Chapter 2.

Literature review

2.1

. Introduction

A critical review on the available literature on the distributor plates, bed
h ydrod yna mi cs and heat transfer characteristics in circulating fluidized beds,
which are relevant to the scope of the present stud y are presented in this
chapter.

2.2. Effect of distributor plate configurations on bed hydrodynamics
and heat transfer
The

success

or

failure

of

a

fluidized

bed

is deter mined b y the

perfor mance of the gas distributor. The critical pressure drop ratio, hole
size,

geometr y and

particle

spacing;

sifting, attrition and

these

strongl y

mi xing. Most

influence
studies

jet penetration,

reported

in

the

literature on the influence of the gas distributor have been carried out
in laborator y scale units and at low fluidization velocities.

2.2.1.

Investigations

on

the

distributor

pressure

drop

and

percentage open area
Saxena et al. (1979) investigated the effect of distributor configuration in a
30.5

cm

by

30.5

cm

square

fluidized

bed

as a function

of

air

fluidizing velocit y and bed height. The y used a porous plate distributor,
two bubble cap distributors of different geometries and four Johnson
screen distributors of different percent open area in their investigation. The y
reported that the distributor pressure drop was found to increase with
fluidizing velocit y, decrease with percentage open area of the distributor
plate independent of the bed weight or height for a given distributor
design.
Kunii and Levenspiel (1991) from their experi mental investigations stated
that for even distribution of the gas across the base of the bed the mini mu m
distributor pressure drop ( � P d i s t ) must be 0.2-0.4 ti mes the pressure drop
over the bed (� P b ). The y also stated that as the fluidization velocit y is
increased the pressure drop ratio ( � P d i s t /� P b ) decreases.
The investigations on the influence of the gas distributor on the bubble
properties show that the bubble size is influenced b y the pressure drop
over the distributor, whereas the number of holes and the size of the

10

Chapter 2. (1987) investigated the heat transfer coefficients as a function of gas velocit y using multi. (1981) used two perforated plates and changed the open area from 1 to 4% b y changing the dia meter of the holes and found that the bubble size increases when the open area is increased (decreased � P d i s t ).Also. The y also found that for lower U/U m f the heat transfer coefficient was found to be more for the distributor with larger opening area and as U/U m f is increased the heat transfer coefficient was found to be more in case of the distributor with s mall opening area. 2.2.orifice distributors of various free areas.2. Literature review holes are of less i mportance.1 m inner dia meter and 1. in a cold model of 0. The results show that the flow changes with variation of the operating conditions. The y reported that the opti mu m gas velocit y U o p t corresponding to the ma xi mum heat transfer coefficient and the gas velocit y U. 2. using three t ypes of distributor plates. Investigations on the distributor effect on bed hydrodynamics Paiva et al.3. (2004) studied the d yna mics of the bottom zone of a narrow fluidized bed.1 the bubble size increases with decreasing � P d i s t and when � P d i s t /� P b > 0. Fan et al. Hatate et al . The y found that the wall heat transfer coefficient is influenced b y the free area of the distributor for gas velocities lower than U o p t . and found the sa me bubble size in all cases. Geldart and Kelse y (1968) varied � P d i s t and found that if � P d i s t /� P b < 0. (1979) investigated the effect of distributor plate in the heat transfer b y using two distributors of different percentage of opening area. (1991) investigated five distributors with the sa me open area (0. Investigations on the distributor effect on heat transfer Grewal et al. at which all orifices in the distributor just become operational are found to be the sa me.1 the bubble size was not affected b y � P d i s t . The y reported that the solid concentration in the heat transfer section was alwa ys greater for the distributor with larger opening area. The y investigated the bottom zone of the bed b y conducting pressure drop me asure me nts. Sathi ya moorth y et al.2. The 11 . the number of bubbles was not affected b y � P d i s t .8%) but with different numbers and sizes of holes.3 m high.

distributor plate shape and angle. Celia et al. and begins at a lower superficial gas velocit y. Ghal y and Macdonald (2012) investigated the effects of sand particle size. (2007) studied the influence of perforated plate. The y also reported that dilute core and a denser annulus structure was observed in the bottom region of the bed for the two distributors. which has great tendenc y for segregation due to densit y differences. an angled distributor plate (concave or convex) should be used. punched plate and Dutch weave mesh distributor designs on fluidized bed dr yer h ydrod yna mi cs for a range of bed loadings and superficial gas velocities. The y found that greater values of the residence ti me were obtained with course sand whereas lower values were obtained with fine sand. (2010) investigated the influence of gas distributor design on the gas-solids flow structure in a rectangular CFB riser.29 m with Group A particles using bubble-cap and perforated plate distributors. Wor ms becker et al.3. The y reported that the punched plate distributor design provides shorter dr ying ti mes than the Dutch weave and perforated plate designs. From the pressure measure ment results the y reported that the solids densit y near the bottom region is higher for the bubble-cap distributors. (2008) investigated the distributor plate effects on the h ydrod yna mi c characteristics of turbulent fluidized beds. The y also reported that to i mprove the mi xing properties of the binar y mixture. Literature review me asure me nts at several different equal heights show changes in the h ydrod yna mi c behavior of the gas–solid suspension. The y reported that the rate of solids transferred from the dense bed to the free board is higher for the perforated plate. The y reported that the distribution of the gas dictates the flow structure in the riser column as a result it depends on the configuration of the distributor plate. Also an increase in the angle of convex or a decrease in the angle of a concave of the distributor plate resulted in an increase in the residence ti me. Jing Xu et al. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics in CFB 12 . The y obtained the me asure me nts of pressure and radial voidage profiles in a column dia meter of 0.Chapter 2. 2. bed height and fluidizing velocit y on particle mixing and residence ti me in the fluidized bed reactor.

1 Cor e annul us st ruct ur e of C FB ( Basu. (1986) on the basis of cluster diffusion 13 . fraction of the wall covered b y particles and gas and average contact ti me of particles at the wall. Kwauk et al. Weinstien et al. suspension densit y. 2006) Bed voidage is one of the i mportant h ydrod yna mi c para meter and it is defined as the volume fraction of the bed occupied b y the bed bubbles [Glicks man (1988)]. (1983) stated that there exists a core-annulus dense phase in the riser of a CFB. The bed h ydrod yna mi c studies provides infor mation on basic flow patterns. and heat and ma ss transfer characteristics. particle attrition behavior. the riser of a CFB consists of a relativel y dilute core in which solid particles move upward b y a high velocit y gas strea m and a muc h denser annulus la yer near the column wall in which solid particles gather and fall as dense structures si milar to waves of strands or strea mers or clusters.Chapter 2. mixing.1. solid circulation rate. Literature review The bed h ydrod yna mics and heat transfer characteristics of CFB have been reviewed b y man y researchers.3. Bed hydrodynamics characteristics Glicks man (1988) stated that the i mportant h ydrod yna mic factors in a CFB are bed voidage. In si mple ter ms. Fi g 2. 2.

Si milar observations relating to the effects of bed voidage were found experi mentall y b y Shen et al. With the increase in the superficial velocit y.2 Axial profile of cross section averaged voidage of FCC particles with different bed inventories. Literature review concluded that axial distribution of the voidage is S-shaped as shown in Fig 2. Fig 2. (1991) in a PCFB. perfor me d an experi mental investigation on a PCFB riser column and stated that the axial bed voidage along the height of the bed is less in the bottom zone and high in the top zone. The cross-sectional average suspension bulk densit y at a particular section of the bed ma y be defined as the suspension densit y. It is reported that suspension 14 .Chapter 2. (2002)]. Cao et al. ρ s =densit y of sand. The y also observed that the bed voidage increases in the bottom zone and decreases in the top zone with increase in operating pressure. Kalita et al.2.1) ρ s u s =suspension densit y. ρ g =densit y of gas Solid inventor y have substantial practical influence on the suspension densit y profile in a CFB furnace (Basu. the bed voidage decreases. The y reported that at the sa me gas velocit y the average bed voidage increases graduall y with the pressure. the bed voidage increases in the bottom and decreases in the top portion of the bed because more solids are lifted up due to more drag force [Gupta and Nag. 2006). In bubbling or turbulent mode of fluidization. 2006) Nag and Gupta (1998). (Basu. ε= voidage. and this is generall y in the case of fast fluidization mode. (2012) also perfor med an investigation on PCFB and found that with the increase in operating pressure and solid inventor y. ρsus=(1−ε ) ρ +ε ρ s g (2. Mathe maticall y it is expressed as. (2008) investigated the influence of pressure on the bubble size and average bed voidage experi mentall y and computationall y in a circular three-di me nsional coldflow model of pressurized jetting fluidized bed. the lower portions of the bed ma y be called as the dense phase and the upper region where the solid fraction decreases is called as the dense phase.

1986. h r heat transfer coefficients (Subbarao and Basu. 2005) for t wo loads (85 and 135 MWe). h c o n v and radiative. 2. Dutta and Basu. the ti meaveraged overall heat transfer coefficient. Most of the bed particles move upwards through the core of the bed and finall y flow downwards along the wall in the for m of clusters of particles or strands. 2004): 15 . It has been reported that the suspension densit y varies exponentiall y along the height of a CFB boiler (Kunii and Levenspiel.2. h ma y be written as the sum of convective. 2005).Chapter 2. clusters or strands are for med due to the agglomeration of the solid particles (Geldart Group A and B) in a continuum of generall y up-flowing gas containing sparsel y dispersed solids. The agglomerates are known as the cluster phase while the continuum is called the dispersed phase. and radiation from both phases. The occurrence of heat transfer to the furnace walls is through conduction from particle clusters. If f is the average fraction of the wall area covered b y clusters. Fi g 2.3. Heat Transfer characteristics In CFB.. 1991) and that it increases with the decrease in the particle size (Basu. convection from the dispersed phase. Literature review densit y can be influenced b y changing the bed inventor y (Yue et al .3 S uspensi on densi t y profi l e drawn usi n g dat a from a 135 MWe C F B boi l er (Zh ang et al . 2006).

Wina ya and Basu (2000). The heat-transfer coefficients h c r and h d r respectivel y. (2012. Si milar results were obtained b y Gupta and Nag (2002). Experi ments perfor med b y ma n y investigators in laborator y units show an increase in heat transfer coefficients with an increase in the suspension densit y because the ther mal capacit y of solids was much higher than that of the gas.4.f)(h d +h d r ) (2. Glicks man (1988) stated that the heat transfer coefficient was found to var y as the square root of the cross sectional average suspension densit y.2) where. solid inventor y and particle size distributions [18]. It is reported that the heat transfer coefficients at different superficial velocities are ver y close to each other. respectivel y. However. 2013). 2. Basu and Cheng (1995) reported that the effect of superficial velocit y on heat transfer coefficient is negligible. studied the heat transfer in a PCFB and observed that the bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in the s yste m pressure. h c and h d are the convective heat-transfer coefficients due to the cluster and dispersed phase. Basu (2006) stated that the suspension densit y at an y particular cross section of a CFB unit pla ys a ma jor role in heat transfer. It is been reported b y ma n y researchers from their investigations that the heat transfer coefficient in the CFB riser increases from the bottom to the top. Redd y and Basu (2000) stated that increase in suspension densit y results in higher cluster solid fraction and particle concentration near the wall. The y also stated that it is also influenced b y a number of factors. Summary of the literature review 16 .Chapter 2. The effect of s yste m pressure on the heat transfer coefficient can be explained b y its effect on the gas densit y and cluster ther mal conductivit y. which results in higher heat transfer coefficient. Gupta and Nag (2002) found that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing superficial velocit y. solid circulation rate. Basu and Redd y (2000) and Kalita et al . Basu and Cheng (1995). including air flow. Si milar results were obtained b y Gupta and Nag (2002). Literature review h=h c o n v +h r = f (h c +h c r )+(1 .

Increase in suspension densit y results in higher cluster solid fraction and particle concentration near the wall. 17 . which results in higher heat transfer coefficient. the bubbling velocit y and the ter minal velocit y were decreasing with increase of operating pressure. 4.Chapter 2. The distributor pressure drop increases with fluidizing velocit y. bed h ydrod yna mi cs and heat transfer characteristics is presented below: 1. decreases with percentage open area of the distributor plate independent of the bed weight or height for a given distributor design. 2. The heat transfer coefficient is found to be increasing with the increase in operating pressure as well as increase in gas superficial velocit y. The solid concentration in the heat transfer section was alwa ys greater for the distributor with larger opening area for lower U/U m f and as U/U m f is increased the heat transfer coefficient was found to be more in case of the distributor with s mall opening area. The distribution of the gas dictates the flow structure in the riser column. Literature review Some of the i mportant observations related to distributor plate effects. 7. 5. The mini mum fluidization velocit y. 3. An increase in the angle of convex or a decrease in the angle of a concave of the distributor plate resulted in an increase in the residence ti me of the clusters and also i mproved the mi xing properties of the bed material. 8. whereas the number of holes and the size of the holes are of less i mportance. 6. 9. The bubble size is influenced by the pressure drop over the distributor. The punched plate distributor design used in a fluidized bed dr yer provides shorter dr yi ng ti mes than the Dutch weave and perforated plate designs.

Chapter 2. The bed-to-wall convective heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing system pressures and bed suspension density. Literature review 10. 18 .