . thus minimizing the thermal gradients generated inside the foodstuff. 257-262. manufacturing.omafra.pdf http://www.millbanksystems.html hapter_5.ukagriculture.livestrong.http://hansard.revivalenvironmental.on.html .gov.htm hapter_5.on.