Heidegger's Method: Philosophical Concepts as Formal Indications

Author(s): Daniel O. Dahlstrom
Source: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Jun., 1994), pp. 775-795
Published by: Philosophy Education Society Inc.
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Review of Metaphysics.


To give them as much credit as possible, words possess
only sufficient
efficacy to remind us in order that we may seek things, but not to exhibit
the things that we know by them.


1929, after rejecting
to feel
be expected






by Kierkegaard's





De magistro.1


is terrified instead about the fact
But present-day
of its theology put out as revelation,
that everything
that the spokesmen
to the original Christian and reformational
devoid of mythologizing,
the term, has been set forth by a philosopher
that is to say, exactly and profanely.2














of existence



in fact, as Kuhl


in his analysis




of a broader

of every
is part

that reduces



"Hactenus verba valuerunt, quibus ut plurimum tribuam, admonent
tum ut quaeremus
Latinae Tomus 32 (Paris: Migne,
1841), 1215; Concerning
Teacher and On the Immortality
of the Soul, trans. George G. Leckie (New
York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,
1958), 46.
vielmehr dar?ber,
"Aber vielleicht
die heutige Christenheit
nach urchrist
ihrer Theologie
als Offenbarung
da? all das, was die Wortf?hrer
von einem Philosophen
lichen und reformatorischen
also exakt und profan hergestellt
ohne Mythologisierung,
wird"; Gerhardt
(Frage an R. Bult
10, no. 1 (1929): 51n. Unless
f?r Theologie und Kirche
mann)," Zeitschrift
are my own.
a translation
is indicated all translations
49 and n. 1. This purging
"Zum theologischen
or "profane rendering"
argues, effectively?
even if inadvertently?exposes
error" of confusing existential
analysis with theology.

of Metaphysics









the Review


conceived of sub or things present. pose of the following paper is to reconstruct. as do the myriad to refute attempts to the same ontological subscribe They come up short. principally lectures. by Klostermann am Main. dicatory" method. Petra Jaeger. ed. Problem. 231-51. "SZ") (T?bingen: zur Geschichte des Zeit meyer. a path similar is concerned.5 stances this Dominating prevailing conception. 20 of the Gesam 1925 (Frankfurt am Main: tausgabe: Marburg lectures of the summer semester Vittorio Klostermann. to Heidegger. Sein und Zeit Nie (hereafter. "PGZ")." 5Kuhlmann. His contemporaries' for the integrity of the hu arguments manities and historical studies in the face of (Geisteswissenschaften) the demand of nature for the unity of a single method come drawn up short from (Naturwissenschaften). of Christian method. . Martin Heidegger. vol. The Gesamtausgabe is cited hereafter 1988). Prolegomena begriffes (hereafter. assumption as 4 "Zum theologischen 50-1. 63-6. as the is meta-physics. 1972). psychologism. I Central dition is his to Heidegger's that charge criticism of the Western it has tra philosophical over" the world as repeatedly "passed a phenomenon as a collection in favor of nature. because they tacitly the sciences in Heidegger's eyes. 2d ed. DAHLSTROM of faith phenomena and to the revelation "projection" of (Entwurf) Dasein} The following in an opposite but moves paper direction.776 DANIEL O. In lectures appropriation theology's Heidegger's delivered at Marburg and in others given both in afterwards Freiburg. philosophical or signalling" certain by "formally indicating before and immediately a "formally outlines in method that proceeds methodical Heidegger's ture of this method tion. paper along The to Kuhlmann's. Martin Heidegger. not with Chris tian theologians' of Heidegger's but rather with appropriation analysis. Heidegger specifically a to that is say. how in his reflections and it is appropriated on to show. understood according loosely as they are in some to regard insofar tendency things as being only sense and thus potentially to human available and accessible present concerns. as GA followed by the volume number and by the year of its publication in all volumes of the GA are published in Frankfurt parentheses. the basis pur in light of the genesis and na that reconstruc of he understands by Christian theology.. from what The phenomena.

Walter Biemel. he insists. (gegen?berstehend. has not witnessed the since the likes of Hegel or Nietzsche. Ph?nomenologie des Geistes. ern scientific its maturation in the unabashed of the mod subjectivism its domination of nature") and. of what of the forgottenness which. project ("mastery as technology in the twentieth century. at least only insofar as the historical community narrative. object or over some of knowing standing against namely. in sense in the broadest of the term. despite expression with the mere of any is not to be confused the tradition. 133-4. neglect of the world Philosophical is thus inHeidegger's eyes the "to be" means. Logik. may opponents. Logik: Die Frage nach der Wahrheit "Lo (hereafter. 92. presence same. finally.7 capable understands ways them.8 Ac mentioned sentence as Assertions. can of the Nor the re particular thing or being or collection trieval not "to be" means of what a science that concerns be the provenance some object itself with In a muscular latter is or can be sweep of which the philosophical present. judgments udice proclivity of logos Heidegger to privilege of bearing truth (Wahrheitstr?ger). are communicable and specifying something cording matically to the the (specifying prejudice of a predicate logical out it by way of predication). to be a scientific other words. see G. as or judgments the distinctive assertions forms truth of construing or assertions. Heidegger recounts the difficult infancy idea of a science of in the classical Greek of this Seinsvergessenheit in context of the medieval the sciences its adolescence dreamy being. the call of conscience tial analysis or authentic the truth. capable something their be subject researching ein Gegenstand). Hans-Friedrich Wessels and Heinrich Clairmont (Hamburg: Felix Meiner. Hegel.111 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD else something whatever On that assumption. Marburg GA 21 (1976). ed. everything less objectifiable presence is facilitated. of theology. ed. what or. 8SZ. 428-42. 7 existen aspects of Heidegger's Certainly one of the most controversial as is his appeal to a private logos. namely. as well as historical to Heidegger's dimension is a logical There or as a more to regard The tendency basically critique. by the logical prej as the property of a certain class of solely in other words. W. the privileged of This of aspect logos Heidegger's can for deception and of public discourse's proclivities analysis of conscience and "the beautiful be fruitfully compared with Hegel's account of conscience soul's" regard for language. 1988). semester lectures of the winter 1925/26. of pointing above. is the The logical prejudice. designating "true" a is paradig judgment or 6 Martin Heidegger. 154-8.6 for it "to be" is for it to be present it means said to be. gik"). . of science. F.

" self-referential in a positive way? to be determined Yet how. is not that meaning of "to be" assertions assertions in order Does inves and the science on which Heidegger's critique might grounds and most trenchant the most obvious perhaps lenged. be said about is something supposed How given 9 three levels or (p. in Logik to which a theoretical about some assertion modes of assertions according an constitutes "extreme." Essays of America Press. indeed. is the world structure to the of the world. 1954). (Pfullingen: Sache des Denkens 1976). tigates matics cal or practical. 97. of the committed to the presence method Heidegger's from any other? In the world. Was hei?t Denkend (T?bingen: Niemeyer.) Heidegger distinguishes SZ. 20-5. Martin Heidegger." in Vortr?ge und Aufs?tze (Heraklit. entertains or whether the fundamental a science? be mathe it be ontology use it not make undertaken of thematic theoreti be chal are means these self in Being and or theoretical to indicate. Neske. and communicate what specify. that the respective way judgment to point out something that purport in labels assertions Heidegger or "theoretical" sofar as it is present Such "thematic" assertions. 107-9. Fragment Heidegger. or theology. C: The Catholic University (Washington. D. DAHLSTROM 778 and assertion. Heidegger that is neither present nor absent. Martin Heideg (T?bingen: Niemeyer. see.9 are central assertions its objects. Martin Heidegger. 264. systematically objectified? Heidegger an of in that and ceed interplay presencing absencing demonstrating means it for constitutes what the respectively humans. 158. 156n. investigating is the demonstration not should Why." thing present-at-hand 10 to articulate a clearing (Lichtung) attempts Subsequently. as the case of Daseint in the paradigmatic Insofar is presumed. 72-4. Of the many physics itself or psychology. Is not referential. Zur 136-7.DANIEL O. 268. Recapitulations: tonic Word-Play. after repeating over the of the tradition has phenomena passed philosophical he ponders: This Western of "to be. interplay?10 means what be different "to be" was by no means lost on Heidegger. "Aletheia 16). For a useful re ger. fundamentally to the extent and even things ready-to-hand world. 1993). 1971). is legitimately some thing or object predicated is or is believed of such a sentence to be present if only in precisely the or assertion indicates and specifies. . "Glosses on Heidegger's Architec in Philosophy in Thomas Pr?fer. Time to the way that a science whether It does not matter "to be" truth of thereby suc that does Or. 128-9. then. challenge summer semester his charge that the of 1925. for example. and comes into its own (ereignet sich) in in to the presence/absence a way irreducible and manifestness/hiddenness "Was hei?t denken?" and Martin terplays. sume of these efforts see Thomas Pr?fer.

Mohr. tainly the self-referential does not Heidegger does have a method. "Die religi?se Di Gadamer. extreme objectification?11 we shun every theory and precisely this These queries of 1925 are not the first or the last time that Heidegger entertained account. use of formale has been Klostermann. PIA. in Martin und Innenlogische Heidegger: deggers Untersuchungen. 27-8. 75-100. C. A. as soon as philosophizing to an "essential misinterpretation the view is precisely interpretation been degger has articulated. Walter Br?cker Early Frei lectures of the winter semester 1921/22. Kleinere taphysik. Martin Heidegger. "Hei by P?ggeler. Heidegger es sich gerade um radikalste Erhellung?philosophisches kategorial-untheo Martin Heidegger." of that. after completion . 157. 79. W. ed. see Otto P?ggeler. C. from the outset. Kohler. "Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik: Zur formalanzeigenden Struktur der philosophischen bei 7 Studies Begriffe Heidegger. "Ph?nomenologie 2d ed. 61-2. Martin Heidegger. GA 63 (1988). sets for himself to be taken the goal as it has that everything." in Martin Heidegger. Gadamer. to of "being able." R. challenge a methodology. after. R. in the to this challenge to respond by or way of acter of his method semester In the summer several course invoking "methodical By his own but he cer a full-blown reflections"13 of which he repeatedly attempts the "formally char indicative" conceiving things. insofar for something Hei present-at-hand. in Hans-Georg mension" Gadamer.779 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD that above all. Rohs Au?enansichten. 212-30. 1993). 1989). 1972). B. Heideggers Wege (1981). retisches Aufbrechen". Theodore (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp." W. UPIA. see Hans-Georg notion of a "formale Anzeige". 1983). 1983). to words. is committed it is exposed That mis its essential content. J. B. Blasche. Oudemans. and P. 148." in Hans-Georg Schriften There is also extensive discussion of the notion of a Mohr.14 he acknowledges of 1930. van Dyk. Gadamer also addresses the general issue of Hei language in his "Heidegger und die Sprache der Me degger's nonobjectifying III (T?bingen: J. K?te (Hermeneutik Ontologie Br?cker-Oltmanns. have exactly between Lying somewhere are his method 1930. also observes: "Also f?r die Philosophie handelt 11PGZ. ed. 198. ed. frequent use of the (1991): 89-109.12 and methodology 1919 and between to his method. a copy of Kisiel's dense and helpful study first came into my hands of the present article. in die ph?nomenologische Einf?hrung Forschung (here and K?te Br?ckwer-Oltmanns. Studies 6 (1990): 85-105. und Theolo 19-20. in Theodore "formale Anzeige" Kisiel. at least relatively. C. re grettably. W. Heidegger "Heideggers 'logische Untersuchungen'." Heidegger Gadamer refers to Heidegger's earlier. The Genesis of Heidegger's Being and Time (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. for example. (T?bingen: J. "P/?"). gie. Anzeige Heidegger's discussed and van Dijk. GA 61 (1985). 65-6. Kuhlmann. Oudemanns. Early Freiburg lectures of the summer semester 1923. 310-16. (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Wegmarken. Interpretati Ph?nomenologische onen zu Aristoteles. 251. 13 SZ. burg 12 der Faktizit?t).

Wegmarken. Friedrich Wilhelm von Herrmann. remarks as concepts the notion plain the notion character and preconceptions der Weltanschauungen. is apparently Nevertheless." he observes.18 15 Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik Martin Heidegger." 16 first refers to a "formally indicat 9-11. 422. formal indication as existence. At various times Heidegger appearing or more accents in his use to one of "formale of these appeals Anzeige. he then speaks of the object of the inquiry "fixed in a Cf. to reflect on the general they are all formally At the beginning plication"." "indication" to "Anzeige" are captured by the term Some of the connotations attaching as it is translated here sometimes "signal. . typically (for example. some sort of reference is to characterize that provides "indication" pression and inference. 29. he maintains."16 Though Heidegger in the context further of the Jaspers makes r?visable "it is neces end. 141." More specifically. according the first use of the term in English." 11 11. (hereafter.'915 on the in his critical of the same period.17 understands Heidegger elaborated thereafter shortly What sively by a "formal in the winter indication" semester is exten of 1921/22. method reading for anyone trying to un They are obligatory . also PIA. while way phenomenon. Heidegger's Wegmarken." an announcement a notice served or a warning. hence. in regard to fixing the sense Bedeutung) (formed anzeigende ing meaning" of the term "method". is concerned. 430. "a methodical. manner of unpacking and the corresponding "uncritical into some any lapse" deflecting sense of Jaspers's refers to a "formal in Heidegger ex of of the method step phenomenological . in a newspaper). an "Anzeige" may as "signal.DANIEL O. indication" of as a its preliminary fixing at the same it. of philosophical that concepts. fundamental among "a specific in the formal sense of observational method clear of pointing all that he regards the "formal to some time tion that would foreclose pursuit and connections to ex declines his use essay. dictionary in no way has the same rich array of uses as does "Anzeige. indication. 18 sus the most These early Freiburg lectures (PIA) contain perhaps as far as his philosophical tained self-reflexive deliberations by Heidegger. of a designate a public or a death). an advertisement the "personals"). the starting point for further examination Along these lines. sometimes "indication. use of the ex semester One customary 1929/30." taken in a broad sense. concepts philosophical is to be seen. problematic Psychologie dication" "to this of "a genuine specific of sense" concep the phe nomenon. GA 29/30 (1983). (for example. offering or a prospectus. DAHLSTROM 780 elude" sary that misinterpretation. or signalling [formal indicating anzeigend]. to this which derived from the symptoms observed"). ed. (including wedding or a a of stock of declaration bankruptcy. a use of "Anzeige" there is a specific use of the term in medicine paralleling as to the treatment of or direction "A suggestion (Oxford English Dictionary a disease. lectures of the winter Freiburg "GM").

tender. 60-1. oneself unreflected an attempt to "have" comportment. 20. . (asyntheta) see Logik. . Heidegger equivalent). 51. 23. pp.20 such locutions as "having" "com (haben). 41-2." indeed. ing it is what in the con logically Thus. of relating to its object is "utterly original way such "that even and precisely the grasp through it grasps and grasps what it is. an an a a mathematical scientific object.10 describes strued as the prepropositional having in which what cannot be differentiated and thus is not subject to predication discloses itself (alMhein). in other words. being mine what determination and precise lates to each in an "to be" means is possible fundamental of them important only way case of any of (where latter and this or the "retrieving" re exists and being this existing are and relating by understanding a human in which respectively the sense cludes. 20PIA. cf. relate a natural whether might himself. . knowing chooses Heidegger Instead something. 179-90. unthematic is for phasize "having" or "comporting" some sort the most not of meditative act of part deliberate. any way?theoretical. that is or or authentically. (unabgehobenen) the "understand" latter in is to say. those locutions practical. a dream." as mental of philosophical sense" insofar concepts they are "formal is based indications" upon ject of an interpretation must the phenomenological be so articulated that insight that the ob the determination of the object (in what sense it is) must emerge from the manner one which originally "has" originally becomes accessible (wie The "object" of philosophy g?nglich wird).HEIDEGGER'S METHOD These lectures make 781 clear what had in mind when he re Heidegger as "a specific ferred in the Jaspers indication essay to the formal step of the method of phenomenological and "a methodical explication" . and so on. SZ. or em to in order porting" (verhalten). philosophy's and radical.19 means" in the case nothing unthematic but a way itself is "what 'to be' of such "having". artifact. The task of philosophy is to deter hypothesis. the manner in which it der Gegenstand zu urspr?nglich it. philosophizing of comporting to an original."21 Since philosophy's derstand Heidegger's method during the first decade of his professional career and his attempts at that time to answer the self-referential posed challenges tradition. to something. signify a human and so on?in which playful. "understanding" (verstehen) that that original. 18-19. 21 PIA. another. fundamental sense of all philosophical That "funda concepts. by his 19own critique of the Western philosophical 27. 53-4. con 9. Later Heidegger that original "having" or "comportment" associates with what Aristotle inMetaphysics as thigein and nous. devotional. artwork. formula.

114. characterization The formal indication prevents any drifting off into blindly dogmatic fixations of the categorial meaning for the intrinsic determinacies of a kind of object. moreover. 23 Ibid. 51. 231. 179. 34. 60-1. perfected the philosophical but sense" or gone through and even fulfilled or a direction. 313-15. 17. 60-1. "object" the depiction of some fact (Sachverhalt). the German ear may well hear the notion of a prospect in this use of the "Anzeige". in Sein repeatedly Heidegger employs the notion of a formal indication see SZ. while what 'to be' means in its case has not been dis in other words.782 DANIEL O. see note 15 above.. carrying out. fixations.25 not that springs from Sein und Zeit is rather an indication II In Heidegger's indication" First. English. without. the act of believing." As in the case of "Anzeige" it is to note connotations that are not conveyed important by a single term in In "Vollziehen" there is a sense of executing. and but also a sense of accomplishing." sense and hence in a certain is accordingly concept sophical "empty" it "formal"?"formal" because in the direction of some purely points complete thing that must be performed by the philosopher. . or "theme" itself. In describing the philosoph ical act and. see Oudemanns. PIA. may principal. however. from the outside. but of a way of approaching what "to be" means.22 appropriate for this reason Precisely as formal indications concepts some toward tively in the original characterizes Heidegger philosophical or signals.23 What is thereby indicated is not given "in any and actual A philo only "in principle. Heidegger on the terms "vollziehen" and "Vollzug. any further explanation. 116 und Zeit. reenact) context of retrieve) must itself com original as it were its object that carry unthematic out "having. 22 see also note 1 above. 32-4. and fulfilling. respec concepts pointing task to comportment." 85.24 Thus. as discussed relies heavily below." or enact so as to it explicitly. overlapping to a phenomenon in such a way that it eryoins against or external of it. "have" (understand. yet as "a concrete be completed or performed by [philosophizing] alone" (eine eigene konkrete VoUzugsaufgabe). performing perfecting. that are independent and detached cussed. 25PIA. DAHLSTROM "to be" means is what "object" it cannot portment. 52-3. 80. two it points any preemptive use and characterization of the notion of a "formal functions be delineated. 24 58. "Heideggers 'logische Untersuchun gen'. (or more exactly. 169-71. Instead philosophy that original.

whatever of objectifying that customary who transforms the individual this sec philosophizes. 1974). it is binding for (anzeigend als hinweisend) the investigation. "F?r den Anzeige. from the presupposition. While the first function. 31PIA. to provide to theology. "Die formale Anzeige verwehrt jede Abdrift Interpretationszusam Interpretationsvorgriff. giving it direction and principles. concept as a "for mal indication" comprises the Husserlian way of appropriating Heidegger's For Heidegger's account of the transcendental and eidetic reduc epoch?. und Interpretationszeit blind dogmatische Fixationen des menhang abgel?ste.27 of this is said [Korrektion. Accordingly. 27 This function of the philosophical PIA. 29 rpjie "reversal" function amplifies and clarifies the "prohibitive" func tion by indicating that the bracketing involved "ist nicht (Ausschaltung) getan mit einem einmaligen methodischen Diktat. diskutierten PIA. Interpretation gegen eigene Ruinanz". as an appropriation of the Husserlian epoch?. 28172-81. tions elaborated by Husserl see PGZ. terpretationsvoraussetzung." The indicating as a pointing is preliminary (Ansatz). but as preliminary is not itself meant object of the phasize that cation.29 way The first of these functions illuminates why Heidegger utilizes the two terms "indicating" and "formal. 65. theologischen Grundbegriffe". tomary 26 to specify investigation.783 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD the preconception.und Verweisungscharakter besagt die Bestimmung . of the interpretation. un Sinnes zu Ansichbestimmtheiten einer auf ihren Seinssinn kategorialen 142. 34. "referring-prohibi be re might (In what the philosophical con a corrective guide function.30 the philosophical is not predetermined?or or arbitrary ways. 141-2. 135-39. sondern sie ist der mit dem Voll zug des Philosophierens st?ndig gleichzeitliche Kampf der philosophischen faktischen ihre faktische 153.Mitleitung] the context. Wegmarken. the second is theological in a function sense that w?l be made clearer below. to as the "reversing-transforming" is referred ond function function. Gegenst?ndlichkeit". PIA.28) as a formal and the time The second function indication is to reverse the a reversal is entertained. at Thus least Heidegger not in any number lays great weight of cus on the von In in eigenst?ndige. An excellent discussion of the Husserlian Husserlian Medita epoch? is to be found in Robert Sokolowski. tions: How Words Present Things (Evanston: Northwestern University Press. 30 32. that is.26 to this function refers Heidegger tive" (hinweisend-prohibitive) garded as cept as a specific instance a formal indication of a philosophical concept as the explicitly function. igt das formal anzeigende Korrektiv des on "Philosophie ontologische zwar und vorchristlichen des Gehaltes tischen.31 or "authentic" sense in any adequate the The term "formal" to em is employed as it is a formal insofar indi concept. may be regarded as phenomenological.

137). "to be" (p. ing". 72)."34 "something treme possibility in terms at while the same himself. of which a human being can understand a conception of thereby precluding as something of the her The "as-structure" death present-at-hand. 158-9). in PIA is extensive: and the "formally indicative" list of "formal indications" of philosophy" "the definition (pp. 32 PIA. see.35 GM. the characteristics of "ruin kairological and the "counter-movement. one might but "formally "for indicating" in Formal his not at formal all view. of question philosophy (p. anzeigend. as the philosopher performs as "formal by Heidegger The "am" in "I am" points indica to the is involved. however. . 55). 80. signalled" thematic" "settled" objects. 116. 183). 57. 172-4. presupposition "I am" and the "am I?" (pp. SZ.183). PIA. is understandable dicated" or carries out some activity characterized concepts first this function. (or. time using something as a chair or using a 'leer' bedeutet: und doch ent 'formal' etwas Entscheidendes! Gegenstand sondern gerade 'leer' und Rich Nicht beliebig und ohne Ansatz. cf. the method of the tenziellen Interpretation" (p. attention away from the deflecting time insuring that it not be taken as an instance ex The concept of "death" refers to the most is. "the determinations (pp. 163-4. 20." ation" (Ruinanz) namely. scheidend! 33. SZ. "nothing" (p. or what is indicated is not "formally By contrast. tung bestimmend. 134)." while of being that at the same of understandable what insofar only himself. what of starting for an "exis in life. comparison. 59-60. 20. "the object of philosophy. "caring" (pp. philosophy (pp. 240. 98). the characterization kategorialen nature of the act of caring (p. PIA. The 10-11. 34PIA. signalling"). is conditioned contends by a "specific logic of order ger see pp. st?ndlichkeit) 174-5). bindend".DANIEL O." so as to put a "formally Similarly. 178. 52-3. 63. 33 174. facticity "to be" means (p. 29-30. a it springs from that has already been deter region of objects manner of comprehension?"assembling and a corresponding "formally mally since mined thematic. 43. (ordnendes Sammeln)32 use of "neighboring" makes schemata and interpretation access the original to the instead of itself retrieving notions. 162-4. for example. exemplify manner "I." namely. the way of illuminating the sense of a philosophical of the theme (Gegen "life" and the definition (pp. 425-9. 89-90. 140 1. something through is "formally in instead. Even the principle of noncontradiction. "determina and "con tions" and "observations. 61). Wegmarken. 171). 66. 113). Several tions" and already complete and classification.35 or as in meneutical is involved understanding taking using something such and such. 145). Heideg in this connection. really logic is.33 as given in order" contrast." specifically "comportment" regarding of philosophizing" tent" (pp. 32. DAHLSTROM 784 fact the that he concepts employs are neither nor "formally logical" say.

significance that words speak (with about. The formalization of everyday expressions cre a certain distance to them. neologisms concepts. "In diesem Mitgehen mit der Durchschnittlichkeit des Allt?g lichen und mit der ?berlieferten versucht Heidegger durch For Ontologie der Begriffe zu lassen". manns. to the second (the dence we ascribed by Heidegger as formal indications concepts his by specific understanding This characteristic is perhaps sophical strives functions function of the formal for an understanding of "to be"). inquiry access the original to them) has been put off or ignored. allowing us to ates." . Because philosophy of something that is highly questionable it stands in conflict with the easy confi and that. as he puts it. 37GM. The methodological governed losophy. and so on.37 Moreover. we generally know what we are as "philo that Heidegger understands concepts are not. A philosophical that is. as is to be expected. look at them. 56-61. or technical part. hence.HEIDEGGER'S METHOD as chair not to sit on something construes Heidegger to emphasize rashly that 785 this or to stand on. "Heideggers 'logische Untersuchungen'. 38 See note 15 above. philosophical concepts of objects presupposed by indications and "prin and formal exclude at concepts specific sciences?insofar. (and. the normal Instead such Heidegger designates access that authentic to In fact. Oude eine gewisse Distanz entstehen malisierung 99. of the aim and content of phi as a warning at all common. make that Hei on the formality of philosophical is some concepts are not understood concepts Philosophical clearly examples emphasis degger's what misleading. as the means into what case in "to be" the of these objects least. as Oudemans aptly observes. by him as being so devoid errant determinations presumptive concept's cipled" themes of content to preclude they are unable of their meaning. a "binding" referring (Hinweis) as his remarks one. if it is not so already. 168-9. at least for the most "formal indications" in their others The sophical" and. something as a formal "as-structure" indication in order this relation must to the derivative assimilated be grasped relation on its own of two terms. when customary usage are reliable or ourselves). derived from the way of life that informs because of this origin. things and presum ably present together and capable of being so indicated and specified (predicated) in a theoretical judgment. PIA.36 These it evident. about formal logic as formal reveal. thereby. 19-25.38 indications" to is not they are themselves use of language. that access runs 36 424-5. Precisely "formal to philo are thus. talking even more concepts what they point evident in regard indication. however.

put begin" "plunge" or. cf. 140-1. he thinking. counter is "a movement to this plunge into the world" hand.39 counter . formal to a specific but unthematized and implicit meaning of "to be. . PIA. . 136. 143-55. 153.der formalen und faktische Notwendigkeit. some to the of In other the yield anonymity public words. 131. as well as authenticity. here is the content PIA.. opinion. authenticity Oudemanns. in terms of what in the eyes that means a we no As result. characters of ruination "formally-indicative [Ruinanz]" 41 88. 'ist'. 130-2." 43 PIA. als Ansatzmethode 134. 139-40. ing the understanding requires certain reversal.40 is required to invert the normal and way of philosopher perspective of questions." the latter to its limits. to be sure. in the "fallenness" of human to in the propensity existence.". 19-20. as "fife" and "existence" direct attention have indications such Thus. not being and being my own self: Eigentlichkeit) ment and rhetoric of Sein und Zeit. beings and unexamined horizon within which they are re unspoken encountered spectively and the manner of being that they do. in unabgehobener faktischer ruinanter Interpretation . ourselves. longer are familiar with even when on confronted with the other ourselves. 430. that at what it means "to be" within the concrete situ 39 For Heidegger's definition of this "plunge" "formally-indicating" see PIA. liegt darin die M?glichkeit . refers to a prevailing indifference toward in perhaps more fundamentally. live: bent but on the taking the world typically world's is to say. (Sturz)40 or ruination (Ruinanz) unaus Leben erhellt. as the paradoxical is depicted movement both within contends. 80. namely. of the world. running movement This atten directs (eine gegenruinante Bewegtheit)}3 terms. because it is unthematized. . where tation remains The and factual necessity very "possibility implicit. tersuchungen'. 42GM. in irgendwelcher "Sofern alles im faktischen dr?cklicher Rede steht. DAHLSTROM to the customary into the usual ways of con (Sturz) "plunge" the talk is less than explicit and the interpre sidering things. characterized in SZ Heidegger ascribes a distinct By contrast. topos to authenticity and.42 Philosophy. perhaps bet so central to the argu ter. posing erally toward the gen away from particular namely. tion. In this connection Oudemans identifies a noteworthy shift in Heidegger's In the early Freiburg years. only by pushing succeeding as and by "emptiness" and "nothingness. 136-7. "Heideggers 'logische Un 101-4. Plainly foreshadowed of the structural division of inauthenticity and authenticity (or.142. PIA.. .41 In these into lectures how elaborates the "plunge" early Heidegger is a "movement" characteristic of the way we in fact we are on care of ourselves. philosophy and counter to the total movement of Ruinanz." a mean a of which. mentions four Anzeige Heidegger in PIA. 91-3.786 DANIEL O. as the method one must the formal indication from which as in he this he would later in it Sein und Zeit. pp.

in the context of a mere naming. GM. can directly mean what has been said. Philosophy "the most fundamentally appropriate however. insofar as the "phenomenologi again Heidegger which Once cal. each [phenomenological] categorial a reversal to be understood. the structure "something of a at first he adds: even if it is made A worldly assertion about something present-at-hand. is initially unthematic one's comportment equivalently. not categorial the understanding of but as something or on a the of the reversal thinker. is replaced in Sein und Zeit by categorial" the use of "existential" and contrasted with the use of "categorial. individual of the (Verwandlung) This formation not life. it in the winter puts the basis semester of a transformation of 1929/30."45 thematize degger the philosophical of living itself. as something present-at-hand. itmust can As Hei be understood itself only in and Dasein. p. and thereby means assertion However. 88.49 44 168-9. 46 423. a taking back which. 45PIA. "Philosophy in each philosophy from its downfall is itself ing. while an assertion about Dasein each assertion about and furthermore assertion in order requires. without putting that "what philosophy deals with generally discloses on it back life. of everyday categorial worldly assertion" (apophantic) present-at-hand. what and. of "specifically phenomenological. phenomenological.787 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD can make this meaning clear. only by articulating " sense des Seinssinns) and of what it means 'to be' (das Ureigene to life. PIA. of human At the end of Heidegger's he employs cifically sertions. in Heidegger's is a fundamental re-trieves authentically [Abfall]." Heideg in the winter semester of 1925/26.47 part transposition requires concedes that. 47 In order to avoid possible it should be noted that this use confusion. such that case reversal question to live eyes.44 To and its "binding character" that meaning by bringing ations out carry this task life. also noted. 49Logik. taking as a radical life. ger is48 plainly groping for terminology 410. search a trans entails philosophizing. the reversal of the understanding. in the direction of what has been indicated. which is never some essentially thing present-at-hand. "Eine weltliche auch wenn ?ber Vorhandenes. is. being. of an "indication" the notion phenomenological."48 it shares is articulated. in order assertions to distinguish "spe as from "worldly" present point out something assertions refer to Dasein. sie in einem Aussage . manner as already (Umstellung). While the worldly One in oneself and world. 80."46 lectures of the 1925/26 winter semester categorial" assertions at-hand. cf.

philosophy of being. der Umstellung ist". deggers52 'logische Untersuchungen'. Klaus Held. however. Logik."50 he semester." He did not eschew the term into the meanings tigations in characterizing his own project.53 than any philos eine Nennen vollzogen ist. to characterize and degrading science and it is both deceitful ophy as a science. Hei of lectures the of the philosophizing logic. his first lectures subsequent stay) at (of is unmistakeably altered of philosophy emphatically the characterization Freiburg."52 the summer even the as the a year referring 1925." of a "formal indication" and a "formally indicative method" conception From ized takes on added significance. "objectifying" make his climb. sertions. It is difficult to rec 48." of being" and at the end of in Sein und Zeit. 30. kann direkt das Gesagte meinen. 184. 1. Wegmarken. GM. Logik. Metaphysische Anfangsgr?nde lectures of the summer semester ed. "Phenomenology. or ("worldly" so on) on which as "theoretical" he to is forced own perspective. Throughout the decade of the 1920s the sort of investigation cautiously appropri distinguished Heidegger own ate to specific from his sciences inves ("ontic") ("ontological") of "to be. 11. SZ. this ladder may be character Heidegger's as a "scientific in it this regard and is that Heidegger's method. jede kategoriale jede Aussage Aussage zu ihrem Verst?ndnis der Umstellung des Verstehens be notwendig Aussage nie Vorhandenes auf das Indizierte selbst. the topic as "the science of truth.DANIEL O. is "more original" in this respect. he now urges. 2-3.53 Ibid. 190. 50PGZ. sets for himself ladder and He must is obvious. w?hrend und weiterhin ?ber ?ber Dasein Sein. 10-11. no. Marburg gang von Leibniz.. 459-60. 90. "Hei chiefly a rhetorical means of warding off Schw?rmerei. Heidegger's are character of his early philosophy views about the scientific changing Last Review Meta traced in Daniel O. DAHLSTROM 788 The uphill task that Heidegger be to kick able away the very concepts. see also the previous note. however. 3 (March 1988): 593-6. 51 466. von Sein") with Oudemans's oncile this last quotation ("Vergegenst?ndlichung to foundation had no illusions about giving a scientific claim that Heidegger as a was of his science and that characterization philosophy philosophy see Oudemans. 287. das wesenhaft darf. physics . "is the science characterizes degger After semester "absolute Towards 1927 he describes of science" the close of those even more in his and final Marburg lectures. GP." der Logik im Aus Martin Heidegger. 15-17. 37." of "Heidegger's 41."51 to speak of a "philosophical later he continues science. Philosophy. the latter indeed. 70. characterizing In the final Marburg lectures "objectification [sic] of being. 1928. 22-4. 2-3. in the summer semester scientific philosophy" "science" to "our following declares as the science. Word. blo?en GA 26 (1978). 410 n. Dahlstrom.

on A Dreyfus. What is difficult stresses Heidegger about that philosophical they be regarded be traced to philosophizing in-the-world that at the same Being-in-the-world in a fourfold being. critical." The of concepts very purpose regarded This that demand is to avoid or scientific theoretical and of objectification of things. he "formal insists it is to regard it as the con that philosophical indications" degree"?the in order misunderstanding that to avoid?"at all concepts are objectifying. Heidegger's (that of a "scientific philosophy") of philosophical in which lectures as to regard philosophy some of proclamation worldview. 1992). sort an ab of specific understanding findlichkeit). by regarding ered present-at-hand.HEIDEGGER'S METHOD 789 of a scientific of philosophy is self rejection understanding to in be but view of meth the sure. a or projecting. philosophizing "is always there" upon what unthematically already (immer a da ist). of a If. indeed. is kind of Philosophizing (Nach-voU "re-iterating" closes. cepts least as understood to a relative is particularly from departure significant the notion is the fact that the appeal to the "formally it. Being-in-the-World: Commentary Heidegger's Being and Time (Cambridge: MIT Press.54 unthematically itself. 168-9. The difficulty of translating this term is aptly described in Hubert L. again basic horizon reflect schon ziehen). each of these mutually dis ways complementary being-in-the-world or implicitly. time brings way. hardly surprising especially considerations his demand that philosophical odological prompting as be "formal indications. unthematically or meaning. that temporality is its most the task of is to Therefore.55 or less public into a more and a way of talking. "science" words. For about the theme of the present this development character indicative" of the same the end is. it is necessary from science. that is its subject matter only insofar as it can be consid then given Heidegger's of philos understanding a to distance for thematization itself philosophical to say. Weg) that we 54 13. In sorption domain. repeating in an explicit fashion the path (iter. 55GM. . if science can thematize its subject matter only by objectifying the latter. thematization are "objectification" sort the synonymous characteristic in other or. Toward survives concepts he declares that it is as embar as science rassing be what paper. the reason concepts?and as formal indications?can Philosophizing aims about is a way of being at determining this way of what it is (sich vollzieht) as an emotional state (Be namely. ophy.

80. the question has to be put to his readers. of the question." "world. (in on this retrieving. 43. 210. SZ. Nelson Goodman." malanzeigende 58 of perform "In the drama. 133-4. 310-16.59 56 157. Rorty finds nothing reproachable if pragmatism does Kant . concrete an) such concepts (zeigen alone" "to be" (eine to what eigene konkrete a well retrieving (Wiederholen) of Philosophical forgottenness. the work is a compliance-class to a Theory of of Art: An Approach ances". (rehearsed. (Nachgetragenes). Klostermann. Symbols 59 (Indianapolis: This character of Heidegger's thinking figures in Rorty's rejection of recourse of maintaining to avoid Heidegger's Okrent's admonition dangerous about the truth of what "to be" means are not really assertions that assertions in such recourse." and "existence" task to be carried out by philosophy in other words. 4th ed. as inmusic. . on this account. 232. 1976). is itself mandatory. contrast to a sketch?something is expressed and formulated but in that what it is can only be realized such a way by being performed There tion insofar as the philosophi Indeed. senses the described above). is always there but must be ex unthematically already can occur its "retrieval" which and "reiteration" only through pressed. it means what from as "care. . on these pages Heidegger Definition der Philosophie. concepts by philosophical as formal means Rather to thematize what "to be" without indications. (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio und das Problem der Metaphysik." "life. DAHLSTROM 790 are constantly following (iterare." . 19-20. Languages Hackett. in a certain present-at-hand means sense Is it possible. interpreted."57 developed interpretation through cution of the interpretation itself. as it is a score or script to be performed. see also Martin Heidegger. 391."56 philosophy is itself philosophical Ill is an obvious between characteriza similarity Heidegger's as and of philosophical the nature "formal indications" concepts as a score a in Much and of certain artistic script?in compositions. 32-4. the definition of a "formal and hence indication. the method may but rather must be "as an essential part of the exe In other words.DANIEL O. staged). objectifying cannot be to in the case of Dasein*? put legitimately Heidegger. indicate "as. not be a kind of afterthought the That is to say. 57 elaborates "die for PIA.58 a statement is is not so much about what cal text. 1973). PIA. "a. vollziehen). they Vollzugsaufgabe). as Hei "the methodical Reflection reflection" point calls degger it. at all. 308.

oughly historical originally happen "participants" corresponding by historicity" but above the structure in Sein und in which (geschichtlich).791 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD In later close of artistic proximity ical thinking."61 thinking a made in letter addressed to If Heidegger's of characterization a indications possesses significant even it has closer ties composition. der in derselben "Darum ist es gut. See also pp. N?he zu denken". .. on Heidegger's own understanding to existence. is replaced with "existence. in the happening that revelation In a is. zur Sprache. 195-6. that of philosophizing are profoundly of theology and philosophizing. New can [Dichtung] serve Jersey. as formal similarity to what he understands of artistic philosoph its path "in the letter to a group down University the pursues in Madison. composing (Dichten) 61 78. an den Nachbarn.62 tence. happened. aus dem. degger's (Ithaca: Cornell University 60 Pragmatism an den. 1988)." clear just it becomes that and how lies at the bot Zeit. 292. Geglaubten gekreuzigte Gott). 6th ed. (Pful wohnt. as the theological formation and development The relation of Christian theology to its faith and of Christian belief. 62Wegmarken." this account of belief mirrors closely "revealed" "belief" then the tom of the analysis of Dasein the revelation Moreover. 173. .. 38n."60 at Drew gathered neighborhood of theologians Heidegger on reflections proceeds in a 1964 Similarly. Unterwegs nonetheless insists lingen: Neske. as an and speaking. homologous. (immer noch with "disclosed. Wegmarken. the Christian believes is thor not only in the sense that it in fact all in the sense that it continues to The revelation thus makes believers geschieht).. . 52. . Heidegger on the difference between and thinking (Denken). not so much in like to see it "take have anything to say about such a truth. Martin Heidegger. . 63 53. nonobjectifying fact that this last remark was theologians is not philosophical concepts to the nature insignificant.. "Poetic composition suggests. of composing. namely. was in und mit dieser Existenzweise ( gezeitigt. The deep between belief and exis affinity begins with parallels as "a manner belief understands of existing" that is Heidegger more from and by what is "timed") becomes literally. of an excellent." with "believed" "temporality. Thinking. Essays and Others Press. Wegmarken. . Hei (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See Richard Rorty. in it and with what is believed: the revealed crucified God it. aus der If dem offenbar wird. example The himself Heidegger a to nonobjectifying. 1979). developed (or. then he would " on Heidegger the form of a proposal. .63 (Geschehen) it means for Dasein "to be" is "constituted way what (durch Geschichtlichkeit konstituiert). and Mark Okrent. 1991). language composing he observes.

namely.64 "object" (Gegenstand) it (ihr gegen?berstehend). der schon dem Sinne der Offenbarung gem?? ein bestimmtes 53. of revelation. and as in the sense to appropriate Likewise. a definite of revelation. on existing. the entire Dasein . Belief is not an as something over against standing is rather part of the development Theology in the sense that it participates all the more of belief in order happening. 51. becomes this existence struck revelation "the by in its forgottenness a reversal signifies That of God. Ende gesetzt ist". its origin as well and legitimated motivated science. 386. belief istenz). of theology in the happening explicitly as existing. . . 68 Sinn des Glaubens "Der eigentliche existenzielle ist demnach: Glaube = nicht im Sinne einer momentanen Und zwar Wiedergeburt Wiedergeburt. Wegmarken. 54-5. it the "hidden that. move of the respectively become to the dynamics of Dasein. is the finitude of temporality. the structural between parallels are and between apparent. uttermost end What here happens in belief. PIA.792 DANIEL O."68 in that history to which. the act itself (sich vollzieht) and develop bring the specific theme of the philosophizing that of phi in a historical situation so as "to in its binding character to life. 65SZ. is placed before God and. (Umstellung Wiederholung) again parallel a finite future into the forefront of belief. 66 see also p. als Modus des mit irgendeiner Qualit?t. 382. sondern Wiedergeburt Ausstattung des faktischen Daseins in der Existierens gl?ubigen geschichtlichen der Offenbarung die mit dem Geschehen anhebt.65 losophizing completes and perfects situation. DAHLSTROM the sense has the that Dasein structure has a history the ecstatic-temporal of ground" of which formation of revelation. 376. Wegmarken. 69SZ. . sal and retrieval und in Heidegger's method that rever und which. 62. "being placed before God" and the rebirth (Umgestelltwerden Wiedergeburt). 391-2. ?u?erstes chte. 67PIA. is to say. in der Geschi Geschichte.69 analysis With similarities In belief?as belief and existence." has Hence by belief. 169. such to revealed posited. which begins in accordance the part the happening with with the meaning has been already The indeed. 53."67 phrase "being before placed of existence der Ex (ein Umgestelltwerden as a mode is a "rebirth of historically in of the Dasein that history factually believing. it is a aim 64 161. philosophy already theology in the sense of the happening existence the historical of these revelation?theology "historical uniquely as its goal. Wegmarken."66 that itself God" In belief.

it back the world. furnishings cations or signals [Anzeigen] for this. 61. God" (das through ideally lifts Dasein concepts a reversal tically exists (in the case of philosophy) precisely. things they are.70 its part in abetting the development ing at doing In other words. do not understand theologians so Heidegger does not themselves understand as himself closet as an 70 55-7. Phi is thereby a kind of "historical losophy knowledge". upon respectively urges between Heidegger connection of and a transforma or believes is dependent up "fallenness" or "rebirth" (Wiedergeburt). The concepts that break [this connection] open are only then capable of of properties and being understood when they are not taken as meanings of something but rather are taken as indi present-at-hand. "being-in-the-world."71 only fashion corresponding ex Heidegger plains how philosophy has its origin and its goal in factual life. nicht direkt das. the entire does 1929/30. of such simply to say a transformation to what that is a philosopher of capable are or how are but they used.72 as "formal indi as he or she authen like "the in any is the (in the case of stance toward it is always of the authenticity case. that the process of understanding must first disentangle itself from the ordinary conceptions of the partic ular being and explicitly transform itself into the being-there [Da-sein] within it." zu Gott). ist. a transformation. 71Wegmarken. 430.793 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD of the state of belief. out "the temporality it carries of the authentic which from (again much its fall into both Thus. 73SZ. Only on the basis not attending. is the of the conceptual self-interpretation theology of belief which historical "first unveils existence itself in belief and In a directly for belief. dieser Begriffe meint und sagt GM. "Der Bedeutungsgehalt er bezieht. thentic existence the insofar sure. er gibt nur eine Anzeige. Verhalten takes place What "there. eine Verwandlung . Begriffszusammenhang aufgefordert seiner selbst in das Dasein zu vollziehen". human existence tion. 55. Also. trieval" (Wiederholung) basis to authentic To be theology). historicity" assume concepts signal can understand them only a person or. 428. 72 390-1." matters." like theology) philosophy employ such already existence or belief and of such of this become existence. worauf einen Hinweis von da? der Verstehende diesem darauf. 384-5. bringing and theology philosophy and accordingly Because cations. what it means Just as anthropologists. however. Wegmarken. GM. more a "re Only on the in the winter semester inauthentic and au conceivable.

76 in ihrer radikalen. fran?aise Heidegger. Christian simply as a reminder a particular is (for example. but sure. in his "Brief ?ber also 5 193. On the claim mann) analysis thetical size from what under is appropriated Heidegger this appropriation. is hammering out his methodological tactic of taking philosoph as formal indications. marken. DAHLSTROM 794 Yet existentialist. ical concepts The aim of this paper has been to elaborate method. more precisely. See Humanismus. and to demonstrate how the method in fundamental stands insists ways by theology. prinzipiell Fraglichkeit 77 51. the fact that obscuring Heidegger's existence is not neutral. It is therefore hardly surprising when Heidegger in 1921 chastises him against the likes of Kierkegaard for measuring and Nietz no "I am no philosopher. God of what being to be confused with the ontological of question be taken question theological or revelation) is not what "to be" means. sich auf sich selbst stellenden mu? "Philosophie a-theistisch sein". Problem. and subject matter of philoso phy. To be sure. in a private letter to L?with. but in fact anti hand. 196. Heidegger's as he conceived it in the 1920s. Oudemans. c'est celle de l'?tre dans son ensemble l'existence de 37e de la soci?t? Martin Bulletin philosophie. but without providing the possibility of a return to theology. "Die religi?se Dimension. et en tant que de l'homme. as a ruse. on a Christian as a directive is modeled of human understanding attending the theological considered "formally function degger's mational can no more be question to precisely what it means ontological can than "to be" from the without addressed ade for is evident fact that Hei its transfor theological existence." 78 96. "La question qui me pr?ocuppe Wegmarken. no. despite Heidegger On the one hand."75 L?with sche.74 quately humans the texts on the What question." "Heideggers . tel". they philosophy are made at a time when on department the method in lectures in a Heidegger. cited by Gad The remarks are contained 142.75 329-30.DANIEL O. PIA. see Hans-Georg Gadamer.77 method In the same calls vein." Weg ann?e. "Zum theologischen Kuhlmann. 'logische Untersuchungen'." have illusions "and insists. still others empha for a transformation also on the part of the theologian. is in principle "a-theistic. (1937). see also pp. last few is the pages method indicative" or. human theology. maturing theologian. 197. that philosophy this claim might that the ontic. Heidegger at all comparable". "I am a Christian rather of even doing anything a are of to be The remarks those still thinker." amer.78 74 n'est pas celle de 63."76 regard of authentic how to Christian Heidegger's the other some Kuhl (for example. 199.

it is an ontic sci Though theology. Heidegger of Dasein of the existence there lies of the ontological interpretation If Christian of authentic "a specific. ontic existence. 56-8. in Sein und Zeit that at the bottom claims theology. and the transformation of the believer in ontology what is present-at-hand. the presencing-and-absencing of Das fundamental So. 310. as Heidegger himself emphasizes. theology not so much in making theoretical the revelation entails."79 conception tian theology. consists. GP. 466. to suppose then there is ample reason method. the thinker." hiddenness. 60-1. Chris that is to say. as in formally assertions signalling apart from Christian prehensible Christian ence.795 HEIDEGGER'S METHOD of understanding another way is. its un entails. The Catholic University 79 The ontic grounding of the ontological SZ. too. his understanding There "a-theism.80 formulating but rather ein and derstanding refrains from elab Heidegger is nevertheless incom sense. however. Heidegger's of "a-letheia" that of Just as the meaning presupposes so Heidegger's in terms of method is only understandable of the ontic science. as suggested on these source is a prominent of Hei pages. quently80 cited by Heidegger. Wegmarken. philosophical degger's which ontic conception that that specific a not in strict while theological orating. his theism. see SZ. 278. signalling transformation of Dasein. of America investigation is fre . Heidegger's about theoretical propositions in formally the authentic its understanding not consists.