Felger, R.S., S. Rutman, and J. Malusa. 2014.

Ajo Peak to Tinajas Altas: Flora of Southwestern Arizona: Part 8, Eudicots:
Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae. Phytoneuron 2014-85: 1–71. Published 28 August 2014. ISSN 2153 733X

AJO PEAK TO TINAJAS ALTAS: FLORA OF SOUTHWESTERN ARIZONA
PART 8. EUDICOTS: ACANTHACEAE – APOCYNACEAE
RICHARD STEPHEN FELGER
Herbarium, University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
&
Sky Island Alliance
P.O. Box 41165,
Tucson, Arizona 85717
*Author for correspondence: rfelger@ag.arizona.edu
SUSAN RUTMAN
Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument
10 Organ Pipe Drive
Ajo, Arizona 85321
JIM MALUSA
School of Natural Resources and the Environment
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721
malusa@email.arizona.edu

ABSTRACT
A floristic account is provided for seven eudicot families as part of the vascular plant flora of
the contiguous protected areas of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Cabeza Prieta National
Wildlife Refuge, and the Tinajas Altas Region in southwestern Arizona: Acanthaceae (5 genera, 7
species), Adoxaceae (1 genus, 1 species), Aizoaceae (2 genera, 3 species), Amaranthaceae (12 genera,
22 species), Anacardiaceae (1 genus, 2 species), Apiaceae (6 genera, 6 species), and Apocynaceae (5
genera, 10 species). This is the eighth contribution for this flora published in Phytoneuron and also
posted open access on the website of the University of Arizona Herbarium (ARIZ).

This contribution to our flora in southwestern Arizona is the eighth published in a series in
Phytoneuron and also posted open access on the website of the University of Arizona Herbarium
(ARIZ; Figure 1). Seven eudicot families are included in this contribution: Acanthaceae (5 genera, 7
species), Adoxaceae (1 genus, 1 species), Aizoaceae (2 genera, 3 species), Amaranthaceae (12 genera,
22 species), Anacardiaceae (1 genus, 2 species), Apiaceae (6 genera, 6 species), and Apocynaceae (5
genera, 10 species).
The first article in this series includes maps and brief descriptions of the physical, biological,
ecological, floristic, and deep history of the flora area (Felger et al. 2013a). This flora includes the
modern, present-day taxa as well as fossil records from packrat middens. Explanation of the format
for the flora series is provided in part 3 (Felger et al. 2013b). These contributions are also posted
open access on the website of the University of Arizona Herbarium (ARIZ). Family designations
follow APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2009; also see Stevens 2001). Vernacular, or
common names, when known or deemed worthwhile, are given in English, Spanish, and the Hia-Ced
O’odham dialect, respectively. Fossil specimens are indicated with a dagger symbol (†) and taxa
represented by fossils no longer present in the flora are marked with two dagger symbols (††). All
specimens cited are at the University of Arizona Herbarium (ARIZ) unless otherwise indicated by the

Felger, Rutman, & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona, Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae

2

Figure 1. Flora area in southwestern Arizona. (A) Above, overview of regional context; (B) below, detail with
local place names. Map B prepared by Ami Pate of Organ Pipe Cactus NM, 2013.

Felger, Rutman, & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona, Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae

3

abbreviations for herbaria at Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge (CAB), Organ Pipe Cactus
National Monument (ORPI), and the standardized abbreviations for herbaria (Index Herbariorum,
Thiers 2013). All photos and scans are by Sue Rutman unless otherwise stated and all botanical
illustrations are by Lucretia Brezeale Hamilton (1908–1986). Descriptions and keys pertain to taxa
and populations within the flora area.
ACANTHACEAE – Acanthus Family
Herbaceous perennials and shrubs (also some trees in other regions, such as black mangrove,
Avicennia germinans). Leaves opposite, simple, entire; stipules none. Flowers attractive, subtended
by bracts; corollas bilaterally symmetrical. Stamen 2, or 4 in Ruellia. Fruit a capsule, elastically and
explosively dehiscent with seeds borne on retinacula (distinctive hooks); seeds 4, or 10 or more in
Ruellia.
Acanths have their greatest diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. In the flora area they
are generally winter dormant or cease growing during the cooler times of year and during drought.
The five genera and seven species in the flora area all occur in Organ Pipe. Carlowrightia and
Justicia californica extend into Cabeza Prieta and only J. californica makes it to the hyperarid
Tinajas Altas Region in the westernmost part of flora area. Carlowrightia arizonica and Justicia
californica are the most arid-inhabiting members of the family in the Southwest and the only ones
extending into California. Major factors limiting acanth distributions in the region seem to be
freezing weather and the paucity of summer rains.
Hummingbirds are the usual pollinators of the red- or orange-flowered species of
Anisacanthus and Justicia, generally called chuparrosa in Mexico. These flowers are diurnal and
open all day, or the corollas may fall away with daytime heat. The pure white flowers of J. longii are
nocturnal, and the others acanths have whitish to lavender corollas opening shortly after sunrise and
falling with daytime heat.
Worldwide, mostly in tropics and subtropics, few in temperate regions; at least 220 genera
and 4000 species. About 35 species occur in the Río May region of southeastern Sonora and
southwestern Chihuahua (Martin et al. 1998) and the numbers diminish to the north and westward
(Daniel 1984; Felger 2000).
1. Shrubs, often to 1 m or more tall; corollas red or orange.
2. Bark shredding; stamens positioned along the lower lip of the corolla, the anthers opening
toward the upper lip. ................................................................................................... Anisacanthus
2. Bark not shredding; stamens positioned along the upper lip of the corolla, the anthers opening
toward the lower lip. ................................................................... Justicia californica, J. candicans
1. Herbaceous to subshrub (suffrutescent) perennials, mostly less than 1 m tall; corollas white, cream,
blue, violet, or purple.
3. Stems 6-ridged (hexagonal in cross-section); flowers and fruits enclosed by a pair of heartshaped to nearly triangular or kidney-shaped bracts 7–15 mm long; corollas twisted through 180º,
pink to pale violet with white markings on lip. ................................................................ Dicliptera
3. Stems 4-ridged (quadrate) to rounded (terete) in cross-section; flowers and fruits not enclosed
by bracts as above; corollas not twisted, white, white and lavender, or violet colored.

6 Apr 1988.. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 11 Nov 1987.. Capsules ca.. It is a “taxonomically complex species with numerous diverse morphological forms” (Daniel 1984: 167). In open places it is frequently grazed by rabbits...6 (dry seasons)–5 (hot... New Mexico. abruptly flared above. Flowering non-seasonally although usually winter dormant. Gray Lemilla..... 6 Apr 1979... and nocturnal.. and at Eagle Tank.to cordate-discoid (latterly flattened) above.... Widespread in Organ Pipe and much of Cabeza Prieta. Estes Canyon. Harbison 26156... flowers axillary.. The flowers open around sunrise... but not the hottest..... Carlowrightia 4. and glabrous. both states of Baja California.7 cm long..... Felger 88-266. stubby stems........ Corollas about 1 cm wide.. seeds 4.. mostly along canyon bottoms....... 5. OP: Alamo Canyon. Arizona............ The geographic range essentially spans that of the entire genus. fruits narrowed at the base.. Van Devender 85-110.. 0. Capsules 1–1. 4 Nov 1978.. fertile stamens 4. 0..... Bowers 1695... conspicuously narrowed at base (stipitate)... .. Bates Well.. ………….. and not flared above... and through Mexico to Costa Rica.... driest places.. wet weather) cm long... 2500 ft........ Mostly on rocky slopes. fertile stamens 2.. Nichol 4 May 1939... delicate....... Suffrutescent perennials or subshrubs with slender.. Canyon at Agua Dulce Tank. ovate. white with a yellow “eye” and purple nectar guidelines on the upper lip... Estes Canyon. Flowering primarily late spring and during summer rainy season. Petioles to 5 cm long... and the corollas and attached stamens fall as a unit with daytime heat...to cordate-discoid. Petioles to 0.. white.. and diurnal.5 mi E of Lukeville....... 18 Nov 1939.......... disjunct in Anza-Borrego in San Diego County. lavender... and northwestern mainland Mexico. the leaf blades mostly 5–15 cm long. .. Leaves drought deciduous.. sessile to petioled.... Nichol 4 May 1939.. seeds 10 or more. Gray Desert honeysuckle. Quitobaquito Hills..... Felger (observations)...... Rutman... Corollas white with lavender and yellow markings on the lip..... the leaf blades 0... Figure 3....... Seeds 4. paired and subsessile... Southern Arizona to west Texas.. the surfaces conspicuously papillose. and especially chuckwallas. brittle stems.......5 mi N of Visitor Center.... fruits not noticeably narrowed at the base...... 3 mm wide. generally becoming leafless during winter or extended drought. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 4 4. Stamens 2.... Justicia longii 5. the flowers usually pedicelled..... 9 May 1979.. California. 1 cm long... and sometimes abundant in washes of the valley floor.. Figure 2.5–7 cm long. Stamens 2. Flowers pure white or lavender. Shrubs with relatively slender stems and peeling bark. paniclelike inflorescences. seeds 4 or fewer.. 13 & 15 Jun 1992...5 cm long..... OP: Alamo Canyon. . Ruellia Anisacanthus thurberi (Torrey) A. 4–5 cm long..... flowers in terminal. Bowers 1240.. CP: Cabeza Prieta Tanks. 0. blades mostly lanceolate. and sometimes along gravelly washes..Felger........ Lehto L23542 (ASU). Carlowrightia arizonica A. 16 Apr 1985. Organ Pipe except the southwestern portion...... Felger 87-317. Corollas orange-red (brick orange).. rodents... widespread in Sonora. flared and ovate....... and washes in hills and mountains. which sometimes reduce the plant to a mass of short.

Rutman. 7 Oct 2006. (A) Branch with bracts and flowers & enlarged fruit opening with seeds. (B) Cherioni Wash near Hwy 85. (C) Bull Pasture Trail. W of Hwy 86. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 5 .Felger. 27 Feb 2014. 25 Aug 2008. (D) Kuakatch Wash. Ajo Mts. Anisacanthus thurberi. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae Figure 2.

and Estes Canyons. (B) Alamo Canyon. and high grassy slopes in the Ajo Mountains. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Arch Canyon. Canyons in the Ajo and Diablo Mountains including Alamo. 15 Apr 1951. Carlowrightia arizonica.Felger. Dicliptera resupinata (Vahl) de Jussieu Fold-wing. these held on the plant long after the flowering season and sometimes becoming white. Arizona and New Mexico. Supernaugh 453. often bushy. Herbaceous perennials. Capsules 4 mm long. 3500 ft. Yavapai Co. photo by Max Licher.. twisted through 180 degrees. 28 Mar 1965. Figure 4. Rutman. pink or pale violet with white markings on the lip. Diablo.. with 4 seeds. Ajo Mts. Lockwood 163. Near cliff overhanging Arch Canyon Trail. . alfalfila. and also flowering in the first season or year. Stamens 2. 2947 ft. Rutman 20031026-23. OP: Alamo Canyon. Nichol 4 May 1939. Corollas about 1–2 cm long. flowering at various seasons. Arch. Bumblebee. usually heart-shaped to nearly triangular or kidney-shaped bracts 7–15 mm long. (A) Flower. Flowers enclosed by a pair of conspicuous. 7 Sep 2013. Western Mexico including Baja California Sur. obovoid. mostly winter dormant. 26 Oct 2003. Canyon Diablo. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 6 Figure 3.

and glabrous.2–1 mm long. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 7 Figure 4.. .. Seeds 4............. Dicliptera resupinata.. 2... often with massive flowering in February and March.. Corollas red-orange.. mostly subtropical and tropical of about 700 species worldwide. Justicia longii 1... chuparrosa.. tubular and flaring above. Stems brown after the first season.. generally sparsely leafy to essentially leafless. 2.. pale bluish green..... Figure 5. Sprawling to mound-shaped shrubs often 1–2+ m tall.. petioled.. with hairs 0.... Arch Canyon. is polyphyletic and the largest genus in the family.... ………………….... . This genus.. 2000.5–4 cm long.N. .. Justicia californica 2.. leaves highly variable... capsules 16–22 mm long.... Often leafless or nearly so much of the year or with sparse foliage.. Flowers variously tubular........ As with various other desert acanths... flowers white.. wipisimal.5–2 cm long. Stamens 2. (B) above the arch... 2013... and pubescent... McDade & Kiel 2006). densely covered with microscopic hairs 0. glabrous. 12 Sep 2013....... 3–3. diurnal. quickly drought deciduous. corollas red with white markings on the lower lip..... Stems loosely interlacing. 1... rounded.1 mm long. Stems bluish green for several seasons. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona....... 29 Sep 2013.... the capsules tend to open with morning heat.... Capsules 1..... Justicia Herbaceous perennials and shrubs... Capsules with 4 or fewer seeds. 2–8 cm long..... leafy. densely pubescent with minute hairs.. flowers red or red-orange. the blades mostly ovate to orbicular..... Flowering October to May with sufficient soil moisture and warm weather.05–0.3 mm diameter.. Shrubs... club-shaped.. The New World species with closely related small genera of about 400 species are monophyletic (Kiel et al.... pubescent. often moderately thick... Gibson [Beloperone californica Bentham] Desert hummingbird bush. corollas red-orange. (A) Garden in Ajo...... Justicia candicans Justicia californica (Bentham) D. McDade et al. capsules 10–14 mm long.Felger...... nocturnal........ Herbaceous to suffrutescent perennials.. Rutman.

15 Apr 1941. Goodding 2074. OP: Diablo Canyon. Figure 5. . Rufous. Baja California Sur and northwestern Sinaloa northward to southeastern California and southwestern Arizona.Felger. Rutman. especially at lower elevations along dry watercourses and sometimes on bedrock slopes. especially along gravelly watercourses with palo verde (Parkinsonia florida). 28 Mar 1965. 18 Mar 2005. is used in Mexico for various hummingbird-adapted flowers (see Felger & Moser 1985). Lockwood 153. Felger 93-165. TA: Tinajas Altas. Agua Dulce Pass. as well as honeybees and butterflies. 21 Mar 1935. Nichol 26 Mar 1939. 6 Dec 1978. Carpenter bees (Xylocopa) and sometimes hummingbirds slit the floral tube and rob (consume) nectar. Felger & Moser 1985). Hodgson H205 (DES). along Pipeline Road. Mornings during spring flowering often become hummingbird battlefields. 5 Feb 2006. as a minor snack or trail food (Bean & Saubel 1972. Senita Basin. 24 Nov 1934. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 8 Widespread and common across the flora area. Sweet nectar can be sucked from the flower base. mostly in spring. 10 Jan 2002. CP: Tule Tank. The flowers attract Costa’s. 19 Mar 1987. 27 Feb 1993. (A & C) Garden in Ajo. Justicia californica. This species is one of the more important hummingbird plants in the region and a favorite food of desert bighorn. 10 Feb 2009. desert lavender (Hyptis). Shreve 5940. Elias 10213. Harbison 26208 (SD). (D) southern end of Sauceda Mts. apparently without providing pollination (Maloof & Inouye 2000). Alamo Canyon. and ironwood (Olneya). Papago Well. (B) Estes Canyon Trail. 26 Mar 1932. 3500 ft. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Heart Tank. along a wash. Arch Canyon. bajada at granitic hills. 2 Dec 1939. Peebles 10825. and Allen's hummingbirds. BLM. SW side of Tinajas Altas range. Felger (observation). Rancho Bonito. Chuparrosa. Benson 10787. derived from chupar 'to suck'.

Potentially flowering with sufficient soil moisture and warm weather. with a slender tube and flared above with white markings on the lower lip. Figure 6. Corollas often 2. Shrubs often 1–1. Canyon bottoms. Alamo Canyon: (B) 24 Mar 2008.5 m tall. (D) 12 Mar 2005. Justicia candicans. glabrous. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 9 Justicia candicans (Nees) L. Leaves gradually drought deciduous. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 1150 ybp. 3–4 mm diameter. bright red. 22 Oct 1964. with slender. except during the summer rainy season when the plants produce vegetative growth. often as an understory shrub. Harbison 26250. It has been in the Ajo Mountains for at least 1200 years. massive flowering often in February and March. (A) Flowering branch. 13 Dec 1939.5–5+ cm long. seeds. petioled. Gray] Chuparrosa. and leafy stems. fruits. Southern Arizona to Oaxaca. Puerto Blanco Drive. Rutman. and rocky. Seeds flattened.5 cm long. and Baja California Sur. Figure 6.5–3. Nichol 23 Feb 1939. north–facing slopes in the Ajo Mountains. brittle. . Benson [Jacobinia ovata A. OP: Pitahaya Canyon. the blades ovate and thin.D. †Alamo Canyon. (C) 17 Oct 2013.Felger. Alamo Canyon. and glabrous. 1. Capsules 10– 15 mm long. Ranzoni 363 (ORPI).

OP: 2 mi SE of Walls Well. 15 Apr 1951. Inflorescences terminal. Leaves often 5–17 cm long. Flowering during spring and summer. Herbaceous perennials from a hard.L. Canyon Diablo. Southern Arizona and west Texas. have been observed feeding at the flowers (Hilsenbeck 1990). Leaves often 1–7 cm long. 30 Aug 1945. Arch Canyon. runyonii (Tharp & F. corollas 3. the corollas violet-purple. Rutman. Parker 9753.A. subsessile to petioled. Documented for the Puerto Blanco and Ajo Mountains and other scattered localities in Arizona Uplands in Organ Pipe. openly branched with slender branchlets. Dos Lomitas. 3–5 cm wide. The flowers open near sunrise and the corollas with their attached stamens fall away with daytime heat. abundant along sandy wash. 20 Aug 1952. The flowers.5–10 mm long. Armenta Well. OP: Above Dripping Springs. Stamens 4. Arizona and Texas to Mississippi. The flowers are visited by bees. Fouts 431. Capsules 6. 3500 ft. Lockwood 163. tuberculate. especially early in the growing season or at times of stress. Sphinx moths. The showy flowers and winter hardiness make Ruellia a favorite in native plant gardens in southern Arizona. 2700 ft. Wirt 10 Aug 1990 (ORPI). Gray) Urban [R.” an unfortunate name because Petunia is a genus in the potato family (Solanaceae). persistent bracts. Arch Canyon. Bull Pasture. and mesquite bosques such as Dos Lomitas and Armenta Ranch and other low-lying habitats with clayish or silty soils. especially north-facing.5+ cm long. The plants are often severely grazed by wildlife. Daniel 2590 (ASU). and Mexico to Costa Rica. near N end of Ajo Mts. and Sonora north of the Guaymas region. Bowers 1693. 11 Mar 1983. often about midday or early afternoon. 16 Apr 1952. corollas and attached stamens falling shortly after dawn. Turner] Violet Ruellia. and slightly woody base and short-rhizomatous rootstocks. pure white with a prominent. Van Devender 30 Aug 1978. the blades ovate to broadly ovate. about 1–2 cm long. Rutman 16 Aug 2001 (ORPI). Barkley) B. usually with 10 or more seeds. Gray] Long-flower tube-tongue. are not fragrant. Figure 7. . paniculate. Flowers nocturnal. knotty. the blades narrowly lanceolate (in winter) to elliptic or ovate (in summer). winter dormant. Capsules firm and ellipsoid. Warren 9 May 1975. Rocky and gravelly soils. nudiflora var. like those of other Justicia. Seeds flattened. opening in the early evening. slender tube. Walls Well Rd. Ajo Mts. Herbaceous perennials from rhizomatous rootstocks. warmer months. 28 Mar 1965. Often in shady places including canyon bottoms to high elevations in the Ajo Mountains. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 10 Justicia longii Hilsenbeck [Siphonoglossa longiflora (Torrey) A. This species has been called “violet wild petunia. Flowers showy. Locally in the eastern and northern portions of Organ Pipe. 9 May 1979. the presumed pollinators. Supernaugh 431 (ORPI). canyons and slopes. Figure 8. 2+ mm diameter. Flowers clustered in axils and surrounded by firm.Felger. This species also produces cleistogamous flowers (self-fertilizing flowers forming fruits without the flowers opening) near the base of the plants. Leaves and smaller stems drought deciduous. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Haskell 3215. petioled. opening explosively. Ruellia nudiflora (Engelmann & A. Estes Canyon. only moderately bilaterally symmetric.

14 Sep 2013. (A) Bull Pasture Trail. Diablo Mts. 31 Mar 2008.Felger. (C) Estes Canyon. (B & D) Ajo Mt Drive near Wild Horse Tanks. 30 Jan 2014. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Rutman. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 11 Figure 7. . Justicia longii.

dark purplish to black. tápiro. flowering mostly winter and spring. mexicana (C. (B & C) 16 Aug 2006. S. Rutman. the stems pithy.Felger. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 12 Figure 8. Ditch along Hwy 86 east of Why: (A) 22 Sep 2008. often flat-topped inflorescences (cymes). Small trees with thick trunks and limbs. Benson. nigra Linnaeus subsp. ADOXACEAE – Adoxa Family **Sambucus cerulea Rafinesque [S. Flowers cream white in dense. S. Leaves deciduous in summer. . neomexicana Wooton. Presl ex de Candolle) L. mexicana C. Presl ex de Candolle. neomexicana (Wooton) Rehder] Blue elderberry. about 5 mm in diameter. cerulea var.D. cerulea var. new growth and leaves appear in fall and winter. Figure 9. S. S. cerulea (Rafinesque) Bolli. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Fruits berrylike. the wood soft and weak. Ruellia nudiflora.

Blue elderberry is probably native to the Sonoran Desert Region but at elevations above the desert. The unripe fruits and herbage can be poisonous. Tinkham Apr 1942.. Coconino Co. Eriksson and Donoghue (1997: 567) report that “our accessions of Sambucus nigra sensu Bolli (1994) form a clade with the exception of S. and also used for medicinal purposes. (B) Oak Creek Canyon. which are mostly made into preserves. Pan was said to dye his hair using elderberries. Sambucus coerulea. which we conclude should be treated as a separate species.” The genus includes about 10 species in the Old and New World. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 13 The one record in the flora area might have been a tree planted at the former ranch in Alamo Canyon. Sambucus cerulea occurs in western North America including northwestern Mexico. Elderberry trees often were planted at ranches and towns in southern Arizona and northern Sonora. especially by the Romans. jelly. Rutman. The fruits have been used as a source of blue or black dye. mostly temperate and subtropical or montane in the topics. It served Hia-Ced O’odham people “as a medicine and sometimes for food” (Betty Melvin in Zepeda 1985: 65). (C) Sedona. OP: Alamo Canyon. (A) By LBH. Coconino Co. Figure 9. Photos by Max Licher (SEINET). and wine.Felger. cerulea. . & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. largely for the berries.

... These species are occasionally seen elsewhere in southern Arizona and are especially common in sandy soils around Puerto Peñasco in northwestern Sonora.. petal-like staminodes. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum 1... Flowers ca.. 1 cm wide with white staminodes.. Leaves with a thick but broad blade. hielitos Plants extremely succulent... Brown.. . OP: La Abra Plain.. Fruits of capsules.... . Fruits at first fleshy.. Two species of this South African genus are naturalized in portions of the Sonoran Desert where they occur as winter-spring annuals. Leaves cylindrical.... Both species were first found in Organ Pipe in spring...Felger.E.... flowers white with numerous slender petal-like staminodes. It has been in southern Arizona since the early 20th century and at Puerto Peñasco and elsewhere in northwestern Sonora at least since the 1970s (Felger 2000. They became locally established on hypersaline soil. 1. Gasoul crystallinum (Linnaeus) Rothmaler] Crystal iceplant.. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. rounded like a clenched fist when dry..S.. Both species are extensively naturalized along the Pacific Coast of the Californias and South America........ flowers pinkish... 1... fertile stamens many.. Sepals mostly 5.. Flowers radial.. Petals none but numerous petal-like linear staminodes (modified stamens) often present... Flowers with numerous... Figure 10.... Plants spectacularly fleshy... Rutman 11 May 1995.... capsules opening at the top. Felger & Wilder 2012)... and an evident petiole…. capsules opening around the middle .. Trianthema *Mesembryanthemum Iceplant. blades usually obovate to broadly spatulate. plants extremely succulent. Leaves often 2–10 cm long....... hielitos. straddling the U. staminodes none... Rutman. narrowed basally or with a petiole. Capsules ca... 1 cm wide.. quickly gaping open by slit-shaped valves when wet (even on years-old dry specimens) to reveal the seeds and closing again when dry. Winter-spring annuals....... near International Boundary Monument 170. and other Mediterranean regions including southern Australia... the calyx 5-lobed.. or somewhat triangular. becoming dry capsules with valves at the flattened top opening when moist... Summer-fall annuals. Locally abundant on saline soils along the international border in the south central to southwestern part of Organ Pipe.... Mesembryanthemum 1.. sessile (petiole and blade not distinguishable) ……………………………………………………………………. an El Niño year with copious spring rains.. the surfaces covered with large.. slender.. Native of southern Africa. Leaves opposite (those in the flora area). 1995.... especially along Mexico Highway 2.. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 14 AIZOACEAE – Aizoon Family Low-growing and generally weedy annuals in the flora area. Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum *Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Linnaeus [Cryophytum crystallinum (Linnaeus) N.–Mexico border and were more widespread and abundant on the Mexico side... Seeds 1 mm in diameter and numerous...... watery. plants not succulent or sometimes semi-succulent.. crystal-like vesicles..

the staminodes white. and extremely succulent.7–0. more or less terete. and adjacent northwestern Sonora. 5 mm wide. Southwestern margin of Organ Pipe on saline soils. . No herbivory has been noted.Felger. ca.8 mm in diameter. *Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum Linnaeus Slender-leaf iceplant. despite the plants’ succulence. Sonora. All images from the Río Sonoyta floodplain near international boundary. hielitos. becoming yellow as the flower fades. Capsules obovoid. Rutman. Leaves slender. 28 Mar 2013. 0. 5 mm wide. seeds brown. The population southward from the southwest corner of Organ Pipe extended as far as the eye could see—covering hundreds if not thousands of acres. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 15 Figure 10. Flowers ca. from La Abra Plain to Hocker Well and Corner Well and the adjacent southeastern corner of Cabeza Prieta. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Figure 11. numerous. The plants turn bright red with heat and drying conditions. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. much of it not disturbed.

partially enclosed by the sheathing leaf base. 23 Jul 2008. Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum. In the New World naturalized along the Pacific Coast of the Californias and South America. verdolaga de cochi. Stems often 15–60 cm long. near International Boundary Monument 170. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 16 Figure 11. sometimes semi-succulent. 5-lobed. photos. pink with .3–12. Flowers small. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona.Felger. (C) near SW corner of Organ Pipe. Rutman (observation). sessile and solitary in leaf axils. Leaves 3–4. leaf blades obovate to orbicular. Trianthema portulacastrum Linnaeus Horse purslane. Sonora. the lobes 2. often reddish. 11 May 1995. S boundary from Hocker Well to Corner Well.000 plants. 11 May 1995. (B) La Abra Plain. Hamilton 17 Mar 1983). kasvañ. Hot-weather ephemerals. probably more than 10.5 (9) cm long on robust. OP: La Abra Plain. calyx petal-like. the older plants with smaller and usually thicker leaves. Rutman. 19 Mar 2008.5 mm long. Rutman. stipules and expanded leaf bases forming a membranous sheath around the stem. young plants. CP: Near Corner Well. 5 Mar 2014. Figure 12. (A & D) International boundary near El Huerfano. Native to southern Africa. First recorded in Arizona in the early 1980s (8 mi N of Maricopa. Rutman 11 May 1995.

(D) Gila River near Gillespie Dam. (A) Plant with enlarged fruit. Figure 12. Capsules circumscissile. the base corky. 31 Mar 2013. 20 Aug 2006. 11 Sep 2008. and 2 mm long. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 17 a green horn. . Trianthema portulacastrum. Capsules several-seeded. retaining 1 or 2 seeds. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. and seed.Felger. flower. The seeds disperse three ways: 1 or 2 seeds disperse with the capsule cap. and the “lid” or “cap” truncate or more often 2-horned. (B) near Quitobaquito. (C) near Quitobaquito. Rutman. and the others remain with the basal part of the capsule and dribble away or remain with the capsule attached to the mother plant. seeds about 7 in number.

. Holm et al. Widely distributed and often weedy in the Americas..... bisexual or unisexual.... Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 18 Temporarily moist places at lower elevations......Felger. or flava form (e.. Monolepis 6. 4. Winter-spring annuals. flowers with 1 stamen and 1 sepal.... obviously woody (borderline cases will key both ways)......5 mi W of Lukeville.. Leaves succulent. At least some leaves opposite or appearing opposite (some leaves may be alternate or appear to be 3’s in Tidestromia). washes...... and a more common form with smaller leaves and flowers. OP: Williams Spring.. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. and intermediate forms appear to be absent........... Spring or summer annuals..... twigs semi-succulent... Nitrophila 3... Flowers small and mostly inconspicuous.. Shrubs.……Tidestromia 4.... Horse purslane is widespread across the Sonoran Desert even in remote. Mohammed & Sen 1990)... . flowers unisexual or bisexual..... stamens and sepals more than 1..... stipules none... the female flowers and fruits not winged..... 2. It ranges across large areas of the Old World and is a serious agricultural weed worldwide (e. more than twice as long as wide.. 0... Atriplex 2. . markedly succulent and glabrous.. low places.... leaves sessile or short-petioled. Plants herbaceous or only slightly woody at base. leaves hastate lanceolate-linear (at least the lower.. Two forms are evident in the flora area and elsewhere in the Sonoran Desert (Felger 2000): a robust form. The specimen records are from the southern margin of flora area. broadly ovate to obovate-orbicular……………………………... about as thick as wide.... ……………………………………………….. Perennials. 6.... the female flowers and/or fruits winged..... Rutman. . Leaves alternate. leaves with conspicuous petioles.Gomphrena 5. not woody and not spinescent... Leaves alternate or opposite. Leaves flat... the red. leaves not hastate lanceolate-linear.... Aguajita: 14 Sep 1988... the blades generally about as wide as long. leaves narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate to oblong………………………………………………….g..... 10 Nov 1987. 5. larger leaves).... disturbed habitats. twigs not succulent. often dry and membranaceous... rounded in cross section but the upper surface often somewhat flattened. AMARANTHACEAE – Amaranth Family (includes Chenopodiaceae) Annuals to woody shrubs. or rubra..... especially in hypersaline soils.. Annuals... 3. with larger leaves and flowers. Some authors propose that it may be introduced from the Old World in post-Columbian times.. sepals (tepals) usually 4 or 5.. simple. natural habitats (Felger & Wilder 2012). Both occur intermixed...g.... Felger 87284. flowers bisexual. often entire. and alkaline flats..... flowers bisexual.... or at least broader than thick... linear to elliptic or oblanceolate.. Perhaps related to the two Sonoran Desert forms are two biotypes well known in India. CP: Adobe Well (Simmons 1966).. with simple hairs or sometimes glabrate with age... flowers unisexual.. Suaeda 1.. leaves linear…………………….. 88-431 (smaller-flowered morph). Van Devender 30 Aug 1978..... form and the green..... petals none. 1997). not succulent.. Plants with branched hairs. Plants glabrous or with simple hairs.. Fruits 1-seeded. perhaps as a result of dispersal from disturbed habitats in nearby Sonora. 1... often woody.. Felger 88-430 (larger-flowered morph)..............

... The others produce both female and male flowers on the same plant (monoecious).... leaves dark green to red-green and shiny on both surfaces. 9. Leaves and younger stems with soft. the blade expanded and much wider than petioles..... seed margins obtuse (broad)... seed surface shiny blackish after removal of pericarp...... or as long as the flower.... rough or sculptured at least towards the tip.. Female flowers and fruits enclosed in 2 sepal-like bracts. seed margins acute (thin) with a distinct “rim”. ……………………………………………………… Chenopodium Amaranthus Annuals with a well-developed taproot.. Flowers bisexual.... fimbriatus and A. 1... forming an unique compact.. . ……………………........ Felger 2007.......... Bassia 8. Atriplex 7.... smooth.. Bracts usually not spine-tipped and usually shorter than. female flowers with 5 sepals......……………………A....... fruits dehiscent (capsules).. 2. In A........ ............ fruiting calyx lobes hooked at tips..……... Rea 1997).. although only A. petioled.... and the others have dehiscent..... These two species tend to produce a single main stem.. Amaranthus 10. …………... Flowers small and unisexual. 10. 3. ..Salsola 9.. white hairs.. Leaves alternate............ Amaranthus palmeri has female and male flowers on separate plants (dioecious). inflorescence branches and pedicels often thickened and moderately to strongly wavy (sinuous) and/or corky. red-brown to blackish (usually white or light colored among domesticated grain amaranths that probably were grown in the flora area in prehistoric times... or mealy but lacking slender white hairs.......... or sometimes grayish below.. . ascending.... Plants not stinky. resulting in the lateral branches being as large or larger than the main axis. Leaves petioled.. Flowers unisexual………………………………………………. ×tucsonensis ......... Peduncles markedly thickened and corky.. Amaranthus crassipes has indehiscent fruits....... Five amaranths occur in the flora area... palmeri are common and widespread........ Female flowers and fruits not enclosed in sepal-like bracts or the bracts. fruits dehiscent or not.... Leaves sessile or subsessile...... and the male flowers generally fall away soon after the pollen is shed... Fruits small... ………………………………………………………………………………Amaranthus crassipes 2. fruits indehiscent.Felger.... procumbent or prostrate... albus and A. indehiscent utricles or circumscissile (splitting around the middle) capsules. Stems erect... Chenopodiastrum 11... erect in the fruit.. hard knotty structure at the base of the plant and smaller clusters form in the leaf axils. Seeds lens-shaped and compressed....... leaves pale-colored and mealy on both surfaces. calyx lobes not hooked...... Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 19 7........ Plants stinky..... narrowly linear or scale-like.... & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona... Bracts beneath (subtending) flowers often spine-tipped and conspicuously longer than the flower.. female flowers with 3 sepals.. ×tucsonensis the branching habit may be somewhat intermediate..……………….... circumscissile capsules (the fruit separates at a “line” around the middle and the top falls away like a miniature cap). Among A. …..... Plants glabrous.... seed surface dull even after removal of pericarp.... glaucous..... crassipes the apical meristem is often not dominant. Peduncles not conspicuously corky as above. 8. Rutman.... 11. Amaranthus albus 3...... even when dry..

.. Bray) Fernald... probably by rabbits. Figure 14.……………... inflorescence branches and pedicels mostly straight (the inflorescence branch tips often drooping). distinguished by being sticky (viscid-pubescent. . Male and female flowers on different plants... The 1939 record from the Ajo Mountains was the only record until 2013. Plants highly variable in size. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. pubescens (Uline & W.... Sonora: Ejido Morelia. graecizans of authors.. Harbison 13 Dec 1939 (SD). 4. to 80 cm.. Male flowers with 3 stamens. circumscissile capsules. stamens 3. common weed. The population in Las Playas is extensive and the plants are often browsed. 2 Nov 2013. ca. Figure 13.L...…………Amaranthus fimbriatus 4. 2000). to ca.. Male and female flowers on the same plant.. Common in urban and agricultural areas just south of Organ Pipe in the Sonoyta region and occasionally spreading into the border region of Organ Pipe east of Lukeville (Felger 1990. the plants often robust. Fruits of dehiscent. 8 km W of Sonoyta and 0. not Linnaeus] Pigweed. . Amaranthus crassipes Schlechtendal var.. smooth-surfaced. and dirt tanks in at least four places in the western part of the flora area following favorable summer or early fall rains.. or sometimes turning upward at the tip (procumbent) or the central stem erect. photos)... weedy plants. . 11 Nov 1987.. when it was found in abundance in several miles of Alamo Canyon after the major flood of September 2012 (Rutman..5 km N of Río Sonoyta (1. Plants in southern Arizona and northern Sonora are probably var. fruits dehiscent (circumscissile).. but mostly less than 20–30 cm across.5 mi by road S of MEX Hwy 2)..Felger.... Widespread and weedy in many parts of the world.. Female flowers with 3 sepals and dehiscent fruits. in the New World from Alaska and Canada to South America... probably native to tropical parts of North America. female sepals not fringed. Felger 87-306. Stems often yellowish. the hairs glandular) and having crisped leaf margins. inflorescence bracts (not sepals) firm and often sharp. OP: Ajo Mts.. Robust.... wash banks. Male flowers with 3 stamens.Amaranthus palmeri *Amaranthus albus Linnaeus [A.... 80 cm tall... mostly prostrate. especially on larger plants.. Fruits indehiscent. Rutman. crassipes Spreading amaranth. Wet clayish or silty soils of playas.. inflorescences “soft..” the bracts not spiny or firm.. stamens 5. Stems often semisucculent.. not thickened and corky. tumbleweed pigweed. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 20 1. Female flowers with 5 sepals. at maturity sometimes becoming tumbleweeds... Stems usually erect or ascending.. female sepals conspicuously fringed..

Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae Figure 13.Felger. Rutman. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 21 . Amaranthus albus. Alamo Canyon: (A & B) 2 Nov 2013. (C & D) 2 Nov 2013.

Sinaloa and Baja California Sur to southwestern United States. Rutman 26 Sep 2013. 13 Sep 1978. Las Playas. often on sandy soils.85–1 mm wide. Amaranthus fimbriatus (Torrey) Bentham ex S. and Chihuahua. and is disjunct (native?) in northwestern Sonora and southwestern Arizona where it is known from relatively few localities. Stamens 3. bledo. Leaves narrowly lanceolate. Watson Fringed amaranth. Summer-fall annuals. Common and widespread. Fruits of dehiscent. the plants sometimes persisting until the first frost of late fall or winter. .Felger. Seeds 0. lens-shaped. West Indies. Felger 92-713. bajadas. Figure 15. San Cristobal Wash at Camino del Diablo. especially at lower elevations. and southern and eastern Mexico. wet mud. 14 Sep 1992. northern South America. Variety crassipes occurs in southeastern United States. Felger 04-24. Rutman. Another variety occurs in Texas. CP: Jose Juan Tank. San Cristobal Wash. pale green or often reddish especially late in the season. and sometimes on rocky slopes. floodplains.000 years. cuhukkia i:vakĭ. where Camino del Diablo/Bates Road crosses the wash. 28 Nov 2001. Widespread in the flora area for at least 32. Armenta Well Ranch. Felger 01-547. not prickly. urn-shaped. Coahuila. red-brown to blackish. the sepals 5 and fringed (fimbriate. circumscissile capsules. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 22 Figure 14. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 26 Sep 2013. Inflorescences bracts and sepals herbaceous. roadsides. Amaranthus crassipes. dunes. rarely essentially entire). TA: Coyote Water. washes and valley plains. Bowers 1531 (ORPI). 25 Oct 2004. Female and male flowers on the same plant. quelitillo. OP: Old field. Female flowers green and white. glabrous. less than 1 m tall.

Terminal inflorescences commonly drooping near the tip (except young or very small plants). Felger 04-25. It has been in the Ajo Mountains for at least 1200 years. and valley bottoms. weedy and adventive worldwide. pigweed. circumscissile capsules. dirt tanks (charcos). Fruits of dehiscent. 1 Feb 1992. S of Estes Canyon. 15 Sep 1992. Pinacate Lava. and sometimes even on rocky slopes. Felger 92-663. Rutman. Well-watered plants reaching 1–1. Harbison 19 Nov 1939. washes and arroyo bottoms. 13. OP: Bates Well. sometimes only 5–10 cm tall. 14 Sep 1992. 12 Sep 1978. †Montezuma’s Head. Felger 88-416. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Amaranthus palmeri S. roadsides and other disturbed areas. seeds. (A) Plant. CP: Daniels Arroyo at Charlie Bell Road crossing.6+ m tall. fruits. 25 Oct 2004. Seeds 1 mm wide. Figure 16.000 ybp (3 samples). the sepals 5. Young or half-grown plants were consumed as greens (Betty Melvin in Zepeda . (B) Kuakatch Wash near Hwy 85. lens-shaped. 1150 to 32. 8 Sep 2006. Aguajita Wash. female and male flowers on separate plants. Coyote Water. seeds. often robust summer annual was a major food plant across much of the Sonoran Desert. Bates Well Road at E boundary of Refuge. Felger 92-679 (CAB).500 to 21. female flower. 14 Sep 1988. Stamens 5. Female plants with spinescent bracts and sepals. 18 Aug 1992. red-brown to blackish. cuhugia. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 23 Figure 15. TA: Tinajas Altas. Felger (observation). and seed.840 ybp (3 samples). 8160 ybp. Bowers 1520. Felger (observation). and seasonally abundant. Felger 92-772. †Butler Mts. This abundant. quelite de las aguas. fruits. fruits. glabrous or essentially so. (SD). Common and widespread. 26 Oct 2003. Watson Careless weed.Felger. seeds. Pinta Sands. otherwise mostly smaller. Southwestern United States and much of Mexico. Amaranthus fimbriatus. †Alamo Canyon. branch.

Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 24 1985: 56). Fresh plants were sometimes baked in coals or cooked and rolled “into a ball and baked on hot coals. 11 Apr 1992. “we would cook it. female flower (below). The seeds. male flowers. and the small. Bowers 1521. Bates Mts. 6 Sep 2013. Betty Melvin said. seeds. If you mix it with some cheese it’s even better” (Zepeda 1985: 56). stems. you boil the little leaves until they are tender and then you refry it with some onions and it’s very good. this could be stored for future use” (Castetter & Bell 1951: 201). 9 Sep 2012. Warren 17 Nov 1974. (B). TA: No records but expected at least along Coyote Wash. fruits. Harbison 19 Nov 1939 (SD). 14 Sep 1988. O’Neill’s Grave. 22 Mar 1992. Felger 88-441. (A) Plant. Harlan 110 (CAB). Daniels Arroyo at Charlie Bell Rd. seed-bearing branches. Amaranthus palmeri. male flower (above). 14 Sep 1992. Yes that’s the plant you have to wash and wash to get all the dirt out and then you boil it. black seeds of mature plants were parched and ground. San Cristobal Wash. Rutman. 15 Sep 2013. Aguajita Wash. 1150 ybp. and seed. (D) Growler Canyon. Dos Lomitas. Felger 92-665. Harlan 183 (CAB). Felger 92-688. CP: Pinacate lava flow. mile 20 between Ajo and Gila Bend. 18 Aug 1992. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. †Alamo Canyon. branch. .Felger. or entire plants were often stored. 12 Sep 1978. OP: Bates Well. Figure 16. (C) Alamo Canyon. S of Estes Canyon. Hwy 85 roadside.

palmeri by its shorter. generally erect. Plants often bright pink. The collection history spans more than six decades. Figure 17. Felger 90-560. The 5 female sepals and 5 rather than 3 stamens readily distinguish A. Fruits of dehiscent. flower clusters and flowers not spinescent. Phaseolus acutifolius. the sepals at first rather erect and with age spreading or reflexed. 1030 m. Female and male flowers on the same plant. Rutman 20061022-13. Figure 17. but the terminal flowering stem or inflorescence not drooping (as often seen in A. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. albus. roughened fruit “cap” or “lid. albus or A. non-spinescent bracts and non-spiny female sepals. Ajo. palmeri). palmeri. The plants might be confused with A. . shape of the female sepals. crowded clusters in the terminal axis. retroflexus Linnaeus (Costea et al. also see Mosyakin & Robertson 2003). 900 m. N-facing slope below the arch. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 25 Amaranthus ×tucsonensis Henrickson Tucson amaranth. palmeri. the sepals relatively broad although moderately narrowed at the base but not narrowly clawed. Wirt 29 Oct 1989. Rutman.Felger. ×tucsonensis from A. where it is usually found with the wild tepary. 2 Dec 1990.” and the continuous terminal inflorescence is not drooping as in A. Bull Pasture Trail above Bull Pasture. Bull Pasture. 22 Oct 2006. This enigmatic amaranth may be of hybrid origin as proposed by Henrickson (1999) or if not a stabilized hybrid then perhaps a variety of A. to about as long as the sepals. Female flowers with 5 sepals. Male flowers with 5 stamens. Tucson amaranth is seldom common and is known from only a few widely scattered localities in southern Arizona (near Tucson and in Organ Pipe) and in southeastern Sonora (Henrickson 1999). 2001. Flower clusters axillary and also with many small. It is common or abundant on north-facing slopes above Bull Pasture and probably elsewhere in similar situations in the Ajos. circumscissile capsules. Harbison 26249. 13 Dec 1939. Arch Canyon. Bracts beneath (subtending) female flowers mostly shorter than. Above Bull Pasture. often with a main axis but also often with welldeveloped lateral branches. The Organ Pipe collections are from Ajo Mountain canyons and Armenta Well Ranch. trail to Mt. 22 Oct 2006. Amaranthus ×tucsonensis. Amaranthus ×tucsonensis is distinguished from A. OP: Alamo Canyon.

....... TA: Tinajas Altas. the margins toothed or not.... ’onk ’i:vakĭ...... or the teeth shallow and much broader than long... Puerto Blanco Mts..Felger. 2–4 mm wide...... .. Atriplex pacifica 1.. Female flowers and fruits enclosed in a pair of sepal-like bracts.. fruits....4–0...600 ybp. 1.. seeds..... Leaves scurfy gray-green... 9900 & 10.... Shrubs to 2 m tall with scurfy gray-green herbage.. Male and female flowers on separate plants..../spp.. Fruiting bracts 4-winged (4 wing-like margins)............. tardily drought deciduous... leaves mostly more than three cm long.. male and female flowers on the same plant ……………………………....... the petioles well developed..... leaves mostly less than 2 cm long. Annuals. Flowering in spring and summer..... Fruiting bracts disk-shaped (orbicular). Atriplex – Saltbush Annuals to woody shrubs......5 (0.... sessile to subsessile. Montezuma’s Head.. as the fruits develop the bracts enlarge. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona... .... entire..... 4–6 (8) mm wide............ Fruiting bracts conspicuously 4-winged.. Atriplex canescens 4. Smaller shrubs..... 13. Flowers unisexual.......... Larger shrubs. mature fruits with bracts often 1–2 cm long.. .... 1150 ybp...500 & 20...... often 1–2 cm diameter.... Atriplex linearis 3.... male and female flowers on separate plants... larger leaves often 1–3 (4+) cm long. OP: Alamo Canyon... thicken......... teeth 7 or more and mostly longer than wide............. ..... 980 & 990 ybp.5 (5) × (0.. fruit..... mature fruits with bracts often 0... 2.8 cm. 4....... larger leaves reaching 3–4. Bracts not toothed........ male and female flowers on separate plants (except A...8) cm long........ commonly 1 m or less in height.. Several fossil collections may represent more than one species. evenly toothed all around the margin.... Atriplex elegans 2... Fruiting bracts not winged... more or less truncate with coarse teeth arising above the middle.. Fruiting bracts widest above middle.500 ybp specimen may be A. male and female flowers on the same or separate plants....………………………………………………Atriplex lentiformis 5..... larger leaves often more than 3 cm long... Woody shrubs. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 26 ††?Amaranthus sp.. Seeds of some Atriplex species were parched or cooked with other foods but generally served as emergency food (Hodgson 2001)........... Young plants of herbaceous species or young shoots of shrubs were cooked as greens or with other foods for the salty flavor (Rea 1997).. the lowermost ones sometimes opposite..4–0.. and often grow various ornamentations such as wings and crests... chamizo cenizo... Leaves mostly alternate..... 5. narrowly spatulate to narrowly oblong.... Figure 18....... Rutman..Atriplex polycarpa Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nuttall Four-wing saltbush..... The plants scurfy gray or whitish due to inflated hairs that collapse upon drying..... seeds.2) 0.... ×tucsonensis]........... commonly 1 m or more in tall.. .... lentiformis) 3......490 ybp [The 13........ male and female flowers on the same plant. Bracts conspicuously toothed.....

(A) Staminate (left) and pistillate branches. 23 May 2010. (C) Kuakatch Wash near Hwy 85.Felger. Rutman. (D) Kuakatch Wash near Hwy 85. Atriplex canescens subsp. 20 Jan 2014. (B) fruiting bracts. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 29 Jan 2014. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae Figure 18. canescens. Estes Canyon. 27 .

Widespread in Arizona. leaves. mostly oblong to oblanceolate. elegans subsp. 9570 ybp. Shadscale occurred in Ice Age woodlands in the Ajo Mountains but seems to have been fairly scarce. and crenulate to shallowly small-toothed fruiting bracts. Oregon and California to North Dakota and Chihuahua. Atriplex elegans (Moquin-Tandon) D. CP: Pinta Sands. 13. Subsp. Fruiting bracts disk. Rutman. Widely scattered localities in the flora area and in the Ajo Mountains 9600 years ago. It grew in the Ajo Mountains 9600 years ago. Charlie Bell Rd. Subsp. leaves. 1 km W of Refuge boundary.840 ybp. Figure 19.7) cm long. A. OP: Tres Alamos Canyon.4–5 mm wide. and Sonora to Chihuahua and Durango. elegans reported for Durango. with scurfy gray-green herbage. the teeth small to large and coarse. compressed. Felger 94-24. and disturbed. Rutman 20031031-1 (ORPI). Annuals or short-lived perennials. 32 Oct 2003. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. The nearest present-day population is in the vicinity of Safford and Thatcher in Graham County. OP: Montezuma’s Head. Younger and more robust plants tend to resemble subsp. fasciculata. Watson] Wheelscale orach. Livestock favor this species due to its high protein content. Watson Shadscale Low. The two subspecies are of doubtful significance and often grow intermixed. Simmons 19 May 1963. Russell 1908).8–3 (4. Arizona. ’onk ’i:vakĭ.Felger. Male and female flowers on the same plant. Populations on Organ Pipe are probably still recovering since livestock were removed in the late 1970s. Dietrich [A. southeastern California to western Texas. The variation seems continuous. elegans. Today it is a dominant element in the Great Basin Desert in saline valley bottoms above the Mogollon Rim. the lower leaves with wavy and often toothed margins. apparently sometimes changing between early. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 28 Wash margins and xeroriparian areas of valley bottoms and sometimes on rocky slopes to high elevations. and margins of larger playas. Leaves 0. and the fruiting bracts coarsely toothed. chamizo cenizo. fasciculata S. Gravelly. 25 Feb 1993. fruit. Hall & Clements. A polymorphic species. sandy soils of dry riverbeds and larger washes and floodplains. the upper leaves often entire. Chihuahua. whereas older and perhaps more water-stressed plants tend to key to subsp. Wash NE of Pinkley Peak. such as at Alamo Canyon and Quitobaquito (Felger 2000). fasciculata is characterized by having generally thicker leaves with entire margins. maturing from May through October. Simmons 17 Oct 1962 (CAB).or wheel-shaped (as reflected in the English common name). Felger 93-61. †Alamo Canyon. western North America and northern Mexico. fruit. often on alkaline/saline soils. ††Atriplex confertifolia (Torrey & Frémont) S.500 & 21. Watson) H. Subsp. subshrubs. the margins crenulate to toothed throughout. Baja California. 5 Mar 1994. elegans is characterized by having thinner leaves. Tea made from the leaves was taken as an emetic by the Seris (Felger & Moser 1985). Little Tule Tank. The young plants were eaten as greens or used as seasoning by the Gila River Pimas (Rea 1997. fasciculata (S.M. Packrat Hill. orbicular. Nichol 24 Feb 1939. near the margin of the Sonoran Desert. The subspecies show some geographic segregation but with a very broad region of overlap. and western Texas to . weedy habitats including roadsides. 2.and late-season growths.

NNW of Lukeville. old fields. Felger 02-74. Figure 19. Harlan 253 (CAB). Rutman 14 Mar 1995 (ORPI). & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. CP: Tule Well. Dos Playas. 5 Mar 2014. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 29 Arizona. . Atriplex elegans. 23 Jul 1986. Bowers 912. (C) Ajo. and northern Sonora southward to the vicinity of Guaymas. Rutman. 6 May 2006. Armenta Ranch. northern Baja California. and southern Arizona.Felger. Alamo Canyon. Felger 86-207. 13 Jun 1992. Van Devender 31 Aug 1978 (ORPI). Subsp. 5 Nov 1977. fasciculata known from southern California. Felger 92-581. (B) international boundary near El Huerfano. (A) Plant and fruiting bracts. †Alamo Canyon. northwestern Sonora. southeastern California. Ajo Mt Drive. 9570 ybp. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 28 Apr 1939. 2000 ft. 13 Apr 1992. fruits. 1 Feb 2002.

5 mm wide. Rutman. Watson subsp. and not winged. (A) Staminate (lower) and pistillate (upper) branches and fruiting bracts. Rutman 23 Apr 1999 (ORPI). Flowering and fruiting in spring and summer-fall. and northwestern Sonora. 4 Apr 2002. Deserts in western Arizona.Felger. . the blades triangular. sometimes longer than wide. (B) Gila River near Hwy 85. By 1999 there were only two plants on the eastern spring slope and none were seen in 2012. often lens-shaped. flattened with shallow. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 28 Apr 1939. California. triangular-hastate. big saltbush. This species can have male and female flowers on the same or separate plants. broad. Formerly present in low-lying alkaline soils near the pond at Quitobaquito and on low hills near the spring. and relatively thin leaf blades and well-developed petioles. ovate. Another subspecies occurs from the Mojave Desert in California to Utah. lens scale. chamizo grande. lentiformis. grayish blue. Utah. petioles well developed. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Figure 20.5) 2–4 cm. Atriplex lentiformis subsp. and relatively thin. This species is distinguished from other Sonoran Desert saltbushes by its large size. rhombic. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 30 Atriplex lentiformis (Torrey) S. It is common along the Río Sonoyta in nearby adjacent Sonora (Felger 2000). Baja California. or oblong. Nevada. Leaves 3–5 × (1.5 m tall. Mound-shaped shrubs often 2–2. blunt teeth. Figure 20. Fruiting bracts (2) 3–3. and large. lentiformis Quail bush.

linearis distinguished from A. 5 Oct 2013. Watson [A. Hall & Clements] Narrowleaf saltbush. and often more pronounced (more deeply laciniate) teeth on the bracts. the larger leaves often 1–3 (4+) cm × 2–4 mm. smaller fruits. MEX Hwy 2. Rutman. international boundary E of Quitobaquito. Watson) H. Leaves linear to narrowly oblong and keeled.M. linearis (S. Atriplex linearis. reproductive mostly spring and summer. smaller and narrower leaves. . Small shrubs with upright stems. (A) Pistillate branch. canescens and by overall smaller size. canescens (Pursh) Nuttall subsp. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 31 Atriplex linearis S. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Sonora. Figure 21. Figure 21. Fruiting bracts narrowly 4-winged. A.Felger. Male and female flowers on separate plants. (B & C): International boundary near El Huerfano. 6 Feb 2014: fruiting branches.

20 Mar 1992. San Cristobal Wash. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Rutman. . Also western Sonora southward near the coast between Puerto Libertad and El Desemboque San Ignacio. Often treated as a subspecies of A. natural desert pavements. Woody shrubs. Bowers 1721. where the plants are often robust and 30–100 cm wide. CP: Las Playas. Bowers 1225. 10 mi W of Hwy 85. Plants of intermediate character have not been seen in those places. The distribution in Arizona and Sonora is patchy. Felger 90-488.2–1. or oblanceolate. often long-lived. In Arizona localized along the eastern and southern margins of Cabeza Prieta and in Organ Pipe near the Mexico border west of Lukeville. polycarpa and less salt-tolerant than Suaeda nigra. 24 Oct 1990. chamizo cenizo. which hints at colonization by individual plants. mostly obovoid. uniformly scurfy gray on both surfaces. Male and female flowers on the same plant. 31 Jan 1992. floodplains. the margins mostly entire. 10 May 1979.g. both Baja California states. Fruiting bracts (1) 1.5 mm wide. with 3 or 5 apical teeth. Atriplex pacifica A. and widespread and common in coastal areas of the Pacific side of the Baja California Peninsula and southern California. allscale saltbush. Arizona. forming tangled masses. Cipriano Well. Fruiting bracts usually 4–6 mm wide. gray-green to whitish. obovate. Fruits strongly malodorous. Eiber 7. to the Guaymas region in Sonora. especially with hot weather following rains. and the populations tend to be small and localized. southwestern Arizona. CP: 6 mi E of Papago Well on Camino del Diablo. Often with characteristic pink galls in the upper branches and inflorescences. much branched with slender twigs. Figures 23. and arroyo or washes. often with 7–17 finger-like blunt teeth. ’onk ’i:vakĭ. Winter-spring to early summer annuals as small as 5 cm tall and upright to spreading and 40 cm across. and partially barren flats. Warren 17 Nov 1974. Leaves highly variable and small. the larger ones 5–20 mm long. Atriplex polycarpa (Torrey) S. 2-way section: ca. and coastal Sonora south to the Río Mayo delta and perhaps northwestern Sinaloa. somewhat orbicular to obdeltoid. elliptic to spatulate. dry-season and short-shoot leaves seldom more than 10 mm long. Rutman 30 Aug 2001 (ORPI). Watson Desert saltbush. bracts usually with a keel or ridge and a tubercle or spine often on each side of the ridge. Male and female flowers on separate plants. cuneate at base. lower leaves sometimes petioled. Dos Lomitas. mostly 7–20 mm long.. Nelson Pacific orach. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 10 Mar 1939 (ORPI). The earliest collection from Arizona or Sonora is 1966. from at least near Phoenix. Often growing with A. Flowering in various seasons. They are geographically sympatric but occupy different habitats in many places in the Sonoran Desert. 13 Apr 1983. varying in size and shape and often obscured by dense scurfy white hairs. Leaves elliptic. Harlan 40. It might be a relatively recent introduction from the Pacific coast where it is much more widespread (Felger 2000). Felger (observation). Southeastern California. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 32 Locally common on alkaline flats or semi-alkaline soils of lower bajadas.Felger. Figure 22. OP: Puerto Blanco Drive. 11 Apr 1978. often semi-succulent. Roadsides. canescens or sometimes regarded as distinct species (e. polycarpa and apparently more salt-tolerant than A. gradually becoming leafless or nearly so during extended drought. densely short-branched. and playa margins. 7 mi W of Hwy 85. Felger 2000). truncate at tip. the plants tend to be small. mealy. bajadas.

sandy to rocky soils of desert plains.Felger. especially alkaline or saline soils or bedrock. Sonora. a patch of this vegetation is at the saddle between Boulder and Arch Canyon in the Ajo Mountains. (A) Low hills surrounded by dunes. with hop bush (Dodonaea) usually an associate. 20 mi S of Sonoyta on MEX Hwy 8. Sonora. Rutman. and creosotebush (Larrea) and narrowleaf saltbush (Atriplex linearis) absent: for example. Locally common on a surprising variety of habitats. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Atriplex pacifica. washes. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 33 Figure 22. Often on tuff bedrock. . (B & C) roadside of Mexico Hwy 2 near El Huerfano. 5 Mar 2014. 20 Feb 2014. and slopes to peak elevations on the drier mountains.

Charlie Bell Well. 1150 to 29. 12–14 Jun 1992. (D) Dos Lomitas. Papago Well.360 ybp.000 years ago. Tuseral Tank. 10. Van Devender 9 Mar 1980. 28 Feb 2008. leaves. fruits. (A) Near Dos Lomitas. Observations: Tule Tank. TA: Camino del Diablo. Felger 87-268. Rutman. The seeds were eaten (Castetter & Bell 1951) and perhaps used as a famine food by the Hohokam around Phoenix (Bohrer 1985 in Hodgson 2001). Deserts in southern and western Arizona. 23 Oct 1987. †Butler Mts. and western Sonora. Nevada. Atriplex polycarpa. Harlan 311 (CAB). 20. flats and granitic hills.490 ybp. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 10 Mar 1939. (C) floodplain of Rio Sonoyta near Agua Dulce west of Sonoyta. E of Raven Butte. 10 Jan 2002. 2 Feb 1992. Montezuma’s Head. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 34 Figure 23. leaves. An infusion of mashed young shoots was used by the Seris as shampoo and laundry detergent (Felger & Moser 1985). Vicinity of Cipriano Well.2 miles NW of Tule Well Camp. Packrat midden samples from the Ajo Mountains that are probably this species date from more than 29. W of Gachado Line Camp.Felger. SW side of Tinajas Altas Mts. Felger. Buckhorn Tank. 25 Jan 2008. 26 Sep 1992. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. CP: 1. leaves. Rutman 30 Aug 2001 (ORPI). Felger. Felger 02-04. . 10 Jan 2002. †Probably A.110 ybp (3 samples). Wirt 20 Mar 1989 (ORPI). (B) fruiting bracts. fruits. Felger (observation). the Baja California Peninsula. 6 Feb 2014. Sonora. southern California. polycarpa: Alamo Canyon.

Native to Eurasia. Hwy 85 at Cherioni Wash crossing. Figure 24. Fruiting bracts more or less obdeltoid. It is abundant primarily as an agricultural weed around Sonoyta adjacent to the southern margin of the monument and can be expected to spread into the monument on the heels of disturbance. Rutman. Figure 24. Felger 85-928. often germinating in winter-spring and maturing early summer to fall. Western Texas to central and southern Arizona and northern Sonora. widespread weed in western North America since its reported introduction in Nevada around 1915. Sonora: Sonoyta. as it occurs only in disturbed habitats. Bushy annuals. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 35 **Atriplex wrightii S. The hooked spine at the end of each of the 5 calyx lobes is unique among the plants of this flora. **Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntze Smother weed. Watson. Leafy annuals with a well-developed main stem. seeds. . and portion of spike. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. (B) construction area. 13 Apr 2005. The two specimen records for Organ Pipe grew from seeds in straw imported from California and used to control erosion at construction sites. Monoecious. (A) Plant.Felger. with 5 or 7 terminal teeth. fruiting calyx. Bassia hyssopifolia. Not known from the flora area but documented just south of the Organ Pipe in the vicinity of Sonoyta and probably not native to that region. 4 Oct 1985. usually germinating in spring and maturing in fall.

glabrous or sometimes gray scurfy below. sometime persisting into summer in well-watered. the margins acute with a thin rim. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 36 OP: Hwy 85. kaupdam. irregularly toothed. Rutman. washes. Chenopodiastrum murale. (A) Flowering plant with fruiting calyx and seed. roadside at Cherioni Wash. dirt tanks. Leaves alternate. choal. Flowers bisexual. and especially at improved waterholes and disturbed habitats. canyon bottoms. Rutman 15 Apr 2005 (ORPI). ca. sometimes semi-succulent. Widespread. the blades mostly ovate to rhombic. often 3–10 cm long.7 mi N of Park headquarters. chual. mostly devoid of dried pericarp. Figure 25. Sonora.2–1. Uotila & Borsch [Chenopodium murale Linnaeus] Netleaf goosefoot.4 mm wide. damp soil at tinajas and waterholes.Felger. Seeds 1. Herbage green or often reddish green. *Chenopodiastrum murale (Linnaeus) S. Fuentes. dull even after removal of pericarp. shaded habitats. the petioles well developed. 5 Mar 2014. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. (B) international boundary near El Huerfano. Winter-spring annuals. lens-shaped. blackish. Figure 25. . 4. ’onk ’i:vakĭ. mostly partially spreading at maturity to reveal part of the seed. Sepals often keeled.

Nelson Watson’s goosefoot. characterized by odor. (2012) separated five former species of Chenopodium as Chenopodiastrum to form a monophyletic genus occurring in Africa. Widely scattered. Felger 86-269. generally on rocky slopes and canyons in the Ajo and Puerto Blanco Mountains. Van Devender 31 Aug 1978 (ORPI). The pericarp (the thin seed covering) is distinctly white-waxy. Chenopodium.Felger. Fuentes et al. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 37 Reported as not native in the New World. Felger & Moser 1985). Jose Juan Tank. watsonii A. and mealy with inflated whitish hairs. Alberta and Saskatchewan to southern Arizona and New Mexico. is mostly black and only partly whitish. although long established and widespread in the Sonoran Desert with a long history of use in the region. Felger 98-149. and undoubtedly adjacent northern Sonora and Chihuahua. 2 Feb 1992. Puerto Blanco Mts. 10 Apr 2005.A. and mature calyx covering the seed. Figure 26. rocky NE slope. Eurasia. Trail from The Cones to Mount Ajo. with about 150 species. herbage with fetid odor. Dripping Wells. Charlie Bell Well. Seeds lens-shaped. in small to large populations but seldom abundant. 4090 ft. Young plants were eaten as greens (Castetter & Bell 1951. Apparently all the stinky chenopodiums in the region are this species. and are apparently the only edible seeds in the region that open like popcorn when heated (Felger 2007. The seeds were toasted and ground into flour. 2600 ft. 18 Mar 1945. the seeds shiny blackish after removal of this covering. Bowers 1019 (ORPI). sometimes. Gould 3016 (as C. even when young—some say it smells like rotten fish. 26 Feb 1993. the surfaces covered by a translucent pericarp forming a minute cellular pattern (like minute honeycomb depressions). even mature fruits may lack the distinctive full white pericarp although there will be some whitish cells. Gachado Line Camp. Rutman. Felger 93-366. so the pericarp. Wahl 1966). the margins obtuse (without a distinct rim). 19 Mar 1998. Bowers 1015. ca. and North America. Alamo Canyon. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. 27 Jan 1978. 10 Apr 1993. Leaves alternate and petioled. Felger 92-65. 1 mm wide. OP: Dripping Springs. fremontii S. Felger 93-106. leaf shape (variable but often more or less rhomboid) and color (pale and mealy on both surfaces). Winter-spring annuals. Chenopodium cf. The name goosefoot derives from the leaf shape of certain species. H. Herbage often pale grayish green. Felger (observation). . is worldwide. det. Watson. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 28 Apr 1939. however. Castetter & Underhill 1935). Flowers bisexual. CP: Tule Tank. 13 Sep 1988. The entire plant is very stinky. TA: Tinajas Altas. 29 Jan 1978. while waxy.

There is a fossil specimen 13.500 years old from the Ajo Mountains. It is likely to be F. The flowers are inconspicuous and nearly hidden in woolly bracts. usually few-branched and taller than wide. an herbaceous perennial. mostly responding to summer-fall rains. sessile or short- . and ranges from eastern and central United States to northern Mexico. Chenopodium cf. often 3–10 cm long. Annuals or short-lived herbaceous perennials. often short-lived and mostly growing and flowering with summer rains. elliptic to oblanceolate or linear. an annual with the nearest populations in central and southeastern Arizona.. and sometimes weakly re-growing with winter-spring rains. Leaves mostly basal. green. achene. (B) S of Animas in Hidalgo Co. ††?Froelichia sp. arizonica Thornber ex Standley. gracilis (Hooker) Moquin-Tandon. watsonii. OP: Montezuma’s Head. (C) 11 Mar 2014. The nearest present-day population is in the Baboquivari Mountains. Figure 27. New Mexico.500 ybp. Alamo Wash: (A) 30 Jul 2013.Felger. 13. Gomphrena sonorae Torrey Sonoran globe amaranth. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Rutman. 19 Aug 2010. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 38 Figure 26. The fossil is less likely to be F. It ranges from southern Arizona to west Texas and Sonora to Coahuila and Nuevo León. photo by Patrick Alexander (SEINet).

Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 39 Figure 27. . photo by Eugene Sturla (SEINet). Huachuca Mts. 17 Aug 2011. photo by Liz Makings (SEINet). to no avail. crowded in rounded clusters among papery white bracts and nearly hidden among cottony white hairs. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. petioled. Sepals separate.5–4 mm long. Gomphrena sonorae. to find this plant again in the Ajo Mountains. the tips acute. In the flora area known only from Bull Pasture in the Ajo Mountains. (B) Patagonia Mts area. Cochise Co. rather papery and not firm. Sue Rutman has tried. Rutman. Arizona and southwestern New Mexico to western Mexico including the Baja California Peninsula.Felger.. (A & C) Garden Canyon. Flowers 3.

[called] opon” (Zepeda 1985: 73). lens-shaped. This spring annual was widely used as greens. Bowers 1160. 2700 ft. Rutman. 30 Mar 1978. . sessile. locally abundant. Wash. the stamens 1 (2) or none. Seeds 0.9–1. Wirt 13 Nov 1989 (ORPI). plants semi-succulent.2 mm wide. Sandy gravelly and silt-clayish soils of washes. 13 Mar 2014. Flowers unisexual or bisexual. Monolepis nuttalliana. the calyx usually of 1 persistent green sepal. canyon bottoms. dull beneath a thin. Sandy flats near old ranch by Kuakatch Wash at N boundary [Armenta]. Betty Melvin mentions a “wild spinach . Vicinity of Lost City. Figure 28. spreading to semi-prostrate with age and size. leaves reduced upwards to leafy bracts. OP: Tres Alamo Canyon. The seeds are also edible (Hodgson 2001). Alaska and Canada to northern Mexico and in Argentina. Cabeza Prieta. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 40 OP: Bull Pasture: 3300 ft. flattened. . . in dense. Nichol 24 Feb 1939. the petioles expanding into lanceolate to linear blades with hastate “ears. Monolepis might be confused with Cistanthe monandra (Portulacaceae). temperate regions. CP: Redtail Tank in silty-clayish soil next to the represo. .” the smaller leaves often entire. Monolepis nuttalliana (Schultes) Greene Poverty weed. Felger 93-77. floral parts greatly reduced.Felger. Widely scattered in the northern and eastern part of Organ Pipe and known by one record from Cabeza Prieta. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Figure 28. . they eat . Larger leaves mostly 1–5 cm long. adventive in the Old World. San Cristobal Valley. Rutman 15 Mar 2003 (ORPI). flowers minute and inconspicuous. persistent pericarp with a honeycomb-alveolate pattern. the stems often 5–25 cm long. ’opoñ. Low-growing winter-spring annuals. axillary clusters. Mouth of Alamo Canyon. Henry probably 1977 or 1978 (ORPI). and dirt tanks. Desert populations in western North America have much narrower and smaller leaves than those from more humid. which has entire leaves and multiple-seeded fruits. 25 Feb 1993.

& Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona.5 cm in diameter and 15+ cm deep. new shoots rapidly appear in early spring. Seeds 1. above-ground parts are freeze-killed with frost. Rutman.5 cm long. pink within. the calyx 2. the lower leaves clasping the stems. Figure 29. succulent and linear. .5–4 mm long. green outside. D-shaped. Locally common in alkaline/saline wet soils at Quitobaquito. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 41 Nitrophila occidentalis (Moquin-Tandon) S. Highly succulent herbaceous perennials from deep.2 mm. Nitrophila occidentalis. Deer paw the ground to expose and eat the rhizomes and shoots. Leaves sessile. dark red-brown to blackish.Felger. Calyx lobes and stamens 5. Stems much-branched. smooth and shining. fleshy. persistent when dry with a midrib keel. (B & C) 5 May 2005. Figure 29.4–1. mostly 1–2. Watson Alkali weed. subtended by 2 leaf-like bracts of unequal size. 1 or 3 in leaf axils.5 × 1. thick succulent rhizomes to 2. Quitobaquito: (A) 19 Mar 2008. Flowering at least March and April. Flowers bisexual.

seed. Brown. between Quitobaquito and Burro Spring. (A) Plant. Eleocharis rostellata. Bowers 1333. and northeastern Baja California to Oregon and Nevada. Haplopappus acradenius. 15 June 2013. 26 Feb 2005. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. S. S. Figure 30. kali var. 14 Jun 1978. OP: Quitobaquito: Nichol 28 Apr 1939. kali of authors. iberica (Sennen & Pau) Botschantzev ex Czerepanov. vo:po’odam sa’i. male flower (above). *Salsola tragus Linnaeus [S. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 42 Saline/alkaline wetlands in southwestern Arizona. Salsola tragus. to the NE of Quitobaquito Pond. with Juncus mexicanus. australis R. not S. with Suaeda torreyana. Figure 30. female flower with sepals. chamizo volador. (B) Ajo. tumbleweed. kali Linnaeus. northwestern Sonora. hejel ’e’esadam. Hypersaline soils wetted by Quitobaquito Springs. fruit. Rutman 20130615-2. . tenuifolia Tausch ex Moquin-Tandon. and seedling. pestifer Nelson] Russian thistle. S. S. Rutman.Felger.

Macbride [S. subtended by ovate. in upper leaf axils. Disturbed habitats. semi-succulent. 2300 ft. OP: Puerto Blanco Drive. dry regions. Populations decline over time as sites recover from disturbance. A fire east of Dos Lomitas in 2000 (Martin Fire) was carried by tumbleweeds that had piled up against the boundary fence and spilled into Organ Pipe. mostly roadsides and along washes. Figure 31. .Felger. moquinii (Torrey) Greene. 18 Aug 1992. 10 May 1979. germinating in spring or with the summer rains. Quitobaquito: (A & B) 11 Sep 2008. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 43 Warm weather annuals. Suaeda nigra (Rafinesque) J. Lower or seedling leaves often linear to thread-like. Flowers bisexual. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona.F. CP: Childs Mt: Simmons 30 Oct 1963 (CAB). People on the Mexican side of the border were burning “weeds” in farm ditches and the fire got out of control. Watson] Seepweed.5 mm wide. Fruiting calyx pink to white. upper leaves 1–2. plants globose at maturity at the end of summer or fall. Seeds fall with the calyx. Felger 92-644. spinescent bracts 5–8 mm. especially on disturbed soils in hot. Suaeda nigra. Bowers 1720. breaking off at ground level to become tumbleweeds. Figure 31. quelite salado. with collar-like wings often 5–6. torreyana S. Rutman. 10 mi W of Hwy 85. This C4 plant is native to Eurasia and has become a troublesome weed worldwide. s-cuk onk. (C) 22 Jun 2006.5 cm long and spinescent-tipped. S.

OP: Quitobaquito. Williams Spring. unique for the family in the flora area). 10 per cluster. hierba lanuda. Alberta and the western United States to northern and central Mexico. are a well-known vegetable in southern Mexican cuisine. especially at lower elevations on silty. Rea 1997. with small. Felger 01-544. occasionally alternate. stems often reddish. Flowers 1–ca. often 1. or the plants sometimes more sparsely pubescent when well-watered. Seepweed was cooked by Gila River Pimas as greens. Although the distinctions seem minor. sometimes persisting until December but perishing with the first near-freezing temperatures. Leaves alternate and succulent. mostly produced during the warmer months. or added to cactus fruit for flavor. Two subspecies can be distinguished by presence or absence of decorations on the ends of the terminal arms of the branched hairs and pollen differences. often obscuring the leaf surfaces. each produced in a small cup-shaped involucre growing around the flower. Seasonally common and widespread across the flora area. the lower leaves often 1.Felger. 2–2.5 mm diameter. Van Devender 30 Aug 1978. and roadsides. unequal in size in female flowers. The above-average rainfall in the Organ Pipe region in 2012 was a banner year for Tidestromia. Russell 1908). Subspecies eliassoniana occurs west of the continental divide in southwestern North America and subsp.5–3. Summer-fall ephemerals. petioled. this proliferation results in highly clustered inflorescences. Stems slender and brittle. and gravelly soils of desert flats. Flowers bisexual. Tidestromia lanuginosa (Nuttall) Standley subsp. Felger 90-472B (ORPI). Herbage green to glaucous blue-green and often reddish purple. or the larger plants mound-shaped. washes. sandy. . dumosa and the plants were so dense that white bands or patches of Tidestromia could be seen on lower mountain slopes. Pubescence dense and scurfy-whitish. often functionally unisexual. which continue through the season as long as moisture and warm weather hold out. CP: Tule Well. Flowers minute. Papago Well. Seeds 1–1. 3 Dec 1990. foul smelling when crushed. Felger (observation). 3–8 mm long and bead-like. hierba ceniza. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Sepals 5. succulent and hooded.3–1. Felger (observation). soon withering. Washes and near springs and waterholes in the southwestern margin of Organ Pipe from the vicinity of Ten Mile Hill to the southwestern corner (see Wislizenia refracta) and the vicinity of Dos Lomitas. Locally common on saline or alkaline soils. Young tender plants of this or a similar species. the fruiting calyx bilateral. Figure 32. the blades broadly obovate to orbicular. lanuginosa occurs east of the divide (Sánchez-del Pino & Clemants 2003). new involucres produced from the margin of the cups of older involucres.5 (4. eliassoniana Sánchez-del Pino] Woolly honeysweet. Hocker Well. as well as rocky slopes and dunes. Dos Lomitas. Flowering branches slender and paniculate. Cabeza Prieta along the large xeroriparian washes at Tule Well and on temporarily wet soil near Papago Well. Rutman 24 Jul 2002 (ORPI). branched throughout with many spreading. used for flavoring in cooking other foods. Nichol 3 Mar 1939. 13 Jun 1992. reduced and congested upwards and appearing whorled.6 mm wide. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 44 Densely-branched.5) cm long. mound-shaped succulent shrubs often 1–2 m tall. eliassoniana Sánchez-del Pino & Flores Olvera [T. they are geographically segregated. the long-shoot leaves linear. 27 Nov 2001.5 mi E of Aguajita. 3. Seeds globose. Plants often low and spreading. Rutman. called romerillo. The plants were so large they overtopped Ambrosia deltoidea and A.5 mm wide and yellow. the short-shoot leaves usually crowded. branched hairs (candelabriform. interlacing branches. bajadas. It was also used to line a pit for baking cholla buds of Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa (Curtin 1949. 24 Oct 1990. Leaves mostly opposite. often 10–30 mm long.

19 Mar 1998. Growler Valley. Felger 04-64. (B) 8 Oct 2006. Organ Pipe: (A) 9 Sep 2008. eliassoniana. Hwy 85: (C) 6 Oct 2012. Bull Pasture trail. 18 Aug 1992. . 25 Oct 2004. 14 Sep 1988. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 45 OP: Armenta Well. Figure 32. Felger 88-408. Aguajita. Rutman. 15 Sep 1992. Tinajas Altas. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. dry plants from previous year). TA: Coyote Water.Felger. Felger 92-761. wash. Warren 16 Nov 1974. (D) 30 Sep 2006. 5 Nov 1977. Bowers 952 (ORPI). Pinta Sands. CP: Daniels Arroyo at Charlie Bell Rd. Felger 92-666. Tidestromia lanuginosa subsp. W of mile 60. Felger (observation.

. Rhus kearneyi F. Harbison 25670. Fruit a small drupe.. the ground beneath the shrubs littered with dry leaves. trilobata. Flowers white or pink.. Leaves with 3 leaflets.. seeds.. cultivated plants in Tucson defoliated but rapidly recovered. leaflets 3 and thin.5 m tall... white flowers late February and March before the leaves appear. Scaggs 2131.. Bull Pasture... orange and slightly fleshy when ripe. the surface covered with glands and wet with gooey but not sticky exudate...500 & 20.... The fossil record indicates it was far more common in the late Wisconsin and early Holocene than today....110 ybp (6 samples. Flowers bisexual or unisexual. ca. with age becoming maroon-red. kearneyi Desert sumac. It has been in the Ajo Mountains for at least 29. Watson [R.. Gray ex S. (ORPI).... Rhus aromatica Rhus aromatica Aiton var... cf... It no longer grows near the rock shelters (Alamo Canyon and Montezuma’s Head) where the middens were found..8–2... 9230 to 11. Rutman. with a ring-shaped nectary disk between the stamens and ovary............. overwintering.... A similar or the same species grew at Tinajas Altas from at least about 9250 to 11... 1.. TA: †R. Barkley subsp. with spike-like branches developing with the foliage in fall. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 46 ANACARDIACEAE – Cashew Family Rhus – Sumac Shrubs... nectary disk of young flowers glistening yellow.... Inflorescences terminal and axillary. and producing small..5–8. Another isolated.....Felger... 1.... 1 cm long. shiny green to somewhat bluish glaucous. Characteristically evergreen..... During severe freezing weather in January 1987.... tough and rather shiny... Leaves simple (rarely 3-lobed on long-shoots). Rhus kearneyi 1. leaf margins entire or sometimes irregularly undulate or serrate even on the same plant. limita del desierto........ essentially evergreen...5– 3 cm long.. spike-like or paniculate. 8130 to 29.... The leaves are moderately stinky when crushed. (1.. trilobata Nuttall] Skunk bush.000 years ago. bicolored... Fruits ripe November–March.. thin and dull. inflexible branches... seeds.8 cm..3 m tall. Tinajas Altas. 13. 1 Apr 1976. Hardwood shrubs often 1. about 5 mm long. crushed leaves have a fruity odor...490 ybp. tart (acidic) or citrus-like favor.000 years ago.. stipules none. Wirt 12 Nov 1989....040 ybp (5 samples). tough... 18 Dec 1939.. compact and densely flowered. Figure 33... Canyons and slopes in the Ajo Mountains. †Montezuma’s Head... limita. thus the Sonoran name limita (little lime).5–3. the margins shallowly lobed. especially at higher elevations and on north-facing slopes..... Leaves simple (or sometimes also a few leaves with 3 leaflets).5 × 2–3. †Alamo Canyon. but the leaves gradually shed during extended drought.... densely branched with dense foliage and relatively tough.. Arch Canyon... ........... Slender-stem shrubs........ trilobata (Nuttall) A.. This species complex ranges from Canada to southern Mexico and is taxonomically confusing with variously recognized varieties.... seeds. 3..4) 2–4 cm long..... mostly 1... Figure 34.. lemonade bush. . this liquid has a pleasant. small.... The fruits have a lemon-like taste. probably this species). 5-merous.. winter deciduous. leaves alternate. ovate and entire.. Leaves winter deciduous..A.. Inflorescences terminal.. OP: Alamo Canyon.. ..... hence the common name.. relictual population occurs at higher elevations in the Sierra Pinacate in nearby Sonora (Felger 2000)...

1 May 2012. Alamo Canyon. Rhus aromatica var. trilobata. Rutman. CA. (B) Palm Canyon. .Felger. above Alamo Well: (A) 17 Oct 2013. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 47 Figure 33. Joshua Tree National Park. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. (C) 12 Jan 2013.

but are readily distinguished by features given in the key. Steep. Cabeza Peak. Tinajas Altas. TA: Tinajas Altas. styles 2. Two other subspecies occur in mountains of Baja California and Baja California Sur. Felger 92-612. Rhus kearneyi seems most closely related to R. Concentrated in steep canyons and cliff bases on precipitous north-facing mountain slopes of the Cabeza Prieta. and Gila Mountains. CP: Cabeza Prieta Mts: Silver Star Canyon. Borrego Canyon. with 2 one-seeded segments (mericarps) almost always separating at maturity. kearneyi. Harrison & Kearney 6573 (isotype). Disjunct populations of this subspecies also occur in Sonora in the Sierra del Viejo southwest of Caborca and in Baja California in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. 17 Mar 2014. and Yabea species are somewhat similar in appearance. Rutman. 14 Feb 1973. The Daucus. integrifolia of the Pacific coast of the Californias. 16 Jun 1992. petals separate or absent. sometimes in basal rosettes. 29 Mar 1930. Spermolepis.Felger. Sonora. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. and adjacent granitic mountains in Sonora. APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE) – Carrot or Parsley Family Five species in the flora area are winter-spring annuals and one is an herbaceous perennial. Perianth 5-merous. calyx reduced or absent. Sierra Nina (= Sierra del Águila). Fruits dry. stamens 5. Goldman 2311 (US). Simmons 27 Sep 1964. Tinajas Altas Mts. Leaves alternate. N-facing granite slope S of MEX Hwy 2. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 48 Figure 34. 20 Nov 1913. Rhus kearneyi subsp. Niehaus 980. . Flowers small and radial.

Felger, Rutman, & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona, Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae

49

1. Low-growing perennials with a thickened rootstock; Ajo Mountains. ............................ Lomatium
1. Cool-season annuals with slender roots or a single tap root; various localities.
2. Plants stemless or with weak and trailing stems; herbage and fruits with stellate hairs; leaves
simple, the blades wider than long, orbicular to palmately lobed. ...................................... Bowlesia
2. Plants stemless or with erect to spreading stems; glabrous or pubescent but the hairs not stellate;
leaves pinnately deeply lobed or toothed to divided, longer than wide.
3. Leaves coarsely toothed; bracts stiff and spinescent at maturity; flowers and fruits sessile in
dense head-like or cone-shaped inflorescences. ............................................................ Eryngium
3. Leaves finely divided; leaves and bracts soft, not spinescent (fruits with spines); flowers and
fruits pedicelled in rather open umbels.
4. Plants glabrous or slightly roughened; fruits rounded, 1.5–2 mm in diameter. ...Spermolepis
4. Plants pubescent with hispid hairs; fruits ellipsoid, 2.5–6.5 mm long.
5. Spines on fruits straight and with tiny barbs at the tip (use magnification); body of fruit
2.5–3 mm long. ............................................................................................................ Daucus
5. Spines on fruits hooked but not barbed; body of fruit more than 5 mm long. ........... Yabea
Bowlesia incana Ruiz & Pavón
Hoary bowlesia. Figure 35.
Delicate annuals with stellate hairs. Stems 4–45 cm long, slender, weak and often trailing.
Leaves simple, petioled, the blades wider than long, 10–24 mm wide, with (3) 5 or 7 broad lobes.
Flowers 2–6 on unbranched stalks shorter than the petioles; flowers minute, inconspicuous, and green
and sessile, the sepals and petals scale-like, 0.5 mm long. Fruits of 2 ovoid-globose segments, each
2–2.4 mm wide.

Figure 35. Bowlesia incana. (A) Plant, fruit (left), and flower; (B) volunteer in Ajo garden, 13 Feb 2005.

Felger, Rutman, & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona, Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae

50

Widespread in Organ Pipe and the eastern part of Cabeza Prieta including mountains and
lowland habitats, often in shaded microsites beneath shrubs, in washes, sandy flats, and on northfacing rocky slopes.
Presumed native in southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and disjunct in South
America. It has spread as a weed as far as Oregon and Florida and into eastern United States. The
genus is diverse in South America; B. incana, the only member in North America, presumably
migrated from South America by natural means.
OP: Ajo Mts, 1 Apr 1944, Clark 11550 (ORPI). 2 mi WSW of Bates Well, 30 Mar 1978, Bowers
1132. International fence at El Papalote, adjacent to Aguajita Spring, 9 Apr 1986, Felger 86-101. Alamo
Canyon, Wirt 13 Mar 1991 (ORPI).
CP: Road to Agua Dulce Pass, 19 Mar 1987, Elias 10202. San Cristobal Wash, 11 Apr 1992, Harlan
& Steinmann 150 (CAB). Charlie Bell Road near E boundary of Refuge, 25 Feb 1993, Felger 93-50. Papago
Well, 25 Feb 1993, Felger 93-140

Figure 36. Daucus pusillus. (A) Bull Pasture, 7 Mar 2014; (B) Estes Canyon, 18 Mar 2005; (C) trail to Bull
Pasture, 21 Dec 2008.

Felger, Rutman, & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona, Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae

51

Daucus pusillus Michaux
American wild carrot; zanahoria silvestre. Figure 36.
Delicate annuals with stiff white (hispid) hairs sometimes bulbous-based on stems and
inflorescence branches, and with a slender, orange tap root. Stems slender, 7–50 cm tall. Leaves
lacey, highly dissected into small, narrow segments. Inflorescences 3.5–27 cm tall, of compound and
densely flowered umbels on stout peduncles with leafy bracts. Petals 0.6 mm long, white or pale
yellow. Fruits bur-like, 2.5–3 mm long, intricately sculptured with yellow barb-tipped spines.
Widespread and often common in Organ Pipe and Cabeza Prieta including washes, canyons,
rocky slopes to peak elevations, and sometimes on dunes. It is one of the few winter ephemerals that
grow on Selaginella slopes. There are no modern records from Tinajas Altas region but it grew there
at least 9000 to 9800 years ago.
Western and southern United States, northern Mexico, and South America.
OP: Alamo Canyon, Nichol 26 Mar 1939. Senita Basin, 23 Mar 1969, Lehto 15406-b (ASU). Slopes
NW of Pinkley Peak, Rutman 24 Mar 2001 (ORPI). Armenta Road, 1.4 mi W Hwy 85, 11 Mar 2003, Felger
03-266. Middle fork of Alamo Canyon near crestline of Ajo Mts, 15 Mar 2003, Rutman 2003-322 (ORPI).
CP: Charlie Bell Pass, 3 Apr 1992, Whipple 3922 (CAB). Bassarisc Tank, 26 Feb 1993, Felger 93122. Childs Mt, 2240 ft, 9 Apr 1993, Felger 93-275. Charlie Bell Road at Daniels Arroyo, 10 Apr 1993,
Felger 93-343. Pinta Sands, 11 Apr 1993, Felger 93-422. Las Playas, 2 Mar 1998, Harlan 502.
TA: †Tinajas Altas, fruits, 8970 & 9790 ybp.

Eryngium nasturtiifolium de Jussieu ex F. Delaroche
Hierba del sapo. Figure 37.
Winter-spring annuals (often biennial or perennial outside the desert), glabrous, 3–12 cm
wide, usually with a stout taproot. First leaves in a basal rosette, 1.5–6+ cm long, thin, green, soon
withering. Leaves pinnatifid-toothed, the teeth sharp- or spine-tipped. Inflorescences densely
flowered and cone-shaped, subtended by leaf-like bracts. Flowers minute; sepals 1.6–2.5 mm long
and sharp pointed; petals 0.5 mm long, white, and soon deciduous.

Figure 37. Eryngium nasturtiifolium. Represo de Ortega (S of Las Playas, Cabeza Prieta NWR), Sonora, 11
Apr 2014.

Herbage grayish green. Jose Juan Tank. Southern Arizona. 7 Apr 1979. Texas. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 52 Locally common in poorly-drained clay soils of dirt tanks and playas. Flowers in compound umbels. Burro Mts.com). ASU). and Cuba. Seasonally abundant across Las Playas and Dos Playas during favorable years. 26 Feb 1993. (A) Hoodoo Canyon. Watson) J. Figure 38. (C) Crest of Ajo Mts. NM. Fruits ca. 15 cm long. CP: Las Playas. Burro Mts. Coulter & Rose Biscuit-root. Grant Co. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Felger 93-96. to ca. compressed. middle fork of Alamo Canyon. . Lomatium nevadensis. dull purplish whitish and minute. Lehto L23594. 27 Mar 2005. Cameron Tank just east of Cabeza Prieta and southwest of Ajo. 2. Lehto L22460 (n = 16. 10 Apr 1978. 1 cm long. Lomatium nevadense (S. (B) Knight Mt.. Figure 38. Rutman. Leaves basal.Felger. growing as the water recedes. NM. Dos Playas. ARIZ. photos by Russell Kleinman (gilaflora. 23 Feb 2010. In Arizona known only from Cabeza Prieta. winged and ribbed. 21 Mar 2009. through much of Mexico.or 3times pinnately dissected.M. Herbaceous perennials. and near the Mexico border in the Tohono O’odham lands. It is locally common in similar habitats northwestern Sonora.

Spermolepis lateriflora. Yucca. photo by Patrick Alexander (SEINet). Spermolepis lateriflora G. echinata in its fruits densely echinate-bristly with uncinate hairs but distinct in its sessile umbels (Nesom 2012). petals white. . Organ Mts. (C) Sycamore Canyon near Cliff. 12 Apr 2008. Selaginella. and Chihuahua. The nearest population is in the Baboquivari Mountains.. NM. Along washes in the eastern part of Cabeza Prieta and widely scattered in Organ Pipe. Simmondsia. and in California probably adventive. echinata by Nesom 2012) is similar to S. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. associated species Juniperus. Jones) Heller. ribbed. 15 May 2010. Flowers minute.com).5–2 mm wide. The two species are allopatric. west Texas. NM. and with short bristles. pseudorientale (M. Fruits rounded. Western North America and northwestern Mexico. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 53 Locally common at higher elevations in the Ajo Mountains. Figure 39. Grant Co. Small annuals. Rutman 2003-333 (ORPI). Spermolepis lateriflora (segregated from S. glabrous. 15 Mar 2003. middle fork Alamo Canyon. 1. Sonora.E. NM. (B) Texas Canyon. The Ajo Mountain plants are var. intershrub spaces.Felger. Leaves dissected into thread-like or linear segments. Viguiera. OP: Near crestline of Ajo Mts. Vauquelinia.L. Figure 39. although the varieties seem poorly defined. especially in the Ajo Mountains. Menodora. echinata occurring from Texas eastward in se USA and in northeastern Mexico. (A) Engineer Canyon. photos by Russell Kleinman (gilaflora. Nesom Bristly scale-seed. Western and southern Arizona. southern New Mexico. 3400 ft. Rutman. Burro Mts. with S. Nolina.

CP: Daniels Arroyo at Charlie Bell Rd. 5 Apr 1978. 2800 ft. with hispid hairs. Flowers in rather open umbels. foothills. N-central Puerto Blanco Mts. . Yabea microcarpa. Arch Canyon.Felger. Rutman 4 Apr 1998 (ORPI). Bull Pasture. 7 Mar 2014. 10 Apr 1941. Washes near Sonoyta Hills. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 54 OP: Alamo Canyon. Nichol 26 Mar 1939. Bowers 1192. Leaves finely divided into thread-like or linear segments. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Small. Yabea microcarpa (Hooker & Arnott) Koso-Poljanski [Caucalis microcarpa Hooker & Arnott] False carrot. Santa Rosa Mts. Figure 40. McDougall 69. cool-season annuals. Felger 93-360. 10 Apr 1993. Rutman. Gunsight Hills. Rutman 2003-446 (ORPI). Figure 40. 2 Apr 2003. and similar to the more widespread Daucus pusillus. Rutman 7 Apr 1998 (ORPI).

.. the pollen is massed into paired pollinia (waxy. the seeds bearing silky hairs and wind-borne.. Leaf blades arrow-shaped or broadly heart-shaped. .. many with milky sap. straight hairs.5 mm long. flowers less than 4 mm wide. Estes Canyon.. APOCYNACEAE – Dogbane Family (includes Asclepiadaceae) Perennials herbs. 26 Mar 2005... and New Mexico. rarely very narrowly arrowshaped. Stems erect or spreading. OP: N slope Bates Mts. sac-like structures) joined by a wishbone-shaped translator arm to a corpusculum. not vining or twining... especially at higher elevations. Idaho.. The corpusculum may be engaged by the leg.. Asclepias 2.. 18 Mar 1944. the corolla rotate with surfaces readily visible.. or tongue of an insect. Orchids are the only other plants with similarly complex pollinaria.... Wirt 1 Apr 1990. ……………………………………………………………………………………. Sap not milky.. ………………………………………………………………………………………………Matelea 3.. Wasps (spider wasps.. Fruits mostly many-seeded (few seeded in Matelea parvifolia and Metastelma). and insect-pollinated. Like many other asclepiad genera. hair... Fruits linear to broadly ovoid. Stems with a longitudinal line of usually curved hairs between the nodes. or shrubs (in the flora area). Bowers 1288a (ORPI)..... flowers bright yellow. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 55 minute.. flowers more than 5 mm wide.. 4. Stems glabrate or sparsely pubescent with scattered. the corolla campanulate with the inner surfaces of lobes obscured by hairs.. Stems vining or trailing... more than twice as long as wide.... not self-supporting. less than 2 mm wide.. Flowers radial.. 1.. Metastelma Asclepias – Milkweeds Perennials.. Leaf blades linear to lanceolate. Saddle between Boulder and Arch Canyons. lightweight.. flowers green and white to cream or pinkish.. more than 5 mm wide... Flowers in umbellate clusters. Pollination is achieved when an insect visits another flower and inadvertently inserts the pollinium into the slit between adjacent anthers... fruits mostly ovoid (narrower in A. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona... with silky hairs at the apex. subulata). the stems not vining..Felger. with hooked (but not barbed) spines. albicans and A. …………………. Leaves mostly opposite. 5-merous. 3 May 1978. often less than twice as long as wide. N-exposure. Crestline of Ajo Mts.. Clark 11405 (ORPI). Rutman..…… Haplophyton 1. tarantula hawks) and bees seem to the be the primary pollinators in the flora area. 3800 ft. …………………………………………………………………………………. ..... Organ Pipe in the Ajo and Bates Mountains. Funastrum 4.. with white petals. Western North America from Baja California and Sonora to British Columbia. Seeds many. Corolla lobes often reflexed and obscuring the calyx. Fruits ellipsoid... which in its search for nectar carries the pollinium to another flower. fruits long and slender. Rutman 20050326-1. vines. the body 5–6. Sap conspicuously milky... flat. 2. 3.

. Asclepias erosa 2. Rutman........ semi-succulent and reed-like... Stems usually relatively few (or sometimes as many as 50). Plants often more than 1 m tall.... . ..... …………………………………………………………………………….. opposite.... Plants usually less than 0. and quickly deciduous.. 3.... ..... Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 56 1... Asclepias albicans 4. usually to 1–1...... Stems brown.. Leaves linear.. alternate.. not succulent..... leaves sessile. leaves petioled....... the hoods 6–10 mm long and obviously taller than the fused anthers....... leaves sparse..... and very close together.. Plant grown from seed from Cabeza Prieta Mts: (B) 6 May 2005. reed-stem milkweeds. flowers 8–9 mm long (including the down-turned petals).... 4.5 mm long and not taller than the fused anthers..... Stems many.. the margins entire. (C) 14 Aug 2014. 2..... at least 2 cm wide...... the internodes shorter than the leaves. 16 Jan 2005..5–3 m tall.. flowers 15–20 mm long (including the downturned petals)... Asclepias subulata Figure 41.... (A) Southern Cabeza Prieta Mts. Leaves ovate.5 (2) m tall.4 m tall....... Asclepias nyctaginifolia 1..... & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona....... . leaves more or less persistent....... Asclepias albicans..... Asclepias linaria 3...... less than 2 mm wide (leaves long-lived or quickly deciduous and the stems thus often leafless).. not reed-like.. Stems whitish or bluish green..Felger. the hoods 2–2... the margins minutely ragged.... usually 1.. the internodes longer than the leaves.........

CP: 3 mi W of Tule Well. western Arizona.5–15 cm long. white. Flowering during warmer months. broadly ovate below to ovate-lanceolate above. the stems single or multiple from a perennial caudex with a stout. linear and very quickly deciduous. Felger (observations). Childs Mt. southeastern California. usually as small. the midrib and lateral veins prominent. 27 Mar 1932. Umbels 1 to several per stem.5–13 cm. Leaves mostly 13–23 × 9. desert milkweed. Bright red nymphs and the black and red adults of the small milkweed bugs (Lygaeus kalmi) feed on the both reedstem species. and occasionally on sandy-gravelly soils of bajada-plains along the east side of the Tinajas Altas Mountains.Felger. Growing from winter to early summer. It is amazing to see these strange slender wand-like stems waving in hot winds on dry slopes. and hairstreak butterflies. and/or do the roots penetrate deeply in the desert sand? . hierba del cuervo. the margins thickened and ragged (erose). and northwestern Sonora. southwestern Utah. the hoods 2–2. Figure 42. often 1–2+ m tall. Flowers visited by large orange and black spider wasps (Pepsis and Hemipepsis). often suffused with pink. Southeastern California. 9 Apr 1993. Many orange and black milkweed bugs (Lygaeus and Oncopeltas) are invariably present. but young plants are often many-stemmed like those of A. with copious milky sap. fleshy taproot. 3820 & 8570 ybp. 23 Mar 1992. Herbage and inflorescences white woolly when young. southern Nevada. albicans and A. flowering mostly late spring and sometimes in early summer. Tule Tank drainage. Felger 93-300. and western Arizona. subulata. thick and firm. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 57 Asclepias albicans S. subulata. Rutman. semi-succulent stems to 3 m tall. Several or more slender. and the flower clusters are often visited by numerous ants tending yellow aphids. Eagle Tank and Buckhorn Tank. Harlan 119 (CAB). subulata are often covered with yellow aphids (Aphis nerii. Figure 41. erect. corollas 8–9 mm long. glabrate with age. candelilla. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. from the upper nodes. native to the Old World and now widespread). Asclepias erosa Torrey. 1 Apr 1976. It has been in the Tinajas Altas region for at least 8600 years. Does this milkweed grow from a large underground water-storage tissue. large yellow-banded tiphiid wasps. both Baja California states. Giant sand-milkweed. †Butler Mts. nearly sessile. jumate. Flowers cream-white. Plants robust. TA: Tinajas Altas. with big orange and black tarantula hawks (spider wasps) clinging to the bobbing flower clusters. 13 & 14 Jun 1992. Shreve 5941. the hoods 4–5 mm long. with age turning pale yellowish. often sucking from unripe fruits. corolla lobes 6–7 mm long. localized populations in washes and sand flats in the southwestern part of Cabeza Prieta and westward in southwestern Arizona and adjacent extreme northwestern Sonora. †Tinajas Altas. It is amazing to find this rather large plant with its large leaves in full flower in intense heat of early summer when almost all other herbaceous plants are dormant or have perished. Leaves few. Engard 912 (ASU). The young stems and inflorescence branches of A. the oleander aphid. 1230 to 5080 ybp (3 samples). Widely scattered. greenish white. Fruits 7. Sepals green and pubescent.5 mm long. Watson White-stem milkweed. twigs. sparsely vegetated rocky hillsides and mountain slopes in Cabeza Prieta and Tinajas Altas. Arid and exposed. Fruits 5–8 cm long. The wasps can be seen avidly drinking floral nectar in the hot sun. Asclepias albicans has fewer and taller stems than A. Also Baja California.

(A) Mohave Valley.. 58 . W of Las Vegas.Felger.org). photo by Stan Shebs (commons. NV. (B) Calico Basin. photo by Ries Lindley. Mohave Co. May 2005. 19 May 2011. Rutman.wikimedia. Asclepias erosa. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae Figure 42. AZ. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona.

25 Sep 2013. Camino del Diablo at 0. needle-like. Higher elevations in the Ajo/Diablo mountain complex. 29 Nov 2001. Asclepias linaria. white and pale pinkish. Rutman. Felger 92-622. Felger (observation). Small shrubs. 12 Sep 2013. Simmons 21 May 1965. Umbels borne near the stem tips. along trail to Bull Pasture. TA: Lechuguilla Desert. 10 Apr 2005. Fruits 3–6 cm long.Felger. Figure 43. (D) trail to Bull Pasture. (A & B) Estes Canyon. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 59 CP: Tule Well. about 1 mm wide. Flowers small. (C) Arch Canyon. Figure 43. 16 Jun 1992. sessile. Growing and flowering with warm weather. scattered and generally on rocky . Asclepias linaria Cavanilles Narrow-leaf milkweed. corolla lobes 4–5 mm long. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Leaves crowded towards the stem tips.3 mi W of Cabeza Prieta boundary.

Asclepias nyctaginifolia A. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. often with reddish veins. broadly lanceolate to ovate. and new shoots emerging in early spring or summer. Herbaceous perennials from a thick and deeply buried rootstock. the corolla lobes 12–15 mm long. Flowers greenish. Figure 44. 3000–3800 ft. 14 Aug 2013. Wash bed near N boundary of Organ Pipe & Hwy 85. the blades relatively thick. Leaves petioled. This population is the westernmost for this widespread species and a notably isolated population stranded on an ecological island. Alamo Canyon. Gray Mojave milkweed. Stems spreading or upright. Rutman. dying back in drought or following freezing weather. Asclepias nyctaginifolia. the fresh coronas white (becoming yellowish to orange with age). and with a wavy (undulate) surface. Herbage pubescent. dark green. OP: Pitahaya Canyon. 3–12 cm long. Southern Arizona at elevations above the desert and mountains through much of Mexico except the Baja California Peninsula. Widely scattered and sometimes locally common across most of Organ Pipe. Flowering in April and with summer rains. . Nichol 23 Feb 1939.Felger. Fruits 5–9 cm long. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 60 slopes and drainages. mostly along washes in valley plains and on hillsides. Darrow 3856. Figure 44. 31 Mar 1948.

Plant grown in Ajo from seed collected along MEX Hwy 8. the hood 7–10 mm long. Puerto Blanco Drive. few. S of Sierra Blanca: (B) 14 May 2006. mostly 0. Fruits 8. 17 Feb 2008. Cherioni Wash.5–15 cm long. Armenta Well. Mostly on sandy soils. Figure 45. especially in roadside habitats. Leaves narrowly linear. Rutman. 1 mi W of Hwy 85. and quickly deciduous. Beale 26 Mar 1988 (ORPI). from upper nodes.5 mm wide. Flowers waxy. 0. 1. rush milkweed. widely scattered and generally uncommon in the flora area. (C) 14 Aug 2013.Felger. and occasional in the Lechuguilla Valley of Tinajas Altas region.5–4+ cm long. slender. cream (fading yellowish). 1723 ft. Common in nearby northwestern Sonora. Umbels 1–several per stem. Rutman 30 Aug 2001 (ORPI). and slightly more numerous in the southern part of Cabeza Prieta. OP: Just N of Mile Post 6. Wirt 10 Aug 1990. Asclepias subulata. Rare in the southwestern part of Organ Pipe. ca. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. often one of the few (or the only) plants flowering in late May and June. Stems many. Rutman 6 Jun 1998 (ORPI). (A) Dunes S of Sierra Blanca. Cipriano Hills near Pozo Nuevo Road. Flowering profusely at various seasons.8–1 m tall. often solitary or with a few nearby plants. Pinacate Reserve. Figure 45. the corolla lobes 9–11 mm long. Sonora. Asclepias subulata Decaisne Desert reed-stem milkweed. candelilla. semi-succulent and erect. Flowers frequented by the large orange-winged tarantula hawk wasp (Hemipepsis sp.) and at least one other spider wasp (Pepsis thisbe). Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 61 Southeastern California and southern Nevada to New Mexico and northern Sonora. jumete. .

Harlan 447. Parker 7982.8 mi E of W Boundary of Refuge. Rutman 28 May 1996 (ORPI). 13 Sep 1978. Crushed herbage and even lightly brushed plants are strongly malodorous.5 mi E of Aguajita Wash. 12 & 13 Jun 1992. güirote. drying brown) 0. Widespread across lowland areas. albicans but with shorter. Alamo Canyon. Tinkham 18 Apr 1942. basal stems. Observations: Camino del Diablo 0.. Papago Well.. Felger 88-453. in wash. Felger (observations). “Set it on the fire and it would become tacky and we would chew it . Central Mexico to southwestern United States. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona.. foothills. Felger & McCasland. cynanchoides (Decaisne) Schlechter var. corona and vesicles white. Vines twining into shrubs and trees. Felger. corollas 5. SE of Raven Butte. larger individuals in favorable habitats tend to have moderately woody. CP: Las Playas. TA: Tinajas Altas. more numerous. F. Flowering at various seasons. Felger 04-46. 20 Mar 1992. Flowers maroon and white. and other individuals may be herbaceous perennials and not woody or corky. sometimes climbing up saguaros or sprawling across the ground. Stems dying back during drought. leaving long leafless stems trailing and twining along wash bottoms and on vegetation.Felger.2–0. 2000 ft. Surprisingly. Leaves drought deciduous. The fresh flowers are marginally edible with an onion-like flavor (Felger & Moser 1985). elongated (fusiform) and smooth. TA: Camino del Diablo. and southeastern California to southwestern Sonora and Baja California Sur.5–7. especially major arroyos. Holm] Climbing milkweed. and larger and differently shaped flowers. Funastrum hartwegii (Vail) Schlechter [F. 2011). 28 Nov 2001. Growler Mts. The two species are closely related (Fishbein et al. and greener stems. The sap was widely used by the Hia-Ced O’odham as chewing gum (Philip Salcido & Delores Lewis in Felger et al. 24 Nov 1994. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 62 Grossly similar to A. 1992).5 mm wide. 9. maroon and white. and lower mountain slopes.3 mi E Pinta Sands on Camino del Diablo. 25 Oct 2004.5 cm long.. Rutman. roadside. CP: Monreal Well (Simmons 1966). hartwegii (Vail) Krings. 0. the margins ciliate. 14 Sep 1988. has a milky sap . Felger 04-03. . Van Devender 9–10 Mar 1980. S of Jose Juan Tank. Buck Mt. Fruits 6. Western Arizona. or corky. Figure 46. mostly along washes. Harlan 45 (CAB). with one or more yellow-brown conical glands (colleters. and also in rocky places. Coyote Water. Butler Mts.W. it even ranges in the hyperarid Butler Mountains west of the Tinajas Altas Mountains. gather it and heat it up and add water and it becomes white and we chew it” (Betty Melvin in Zepeda 1985: 48. 25 Oct 2004. Eagle Tank. linear to narrowly triangular. hartwegii (Vail) R. Van Devender 27 Mar 1983. OP: 1 mi N of Quitobaquito. Balaban 26 Jun 1996 (CAB).5–8. Bowers 1538 (ORPI). Quitobaquito. Herbage glabrate or sparsely pubescent. 29 Nov 2001. southern Nevada. Duncan 28 Mar 1970 (CAB). heterophyllum (Engelmann) Standley. often hastate or sagittate at the base. 16 Apr 1953. Nichol 26 Apr 1939. OP: Bates Well. Leaves 3–15 cm long. 76). North Puerto Blanco Road. Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decaisne subsp. Little Tule Well.4 mm long on upper leaf blade surface at the midrib base.

Benson) L.D. Rutman. Richard) Woodson. Spindly to bushy perennials with very slender straight stems. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Funastrum hartwegii. Echites cimicidus Pavón ex de Candolle. (D) Ajo. de Candolle var. Benson [H. cinereum (A. Richard] Cockroach plant. Haplophyton cimicidum A. crooksii (L. Figure 47. cinereus A. (B) Kuakatch Wash E of Hwy 85. . (C) Alamo Canyon. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 63 Figure 46. hierba de la cucaracha. crooksii L.D. (A) Little Ajo Mts. 21 Mar 2008. H. Leaves drought deciduous. 7 May 2006.D. E. 10 Sep 2013. 7 Apr 2005.Felger. Benson.

petioles short. The plant has been used an insecticide in Mexico. thin. Southern Arizona to west Texas and southward to Guatemala (reports from the Caribbean are based on the dubious location of the type of H. Charleston Hills. 6–10 cm long and very slender–2–2. canyons. (A) Upper San Pedro River floodplain. Capsules paired.Felger. often ca.. flowering at various seasons following rainfall. 7 Feb 2013. Haplophyton cimicidum. seeds black with a tuft of hairs at each end. hence the common name. (B–D) Alamo Canyon above the well. Ajo and Puerto Blanco Mountains. In 1942 Benson described the northern populations as var. 1 cm long. Cochise Co.5 mm wide. 8 Sep 2002. the blades lanceolate. Figure 47. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 64 opposite and/or alternate especially above. Flowers bright yellow and showy. Makings 1341 (ASU). generally on north-facing slopes in protected places. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. mostly summer-fall. . 2–3 cm long. the floral tube ca. and at higher elevations. Rutman. cinereus).

N-facing drainage at middle elevation. densely pubescent... thin and more or less heart shaped... Matelea cordifolia 1. the blades to 10+ cm long.... to Richard.... OP: Canyon Diablo........ Isla Tiburón... Arch Canyon (NE of the arch). Jan 2013). 112... Supernaugh 440 (ORPI). the corona mostly hidden within the corolla tube. The Sonoran Desert populations have smaller leaves than those beyond the desert in southern Sonora.. Baker 8131 (ASU). Leaves 2–10 cm long.. and foliage produced at various times of the year following rainy periods except during the coldest weather. citing differences in seed size.. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 65 crooksii in southern Arizona and northern Sonora. It has not been recorded in the Diablo Mountains since the 1951 collection. Flowers.... probably in mountains near Tucson. and seed surfaces with some difference in ornamentation.. Wirt 30 Sep 1989 (ORPI). smooth... somewhat thick and arrow-shaped. and Baja California Sur.. Rutman.82064ºE in SEINet]. with long straight hairs and shorter glandular hairs. where Supernaugh found it. differentiated mostly by smaller leaves and seeds.. . [31..... but has not been seen since..... color. Matelea parvifolia Matelea cordifolia Woodson [Rothrockia cordifolia A. Rutman 9 Apr 1996 (ORPI)..” It does. Leaves opposite.. 1.. granite with Stenocereus thurberi. Gray] Heart-leaf milkweed vine...... fruits smooth.. 20 Aug 1950. 12 Sep 1978.... (Mark Fishbein....... Sierra Cubabi (SE of Sonoyta). however. Side canyon of Grass Canyon. Sonora: Mpio General Plutarco Elías Calles.... Known from the United States only in canyons in the Ajo and Diablo Mountains and from the type collection in Arizona in 1884.. Encelia farinosa.... Bowers 1516. woody vine growing up through Vauquelinia californica... the leaf blade bases cordate or sagittate.. fruits. I suspect that the deep drought of 2002 killed it. Woody-based vines with corky bark growing through desert shrubs and trees.. Fouquieria splendens... the herbage foul-smelling when crushed.... flowers brownish or greenish... and an apparent disjunction in the distribution in Mexico (but with all Sonoran populations attributed to the northern taxon).... Simmondsia chinensis. and ornamentation.. pers......... Justicia californica.. It remained non-reproductive through 2002. thin and broadly heart-shaped (cordate). 700 m SE of highest point in area.. green... Ferocactus covillei.. Williams (1995) presents a case for recognizing the two taxa at the species level. ...... foothills of Pinkley Peak. Eriogonum wrightii... with few. Leaves drought deciduous... Supernaugh 432.... One year later he recognized the variety as a distinct species. Mexico in Sonora.....Felger... 15 Apr 1951..... Matelea Vines..... “I’ve looked for but never found any Matelea cordifolia in Diablo Canyon.. lobed nearly to the base.. Corollas about 15 mm long.. Alamo Canyon. Leaves less than 2 cm long.. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Puerto Blanco Mts.. ... com.. flowers cream.... Matelea is polyphyletic and very heterogeneous. OP: Estes Wash in side canyon...... fruits less than 6 cm long.. which overlap considerably with southern Mexican populations in the diagnostic traits cited by Williams (1995).. mottled green and whitish. Rutman 20031031-33. short tubercles. Fruits about 10 cm long... more than 8 cm long... Figure 48......... 1130 m.72143ºN...... 31 Oct 2003... 19 March 1991.... I found a single non-reproductive plant in Alamo Canyon in 1996. occur in Sonora near the southeastern part of Organ Pipe. Sue Rutman (2014) reports. Corona a deeply 5-lobed ring. elongated. long petioled. corolla aestivation. cream-colored and faintly lined.

& Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Sierra Cubabi. Sonora. from SEINet). 66 . Baker 8131 (ASU. Rutman. 19 Mar1991. Matelea cordifolia.Felger. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae Figure 48.

ovate to arrow-shaped (triangular-lanceolate). Figure 49. Leaves less than 2 cm long. slender with few short. Widespread and easily overlooked. 5 mm long. Figure 49. blunt tubercles. Fruits mostly less than 6 cm long. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. Matelea parvifolia. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 67 Matelea parvifolia (Torrey) Woodson Spearleaf milkweed vine. . on rocky slopes through much of Organ Pipe including the Ajo Mountains and localized in washes at the northeastern corner of Cabeza Prieta. 2 Mar 2008. the hairs curving downward. Flowers greenish to dark brown-purple. somewhat thick. 12 Sep 2013. Small perennial vines.Felger. dull green. pubescent but not glandular. (A) Victoria Mine area. Trans-Pecos Texas. Southeastern California to Arizona. and adjacent northern Mexico. Rutman. (B) bajada S of Ajo Mts.

and gynostegium are all cream white. Acanthaceae–Apocynaceae 68 OP: Near mouth of Alamo Canyon. dark green in winter.2–3 cm long. Flowers 4 mm long. Foothills. white. 1. 14 Sep 2013. the hairs short. Bowers 1272 (ORPI). Gray) Shinners. and the downward pointing hairs would prevent its access elsewhere. the blades narrowly oblong. Figure 50. Metastelma arizonicum. 7 Mar 2002. Felger 94-29. & Malusa: Flora of SW Arizona. or the stems sometimes vining on themselves and the plants forming small bushes. 2 May 1978. (B) trail to Bull Pasture. Bull Pasture. Arroyos. Grass Canyon. Small vines with many slender stems often twining together. canyons. especially in the Ajo and Puerto Blanco Mountains. Plants glabrous except stems having with a longitudinal line of hairs between the nodes. 9 Dec 1978. widespread in Arizona Upland regions of Organ Pipe. Fruits 4. the margins becoming inrolled (revolute) especially in dry seasons.Felger. Leaves 1. Figure 50.5–6 cm long. (A) Middle fork of Alamo Canyon. CP: Charlie Bell Rd. often growing on small shrubs. Rutman (observation). corona. and often recurved. Metastelma arizonicum A. and rocky slopes. and also with a similar line of hairs along the upper leaf midrib. Metastelma watsonianum Standley]. elongated and smooth. 5 Mar 1994. Rutman. (C) Arch Canyon. short-petioled. Inner surface of the corolla lobes densely hairy with white villous hairs. Mulroy 2 May 1970. NW part of Puerto Blanco Mts. Gray [Cynanchum arizonicum (A. 21 Sep 2008. These hairs point downward towards the center of the flower—a small insect attracted to the flower would be directed towards the center of the flower. . the petals (at least adaxially). 24 Mar 2008.9 km NE of Little Tule Well. Bowers 1515. in small axillary clusters.

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