Course: Lexicology 2

Teacher: Mgr. Petra Jesenská, PhD


Which of the following words do not take prefix A-? Add correct attitude or negative prefixes to
the odd words.




Prefix ANTI- can be used with different meanings. Divide the following words formed with ANTIinto two groups:
1) when it means opposed to a particular system or practice or to a particular group of people or their
policies, culture, or power;
2) when it means intended to prevent something from happening or to destroy something harmful.

MISTZTAL, Mariusz. 1999. Tests in English Word-formation. Havl. Brod : Fragment. 232 pp. ISBN 807200-375-5.




Which of the following words do not take prefix ANTI-? Add correct attitude or negative prefixes
to the odd words.
Which of the following words do not take prefix COUNTER-? Add correct attitude or negative
prefixes to the odd words.




2) when it means already.g. prepaid.g. ANTE-. foretell.g. In which of the following words RE. or FORE-.into two groups: 1) when it means before. 2) when it means the front.may have a different meaning? What is the meaning of the odd word? reappear recover redistribute remove re-read restart rebuild recreate re-examine rename research restrain reconsider redefine release reopen reserve reunite reconstruct rediscover remarry reprint resolve rewrite 3 NUMBER PREFIXES EXERCISE 11 BI. 2) the ones taking COUNTER-.forearm forefoot forelimb foreshore EXERCISE 5 Divide the following words into two groups: 1) the ones taking ANTI-. 2) when it means twice. e.have before as part of their meaning. bicycle.can be used with different meanings.g. biweekly.into two groups: 1) when it means before. EXERCISE 7 Which of the following verbs take FORE. Divide the following words formed with BI. biannual bilateral binoculars bicarbonate bilingual bisect bicentenary bimonthly What are the two possible meanings of the following sentence: "The film festival takes place biyearly"? bigamy binary . e. Divide the following words into three groups: those taking PRE-.g.added to a verb indicates that an action is done or happens a second time.can be used with different meanings.into two groups: 1) when it means two. Divide the following words formed with FORE. e.g. forearm.but also ANTE. e.can be used with different meanings. e. pre-Christian. -abortion -American balance -cancer example measure plot -reform -submarine accusation -apartheid bacterial claim -freeze -missile -pollution religious -war act argument blow communist -government move proposal revolution -aggression attack -burglar espionage -infection nuclear reaction -seasickness -birth date fathers room -war EXERCISE 6 PRE.and FORE. pre-birth pre-cut pre-digested pre-heated premarital pre-prepared pre-revolution preset pre-booked pre-dawn pre-election prehuman pre-packed pre-recorded pre-Roman pre-sixteenth century pre-Christmas pre-delivery pre-examination pre-independence pre-payment pre-Reformation pre-school prewar -date shadow decease tell determine view forefathers foreleg foreshadow forewarn castdecease knowledge -school warn chamber doomed marital see -1900 -Christian -examination natal tell EXERCISE 10 Prefix RE. Divide the following words formed with PRE.and which PRE-? cast see foredoomed foreknowledge foresee foreskin EXERCISE 9 Not only PRE. e. Are there any which can take more than one of the prefixes? 2 PREFIXES of TIME and ORDER re-arranged pre-cooked predestination prefabricated pre-industrial pre-planned pre-retirement pre-selection pre-1950 forecast forehead forepart foresight judge warn EXERCISE 8 FORE.

.... Divide the following into two groups: 1) those which take UNI-... — involving only one group or country UNI... — to bring together UNI..have one or single as part of their meaning. semi-official.. happening or done every three hundred years TRI.. .. Note: words with TRI.have all as part of their meaning.. omniscient omnivorous omnipotent omnipresent B. Divide the following words formed with SEMI.have many as part of their meaning. e. 2) those which take SEMI-. unicorn unify unique Unitarian EXERCISE 15 Which of the following can take: 1) POLY.. semicircular.. Choose which of the given prefixes can be used with the given word or stem: MULTI / POLY coloured MULTI / POLY-dimensional MULTI / POLYglot MULTI / POLYgraph MULTI / POLYlingual MULTI / POLYphony MULTI / POLYstorey MULTI / POLYtalented MULTI / POLYtheism MULTI/POLY cultural MULTI/ POLY-flavoured MULTI / POLYgram MULTI / POLYlateral MULTI / POLYnational MULTI / POLYracial MULTI / POLYsyllabic MULTI / POLYtechnic MONO/POLYculture MONO/POLYgon MONO/POLYphonic MONO/POLYtechnic MONO/POLYxide MONO/POLYgamy MONO/POLYgraph MONO/POLYplane MONO/POLYtheism MONO/POLYglot MONO/POLYgram MONO/POLYsyllabic MONO/POLYtone sex theism chrome tone EXERCISE 17 Give the defined words.. – a series of three books TRI. 3) either prefix? lateral syllabic uniform unilateral unisex C.. match the definitions with the right words given under the exercise.. — being the only existing one of its type UNI.. — the same.. -annual -monde form culture circle -tone -detached -world -god EXERCISE 13 SEMI. — believing that God is one person and rejecting the dogma of the Trinity UNI.EXERCISE 12 Words with both DEMI.and MONO. semi-annual semi-retired semi-automatic semi-skilled semicircle semi-tone semi-detached EXERCISE 14 Words with both MULTI.and POLY.have one.. If you find this task too difficult... – of which three copies are made TRI… – lasting for. 2) MONO.can be used with different meanings. single).. — intended for use by both men and women B.into two groups: 1) when it means half..have three as part of their meaning.. – a painting consisting of three parts TRI. — a horse-like creature with a single horn UNI.. Note: words with OMNI...g...... Note that sometimes there are more words than definitions! A. — having complete power to do anything that is desired OMNI.. — having unlimited knowledge OMNI.. – a geometrical figure with three straight sides TRI.g.... — able to eat all kinds of food A.(meaning one...have half as part of their meaning. OMNI.. e.. – three children born at one birth TRI... Note: words with UNI..(meaning many).. 2) when it means partly..... EXERCISE 16 Both UNI. Divide the following into two groups: 1) those which take DEMI-... – a group of three TRI.. not varying in any way UNI.. — present everywhere at the same time OMNI. UNI. single as part of their meaning. 2) those which take MONO-..and SEMI.

OCTAve PENTAgon..... techn. PENTAmeter POLYtheism. claustro. . biological . dem. xeno. tonsilI.. DECAlitre KILOcalorie. baro.. government record.. method... . appendic. biblio... beautiful.. ........ .... writing affected by illness EXAMPLES air.. e. UNIsex = eight = five = four = a hundred = many = a million = single = ten = a thousand = three = two. an. . 4 GENERAL SUFFIX EXERCISES EXERCISE 19 Fill in the table as shown in the example.. MEGAhertz OCTAgon... armful dutiful houseful peaceful tablespoonful cheerful glassful joyful plateful thankful cupful graceful merciful pocketful useful deceitful handful mouthful powerful youthful delightful hopeful painful spoonful . . MEANING vehicle lover of surgical removal device for measuring fear of people speaking. ..... scler. octa..C. referring to amounts and measurement. TRIlogy UNIlateral... . .. Bilateral... . electricity geography .. history . tubercul. .. KILOwatt MEGAbyte. POLYsyllabism QUADrangle. auto… terror-. Bicentennial CENTigrade. economist .... SUFFIX .... fungi... science PERSON . 2) adjectives describing characteristics and qualities.. .. ........... micro.. .... . discussion rule killing inflammation resemble study of device for transmitting sound angle rule... .. poverty-.. e. ADJECTIVE . regi.. ... grammatical linguistic logical . olig...... human... machine . ............... g..... QUADrilateral TRIangle.......... twice EXERCISE 20 Complete the given stems with the suffix the meaning of which is given next to it. space....... mono. ... append. deca.g. e. . kins. teaspoonful. -ARCHY -GON -OCRACY -PHOBIA -CIDE -GRAPH -OID -PHONE -ECTOMY -LOGUE -OSIS -CRAFT -ITIS -OLOGY -STRICKEN -FOLK -METER -PHILE EXERCISE 21 -FUL can be used with different meanings..... physical . ....... .g.. triangle triennial trio triplex triptych tricentennial trilogy triplet triplicate triumvirate EXERCISE 18 Match the number prefixes with their explanations. Divide the following words formed with -FUL into two groups: 1) nouns. deca.. Anglo..... .. country.. .... . chrono. photo. the… ear.. .... hepat.. ... .. ... SUBJECT PERSON ADJECTIVE art artist artistic SUBJECT analysis .. CENTimetre DECAgon........ fung.

. POLITE 2. He is completely . 1. but actually very . ... 1. EXPECT 14. 1. 2. OBEY 2. 1. and I ran into it. 2. INFLUENCE EXERCISE 24 Fill in the blanks with words formed from the given stems. GEOGRAPHY 8. .. 1. Of course it's a violet! It's colour and shape are .. ..negative meaning . explain the difference in meaning — if any — between the forms.... .. future. helpful 1. 2.. 1.... humorous 1. Not only is he lazy but he is dishonest too.. . 1. 1. 2... heart law sense sleep spot taste value 1. 5. 2. Be careful! The floor has just been washed and is very ……. COURAGE 14. 1. in need of help not giving help .ADJECTIVES MEANING help 1. In some places the weather changes so quickly that it's very …. 1. READ 4. 1. IMAGINE 3. 2. 3. .. 2. so the management tried to cut costs by making some work redundant. kind of person. He's not very .. ART 15. My little son is always getting into trouble at school. 2. not bright red. for the fall. 2. RED 12.. experience. 3. It is very . The factory was . The editor said my poems were so bad they were .. There will be no pay rise in the . I asked for directions but people were rather.. HONESTY 8. . "I find your arguments . worker. My dog never does what it is told. You won't be paid much as a/an . 1.. 1. Travelling in an aeroplane for the first time was a …... He was turned down for the job because he wasn't ….. This is good quality leather. g. pet. SEE 7. SUIT 6.ADJECTIVE(S) MEANING 1... snake. humourless ROOT art colour + positive meaning + ADJECTIVE(S) 1. MEMORY 5. 1. His ……. SLIP 7. Don’t depend on hum. way.. I enjoyed the book very much because it was so …. .. 5 GENERAL PREFIX AND SUFFIX EXERCISES EXERCISE 22 Fill in the following table as shown in the examples. I was ………. .. 3. 3... 1. 2. PREDICT 13. unhelpful humour 1.…... CURE 3. 5. Those shoes are not waterproof. This is the restaurant where most of the town's rich and ………. 2. 2.. Many ……. people dine. . OBEY 10. Unfortunately. EMPLOY 7. . Steve was bitten by a . Alexis is really a very ………….. .. 4.. SKILL 13. your illness is . 1.. In case more than one form exists.. Her hair is ……. 1.." CONVINCE 15. QUALIFY 9. it's very . 2. he’s a very … person RELY 4.. Please don't tell lies. 2.. 2. The film was well made but not very …. They are . people sleep on the streets of the capita! HOME 11. 1. TRUST 6. He said "Hallo" in a most ….. EXPENSE 3. 1. 2.. PRINT 12. 4. . 2.. MEANING 1. 1. Pete's parents decided that his scorpion was an ………... ... . 2.... 1. helpless 2. SUIT . 2. ... HELP 9.EXERCISE 23 Fill in the blanks with words formed from the given stems.. "This is not a good essay" said the lecturer. .. Pushing into a queue is considered extremely . 2. doubt faith fault fruit grace 1. MISTAKE 11. knowledge is very poor— he thinks Paris is in Italy. Don't leave any money lying around.. 1. ROOT + ADJECTCVE(S) . by my friends to take this exam. POISON 4. COMPETE EXERCISE 25 Fill in the blanks with words formed from the given stems.. e. 2. 2. AMUSE 10. 1.. 1. 2. The car in front braked . .. FRIEND 2. 2. He's . To be a good novelist you really have to be very ……. 1. 1. 2.

e. EXHAUST 9..... His boss told him off because he had behaved . When the miners were finally rescued they were . but the following should be remembered: 1) when two short nouns are joined together.. Please make the cheque . PATIENT 13..g. Please don't be so . should buy a pet.. SUIT 15. IMPRESS 8.. . they form one word without a hyphen. 2) when we form compound nouns with the use of self. We feel that the laws against begging should not be . her to apply for the job. CONSCIENCE EXERCISE 26 Fill in the blanks with words formed from the given stems. Most people who work feel that they are . I'll always remember that journey — it was an . The new professor gave a most . Don't be so . time for an appointment.. CONFIDE 8... ... People who suffer from . FORCE 12.. . Everyone was very . 3) when a compound is accepted as a single word. putting it either before or after according to the meaning.5. is to avoid hyphens where possible..g...(self-education) or verb + particle (make-up) we usually use a hyphen. COURAGE 6. for long journeys.. Arnold is very tall and . Nobody wears clothes like that any more — they are terribly . Unfortunately Jim's bid for the 100 metre record was . using the words below. RESPONSE 11.. check in the dictionary.. it can be written either as one word. . . the accident was . COMPETE 11...m. My sister never stops talking! She's a very . and is very . 8:15 a. we've only been waiting a few minutes. a schoolboy. DAMAGE 9. . ... during winter.. hens are very rarely used.. Even if you're good at a game.. TALK 2. on Saturday is a rather . PAY 14.. two separate words or with the hyphen.. by the good news. The villages in the mountains are quite .. Barb is a good employee. lecture to the students. ACCESS 6 COMPOUNDS COMPOUND NOUNS Note: compound nouns are usually written either as two separate words or as one word.. EXERCISE 27 Combine the words in capital letters with each word of the list below it. experience. ... HARD 4. CONVENIENT 10. This small car is . REASON 3. I can't do all the work by myself. Water came through our roof but luckily my books were ..FASHION 6... If you are uncertain what each of the compounds means. There are no precise rules as to the spelling of compound nouns. The world of computers is extremely . you shouldn't be . I couldn't help it... POT tea — teapot = a pot for tea BED bath camp oyster river twin water wetting LAND father grazing mark lord promised slide BOOK address case cheque coffee-table cookery guest phone reference stall talking token MASTER bedroom head list key school piece plan old DAY birth break dream flag time pay HEAD big dress figure magnetic office HOUSE coffee boat hold keeper lower publishing wife TABLE dressing high linen manners tennis wine TIME bomb lag limit machine table prime question zone WORK day social team permit shop stone EXERCISE 28 Make as many compound nouns with HIGH. LOW and MlDDLE as you can.. Her parents .. person. The tendency. The judge described Smith as a ". .. PAY 13. . LONELY 15. Brown.. F0RGET 7. HEART 10. There are always mistakes because the firm is so . 1. to M... SUCCEED 7. ... AVOID 14.. .. EFFICIENCY 5. HIGHage heels rise tide MIDDLEchurch jump school treason class light season way LOWcourt name speed weight finger noon street .. criminal" who was a danger to members of the public. especially after a period of time when the word has been used. Explain the compound word you have formed in this way: e. MUSCLE 12. ......

news CLASS FETCHED MINDED SHAVEN VISUAL audio-… aids brand-.... 100 degrees Centigrade is the boiling point 2. Fetch some boiling water for our tea... look for the right words in the list below. double bass double-decker doubles double-glazing double bed EXERCISE 30 Which of the following words can be used with both FIRST and SECOND to make compound nouns? And which form compound nouns only with FIRST or SECOND? Form all the compounds and explain their meaning.look (forecast) EXERCISE 33 What's the difference in meaning between the following pairs? break-out versus outbreak let-out versus outlet hang-over versus overhang set-up versus upset lay-out versus outlay look-out versus outlook take-over versus overtake COMPOUND ADJECTIVES EXERCISE 34 Fill in the blanks with the right words to form compound adjectives.. (reduction) drop.... view cold-. (cash-desk) cut... (failure) break.. The meaning of the needed compound noun is given in brackets.....come (conclusion) . 6. and sometimes use a hyphen. it is not drinking water. In this case we stress both words and never use a hyphen.... jacket duty-… shop first-. 3.. (start) take.break (start) ... 5. I spent the whole day writing a paper for my history class.. money earned and spent) .. (action against) draw. (change.. 2) shoes which are walking.. break.. infant clean-. (important discovery) check-. 8. Put it away. put (information that is put in) ... mission freeze-. If you find the exercise too difficult. In this case we stress the first word only.... criminal far-...... (negative aspect) fall... (finish) crack-..EXERCISE 32 Combine the verbs with prepositions to form compound nouns.. (escape) break-... (person who rejects society) feed. best coming language prize born cousin light sight childhood floor name thoughts class lady nature wind EXERCISE 31 Expressions like walking shoes may mean either: 1) shoes for walking.. (comment) print. (purchase by another firm) walk-.. After the volcanic eruption everything was covered with boiling lava. (radioactive dust) lay-. conclusion front-.. man fact-... EXERCISE 29 What do the following compound nouns mean? A.. Yesterday I bought a new pair of running shoes.. My English professor is a walking dictionary. 7. Decide which of the following are compound nouns. Could I borrow a frying pan.. 9.... apartment blood-..... coffee BLOODED FED GOING PROOF SWEET air-. taste breast-. I often fish in that running stream..let (place to sell) …out (production) break-. 1... please... (printed information) shake-.. professor bitter-. (strike) . and then we have a noun and an adjective... absent-. (change) turn. short circuit shortcoming shortfall short list shortbread shorthand B. 10. monster breath.... (parking at the side of a road) set-. car bullet-... I need some writing paper. and then we have a compound noun..-pass (secondary road) . 4.... ticket DRIED FINDING NEW TAKING CONDITIONED FREE PAGE THIRSTY ....

. Check their pronunciation.. intentions .. We say that the SO-..-GREEN coal lime pea snow EXERCISE 36 Some compound adjectives are borrowed from foreign languages.. 12.. 9. 10..... Fill each blank with a word that combines with the one given in a way that fits the sentence.. A.EXERCISE 35 Join words from the list with the colours to form compound colour adjectives.-BLUE ... restaurants.... look for the right words in the list below. To be honest. blood electric midnight pearl blue ice nut royal Colours: . income . check dry martial reference wreck clean examine name stamp cross feed paper test cuff feed read treat dry glaze record wash ... reasoning EXERCISE 38 In each of the following sentences there is a blank with a word just before it. marriage ... ticket. blow double hand sand white court double ill ship cross dry nick spin cross field proof spoon cross force rubber tape B. meeting .. 11.... job. court case . ADDRESSED GOING LAID POLISHED TIME CALLED HEARTED LEGGED PRICED ADVISED CLASS HEARTED MADE/BAKED TAUGHT FASHIONED COMPOUND VERBS Note: you cannot always guess the meaning of a compound verb if you are not already familiar with it. 2.-BROWN . 6... This particular kind of LONG-. "leader" of the group is just a petty tyrant.-GREY ..... art . woman.. clothes . Our teacher isn't strict at all.-RED bottle iron ocean sea brick jet off sky . I much prefer having a drink in an OLD-......... 7. EXERCISE 39 Join words from list A and list B to form compound verbs (transitive). I enjoy eating in HIGH-. 13. Everyone began the holiday in a LIGHT-... to sell the house at the present time. 8. I am entirely SELF-. cakes for tea....... shoes. with the situation 5. sheep can run quite fast. cuisine ... Peter always wears very WELL-. evidence ..... payment .. I think you would be ILL-.... envelope. a la mode au fait de jure laissez-faire B. 14.. I have never had any painting lessons. Please enclose a SELF-. mood.. ... hotel .. What I'd really like for breakfast is a nice NEW-.. country club... a la mode avant-garde de luxe laissez-faire a priori bona fide de rigueur per capita ad hoc cordon bleu de trop prima facie ad lib de facto ex gratia sub judice au fait de jure infra dig EXERCISE 37 Match the compound adjectives from list A with the right nouns from list B. 4. He paid a lot of money for his FIRST-. She hasn't much money to spend because she can find only a PART-.. chores .-WHITE .. A. My mother always gives her guests HOME-.. Always check the meaning of the new compounds in the dictionary. She is very EASY-. 1... Explain the meaning of the following compounds. egg. comments ... a priori avant-garde de luxe per capita . player ad hoc bona fide ex gratia prima facie .. If you find the exercise too difficult...-BLACK .. policy ad lib cordon bleu infra dig sub judice ... 15. 3. She looks rather severe but she is really a very KIND-...

e. etc. EXAM GYM. and you will lose a mark for their use. As a safe generalisation. the clipping of the end of a word is the most common.g. MATH. Paratrooper. Aframerican comintern medicare EXERCISE 42 First names are. Give clipped forms of the following names. Elizabeth — Betty Albert Benjamin Elizabeth Philip Thomas Andy Debby Mabel Ray Vee Amerindian Eurasia newsboy Australasia maitre d´ paratrooper 8 BLENDING Note: blending is the fusion of two words into one. Charlotte Frederick Richard William B. ad — advertisement e. is a clipped form of parachutist trooper. in spoken language. as some examiner-will not accept them. use them only in spoken English. Agnes Antoinette Christina. e. and it is mostly nouns that undergo this process. for example. However. Edwin Nicholas Samuel Archie Dora Mae. In some cases more than one form is possible. g. blends and clipped words are not sharply separated. more often used in their clipped than in their original forms.g. Edward. Albertina Eugene Mary Theodora dormitory grandmother pantaloons periwig professor San Francisco violoncello Anthony Arnold Edmund. be careful in using them in exams. As these examples suggest. Note: clipping means cutting off the beginning or the end of a word. DORM. such as modifier + noun. EXERCISE 45 Give the originals of these blends. g. ad — advertisement bike — bus — doc — exam — gent — grannie — movie — phone — vet — zoo — co-ed — flu— lab — photo — coke — fridge — maths — plane — decaf — gas — mike — pop— EXERCISE 41 Give clipped forms of the following words. The resultant blend shares both original meanings.. and some words may be put into either class. as in BRUNCH. The resultant form is called a clipped word. Give the original of these clipped words. The two classes. Aggie Con Lu Prue Trixy EXERCISE 40 Give the original words from which these clipped words were formed. theses. etc. May Tilda Bert Lottie Nora Tish Bella Gene Net Tina Andrew Arabella Constance Herbert Mathilda Veronica Archibald Beatrice Deborah Letitia Prudence Amabel Charlotte Eleonora Luisa Raymond EXERCISE 44 Clipped words are formed not only from individual words but also from grammatical units. BRUNCH = BReakfast + lUNCH autobus cablegram Interpol paratroops Benelux Eurovision motel telecast breathalyser heliport newscast smog . e. cabriolet — cab brassiere fanatic memorandum perambulator poliomyelitis promenade dance sergeant communist graduate (student) Metropolitan Opera permanent (hair wave) preparatory (school) public house taximeter cab EXERCISE 43 Alfred Charles. leaving a part to stand for the whole. usually the first part of one word with the last part of another. The jargon of the students is filled with clipped words: LAB. or both. PROF.7 CLIPPING Match the clipped forms in list A with the full names in list B. A.g. e. from BREAKFASTand LUNCH.

RSVP etc. For example. as in MP [em'pi:] (military police. In some cases the initials are pronounced. NATO – ['neitou] -–North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 9 ACRONYMS Note: acronymy is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.a.g. If you find the exercise too difficult. e.e. or Member of Parliament). RIP e. very common in English.a.a. ID LP MP POW UK IMF LSD mph PTO UN IOU MA MSc s. Pronounce the following acronyms. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) is pronounced as ['neitou]. AA BA DC FAO A-bomb BC DIY FBI AC CIA DJ GB A level c/o D.D. SPLATTER am NB CD p. e. D. BLOT = BLemish + spOT binary digit motor + pedal(cycle) BIT blare or blow + spurt transfer + resistor BLURT DUMBFOUND MOPED AD i. Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals. C. Litt. EXERCISE 47 Acronyms which are pronounced as sequences of letters are called alphabetisms.p.e. the initials and/or beginning segments are pronounced as the spelled word would be. Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals. GMT a. DNA GP b&b DC EEC/EU HM HRH EXERCISE 48 Acronyms which are pronounced as sequences of letters are called alphabetisms.G.g. Pronounce the following acronyms and give their originals. g. In others. match the blends given underneath with the right words. EXERCISE 50 Acronyms pronounced as a word are very often used without knowing what the letters stand for. US IQ MC OED SF VSO IRA MD ono TB wc LA MIT PO Box TV YMCA Basic English OPEC UNICEF GATT SALT UNO laser UFO WASP radar UNESCO . dumb + confound splash + spatter TRANSISTOR EXERCISE 49 Some acronyms are of Latin or French origin.s. but they are.O. give their originals and their English meanings.EXERCISE 46 Give the blends that result from fusing these words.