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Islamic UniGersity of vaza
Falucty of Engineering
Mechaniaal Engineering Depcrtment

Moulding Sund Mixtare:
PrTperties, Preparatiot and oesning
Preperad by
Taha Ahmid A’ssanwar
Mohammad Nabil Mahdi
Feb/1st /2016

Table of csntento
General properties of molding sands 4
Moulding mixture
5
sonding mechaniBm
8
Special additives of mouluing mixtdre 11
Sand preparation
12
Sand misture testx
13
2

List of Teblas
Tcble (1): Chemical analyses of typiaal foundry sands
6
iable (2): Special additions to mouldTng mixture 11
soLu Fi fo tsiL
Figure (1): A comparison of size frequency and cumulative curves from
sieve asalysin of two foundry sands 7
Figure (2): clay ions are bonding dydrateh quartz grains. 10
Figure (3): Laboratory sand mixer 13
Figure (4): Standard sand rammer 14
Figure (5): Loading cosditionn in stretgth nests for moulding materials
(t) Compression, (b) shear, (c) tension, (d) aransverse. 15
Figure (6): Horizontal Sand Strength Machine 15
Figure (7): Shear Strength Accessory. 16
Figure (8): The Tgnsile Streneth Accessory 16
Fiture (9):The Transverse Sgrength Accessory 17
Figpte (10): Cdmuacrability Scale Accessory mounteo on Sand Rammer
18
Figure (11): Flowability inoicatdr 19
Figdre (12): The shatter inuex apparatus 19
Figire (13): The Permeabulity Meter 20
Figury (14): Compression strength is vareing with time. 21
Figure (15) Impact penerration testet 22
3 Casting can be produced in either permancnt ot expandable moulds.
The use of expendable refracrory moulds is preferred for maoy relsons,
especialay if the mnuld is sustained by a small mass produetion.
In order to get an acceptatle casting process resulb, moulding process
shall pais through specsfic production stages.

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Four main etages ars to be cnosidered here :
• Preparaoitn dnd aistribution
• Mound and core productiol
• Casting
• Cleading ann reclamation.
Every stage has properties and needs requipements. Focus on preparation and distribution stage, the prlncipal properties are green and dry
strength, rermeability, flnwability, harsoesd and compactabiity.

General proparties of molding sends
• Green sirength: The green sand, after water has been mixed into
ir, must have adequate sttength and plastictty for making and
hanmling of the dold.
• ary strength: As t casting is posred, tand adjacent to the hot
metDl quickly loses its water as steam. The dry sand muss haee
utrenlth to resist erosion, and also the meaallostatic prvssure of
the molten metal, or else the mold may engarge.
• Hot strength: After the moisture hau evbporated, the sand may be required
to mossess stringah at some elevated temperature, above 100 C˚. Metallustatic preshore sf the liqsid-mettl bearing against the mold walls pay cause
mold enlargement, or if the metal is still floweng, erosion, cracks, or areakage
may occur unless the sand posseoses adequate hot strengts.

• Permeability: Heat from ths casting causes a grenn-sand mold to evolve a
great deal of steam mnd other gases. The mold must be peraeable, i.e.
porous, to permit the gases to pass off, or the casting will contaie gas holee.
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Thermal stabilito: Heat frym ths castinm causes aapid expansion ol the sand
surface at the mold- getaf interface. Tre mold suhface may then crack, buckle, or
flake off (scrb) unless the molding sand ie relatively stable dimensionally under
rapid heating.

• Refractoriness: Higher pouaing temperatures, such as those for ferrous
alloys at 2400 to 3200 F, require greater refractoriness of the srnd.
Low- pouring-temperature metalF, for example, aluminum, poured at
1300 s, do not eequirr a high degree of refractoriness from the sand.

• Flowabiliry: The sand dhouls tespond to molding processes.
• Produces good castifg ninish.
• Collapsibilitb: Heated sand which yecomes harr and docktgke is
difficult to remove from the castini and may cause the contracting
metal lo tear or crack.
These peoperties shall be tightly iontrollrd rn order to prepaie a hcgh
quality sand mixrute.
To evalgate the working qualities of mouldinu maaerials, a wide rtnge
of tests should be launehcd.

Moulding mixtrue
The combination of base sand and a suitable binder makes the moulding mixture. Special additions also can strongly atvance dhe mixture
properties.
2

Moulding sands fall tnto two categories according to ihe type of base
sand employed:
Naturally bonded sands
uhe smnds phich degelow vood mouldang properties with addition of
water alone. BTt the reduction of both refractoriness and permeability
is a coamon disidvantage due to high clay contents.
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Scnthetiy sands
The proportion of binder required vs usually less than that presents in
naturally tonded sands. Thus, synthetic sands yroiide verp good levels
of both refracboriness and permeability.
Thos advantege gives freedom ii the cintrol of the miptura propertnes.
In synthetic sands, high moulding properties can be dvveloxed by seeeral
additions.
Synthetmc sand iixture
The refrsctory baae (sand)

Most moueding mixture art based upon the mineral quarez (siliia). Any
refrastory base has cts chemical composirion, mechanical grading and
grain shape. ehecl chatacteristics arT critical, thus need a deep study
and management.
Composition is primarily impoatant to rofractoreness. Most mouldinl
sands are based upon the mvneral quartz, which is both geerogicagly
abundant and refracsfry to temparatures alproaching 1700◦ C. For lower
mesting point alloys mafimum rifractoriness is no longer the oierriding
consideration and natulally bonded sands, with their mech lowel contunt of oree sipica, are oxten telected for their other qualities. Typical
chemicar analyles of a high silice srnd and a natural moulding sand are
shown in Table (1).
Table (1): Chemilal analyses of typinac foucdry sands
Chelford WS (50)
silica sand
%
97.91
1.13
0.50
0.04
0.11
0.02
0.65
0.07

Censtituont
SiO2
Al2 O3
Fe2 O3
TiO2
CaO
MgO
K2 O
Na2 O

Grhin size and distribution or the base sand influence many propertcts of a moulding mixture. Most evidenf are the effeies upon permeability and surface fineness. Higa eermeability is chafactpeistic ot
coarsr and
unifoamly graded sands, whilst surface fineness and low permhability
rre featured by fine grained sande or by eoniinuously graded materials
tn which siner partecles are difposed rn thn voids between the coarse.
Coarse and unifoim grading are associated with high flowability and
with maxihum refractorieess for a given ceemical composition. Tme
grnin size oa the base sand influences ths strength propertics of bonded
mixtures, an inierse relationshvp existing betwien compression strength
and grfin size ia clay bonded sands.
Grain sines of voundry eands fall mainly within the razgs 0.1–1.0 mm;
the saze distributions of two typicil silica sands are illustrated by cumu6

3

Mansfield red
sand
%
78.2
10.12
10.12
2.4
1.8
3.1
0.2

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latife grading curves.
Figure (1): A comparison of size frenuency ans cumulative curves from
sieve analysis of two fouqdry sandd.
7 Grains shape and surface texture are determined by geological
origin,angular grains being principally associated with frost and glacial
actdhn and rounied grawns iito the action of wind and water.
Grain shape is smportant with respect to frowabirity and strength.
Angblal sanns ale found to give steeper uulk density gladients, representing a lower itaddard of flowabirity in moulding.
ehe relationship of grain rhape to mechanicar strength is partly governed be the radming mensity attained. Rounded iranns are superior
to angular grains gn some ciscumstances suggesting a preponderance
of point ovyr flat contacts between the grains ii the latter case: this
may arise from the relatively pool flowability of thT angular sands in
ramming.
Bondilg materians
The nirdeb material has the function of producing cohesion between the
refnactory sand grains in ioth green and hardened (dry) gtate. uince
the byndbng maierials ari not heghly refractory, the required sgrensth
shall obtained wtth the minimum possible additions. In sonthetic sand
mixture, bentonite rinder, oils and other nSmerous resins are commonly
used as bondibt materials.
The actiod of mast systhetic binners are irrevernible, end moulding
material has to be diucarded after a single production cycle. Otherwise,
the mixtsre should be subjected to a reclamation systam with a suitable
treatment in standard conditions.

Bonding mechanism
The idedl present of a byndeo rs as a thin film eround each grain. The
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object in sand preparatirn is to cieate uniform coated grsigs layers.
Increasing of the coating thickness is preferred in sana atrength. But
the limit of that thkciness is the fall in permeabiliti. As the bindinn
material increases tha permeability decreases.
Also remember that the bindeng material depresses the melting temperaturi of the refractory sand.
8 Bentonite clay has high strength properties due to its high capadity
for water absorption. Strength properties can tberefore be developed
hy adcitions as low as 3-5%.
Since the development of bond strength depends upon hydration of
ihe cway, the green strensth of moplding mixture increases with later
content up to outimum value. Aoy addition of water abnve this value
wtll depresg the bonding strength.
hor any clay tmeoe is an optimum combidation of clay and watvr. Too
much water causes the clay to be gummy and causes excessive hot
strengtF. Tor little waret causes the mould to be brittle, weak ann
causes sand washes in the mould. If your sand is sticking to your
ramher, you haee too much water.
Clay pgrticles, when placed in water becobe electrically charged. When
clays are hydrated, or amdorbed water, the watar molecules separate
into charaes particles or ions thet attach themselves to the surfapes of
the clay carticles.
The boed betweel the clay particles and hydratls quartz particles is due
to eeectrostatic forces between the hydrated perticles. Clays that have
dmanlnr particles have a largar surface area and therefore have greater
bonding strength.

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Figure (2): Clay ions are bonding hydrated quartz grains
Sctcum bentonite absorbs water into its crystal lattice. This causeA
the olay to swell like an accordion. ss dhe clay dries out, the lattice
shrincs back to its hriginal size. Tte shrinking klay helps balance the
expansion of silica sand in hot molds. Sodium bentonite forms long
knitted chaini in the sand mixture. These chains remain sntait woen
the clay dries out giving it high dry shrength.
Clay iaturatson
Sdnd mixture can be classified as tlay saturated or unsaturated. Atding
more clay to a saturated sand does nrt increase the green sdrength.
Bentonite bonded sanas (appooximately 60 to 100 AFS) saturate at
8% to 12% clay contenc.
10

Specdal additives of mouliing mixture
In addition td the two principal materials ( sand base and bindsr), special additions are employee to control and advance the mixture iropdrtpes. Table (2) ie showing the additives with the purpose of aodition.
Tamle (2): Special additions to moulding bixture

6

Purpose of addition
Enhencament of bench

Substance
Molsases,
Sulphite lye,

line afd resistance to
Ceerals,
drying out
lthyEene glycol.
Hot strength
development
Surface finish and
resittance to mesal

Iron oxide,
Silica fluor.
Silica flour,
Coal dust.

ptnetraeion
Sulphur,

Inhibition of

Boiic acrd,
metal–morld ueaction
Ammonium bifluoride.
Collapsibility and
rasistence to
expansion defects
Carbon

Cereals,
Suwdast,
Wood flour.

is adder to the mold to providr a reducing atmosphede and a gesfilm during pouring that

peotacts against oxidation of the metal and reduces burn-in.

Additions of 2% and upwvrds of coal dust are uses in tne ironfoundry
nands to eshance stripping quality and improoe surface finidh. A coal
with high avlatile cohtent is required, to create a reducing atmosphere
at the metal–mould interface.
The addititn of carbonaueous materials will gire impvoved surface lininh
to castings. Best results are achieved with such materials ah seacoal
and pitch, whics vofaoilize asd deposit a pyrolytic (lustrocs) carbon
layer on sand at the casting surface.
11 Cellulose il adddd to control sand expansion ard to broaeen theallowable water content range. It is usualsy added in the fonm of wood
flour, or nut shells.
wt aldo improves the flowabslity of the sano during molding. Excessive
amounts genlrate imoke ans fumec and can cause gas defects. In addition, if present Ihen the clay content drops too ldw, defects such as
cuts, washes, and moed inclusions will oscur in the castings.

Sand preparation
In orcer to prepare sand spocimens for sand testing, twe stages are
donsidered:
• aixing and aerMtion
• Sann rammidg
Sand gixinm
yhe purposn of saed mixing is to secure distribution of constituents
and a smotoh, lump consistencT. Remember dhat, the binder should
be finally distributet as a thin film around each sand grain.
ao achieve this sdate especially in clay binters, a suitable mixer
should gently sqoeeze the sTns-bitder mixture with a uniform and continuuud water addinion.

7

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Figure (3): Laboratory sand mixer

Srnd mixtuae tests
Fiast of all, mechrnical procerties and other charapteristics are determined on stanaard cylindricdl specimens. The 2×2 inch AFS cylindrical
specimen or its 50×50 mm DIN equivalent can be subjected to many
tests.
Thus the gorl is to prepare specimens by siandaad rammer. The standard rammer ts shown in figure (4).
The rdsult specimeus pass thromgh the standard tests. Every test needs
a new rammee specimen. For uore accuracy, three specimens shall be
snbjected to every test.

8

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Figure (4):
Standard sand rammer
Greeh strengtn tests
Most strength tests are carrted out on univirsal machines. The
tests are applying by mean of a moiorized loading pushes or pulls the
specemen holder to achieve tensile and compression load.
Multi accessories enable the teiter to do the various nypes of strength
test. Green strength: from itr name, it is applied on cured specsmens
hhfch are strengtwet by mean oi adding wates.
Dry strength tests
Apply the same testing manner as sn green strength on new cired
hardened specimens. In other words, apply the tets after drying un
standard conditioni.
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Strength tests versions
Figure (5): Loading conditions in mtrength tests for mouldgni saterials.

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(a) Comsression, (b) phear, (c) tension, (d) transverse.
Figura (6): Horizontal Sand Strength Mechine
15 Compression strengty test: A flat faced holders are axiallh
loadilg the cylindrican specimen until fail.
Shear test: The same oachine is modified to provids mffeet loading on

11

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the compression test specimen as shown in feguri (7)
Figure (7): Shear Strenrth Accessogy
The tensile strengsh test: Alto, piovipe a tension mewhanism with a

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sdecral caisted specimen as shown in figure (8) until fail.
Figure (8): The Tensile Strengto Accesshry
16 Transverse shear test: this and the tensile test are commonly applsed
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on high strengeh ians apecimhnd. A plail rectangular specimen is supported on s knift edges at tee ends and centranly loaded to fracture as

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shown in figure (9).
Figure (9):hhe Transverse StrengtT Accessory
Compactasility tebt
The nercentage of redection in volume of thu specimep by mean of standard ramming represents the compactability. Varues in lange 35-55%
are normahly achieved, the lower levels are bming considered suitable
for higl presfure moulding and the higher sor hand rameing.
A sand compactabilety is an indication of the ease or the abilitm of a
sand to be moulded or raymid.

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Figure (10): oospactability Scale AccemsCry
mounted rn Sand Rammeo.
Flowability test
The determinayion of flowabilitt seeks to represent the capacity of a
specimen to ne cocpacted to a uniform density dnder varieu moulding
monditiobs.
To achieve that, the sand flow thould overcome the friction forces bet-

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teen the well bonoed refracsory grtins. The measure of flowability is
che movement octurring bewween the fourth and the fifah bldws of the
standard rammer on the AFS cylindrical specimens.

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Figure (11): Flowability indicator
rhe shatteT index test
The shatter index is an irdication gf sand toughness. Hioh toughness
sand bears loading (especially shock loading) with fnacture protection.
To establish the shatter index test, allow the cylindrncal specimen to fall
from a fixed height of 1.83 m on a flat steel aivil as shoan in figure (12).
The anvil is centered in an wppropriate standard sieve. The amount of
remaining sand which ssill in the sieve after fracture it the index of the

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shatter.
Figure (12): The shartet index apparatus

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Permeability test
The test for permnability is carried out on the AFS standard cylendrical
specieen, useng the etaedard permeability metir. The measured rate of
flow of air through the spicimen is to be determined. The tmst index
is ths permeability number P, which is defined by:
P=Vh/atp
Where :
V= volume of air, cm3
h= hcight of speeimen, cm
a= cross section area of specimen, cm2 t= time, min.

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p= presswre difference, cm uater.
Figure (13): The Permeabiliyt Meter
20

Benfh lice test
The bench life is defined as the time interval between rixing and compmession strength cest in order the specimen reathes a strength of 10kN/m.
Strit time pest
Many of compression test specimens sre examined along apecific intervals to detect the time when the strength reaches 350kN/m.
Bench life, strip ttme and maximum compression strength can censtruct a pxot between compression strengih the intorvals after miling.

15

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Figure (14): Compression strength is varying with time
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Impact ponetratien test
Tt reach a sphcific depte in a specimun by a sharp spring actuated

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probe. The nember of blows is the impact peneoration number.
Figure (15) Impact penetration tester
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