EVOLUTION OF NURSING

Period of Intuitive Nursing
(Prehistoric to early Christian era)
Ø Nursing was untaught and instinctive
Ø Performed out of compassion for others and desire to help others

Beliefs and Practices of Prehistoric Man
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Nursing was a function that belonged to women taking care of the
children, the sick and the aged.
Believed that illness causes the invasion of evil spirit through the
use of black magic or voodoo.
Believed that medicine man was called shaman or witch doctor
having the power to heal using white magic.
They also practiced “trephining” or drilling a hole in the skull with a
rock or stone without anesthesia as a last resort to drive evil spirits
from the body.

Contributions to Medicine and Nursing
§ Babylonia
o Code of Hammurabi – provided laws that covered every
facet of Babylonian life including medical practice and
recommended specific doctors for each disease and gave
each patient the right to choose between the use of
charms, medications or surgical procedures.
§ Egypt
o Introduced the art of embalming
o Developed the ability to make keen observation and left a
record of 250 recognized diseases
o Slaves and patient’s families nursed the sick
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Israel
o Moses was recognized as the “Father of Sanitation” and
wrote in Old Testament which:
ü Emphasized the practice of hospitality to strangers
and acts of charity
ü Promulgated laws of control on the spread of
communicable disease and the ritual of
circumcision of the male child
ü Referred to nurses as midwives, wet nurses or
child’s nurses whose acts were compassionate
and tender
China
o Believed that in using girl’s clothes for male babies keep
evils away from them
o Prohibited the dissection of dead human body as a
worship to ancestors
o They gave the world knowledge of material medica
(pharmacology)
India
o Men of medicine built hospitals, practiced an intuitive form

Both groups were looked upon as inferior by Roman society. In 16th century. Catherine of Siena. He also developed assessment standards for clients. cheerless. The first “Lady with a Lamp”. Crusades § § Military religious orders established hospitals staffed with men Knights of Lazarus was founded and primarily for the nursing care of lepers in Jerusalem after the Christians had conquered the city.o o o § Nursing was the task of untrained slave Introduced caduceus. may have shared one bed. St. while younger nuns washed soiled linens. People entered hospitals only under compulsion or as a last resort. the insignia of medical profession today Hippocrates was given the title of “Father of Scientific Medicine”. Dark Period of Nursing (17th to 19th century) ü There were no provisions for the sick. airless and unsanitary. usually in the rivers. Rome o o o The Romans attempted to maintain vigorous health. no one to care for the sick . Fabiola made her home the first hospital in the Christian world through the help of Marcella and Paula Period of Apprentice Nursing (Founding of religious nursing orders to 1836 when Kaiserwerth Institute for the training of Deaconesses in Germany was established) ü Also called the period of “on the job” training. because illness was a sign of weakness Care of the ill was left to the slaves or Greek physicians. She was a hospital nurse. recognized a need for nurses. hospitals were established for the care of the sick where hospitals were gloomy. researcher and a reformer of society and the church. Practice of environmental sanitation and asepsis were non-existent Older nuns prayed with and took good care of the sick. prophetess. established overall medical standards. Rise of Secular Orders § § § § § § § Religious taboos and social restrictions influenced nursing at the time of the Religious Nursing orders Hospitals were poorly ventilated and the beds were filthy There was overcrowding of patients: 3 or 4 patients regardless of diagnosis or whether dead or alive. ü Nursing care was performed without any formal education and by people who were directed by more experienced nurses ü Religious orders of the Christian church were responsible for the development of this kind of nursing. He made major advances in medicine by rejecting the belief that diseases had supernatural causes.

she entered the Deaconess School of Kaiserworth o Worked as superintendent for Gentlewomen during illness o Disapproved of the restrictions on admission of patients and considered this unchristian and incompatible with health care o Upgraded the practice of nursing and made nursing an honorable profession for gentlewomen o Led the nurses that took care of the wounded during the Crimean war o Put down her ideas in two published books: Notes on Nursing and Notes on Hospitals Period of Contemporary Nursing (Period after World War II up to present) ü Scientific and technological developments as well as social changes mark this period ü Establishment of WHO ü Use of atomic/nuclear energy for medical diagnosis and treatment ü Utilization of computers ü Use of sophisticated equipment for diagnosis and therapy ü Health is perceived as a fundamental human right ü Nursing involvement in community health is greatly intensified ü Development of the expanded role of nurses ü Professionalization of nursing Nursing in the Philippines Early Beliefs and Practices . from an arousal of social consciousness. from the emancipation of women and from the increased educational opportunities offered to women ü Popularization of the philosophy of the Nightingale System o Importance of nursing education o Hospital affiliation o Nurses teaching students o Health teaching as critical responsibility o Enforced written physician orders o Expansion in no. mathematics and social graces o Developed he self-appointed goal: “to change the profile of nursing” o Compiled notes of her visits to hospitals. of schools to North America o Specialization developed ü Facts about Florence Nightingale o Recognized as the “Mother of Modern Nursing” o Known also as the “Lady with a Lamp” o Raised in England and learned languages. her observation of the sanitary facilities and social problems of the places she visited o Noted the need for preventive medicine and good nursing o Advocated the care of those afflicted with diseases caused by lack of hygienic practices o At age 31. 1869 when Florence Nightingale School of Nursing was opened until World War II) ü The development of nursing during this period was strongly influenced by trends resulting from wars.Period of Educated Nursing (From June 15. literature.

§ San Juan de Dios Hospital (1596) – Founded by the Brotherhood of Misericordia and administered by the Hospitalliers of San Juan de Dios. during the Philippine-American War that broke out in 1899. also provided nursing services to her troops § Trinidad Tecson – “Ina ng Biac na Bato”. Bautisita of the Franciscan Order. Nursing during Philippine Revolution ü Prominent persons involved in nursing works § Jpsephine Bracken – installed a first hospital in an estate house in Tejeros. and voluntary contributions o Provision of nursing care to wounded Filipino soldiers § Requirements for Membership o At least 14 years old. provided nursing care to the wounded night and day § Rosa Sevilla de Alvero – converted their house into quarters for the Filipino soldiers. provided nursing care to Filipino soldiers during revolution. stayed in the hospital at Biac na Bato to care for the wounded soldiers.ü Superstitious beliefs and practices in relation to health and sickness such as Herbmen or Herbicheros as one who practiced witchcraft ü Persons suffering from diseases without identified cause were believed to be bewitched by “mangkukulam”. § Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo – wife of Emilio Aguinaldo. ü Filipino Red Cross § Malolos. age requirement for officer was 25 years old o Of sound reputation Hospitals and Schools of Nursing . provided nursing care to the wounded when not in combat § Agueda Kahabagan – revolutionary leader in Laguna. service was in general supported by alms and contributions from charitable individuals. support was derived from alms and rents. Spanish Period ü The religious orders exerted their efforts to care for the sick by building hospitals in the different parts of the Philippines ü Earliest hospitals established: § Hospital real de Manila (1577) – built to care for the Spanish king’s soldiers § San Lazaro Hospital (1578) – built exclusively for patients with leprosy § Hospital de Indio (1586) – established by Franciscan Order. Bulacan was the location of the national headquarters § Functions: o Collection of war funds and materials through concerts. rendered general health service to the public. President of Filipino Red Cross branch in Batangas § Melchora Aquino – Nursed the wounded Filipino soldiers and gave them shelter and food § Capitan Salome – a revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija. organized Filipino Red Cross under the inspiration of Apolinario Mabini § Dona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo – econd wife of Emilio Aguinaldo. charity bazaars. § Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590) – founded by Brother J.

1913) Emmanuel Hospital School of Nursing (Capiz. 1912) San Juan de Dios School of Nursing (Manila. 1903) § Mary Chiles Hospital School of Nursing (Manila. founder of Philippine Nurses Association ü Cesaria Tan – First Filipino to receive a Masters degree in Nursing abroad ü Socorro Sirilan – pioneered in hospital social service ü Rosa Militar – a pioneer in school health education ü Sor Ricarda Mendoza – pioneer in nursing education ü Conchita Ruiz – first full-time editor of the newly named PNA magazine ‘The Filipino Nurse” ü Loreto Tupaz – Dean of the Philippine Nursing. Paul de Chartes. 1907) Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing (Manila. 1907) Philippine Christian Institute Schools of Nursing § Sallie long Read memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Laoag.Established by the Archbishop of Manila. the Most Reverend Jeremiah Harty under the supervision of the Sisters of St. 1911) § Frank Dunn Memorial Hospital (Vigan. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing (Quezon City. 1918) § ü ü ü ü ü ü ü First Colleges of Nursing in the Philippines ü University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing (1946) ü Manila Central University College of Nursing (1947) ü University of the Philippines College of Nursing (1948) Nursing Leaders in the Philippines ü Anastacia Giron-Tupas – First Filipino nurse to hold the position of Chief Nurse Superintendent. 1013) Southern Islands Hospital School of Nursing (Cebu. Ilocos Sur. It was located in Intramuros and it provided general hospital services with free dispensary and dental clinic Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing (1907) § Anastacia Giron-Tupas. Ilocos Norte. the first Filipino nurse to occupy the position of chief nurse and superintendent in the Philippines St. Florence Nightingale of Iloilo .