Table of Contents

A. Preliminaries
 Title page
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
B. Chapter 1
 Introduction
 Statement of the problem & Specific Questions
 Significance of the Study
 Delimitation of the Study
 Definition of terms
C. Chapter 2
 Review of Related Literature
a) Local
b) Foreign
c) Other Readings
D. Chapter 3
 Research design
 Respondents/Content of the study
 Sampling techniques
 Experimental Procedures
E. Chapter 4
 Analysis & Interpretation
F. Chapter 5
Conclusion
G. Chapter 6
 Bibliographies
Others :
 Appendices
 Curriculum Vitae
 Questionnaire / Interviewer Guide

Readings & other Document

Saltwater
Power
Proponents :
Hazel C. Trabajo

Ronald Pellano
Jeanessa May Catito
ABSTRACT

Although not completely researched upon, saltwater has a low voltage reading,
which indicates that it has some electric potential. The main goal of this Investigatory
Project is to make that potential known and put it to good use through research and
experimentation. As saltwater may be a new environmentally-friendly, cheap source of
energy, its usage will definitely help our future generations and contribute to the welfare
of the Earth.
People are already noticing the effects of their never-ending usage of the natural
resources of the world, and they also know the current energy shortages that the world
is facing. Now, with the introduction of this new kind of renewable energy, the world’s
supply of energy will finally be met if this proposal will push through. Since saltwater is
renewable, there are already some technologies that can harness it and convert it to
electricity for the world to use. With this in mind, we hope to answer and find a solution
to world’s energy crisis through this project.
The results of the experimentation were obtained by setting up a saltwater
mixture and connecting this to a voltmeter through copper wires, alligator clips, and iron
& magnesium electrodes. A reading is seen in the voltmeter to confirm the theory that
saltwater has electrical conductive/generating properties.

In conclusion, as saltwater was found to have electrical readings. It is possible
that electricity may one day come not from fossil fuels, coil, oil, but rather, from
saltwater, a renewable, green, and plentiful source of power.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher duly acknowledges the magnanimity of various editors and
authors in permitting this writer to use excerpts of their published materials with due
acknowledgements.
Thanks are also due to our friends, classmates, Einstein Piyok for lending us
some help for the success of our study. And especially for our neighbour who doesn’t
know how to put password for his Wi-Fi which makes the researcher share with it and to
be able to search further research related to our study. Thanks are also due to our
parents who fully supported us financially.

Especially, to our Almighty Father who guides us from the very start of this study
until success comes over it.

to the beloved families and friends of the researcher .DEDICATION This study is dedicate to the Almighty God . . without whose caring support it would not have been possible.

As a result. inorganic ions.INTRODUCTION The world we live in is abundant with food. food. like coal and oil are rapidly depleting. and energy shortages. as in saltwater fish. in which the total concentration of ionic solutes is typically about 35 grams per liter (also expressed as 3. This would help reduce damaging emissions being added to our atmosphere. or 35 parts . the many nations and countries of the world will have to deal with water. as an effect of overpopulation. is a geological term that refers to naturally occurring solutions containing large concentrations of dissolved. but we continue to use up non-renewable resources in massive amounts. It will also discuss the methods and ways we can utilize this environmentallyfriendly resource to produce an efficient yet clean source of energy. The researcher were inspired to investigate the alternative energy source because the world’s main energy resources .5%. More and more people can look into this study in the future to ensure reliable energy supplies to their homes. This Project presents a new. In addition. or salt water . usually to refer to marine organisms. this term is often used as an adjective in biology. Saltwater most commonly refers to oceanic waters. Saltwater. derived energy source. life and resources.

Other natural waters can also be salty. especially after the hydrocarbon resource has been exhausted by mining. Consequently. However. chloride. and carbonate. saline ponds in Westphalia. ionic solutes. Some lakes and ponds. These water bodies typically occur in a closed basin. known as salt or brine surface waters. the salt concentration of their contained water increases progressively over time. the Great Salt Lake of Utah and the Dead Sea in Israel have salt concentrations exceeding 20%. . The ions with the largest concentrations in marine waters are sodium.028 g/L at 4° C) is slightly greater than that of freshwater (1. and elsewhere in the world. as do smaller. Underground waters can also be extremely salty. magnesium. sometimes containing much larger concentrations of salt than the oceans .8 g/L and 19. calcium. In oceanic waters. in inland saline waters. For example. as in estuaries and some underground reservoirs.7 g/L).00 g/L). the density of saltwater (1.4 g/L). respectively.per thousand). sulfate. magnesium (1. with inflows of water but no outflow except by evaporation . the concentrations and relative proportions of these and other ions can vary widely. can have very large concentrations of dissolved. and calcium and potassium (both 0. Germany. Other important ions are sulfate (2. potassium.4 g/L. As a result of these large concentrations of dissolved ions. sodium and chloride are the most important ions. Underground saltwaters are commonly encountered in petroleum and gas well-fields. freshwater floats above saltwater in poorly mixed situations where the two types meet. Therefore.3 g/L). having concentrations of 10. which leaves salts behind.

Saltwater intrusions can be an important environmental problem. the world’s supply of energy will finally be met if this proposal will push through. Now. . and spoil the quality of the aquifer for most uses. with the introduction of this new kind of renewable energy. Saltwater intrusions are caused in places near the ocean where there are excessive withdrawals of underground supplies of fresh waters. and they also know the current energy shortages that the world is facing. which can degrade water supplies required for drinking or irrigation. This allows underground salt waters to migrate inland. Since saltwater is renewable. we hope to answer and find a solution to world’s energy crisis through this project.Both surface and underground salt waters are sometimes "mined" for their contents of economically useful minerals . there are already some technologies that can harness it and convert it to electricity for the world to use. or by excessive demands on freshwaters to supply drinking water to large cities. Saltwater intrusions are usually caused by excessive usage of ground water for irrigation in agriculture. With this in mind. People are already noticing the effects of their never-ending usage of the natural resources of the world.

the Philippines is also faced with the problem of the rapid depletion of natural resources. hopefully. Fossil fuel.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM - What particular chemicals do saltwater contain to be a good source of electricity? - OBJECTIVE: Statement of the objective: As all other countries in the world do. General Objectives: After experimenting on the probability of saltwater as an alternate source of energy. it can be seen as beneficial to the world because of its high potential of being used to make electricity. Although this is what the general population of the world also depend on. we now know that they cause the release of excessive amounts of greenhouse gases and other harmful pollutants when energy is environment by conserving our natural resources. A good example is to utilize the long coastlines to achieve development without too much damage to the environment. especially coal. . is burned in tremendous amounts.

less crude oils and coal-burning will take place. it can be used by the world to help them benefit more on relaying on renewable energy sources like saltwater. and so that if there will be discoveries made. resulting in a cleaner and more hospitable environment. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study can greatly benefit the society in terms of environmental conservation and energy sufficiency because this may drastically reduce the consumption of nonrenewable energy resources. .Specific Objectives: The purpose of the experiment is so that a competent individual will be able to recreate the experiment. As a direct result. the usage of saltwater as an alternative source can answer many of the world’s energy demands since seawater is readily available and renewable. In addition.

. how it gives benefits in the society . IGaCoS . 28 th of January. The aspects looked into were the saltwater power. The main purpose of the study is to know the potential of saltwater as a good source of electricity.DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study was conducted to investigate how real the saltwater can be a source of electricity. and the performance of the product and the problems and proposed solution of our product. The study was conducted in Peña Plata.

and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. When scientists measure salt in water. where it is the main mineral constituent. in contrast. The tissues of animals contain larger . Salt water is denser than fresh water. It often means the water from the seas (sea water) and oceans. Salt lakes can be up to ten times as salty. Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl). Salt water used for making or preserving food. Fresh water has a density of 1 g/ml. Most sea water is about 35 ppt salt. salt-water or saltwater) is water with salt in it. while salty seawater has an average density of about 1. Brackish water.5%.025 g/ml.2 oz) of solids per litre. the open ocean has about 35 grams (1. a chemical belonging to the larger class of salts. a salinity of 3. they usually say they are testing the salinity of the water: salinity is measured in parts per thousand or ppt. Salt is essential for animal life. This means that it has more matter per its volume. salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. is less salty than seawater. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater. is usually saltier than sea water and is called brine.DEFINITION OF TERMS Saline water (also called salt water. Above that level precipitation creates a salt plain.

The voltage that is needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential. atoms or molecules that have lost or gained electrons. Electrolyte Solution. electromagnetic induction and electric current. In chemistry and manufacturing. As a chemical compound. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of food seasonings. oceans and rain. An electrolyte solution is a solution that generally contains ions. and is electrically conductive. For this reason they are often called ionic solutions.quantities of salt than do plant tissues. lakes. a water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. static electricity. Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electrolysis. such as lightning. whereas cereal-based diets require supplementation. Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell. and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms. however there are some cases where the electrolytes are not ions. electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.and salting is an important method of food preservation. therefore the typical diets of nomads who subsist on their flocks and herds require little or no added salt. . Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known effects.

to his surprise. and gaseous state. While doing so.Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure. in fact. a professor at Penn State University. the radio frequency that helped weaken the bonds holding together the salt water’s constituents. tried this experiment in the lab at the university. Another recent breakthrough in relation to this topic is the topic on Power Generation. ice. steam (water vapour). and. It was. Rustum Roy. Roy says that he will continue to investigate on this. Pennsylvania. Kanzius was experimenting with desalinate seawater. He explained that the salt water wasn’t actually burning. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE There have been several breakthroughs in this research of saltwater being converted into electricity. A team of researchers from the US and China have discovered a new . 2007. The first one presented is an accidental discovery made in the Erie. John Kanzius set on fire a vial with saltwater using a radio frequency generator. he found he could keep the water “burning” as long as it was exposed to the proper frequencies from his machine. but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state. and he can see the potential applications of this process of burning saltwater as a source of alternative energy. it actually worked.

5%. Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl).2 oz) of solids per litre. where it is the main mineral constituent. one can desalinate saltwater and produce electricity while removing the organic material from the saltwater. They say that it still isn’t practical to use a process like this. the ions become charged. Bruce Logan from Pennsylvania State University says that desalination of saltwater uses a lot of electricity. most desalination plants need electricity and high pressure to desalinate saltwater. Salt is essential for animal life. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater. The process goes like this: When the bacteria “consume” the wastewater. but with this new technique uses organic matter to remove most of salt from brackish water or seawater. but the new process uses 3 chambers one containing saltwater. therefore the typical diets of nomads who subsist . They did this by modifying a microbial fuel cell. a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. a salinity of 3. which is used to desalinate saltwater into drinkable water. the open ocean has about 35 grams (1. but their main goal was only to see whether bacteria can do this or not. The older process uses 2 chambers in the microbial fuel cell. salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Some are consumed at the electrodes – desalinating the water in the central chamber and generating a current. but by using the microbial desalination cells. The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues.desalination process that could produce electricity and clean water. which are separated by ion-specific membranes. the other water. which are separated by the membranes. Previously. and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. and the last one containing seawater in between the other chambers.

000 years ago. The scarcity and universal need for salt has led nations to go to war over salt and use it to raise tax revenues. so the blood and lymph can continue to flow without becoming excessively thick. and hydration is essential to good health.on their flocks and herds require little or no added salt. Every function in your body depends on an efficient flow and distribution of water. Salt is also used in religious ceremonies and has other cultural significance. and the elimination of toxins. when people living in Romania were boiling spring water to extract the salts. and across the Sahara in camel caravans. In order to maintain life. Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8. When these fluids do not have enough water. along specially built salt roads. stress and depression. So we can see that dehydration is one of the basic causes of bad health. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. These are simply our bodies telling us they need more water. When there is not enough water in . the Hittites and the Egyptians. including high blood pressure. the water in the fluid surrounding your cells remains at an almost constant level. the Greeks. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea. the Byzantines. high blood cholesterol. a saltworks in China has been found which dates to approximately the same period. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews. various body conditions develop as a response. whereas cereal-based diets require supplementation. asthma and other allergies. diabetes. This includes the process your cells use to produce energy. the Romans.

Although scientists agree that a minimal amount of salt is required for survival. This in turns helps to absorb all other nutrients given to the body with food or supplements. and public health experts (1). The tight regulation of the body's sodium and chloride concentrations is so important that multiple mechanisms work in concert to control them. and osmosis is managed by the salt concentration present in the cells. Natural salt is ESSENTIAL for food and nutrient absorption! Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life. The broad spectrum of minerals found in “The Original” Himalayan Crystal Salt is ideal nutrients to aid the cells in attracting water. Function . it needs salt. For a cell to "attractor "pull" water inside. Getting enough water into your body is one requirement. clinicians. the health implications of excess salt intake represent an area of continued investigation among scientists.the body. but to utilize that water. and we feel this as pain. Water is always moving from a cell with lower salt concentration to a cell with higher salt concentration--essentially. When water levels in the cells get really low. Have you ever wondered how water gets inside a cell? It moves through the process of osmosis. This is known as dehydration--not enough water inside the cells. our cells also need salt. the water level inside the cells drops because all available water is needed in the fluid surrounding the cell. water follows salt. they start screaming for water.

muscle contraction. Maintenance of membrane potential Sodium and chloride are electrolytes that contribute to the maintenance of concentration and charge differences across cell membranes. they play critical roles in a number of life-sustaining processes (2). As such. especially the sodium. which includes blood plasma. Their activity has been estimated to account for 20%-40% of the resting energy expenditure in a typical adult. Tight control of cell membrane potential is critical for nerve impulse transmission. while sodium is the principal cation in extracellular fluid. These pumps use ATP (energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium (Figure 1). and cardiac function Nutrient absorption and transport .Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) are the principal ions in the fluid outside of cells (extracellular fluid). A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane. Potassium is the principal positively charged ion (cation) inside of cells. The large proportion of energy dedicated to maintaining sodium/potassium concentration gradients emphasizes the importance of this function in sustaining life. Potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than outside cells. potassium-ATPase pumps. The concentration differences between potassium and sodium across cell membranes create an electrochemical gradient known as the membrane potential. while sodium concentrations are more than ten times lower inside than outside cells.

a number of physiological mechanisms that regulate blood volume and blood pressure work by adjusting the body's sodium content. In general. Maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure Because sodium is the primary determinant of extracellular fluid volume. including blood volume.Absorption of sodium in the small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of chloride. Renin is an enzyme that splits a small peptide (Angiotensin I) from a larger protein (angiotensinogen) produced by the liver. is also an important component of gastric juice. In the circulatory system. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system In response to a significant decrease in blood volume or pressure (e. Similar mechanisms are involved in the reabsorption of these nutrients after they have been filtered from the blood by the kidneys. amino acids. Angiotensin I is split into a .. in the form of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Chloride. glucose. sodium retention results in water retention and sodium loss results in water loss (4. pressure receptors (baroreceptors) sense changes in blood pressure and send excitatory or inhibitory signals to the nervous system and/or endocrine glands to affect sodium regulation by the kidneys.g. serious blood loss or dehydration). 5). the kidneys release renin into the circulation. which aids the digestion and absorption of many nutrients (2. Below are descriptions of two of the many systems that affect blood volume and blood pressure through sodium regulation. 5). and water.

liver.smaller peptide (angiotensin II) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II is also a potent stimulator of aldosterone synthesis by the adrenal glands. Retention of sodium by the kidneys increases the retention of water. resulting in increased blood volume and blood pressure (4). Angiotensin II stimulates the constriction of small arteries. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water (4). an enzyme present on the inner surface of blood vessels and in the lungs. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone that acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) Secretion of ADH by the posterior pituitary gland is stimulated by a significant decrease in blood volume or pressure. may result from increased fluid retention (dilutionalhyponatremia) or increased sodium loss. resulting in increased blood pressure. Dilutional hypernatremia may be due to inappropriate anti- . Deficiency Sodium (and chloride) deficiency does not generally result from inadequate dietary intake. and kidneys. even in those on very low-salt diets(5). Hypernatremia Hypernatremia defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 136 mmol/liter.

but firm evidence is presently lacking . suggesting that fluid excretion was inadequate and/or the fluid needs of these ultra-distance athletes may be less than currently recommended (8). coma. ultramarathons. and some forms of kidney disease. It has been speculated that the use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of exercise-related hyponatremia by impairing water excretion (9). In some cases. Acute or severe hypernatremia may be fatal without prompt and appropriate medical treatment (6). Symptoms of hypernatremia include headache. disorientation.diuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. excessive and persistent sweating. Participants who developed hyponatremia during an Ironman triathlon had evidence of fluid overload despite relatively modest fluid intakes. excessive water intake may also lead to dilutional hypernatremia. Complications of severe and rapidly developing hypernatremia may include cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain). such as marathons. vomiting. fatigue. which is associated with disorders affecting the central nervous system and with use of certain drugs (see Drug interactions). nausea. In 1997. the use of some diuretics. and fainting. seizures. and brain damage. 25 out of 650 participants in an Ironman triathlon (almost 4%) received medical attention for hyponatremia (7). Conditions that increase the loss of sodium and chloride include severe or prolonged vomiting or diarrheal. and Ironman triathlons. muscle cramps. Prolonged endurance exercise and hypernatremia Hypernatremia has recently been recognized as a potential problem in individuals competing in very long endurance exercise events.

Sodium plays major roles in nerve impulse transmission and the rhythmic maintenance of heart action. Asia and North America recorded observations of grazing animals traveling to salt springs or deposits to satisfy ravenous appetites for salt. Even though the body only contains about 0. Salt is unique in that animals have a much greater appetite for the sodium and chloride in salt than for other minerals. and not just for flavour. . because animals have a definite appetite for salt. salt supplementation is a critical part of a nutritionally balanced diet for animals. it is essential for life and is highly regulated. the other half in bones. Animals deprived of salt will risk grave danger or resort to unusual behaviour to obtain it. it can be used as a delivery mechanism to ensure adequate intake of less palatable nutrients and as a feed limiter. About half of the sodium in the body is in the soft tissues of the body. Considerable evidence exists that early nomads and hunters took advantage of this fact to lure and capture animals by locating areas with salt and waiting for animals to come there periodically.For thousands of years it has been known that domestic and wild animals need salt just as man does. The virtues of salt for animals were extolled by the ancient Greeks. Early explorers in Africa. Sodium makes up about 93% of the basic mineral elements in the blood serum and is the chief cation regulating blood pH. The ability of muscles to contract is dependent on proper sodium concentrations. In addition. Because most plants provide insufficient sodium for animal feeding and may lack adequate chloride content.2% sodium.

the potassium-to-chloride ratio in the diet is important. Belgian studies showed a close correlation between potassium and chloride in the urine of cows. Unfortunately. dehydration and reduced blood chloride. Chloride is the primary anion in blood. high mortality. the chloride requirement will automatically be met also. For example. Therefore. since many ruminant feedstuffs are quite high in potassium. is essential in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood. The other nutrient in salt. Chloride is also a necessary part of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach which is required to digest most foods. Ruminants have such a strong appetite for sodium . movement of chloride in and out of the red blood cells. recent evidence indicates this may not always be the case. a chloride deficiency can also develop when low levels of salt are fed. However. reported that a chloride deficiency in chicks results in extremely poor growth rate. nervous symptoms. chloride is also essential for life. Leach and Nesheim. Animals have a more well defined appetite for sodium chloride than any other compound in nature except water. The chloride shift. In monogastrics.Efficient absorption of amino acids and monosaccharides from the small intestine requires adequate sodium. They concluded that the necessity for the ruminant to eliminate high amounts of dietary potassium (as potassium chloride) can dramatically increase the chloride requirement. it is often assumed that if the sodium requirement is met. and represents about two thirds of its acidic ions.

For example.that the exact location of salt source is permanently imprinted into their memory which they can then return to when they become deficient. Steers would quickly choose the water containing sodium salts without having to taste the water sources. on a sodium deficient diet. Essentially. until you get down to the salinity . If you add enough salt. Sodium deficient steers were offered a cafeteria of 12 buckets of water with only one containing moderate levels of sodium salts. horses do not develop a preference for calcium supplements when fed a calcium deficient diet. A concentration of 20% salt will kill bacteria. The 1984 NRC Beef Cattle committee recognized this fact in stating that minerals lacking in the diet can be provided by "self-feeding" common salt-mineral mixtures when the mixture is consumed in amounts to satisfy the animals' appetite for salt. Organisms that decay food and cause disease are killed by a high concentration of salt. Cattle also have a keen sense of smell for sodium. too much water will be removed from a cell for it to stay alive or reproduce. Lower concentrations inhibit microbial growth. Bell showed that when steers were trained to receive their sodium in response to pressing a panel. This natural appetite for salt is what makes salt such an excellent delivery mechanism for other nutrients that need to be consumed regularly. This is not true for the other nutrients. maximum effort to receive the sodium occurred at eight days and after. Salt draws water out of cells via the process of osmosis. Horses have been shown to have a specific appetite for salt if the diet is deficient in sodium. but where a natural appetite is lacking. water moves across a cell membrane to try to equalize the salinity or concentration of salt on both sides of the membrane.

and the relatively low cost of enhancing the palatability of processed foods has become a key rationale for the use of salt in food (Van der Veer.of the cells. In other applications. taste is not the only reason for the continued use of high levels of sodium in foods. However. The second part of the chapter briefly discusses the role that sodium plays in various food categories and provides examples of the sodium content of various foods. Because of the emergence of refrigeration and other methods of food preservation. sodium still plays a role in reducing the growth of pathogens and organisms that spoil products and reduce their shelf life. sodium levels remain high because salt plays additional functional roles. . the tastes and flavors associated with historical salt use have come to be expected. which may have the opposite and undesirable effect of providing ideal growing conditions! Historically. As discussed in Chapter 3. This chapter begins with a review of the non-taste or flavor-related roles of salt and other sodium-containing compounds in food. A number of other sodiumcontaining compounds are also used for increasing the safety and shelf life of foods or creating physical properties. the main reason for the addition of salt to food was for preservation. such as improving texture. the need for salt as a preservative has decreased (He and MacGregor. 1985). especially in processed foods. For some foods. remain high. 2007). but sodium levels.

Salt’s ability to decrease water activity is thought to be due to the ability of sodium and chloride ions to associate with water molecules (Fennema. 1995). and promoting the growth of desirable microorganisms in various fermented foods and other products. interfere with cellular enzymes. or force cells to expend . salt was one of the best methods for inhibiting the growth and survival of undesirable microorganisms. Adding salt to foods can also cause microbial cells to undergo osmotic shock. It has also been suggested that for some microorganisms. the first major addition of sodium to foods was as salt. resulting in the loss of water from the cell and thereby causing cell death or retarded growth (Davidson.FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION As mentioned previously. salt may limit oxygen solubility. Prior to refrigeration. which acted to prevent spoilage. salt does remain in widespread use for preventing rapid spoilage (and thus extending product shelf life). Salt’s Role in the Prevention of Microbial Growth Salt is effective as a preservative because it reduces the water activity of foods. creating an inhospitable environment for pathogens. Potter and Hotchkiss. Other sodium-containing compounds with preservative effects are also used in the food supply. 1996. Although modernday advances in food storage and packaging techniques and the speed of transportation have largely diminished this role. The water activity of a food is the amount of unbound water available for microbial growth and chemical reactions. 2001).

stable. Products in the modern food supply are often preserved by multiple hurdles that control microbial growth (Leistner.g. a food might be protected by a combination of salt. For example. acidic foods (pH < 3. reducing the sodium content of the product should not create food safety or spoilage concerns. no single preservation method alone would create a stable product. However. and other additives are examples of hurdles that can be used for preservation. and safe product. Stringer and Pin.. and foods in which water activity remains low when sodium is removed (e. redox potential. salt remains a commonly used component for creating an environment resistant to spoilage and inhospitable for the survival of pathogenic organisms in foods. changes in processing. canned foods). products that are sufficiently thermally processed to kill pathogenic organisms (e. refrigeration. and changes in handling may be required to ensure that the . all of which can reduce the rate of growth (Shelef and Seiter. foods with low water activity due to high sugar content) (Reddy and Marth. increase food safety. these methods result in a desirable. 2005). Today.g. For these foods. As shown in Figure 4-1. high. however. For other foods. when combined.or low-temperature processing and storage.. pH. 2000). product reformulation. Such foods include frozen products. For many foods.8).energy to exclude sodium ions from the cell. 2005). 1991. and extend product shelf life. few foods are preserved solely by the addition of salt. pH. and a chemical preservative. Salt. reducing sodium content has the potential to increase food spoilage rates and the presence of pathogens.

the remaining products may not be stable. etc. Changing this single hurdle may impact the safety and quality of the food because other hurdles that are present (pH. ready-to-eat foods were cited as one factor that may have contributed to an increase in the incidence of listeriosis from 2001 to 2005 (Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of . In some foods. There is speculation that some past salt reduction efforts may not have adequately accounted for the need to adjust additional hurdles to microbial growth. may become a concern. 2005). Such efforts do incur additional costs and require careful attention to ensure that new formulations and processes are sufficient to ensure product safety. If such additional measures are not taken during sodium reduction efforts. Foods using sodium as a hurdle to retard microbial growth and survival present a reformulation challenge. rather than spoilage. pathogen growth. since changing the sodium content alters the impact (or height) of the water activity hurdle. good-quality product. These issues are discussed further in Chapters 6 and 8. In the United Kingdom.Stringer and Pin.) may work only in combination with the original sodium level. reducing the sodium content (by removing both salt and sodium nitrite) could allow for rapid growth of lactic acid bacteria and action by proteolytic microorganisms. resulting in a product that spoils more rapidly (Roberts and McClure. in cured meats. reformulation may have to include the introduction of additional hurdles or an increase in the impact of existing hurdles. 1990. temperature.product has an adequate shelf life and to prevent pathogen growth. To maintain a safe. For example. salt reduction efforts in chilled.

. 1986). 2005. There is also evidence suggesting that reductions in salt might result in greater risk of toxin formation by Clostridium botulinum (the organism responsible for botulism) in certain foods if additional hurdles are not incorporated. This is particularly the case for foods that have not been heated sufficiently to inactivate C. toxins were produced within 21 days (Simpson et al. Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes. which has a high thermal stability and is able to grow and survive at refrigeration temperatures and elevated salt levels (Zaika and Fanelli. . decreases in salt content from 1. 1995).0 percent salt addition. To decrease the risk of listeriosis.0 percent by weight greatly reduced the time needed for C.. 2008). At salt concentrations at or above 1..Food. botulinum type A and B spores to produce toxins in sous vide spaghetti and meat sauce products when stored at typical refrigeration temperatures. 2003). a draft report of the United Kingdom’s Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food called on the Food Standards Agency to work closely with food manufacturers to ensure that the microbial safety of food products would not decrease with changes in formulation to reduce salt (Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food. 2008). For example. 1995). no toxin production was detected from the inoculated products during the 42-day storage period.5 to 1.. Karahadian et al. while at 1. botulinum spores and have little oxygen present. 1985). meat products (Barbut et al.5 percent. and sous vide products (products that are prepared in vacuum-sealed plastic pouches and heated at low temperatures for long times1) have been recognized as having potential for C. botulinum control problems when sodium is reduced (Simpson et al. Processed cheese (Glass and Doyle.

These pathogens include Bacillus cereus.5 percent than when it was 4. Salt defines us as a species. 2005. turkey frankfurters inoculated with C. salt is entwined with our evolution. 1986). Salt's diversity is a crystalline reflection of the world's geography.Staphylococcusaureus. to view it with something akin to lust. Examples of additional hurdles are listed in Table 4-2. We are hard wired not just to want salt. Aeromonashydrophila. Stringer and Pin. 1991). but to need it. the growth of other foodborne pathogens may be more rapid in foods with reduced contents of salt and other sodium-containing preservatives.Similarly. In addition to C. Yersiniaenterocolitica. high-pressure processing. product developers and researchers have been able to accomplish sodium reductions even in products such as processed cheese and processed meats (Reddy and Marth. botulinum and L. Just as we developed cattle and crops to advance from caves and savannas to villages and cities. and Arcobacter (D’Sa and Harrison. 1991. Reddy and Marth.. electron beam irradiation) that may have wider applications in the future. botulinum and held at 27°C showed more rapid toxin production when salt content was 2. to adore it.g. monocytogenes. This list includes a number of emerging technologies (e. 2005).. Clostridiu m perfringens. culture.0 percent (Barbut et al. and technology. A number of hurdles can be added or increased when sodium is reduced to ensure that a product’s safety is maintained. Virtually every society in . While the pathogens described above must be taken into account.

And it might not be that bad for us.human history that could make salt. is so ancient. white. What do you want salt to do for your dish? Do you want the salt to spark and vanish or persist and penetrate? Do you want to build a crescendo or diminuendo of flavour? What textures do you want: a quick snap. green. but most often. Salt crystals come in huge blocks and in microscopic fronds.681 peoplepublished last week in the Journal of the American Medical Association has again seriously undermined the prevailing attitude among media and public health officials. It can be monolithic or fractured. grey. red. salt is also among the weirdest and most unpredictable of all the world's foods. the simple act of adding salt to food. after all. in the instance of a rare African salt from Lake Assal called Djibouti Boule. It is essential as a seasoning. Salt can be blue. varied and essential that we have been lulled into believing we know how to do it. Salting is an opportunity. rose. a barely perceptible crunch? How prominent a role do you want to allot to it: do you wish to hear . Those without the resources or skill to make salt needed to trade for it. As the most potent flavour enhancer. did. Salt crystallisation seems intent on going rogue. a preservative and a nutrient. Shapes range from pyramids to flakes to clumps to cubes. bent on disproving the laws of physics and human expectations. a voluptuous crackle. orange or purple. we don't. they even form naturally into near-perfect spheres the size of golf balls. Salting. silver. A new major study of 3. It found no correlation between moderate salt intake and hypertension.

. I believe salt awakens us to our senses and our instincts like no other edible substance. It brings food. now fuller food flavours . salting effectively can be achieved with the simplest of resources: A fleur de sel for finishing fine foods.. As you eat. then a faint spark of salt catching at the complex afterglow of the food.only the voices of the other ingredients. and a selgris for everything else. Appreciating salt and using it well begins with a glimpse at the cultural and economic centrality of this essential mineral. When salt is allowed to play a finishing role in the dish.. then the food . a flake salt for snappy contrast on fresh vegetables.. food and salt combine – first a flash of salt . It also connects us to our environment and our traditions. surprising textures. On the other hand. There are thousands of salts in the world.. or even grab the microphone for a verse? It is right and proper to use as much salt as you want so long as you are the one salting your food. RESEARCH DESIGN . unexpected aromas and a heightened awareness of the process of tasting food.. or can salt chime in as a chorus.. the relationship of salt and food evolves with every bite. and there is no reason not to explore as many as inspire you. a flicker of salt .. salt and your palate into the most intimate possible contact. Finishing with salt rather than salting your food during cooking is one of the most effective ways we have of playing sensually with what we eat. The rewards: increased intensity and complexity of flavour.

Respondents/Contents of the Study . Quantitative experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a series of qualitative experiments.The researcher made use an experimental quantitative research utilizing descriptive correlation techniques and use a standard format. and is basis around which the whole experiment is designed. This hypothesis must be provable by mathematical and statistical means. leading to a final answer. and a tightening down of possible directions for follow up research to take. This design was appropriate in this investigatory project. with a few minor interdisciplinary differences of generating a hypothesis to be proved or disproved.

Edgar A. Ezequiel A.Name Questions: (Mark Check if yes and x if no) Can salt electricity is better than hydroelectricity? Y E S 1.Jhecyll P.Lanie M. Bastasa √ 15.Delia V. Tapia Can salt electricity have better power than electricity from plant? √ 17. Juliet P. Villamor √ √ 12.Jessica T.Cyrene M. Navaja 5. Favia √ √ X √ X 16. Culverwell Y E S √ X X √ X √ √ X X X 8. Bejod √ √ 11. Pellano √ 2. Villamor 14. 7.Demetria P. Villamor √ √ X 13.Lilybeth P.Elsa V. Regato N O X √ 6.Reynaldo Cal √ √ 18. Villamor Jr.Nestor A. Bonifacio P.Gloria V. Hermoso √ √ 10. Madayag N O X X 3. Mahipus √ 4. Patula √ √ .Gina P.Dina H. Uyangguren 9. Elma M.

the first question. In second questions. . about 67% answer yes while about 33% answer no. Experimental Procedures Prepare the materials needed. connect them correctly.In the table above. 60% answer yes while 40% answer no. Then. Connect the other another wirings that are connected to the saltwater. prepare the electrical materials.

you can screw the light bulb on the miniature base. optional .After that. if the connections are securely and correctly connected finally. Materials:  Water  Small glass jar  Salt  Measuring spoons  Zinc-coated nail  Tape  Copper-coated wire  2 insulated wires with alligator clips on both ends.  Voltmeter (borrowed)  Graph paper.

6 Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to connect the copper-coated nail to the positive pole of the voltmeter. . and tape it to one side of the cup securely. 3 Place a copper-coated wire into the solution. 2 Place a zinc-coated nail into the solution. and attach it to the end of the zinccoated wire sticking out of the solution.Experimental Procedure: 1 Make a saltwater solution by mixing a small jar of water with a teaspoon of salt. and tape it to the other side of the cup securely. 5 Open the alligator clip on the other end of the wire. This will be the positive electrode. and attach it to the negative pole of the voltmeter. 4 Open the alligator clip on one wire by squeezing it. This will be the negative electrode.

N stands for the total rates while e stands for number of respondents. The data collected were tabulated and analyzed. This will produce the average value of them. we must find the middle value of each Age Range.Statistical Treatment We used Karl Pearson’s formula in order to find the Mean Value. . Karl Pearson’s formula is n/e. Analyses of data were guided by mean.

Stirring the saltwater will increase its potential electrical energy. thus it is a very poor conductor of electricity. Finally. Water is comprised of two elements – hydrogen and oxygen.Analysis & Interpretation Data Analysis : When the volume of saltwater. through this experiment. it was observed that the electrolysis method was used to produce the electricity from saltwater. which may be caused by the activation and pronunciation of the seawater’s molecules. it becomes an electrolyte solution that can conduct electricity. stirring the saltwater will increase its potential electric energy. so a tremendous amount of saltwater is needed to produce sustainable power. Interpretation The gathered was seriously interpreted: a. The present study was found to be a good source of electricity . The present study is not harmful in the environment for it is natural and ecofriendly. By adding ordinary table salt to distilled water. the power of the electricity in the saltwater also increases a notch. Distilled water is pure and free of salts. Therefore. can .

. 10 1000 teaspoon Ml Salt Water Table 2 The equipment and their function used in conducting the study.performed the said its potential to conduct electricity. Ensures reliable energy source. Materials and Equipment Below are the listed materials and equipment needed in this study to obtain saltwater power experiment. b. c. The name of the materials and amount used to conduct this study. Small glass jar teaspoon tape voltmeter Storage of water Used in measuring the salt being added Used to taped the copper-coated wire Used in voltage readings produced by the saltwater. The present study can help reduce damaging emmisions being added to our atmosphere. Table 1.

it is proven that it is not harmful to any respondents who test the present product. which can be used as an alternative source of power. effectively. and so affordable that can be an alternative energy in conducting electricity and since the main material is in our sorroundings. . Arriving at the results and outputs . Moreover. the researcher conclude after the hard investigation produce on how to prove that saltwater can be a good conductor of electricity. The researcher found out that the present product can truly. Based on experimentation. we found out that saltwater has potential electrical energy.Conclusion The main goal was to find an alternative source of energy and to be able to see if saltwater can be used as the alternative source of energy. It is safe as well as in the environment for it is natural and no harmful substances.

3 September 2009.com/files/2007/09/fuel_from_salt.miniscience.com/Video/How-Saltwater-Can-Be-turned-Into-Energy-11495570&gt.blogspot. 3 September 2009.” Mach 8. “Green Cleaner: Electrolyzed Salt Water.com/projects/airbattery/&gt. “Air Battery. “Power Generation. 2007. <http://www.” 14 March 2009. “How Saltwater Can Be turned Into Energy. <http://www.com/2009/03/green-cleaner-electrolyzed-saltwater. Jeanne. MiniScience Inc. 11.Bibliographies Alexey.php&gt. Elle.html&gt. 3 September 2009. Jacquot.5min. “”Fuel” from Salt Water?” September. . 2009. 3 September 2009.treehugger. <http://green-jeanne.” 2009. Jeremy Elton. <http://www.” Energy Efficiency News 10 August 2009 .

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature .

Chapter 3 .

Chapter 6 .

Chapter 5 Summary. Conclusion & Interpretation .

Chapter 4 Analysis & Interpretation .

Chapte r1 .