Mexican Texas is the name given by Texas history scholars to Texas during the period

between 1821 and 1836, when Texas was an integral part of Mexico. The period began with
Mexico's victory over Spain in its war of independence in 1821. For the first several years of
its existence, Mexican Texas operated very similarly to Spanish Texas. The 1824 Constitution
of Mexico joined Texas with Coahuila to form the state of Coahuila y Tejas. The same year,
Mexico enacted the General Colonization Law, which enabled all heads of household,
regardless of race or immigrant status, to claim land in Mexico. The first empresarial grant
had been made under Spanish control to Stephen F. Austin, whose settlers, known as the Old
Three Hundred, settled along the Brazos River in 1822. The grant was later ratified by the
Mexican government. Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the
majority from the United States of America, while others were from Mexico and Europe.
In 1830 President Bustamante outlawed the immigration of United States citizens to Texas.
Several new presidios were established in the region to monitor immigration and customs
practices. Angry colonists held a convention in 1832 to demand that US citizens be allowed to
immigrate. A convention the following year proposed that Texas become a separate Mexican
state. Although Mexico implemented several measures to appease the colonists, Antonio
Lopez de Santa Anna's measures to transform Mexico from a federalist to a centralist state
motivated the Texan colonists to revolt.
The first violent incident occurred on June 26, 1832, at the battle of Velasco. On March 2,
1836, Texans signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. The Texas Revolution ended on
April 21, 1836, when Santa Anna was taken prisoner following the Battle of San Jacinto.
Although Texas then governed itself as the Republic of Texas, Mexico refused to recognize its
independence.

Contents
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1 Mexican independence
2 Immigration
3 Rising tensions
4 International issues
5 Precursor to revolt
6 Texas Revolution
7 Footnotes
8 References
9 Further reading
10 External links

Mexican independence[edit]
Main article: Mexican War of Independence

including the province of Texas In 1821. religion of the country.[9] The new constitution dismantled the mission system.[5] Because it was sparsely populated.[4] Texas was represented by Erasmo Seguin. The victorious rebels issued a provisional constitution.[10] . In July. the Mexican War for Independence severed the control that Spain had exercised on its North American territories.[2] The new Mexican constitution was adopted on October 4. Espiritu Santo and Rosario were not currently secularized.[5] Along with the states of Tamaulipas and Nuevo León. Seguin chose not to request territorial status. Coahuila y Tejas. abdicated in March 1823. Texas. the new national provisional government named Luciano Garcia as the political chief of Texas. and one from Nacogdoches. while newer missions would be given until 1842 to become secularized. By 1830.[3] On November 27. requiring missions more than ten years old to be converted into parishes. the poorest in the Mexican federation. these missions had been converted into parishes. 1823. the Plan de Iguala. and only. [7] The Congress did allow Texas the option of forming its own state "'as soon as it feels capable of doing so. whereas territorial public land was controlled by the national government.'"[6] The new state.[4] Texas had originally asked to become a territory if its statehood claim was denied.[4] The capital of Texas moved from San Antonio to Monclova and then to Saltillo. the Texas provincial governing committee was forced to disband. and only Missions Refugio. After realizing that states controlled their own public lands.[2] The first monarch. which became part of Tamaulipas. Many Tejanos were reluctant to give up their self-rule.[7] With the formation of a new state government. This plan reaffirmed many of the ideals of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and granted equal citizenship rights to all races. 1824.[8] covered the boundaries of Spanish Texas but did not include the area around El Paso. The committee contained seven representatives from San Antonio. one from La Bahia. which belonged to the state of Chihuahua and the area of Laredo. and most of the mission Natives moved to other settlements in Texas.[10] Most of the Spanish missions in Texas had been secularized before the 1820s.[4] The constitution was based on the constitution of the United States of America. there was much disagreement over whether Mexico should be a federal republic or a constitutional monarchy.[6] Texas was combined with Coahuila to create a new state.[2] but the Mexican constitution made Roman Catholicism the official. the mission lands were distributed amongst the Natives.[1] In the early days of the country. and the new country of Mexico was formed from much of the lands that had comprised New Spain.[11] As the missions were secularized. including Spanish Texas. The following month the citizens of San Antonio de Bexar established a governing committee for the province of Texas. the people of Mexico elected congressional representatives and set out to create a new constitution. who would later be taxed on the profits.Mexico and its interior provinces in 1822. Agustin I. making the country a federal republic with nineteen states and four territories. Coahuila y Tejas was under a unified military organization.

In the hopes that an influx of settlers could control the Native raids. The Centralist Republic with the separatist movements generated by the dissolution of the Federal Republic.The new Mexican government was bankrupt and had little money to devote to the military. and settlers from the United States were permitted in the colonies for the first time. Territory proclaimed its independency Territory claimed by the Republic of Texas Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande Rebellions . and with little military support the few settlers in the region needed help. Texas faced raids from both the Apache and Comanche tribes. Settlers were empowered to create their own militias to help control hostile Native American tribes. the government liberalized its immigration policies for the region for the first time.[12] Immigration[edit] The recent autonomous Mexican Texas in the First Mexican Empire territory.

931 km) away. and by promising to carry out an Indian pacification campaign. and his contract was re-approved in mid-April.[14] Mexico adopted a similar law in 1824.[21] Approximately 3420 land grant applications were submitted by immigrants and naturalized citizens. Agustin I approved his colonization contract. On his return to Texas in July 1823. Spain reversed its policies and passed a colonization law. Agustin abdicated as emperor.[22] Shortly after they arrived. and if brought to the area.[16] On February 18. ranging from the near present-day Houston to Dallas.[17] As soon as the national colonization law was passed. to help remove sediment obstructing navigation of the Colorado River. Empresarios and individuals with large families were exempt from the limit.[13] Just before Mexico achieved independence.[19] At this time. mostly congregated at San Antonio and La Bahia. ten months after Austin arrived in Mexico City. followed by citizens and immigrants. per the 1812 Constitution. approval for settlement contracts for Texas was the responsibility of the state government in Saltillo. Austin by the Spanish. Spain had stopped allocating new parcels of land in San Antonio and La Bahia. many of them Anglo-Americans. 1.200 miles (1.[23] During his time in the capitol.[24] . and the newly created republican congress nullified all acts of his government. Although the law did not state a religious requirement for settlers in Texas. Occupancy rights were granted to people in the northeast part of Texas. Immigrants were subject to the same policies as Mexican citizens. They were soon besieged by foreign speculators wanting to bring colonists into the state. The group settled along the Brazos River. and people who had been granted occupancy rights would be able to claim the land patent for the dwellings. Notably.In the late 18th century. the Mexican law required immigrants to practice Catholicism and stressed that foreigners needed to learn Spanish. people who did not already possess property in Texas could claim one square league (4438 acres) of irrigable land. arrived in 1822 to settle an empresarial grant that had been given to Stephen F. The General Colonization Law which enabled all heads of household who were citizens of or immigrants to Mexico to be eligible to claim land. including Austin's colonization contract. The first group of colonists. Austin impressed various important people in the government by offering to draw a map of Texas. but the new residents had no official ownership of the land on which they lived. and all people wishing to live in Texas were expected to report to the nearest Mexican authority for permission to settle. it was understood that Spain's only religion was Catholicism. making it difficult for some families to accommodate their growth. with an additional league available to those who owned cattle.[15] Unlike its predecessor. article 28 of this law prohibited the importation of slaves into Spanish territories.[16] Settlers were supposed to own property or have a craft or useful profession. The law did not differentiate among races or social stature. The rules were widely disregarded and many families became squatters. One month later. they would be freed. Many of Austin's new friends in Mexico praised his integrity before the congress. 1823. Those who had owned land under Spanish control were allowed to retain their property as long as they had not fought on the side of the Spanish during the Mexican War of Independence. about 3500 people lived in Texas. Soldiers were given first choice of land.[18] Coahuila y Tejas implemented the federal law in 1825. Austin learned that the new Mexican government had not ratified his father's land grant with Spain. and Native Americans who migrated to Texas after Mexican independence and were not indigenous to the area would be treated as immigrants.[20] Under the new law. to get permission for his colony. known as the Old Three Hundred. He was forced to travel to Mexico City. Austin established San Felipe de Austin as the new headquarters for his colony.

they almost annihilated the tribe.[31] After the Karankawa repeatedly attacked the settlers. The instructions authorized the creation of sheriff and constable offices and established a rudimentary court system. he issued the first Anglo-American law code in Texas.[28] To maintain order within his colony. His Instructions and Regulations for the Alcades was issued January 22. They were the precursors to the Texas Rangers.[18] In 1827 Austin received a second grant allowing him to settle 100 families along the Old San Antonio Road to Nacogdoches. known as Ranger Company. and soaring land prices within the United States made the Mexican land policy seem very generous. The men were not uniformed and were not subject to military law or regulation. 1824. and public drunkenness. It comprised a penal code and codes of criminal and civil procedure. comprised 10 volunteers who served terms of 3–6 months and were paid in land. All but one colonist escaped to San Felipe.[30] Under the terms of the colonization contracts. the local priest formally converted new arrivals but then allowed them to worship as they pleased.[27] Austin was granted the rank of lieutenant colonel of the militia. the others came primarily from the United States. the empresarios were responsible for providing security within their lands.[32] Comanches were a threat to some of the colonies. excluding the sentencing for capital crimes. Austin was the first empresario to establish a colony in Mexican Texas. and they were also supposed to follow the state religion.[29] such as gambling. Gonzales was burned to the ground in a Comanche attack. There was no shortage of people willing to come to Texas. Green Dewitt began his colony west of Austin's in December 1825.[17] Austin was later granted permission to resettle 800 other families in Texas. who hoped that colonists in that area could help defend against Comanche raids.[26] All colonists were expected to become naturalized Mexican citizens.[22] Of these. It relied on English common law concepts for defining criminal behavior and also established punishments for vices that Austin deemed disruptive. near what is now Bastrop. The location was chosen at the behest of the Tejanos. In 1823 Austin created a company of men who would patrol his colony and protect the colonists from Native attacks and to defuse internal issues. only one of the empresarios.Stephen F. In Austin's colony.[27] In July 1826 his headquarters. Twenty-three other empresarios also brought immigrants to Texas. Martín De León settled citizens from within Mexico. The United States was still struggling with the aftermath of the Panic of 1819.[17][25] Many of the Anglo settlers owned slaves. Austin organized a militia to fight back. and he was given absolute authority over all justice. The initial company. profane swearing. They returned to .

[26] Austin feared that the edict would cause widespread discontent and tried to suppress publication of it. even though no slave would receive wages until age eighteen.[36] On April 6.[34] Two years later the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional slaves into the state and granted freedom at birth to all children born to a slave.[37] To circumvent the law. fears of an economic crisis if all of the slaves were simultaneously freed led to a gradual emancipation policy. 1826.[38] Slaveholders wishing to enter Mexico would force their slaves to sign contracts claiming that the slaves owed money and would work to pay the debt. and the importance of the Texas economy to the development of the state.[39] This tactic was . Texas was temporarily exempted from the rule. Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante ordered Texas to comply with the emancipation proclamation or face military intervention.[10] In 1823. Edwards. Mexico forbade the sale or purchase of slaves and required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached fourteen. wrote to the president to explain the importance of slavery to the Texas economy. The governor of Coahuila y Tejas.[25] Although many Mexicans wanted to abolish slavery. Mexican authorities became concerned with the actions of empresario Haden Edwards in Nacogdoches. Edwards had threatened to confiscate the land of any Mexican already living in the area in which he planned to bring settlers unless the Mexicans could present written deeds to the property. and Austin sent 250 militiamen to Nacogdoches to help the Mexican forces quell the revolt. Anglo speculators would often convince a Mexican national to claim his 11 leagues and then sell the land to the speculator through a power of attorney. He also noted that slave reforms passed by the state were being ignored.[35] In 1829.rebuild their colony the following year. many Anglo colonists converted their slaves into indentured servants for life. including a very small number of free Negroes. Others simply called their slaves indentured servants without legally changing their status. the Mexican government asked General Manuel Mier y Teran to investigate the outcome of the 1825 colonization law in Texas. For protection. In 1829. Colonization laws limited Anglos to only one league of land. however. The low wages the slave would receive made repayment impossible.[33] Rising tensions[edit] In 1825. Edwards was finally forced to flee Mexican territory. 1830.[10] By 1825.[25] After hearing reports of other racial issues. the political chief of the region granted the community a small cannon.[26] Any slave introduced into Mexico by purchase or trade would also be freed. but Mexican nationals were in many cases eligible for up to 11 leagues. Mexican authorities promptly told him that he did not have the authority to confiscate land and he should honor the claims of the previous settlers. and 30 settlers issued a declaration of independence and called themselves the Republic of Fredonia. Mier y Teran issued his report.[32] Land speculators flooded into Texas. Jose Maria Viesca. which concluded that most Anglo Americans refused to be naturalized and tried to isolate themselves from Mexicans. Other empresarios disassociated themselves from Edwards.[26] The new laws also stated that any slave brought into Texas should be freed within six months. Rumors of the new law quickly spread throughout the area and the colonists seemed on the brink of revolt. his brothers.347 Anglo-Americans and 443 people of African descent. on December 16. After multiple confrontations. and the debt would be inherited. a census of Austin's Colony showed 1. slavery was officially outlawed in Mexico.

which had exempted immigrants from paying taxes for ten years. Burnet.000 Anglos lived in Texas.000 head of cattle. Among the affected colonies were the Nashville Company run by Sterling C. including 5. expected to export 2.[45] Colonies that did not have at least 150 inhabitants would be canceled. clip the wings of their audacity by stationing a strong . unless they find it convenient to what they want anyway. He rescinded the property tax law.[40] Finally.[37] The 1830s laws also brought settlement contracts under federal rather than state control. Burnet's empresarial contract was cancelled when he could not bring enough settlers.[43] The department of Texas. citizens from migrating illegally to Texas by the thousands. had exported 600.S. son-in-law of empresario Martín De León. He warned the military commander for Texas that "'No faith can be placed in the Anglo-American colonists because they are continually demonstrating that they absolutely refuse to be subordinate. all of which I believe will be very detrimental to us for them to be our neighbors if we do not in time. A survey of Texas in 1834 found that the department of Bexar. he prohibited further immigration to Texas from the United States.[41] By 1836. had exported no goods. Rafael Antonio Manchola. although Anglos would still be welcome in other parts of Mexico. it was estimated that over 30.[46] compared to only 7.000 slaves in Texas.[37] The ban and other measures did not stop U.[46] The feeling was often returned.800 Mexicans.[42] Exportation in the slave-owning areas of the state surpassed that of the non-slave-owning areas. By 1834. which was mostly made up of Tejanos.outlawed by an 1832 state law which prohibited worker contracts from lasting more than ten years. The Brazos department. He further increased tariffs on goods entering Mexico from the United States. causing their prices to rise. there were approximately 5.[11] Anglos often viewed the Mexicans as foreigners and intruders.000 bales of cotton. Burnet later became the interim president of the Republic of Texas. Bustamante implemented other measures to make immigration less desirable for AngloAmericans. run by David G. The British consul estimated that in the 1830s approximately 500 slaves had been illegally imported into Texas.000 bales of cotton and 5.[44] David G. Lorenzo de Zavala and Joseph Vehlein. which included the eastern settlements. including Austin's colonies and those of Green DeWitt. served as the commander of the presidio at La Bahia from 1828 to 1830 and then as the alcalde of Goliad. Robertson and the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company.000 pesos worth of goods.[40] A small number of slaves were imported illegally from the West Indies or Africa.

forgetting the ones they have sworn to obey.[48] In July 1829. American land speculators believed they could make fortunes in the vast region of Texas. and Santa Anna was hailed as a hero. American president John Quincy Adams offered US$1 million for Texas. these being the laws of our Supreme Government.[49] Precursor to revolt[edit] The State of Coahuila and Texas in 1833. since under their own colonists as judges. Andrew Jackson increased the United States' offer to $5 million. It became the first port in Texas to collect customs. Austin mustered a local militia to help defend Texas if the invasion were to reach the northern regions of the country. near Tampico in an attempt to reclaim the country for Spain. The new garrisons were to be partly staffed by convicts. Two years later. making him essentially a dictator.detachment in each new settlement which will enforce the laws and jurisdiction of a Mexican magistrate which should be placed in each of them. Mexican president Guadalupe Victoria refused. 100 . A second custom port. Barradas surrendered as his troops suffered greatly from tropical diseases.[48] Yucatan governor Antonio López de Santa Anna led a force of Mexican troops to halt the invasion. as General Isidro Barradas landed 2. the Mexican Congress had granted war powers to President Guerrero. showing the major land grants Mier y Teran's 1828 report had recommended new garrisons in Texas which could oversee the Anglo colonists and encourage Mexicans to resettle in the area. they do nothing more than practice their own laws which they have practiced since they were born. Velasco. Mexican authorities had other concerns. During the invasion. This alarmed the Anglo colonists in Texas.700 Spanish troops to the eastern coast of Mexico. and American politicians believed Texas could help maintain a balance of power between free and slave states.[50] The first was established along Galveston Bay in 1831 at the site of present-day Anahuac. In 1827. At the request of the government. who were accustomed to a separation of powers. was established at the mouth of the Brazos River.[51] Mier y Teran further ordered the garrison at Bexar to abandon their fort and create a new presidio.'"[47] International issues[edit] Many Americans thought the United States had been cheated out of Texas.[51] Fort Tenoxtitlán was established in 1830 on the west bank of the Brazos River. while a third garrison established Fort Teran on the Neches River below Nacogdoches to combat smuggling and illegal immigration. President Vicente Guerrero again declined to sell.

a statement of charges. intent on reclaiming runaway slaves held by Bradburn. settlers initiated the Battle of Velasco.[53] Anahuac was placed under the control of Colonel Juan Davis Bradburn. or trial by jury. allowing the Robertson's Colony to be saved. Bradburn enforced the 1830 laws strictly.[57] Bradburn eventually agreed to release Jack. warning that 100 armed men were stationed 40 miles (64 km) away. Patrick C. at the mouth of the Brazos River. Jack. residents held a town meeting to decide what to do.[55] In May 1832. 50 immigrants from Tennessee arrived in the area under empresario Sterling C. On June 26. In Brazoria.[52] The fort closed in 1832. with the goal being separation from Mexico. The garrison commander chose not to expel them. so Bradburn arrested the ringleader. he and other advocates of armed conflict felt that their opposition from other settlers was as deep as that of the Mexican soldiers in the area. who led the garrison at Velasco.[61] Settlers attacked the Anahuac garrison to free Travis in an event that became known as the Anahuac Disturbances. the commander finally ordered all of the soldiers to return to San Antonio.[59] He intended to send Travis to Matamoros for a military trial on charges of attempted insurrection.[54] Additional settlers had gathered in Brazoria to transport several cannon to aid the group in Anahuac.[63] .[55] Mexican law forbade residents from creating militias. Wharton complained that there was little support within Austin's colony to oppose Bradburn with military force. Robertson. although all Indians in the area were peaceful. Bradburn received a letter. He chose not to do so.[62] Several days later. Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea.[56] Citizens were very angry. Conviction on this charge would certainly lead to Travis's execution.[60] The settlers were outraged that the arrest did not require a warrant.[54] In 1832. Most were unfamiliar with Mexican law and assumed that the United States Bill of Rights still applied to them. The settlers had arrived illegally.miles (161 km) above San Felipe. instead sending to Mexico for advice. angering many colonists. and tensions cooled for a brief period. He forbade the state commissioner from granting property titles to squatters and insisted on enforcing the law freeing any slave who set foot in Mexican territory. After having received no replacements or supplies. Three months later he received instructions to expel the settlers immediately. William H. Shortly after the fort was completed. he arrested Travis for questioning. refused to allow the ship carrying the cannon to pass. Ugartechea surrendered the following day. local men organized a militia. supposedly to protect the settlement from Indian attacks. ostensibly from a friend.[58] When Bradburn realized that the letter was a hoax. as Robertson's contract had been invalidated by Guerrero's 1830 laws. Colonel Jose de las Piedras arrived from Nacogdoches to assist Bradburn. and the settlers dispersed. He removed Bradburn from his command.

Furthermore. appointed a commission to draft a constitution for a new state of Texas and selected delegates to represent Texas before the federal government.[64] On December 19. They wished for an annulment of Article 11 of the colonization law of 1830. and English was authorized as a second language.[65] It addressed such issues as improper protection against Indian attacks and poor pay for militia. and Nacogdoches. trial by jury was introduced. It legally proclaimed the grievances that the population of Texas had suffered under the centralist style Mexican government.[67] Austin was arrested on November 21. 1833.[66] Santa Anna was elected the president of Mexico on January 19. on suspicion of treason.[68] The Mexican government attempted to address some of the Texans' concerns. This one. Coahuila y Tejas separated Texas into three departments. Although most of the Mexican Army supported the Bustamante administration. was appointed superior circuit judge of Texas in 1835 and extensions were granted for settlement . In October.[68] Five months later. A resulting second convention was held that year in April. Although Austin pointed out that Texas had been given permission to form a separate state and had now grown to 46. 1832. 1833. Article 11 was repealed on November 21. the Bexar Remonstrance was issued to the Mexican Congress. this led to a small civil war. insufficient local and legislative representation. which prohibited foreign settlement as well as customs reform.500 inhabitants. 55 delegates from Texas communities attended the Convention of 1832 in San Felipe. recognition of squatters as valid immigrants. Brazos. San AntonioBexar. Jefferson Chambers. Austin was chosen to deliver the proposed constitution to Santa Anna's government in Mexico City.[54] Many of the Anglo settlers sided with Santa Anna and followed General José Antonio Mexía. and various violations of the repudiated republican style Constitution of 1824. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led an insurrection against Mexican president Bustamante. lack of schools and funding for education. 1833. The delegates drafted three petitions to the Congress of Mexico.Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna In 1832. the political chief of Bexar warned the government that the Anglos might be proposing separate statehood as part of a plan to join with the United States. attended by recent arrivals such as Sam Houston. who led soldiers in Texas against Bustamante. and a separate state for Texas. with political chiefs for each department and more representation in the state legislature. allowing American immigrants to again flow into Texas. forbidding of immigration from the United States. Mexia removed the commander at Matamoros from his post.[69] An Anglo American.

a civil war ensued. As historian Alwyn Barr noted. conservatives began urging Santa Anna to overturn the federal system and introduce centralism.[71] and in 1835 he revoked the Constitution of 1824 and began consolidating his power.[72] By the end of the year.[73] The federalists. As fighting erupted. Viezca was arrested as he traveled to San Antonio.[74] Texas Revolution[edit] Main article: Texas Revolution . Santa Anna began to exhibit centralist tendencies. they were angry that the two-year grace period on tariffs had ended and the Anahuac customs office had reopened. Juan Seguin.. many of the new settlers had "lived entirely within growing Anglo colonies . When Viezca escaped and reached Texas. Texans in Saltillo recommended establishing a provisional government in Bexar during the unrest to strengthen the autonomy of Texas. Mexican officials increasingly blamed the settlers from the United States for the discontent. called for a town meeting to create a government but was forced to postpone it when Mexican troops advanced in the direction of Texas. however. and in May 1835 Santa Anna brutally crushed a revolt in Zacatecas. as newspapers in the United States continued to make statements about the forthcoming annexation of Texas.contracts that had not met their conditions for the number of settlers. and had made few adjustments to the Spanish traditions of Mexico. 1835. over 2000 noncombatants were killed. were afraid that Santa Anna would march against Coahuila after subduing the rebels in Zacatecas.[72] As protests spread across Texas. including Agustín Viesca. so they disbanded the state legislature on May 21. When the national congress attempted to centralize the nation. Under the pretext of being angry over Viezca's imprisonment the people of Anahuac organized a resistance under Travis.[70] The following year. In various parts of the country federalists revolted. no one recognized him as governor. Saltillo declared that Monclova had been illegally made the state capitol and selected its own governor.[71] In March 1833.[70] Six English-speaking Texan communities were elevated to municipalities. Some legislators believed that centralism would be the only way to retain Texas. the governor of Coahuila y Tejas. the capital of the state was transferred from Saltillo to Monclova. political chief of Bexar. In actuality. and authorized the governor to set up an office in a different part of the state..

[75] After the Mexican Congress elected General Santa Anna as President of Mexico in 1833. announcing that Texas should be "'forever free of any Mexican control'".[79] The political chief of the . not an independent nation.[69] He was finally released from prison and had returned to Texas. known as "filibusterers" were attracted to militia-type organizations such as the New Orleans Greys. by August. Although the United States government remained officially neutral in the Mexican struggle between Santa Anna's Centralists and Gomez Farias' Federalists. in January 1835 Austin had published his Exposition to the Public Regarding the Affairs of Texas. where they planned to resist the Centralist government.[69] On his return. However. General Mexia soon found financing in New Orleans and began raising an expedition to attack the important Mexican port of Tampico. He discussed the grievances against the Texas justice system and justified the conventions of 1832 and 1833 as "'an exercise of the right to petition that belongs to every free people'". 1835. including Mexican General José Antonio Mexía. he changed his mind about the future of Texas and issued a call to arms. These reforms angered the powerful conservative forces. failed. there was much political sympathy favoring the separation of Texas from Mexico.[78] By the end of the year over 100 Tejanos had joined this Federal Army of Texas to defend the Constitution of 1824 against the centralists. particularly impacting the Mexican Army and the Catholic Church. In this document he explained that Texas wanted to be a separate state. the "Tampico Expedition" that he began on November 6.[77] In 1835 Juan Seguin.Map of México in 1836. In an effort to secure his freedom. and Salvador Flores began raising companies of volunteers from the San Antonio and Victoria areas to support the federalist cause. to flee into exile in the United States. preparing to go fight for Texas independence.[76] Some went to New Orleans. the Vice President began implementing liberal reforms. Plácido Benavides. forcing Gómez Farías and his Federalist supporters. However. who urged Santa Anna to abandon his semi-retirement. Santa Anna agreed and led the reaction against liberalization. He persuaded influential people in New Orleans that seizing the port would aid the Texian cause. he appointed Valentín Gómez Farías as his vice president and turned over much of the governing of Mexico to him. Manuel Leal. A number of men.

"Texas committees" in cities such as New Orleans and New York mustered volunteers and began sending an army and money to assist the Texas colonists in their fight. Texas formally declared independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 2. Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). 1836. ^ Jump up to: a b Edmonson (2000). 3. with the birth of the Republic of Texas. p.[84] The Mexican Congress did not recognize Texan independence. p. The revolt was justified as necessary to protect basic rights and because Mexico had annulled the federal pact. San Antonio surrendered to the Anglos. Only Seguin's company remained in the Texian Army.[46] Santa Anna was taken prisoner. 4. p. ^ Jump up to: a b c Edmondson (2000). 2. p. Austin commanded the militias. The Consultation denounced centralism and organized a provisional state government based "'on the principles of the 1824 Constitution'". while Sam Houston was placed in charge of the volunteers. they managed to heavily advertise the availability of land in Texas. 82. 72.[83] In the ensuing Treaties of Velasco. giving the rebels a great deal of military equipment. Santa Anna promised he would convince the Mexican government to recognize Texan independence.[75] The following month. the United States of America. but the Texans did not keep their promise to return him to Mexico either. p. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Manchaca (2001). 1836. He did not keep this promise. ensuring that more volunteers would come to fight. Some Texans traveled to the United States seeking aid. 5.[79] The war ended with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21. 161. 162. 6.[82] The new Texas constitution specifically allowed slavery and said no free person of African descent could reside in the new country without Congress's consent.[75] The Consultation met in November to discuss the reasons for the revolt.[83] Many of the Tejanos left the fight after the declaration of independence as they were disappointed with the growing antiMexican rhetoric. 51. and the Mexican troops were forced to withdraw south of the Rio Grande. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). .[75] The first violent incident occurred on October 2 at the battle of Gonzales. p. The colonists maintained that Mexico had invited them to move to the country and they were determined "to enjoy 'the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land.Nacogdoches region told the militias to take arms against the Mexican troops in July 1835 and asked the rest of the citizens to form a volunteer army.'"[81] The declaration did not acknowledge that Mexico had attempted to incorporate some of their demands. Although they were denied a loan. 71.[80] The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Henry Huddle shows the Mexican general Santa Anna surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston.[83] Footnotes[edit] 1. Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001).

88. p. p. 53. 46. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). 97. 95–96. ^ Jump up to: a b c de la Teja (1997). ^ Jump up to: a b c Manchaca (2001). p. 134. 16. 201. 44. p. 6. 194. ^ Jump up to: a b Edmondson (2000). ^ Jump up to: a b c Vazquez (1997). p. Jump up ^ Barr (1996). 55. ^ Jump up to: a b c Manchaca (2001). Jump up ^ Ward (1960). p. 8. 52. p. 28. ^ Jump up to: a b Edmondson (2000). 27. 137. p. Jump up ^ Horton (1999). 31. p. p. p. 90. 53. 92. p. p. 200.7. p. p. 163. Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). 49. 35. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). 89. p. p. 65. 37. 59. 8. 20. ^ Jump up to: a b Manchaca (2001). Jump up ^ Henson (1982). 36. 54. 63. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Manchaca (2001). p. p. p. Jump up ^ Barr (1996). 62. 41. Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). p. 26. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). p. 135. 196. 9. p. p. 61. Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). 14. 80. 16. ^ Jump up to: a b Edmondson (2000). 32. 50. 74. 47. p. 45. Jump up ^ Barr (1996). 15. ^ Jump up to: a b Manchaca (2001). 14. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). p. p. p. 78. 23. 52. ^ Jump up to: a b Edmondson (2000). 17. Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). Jump up ^ Henson (1982). 58. 85. p. 172. 10. p. p. 48. 60. ^ Jump up to: a b c Manchaca (2001). 73. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). 39. p. p. 165. 12. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). p. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Barr (1996). 40. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). 83. p. p. Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). 199. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). 63. Jump up ^ Horton (1999). p. p. p. 22. Jump up ^ Williams (1997). Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). 48. 215. 164. 34. 24. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). 33. 9. ^ Jump up to: a b Henson (1982). p. p. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). 83. pp. 96. Jump up ^ Davis (2006). Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). Jump up ^ Horton (1999). p. 90. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). 30. 25. 79. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). p. 17. 43. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). p. 15. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). 57. 38. 54. Jump up ^ Manchaca (2001). 70. 151. 51. Jump up ^ Edmondson (2000). p. p. 19. 13. 195. 145. 50. 56. Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). p. 187. 21. 18. p. p. p. 75. Jump up ^ de la Teja (1997). 91. 57. 11. p. p. 198. 42. p. p. 29. . 136.

"The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". p. References[edit]          Anderson. Texans in Revolt: the Battle for San Antonio. ISBN 0-292-77042-1. p. 76. Plano. Austin. Tejano Leadership in Mexican and Revolutionary Texas (Elma Dill Russell Spencer Series in the West and Southwest). 68. 79. Alwyn (1990). pp.S. Hardin.–Mexican Relations. [1] Jump up ^ Miller.. p. p. Jesus (1991). Davis. TX: State House Press. 81. Jump up ^ de la Teja (2010). Vincent. 84. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Vazquez (1997). . p. 68. 67. 74. Texian Iliad – A Military History of the Texas Revolution. ^ Jump up to: a b Barr (1990). 75. Norman. 72. Jump up ^ "Texas State Historical Association. 78. Austin. p. OK: University of Oklahoma Press. OCLC 20354408.). 94. USA: TAMU Press. ^ Jump up to: a b c Vazquez (1997). 67. J. Wilmington. ISBN 0-292-73086-1. p. OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 1528– 1995 (2nd ed. Seguin. (1997). William C. Edward L. Jaime E. 66. 107–8. p. 70. 151. p. p. 82. 83. p. (2006). 73. 80. 1835. ISBN 0-8061-3111-X. 63. 1580–1830: Ethnogenesis and Reinvention. ISBN 1-55622-678-0. 2. ^ Jump up to: a b de la Teja (1997). In Rodriguez O. Barr. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). Jump up ^ Henson (1982).. 73. A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. 4. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). ISBN 978-1-58544-532-5. Jesus (2010). Black Texans: A history of African Americans in Texas. 77. p. 70. 23. The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. OCLC 29704011. (2004) Jump up ^ de la Teja (1991). ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). ISBN 0-8061-2878-X. del la Teja. TX: University of Texas Press. Austin. 64. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). 1. Myths.R. Jump up ^ Barr (1990). Tampico Expedition. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). p. TX: Texas A&M University Press. Kathryn. 24. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. TX: Republic of Texas Press. 6. p. Misdeeds. Lone Star Rising. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). p. Jump up ^ Hardin (1994). p. 66. and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U. 76. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). ^ Jump up to: a b c Vazquez (1997). p. 69. 75. 69. de la Teja. The Handbook of Texas Online. Stephen L. originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press del la Teja. College Station. 65. The Indian Southwest. ISBN 1-60344-166-2. (1994). 72. Jump up ^ Lozano (1985). Alwyn (1996). 71. Norman. Jump up ^ Vazquez (1997). TX: University of Texas Press. p. Jump up ^ Nofi (1992). Edmondson. 71. DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. Jesus F. 74. Gary Clayton (1999). (2000).62. 77. Barr. p. p. ^ Jump up to: a b Vazquez (1997). ISBN 0-93834968-6.

ISBN 978-0-82630603-6. Austin. Forrest E. Edward L. (1992). 1821–1836. Paul D. (1992). Bricks Without Straw: A Comprehensive History of African Americans in Texas. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. Williams.. 1836: Heroes. TX: Eakin Press. David M. The Mexican Frontier. Weber. New Orleans and the Texas Revolution. David A. (1982). I. The Texas Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835-1836. Turner. Martha (2001). Albert A. Manchaca. [show]  v . Black. PA: Combined Books. Vazquez. In Rodriguez O.. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag. Andrés (1994). Jaime E. (1997).          Henson. DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. Lack. hosted by the Portal to Texas History. 1821-1846: The American Southwest Under Mexico. Ryan Kellus (1999). Kathryn. Inc. Juan Davis Bradburn: A Reappraisal of the Mexican Commander of Anahuac. Ward. Wilmington. Constructing Race: The Indian. Austin. "The Colonization and Loss of Texas: A Mexican Perspective". TX: Texas A&M University. Further reading[edit]    Hardin. ISBN 1-58544-358-1. Albuquerque. ISBN 978-0-89096-606-8. Texian Iliad-A Military History of the Texas Revolution. Lone Star Justice: A Comprehensive Overview of the Texas Criminal Justice System. ISBN 157168-226-0. College Station. Tijerina. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. External links[edit]  Laws and Decrees of Coahuila and Texas from Gammel's Laws of Texas. Myths. College Station. TX: University of Texas Press. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 64. ISBN 0-94326002-7. The Joe R. and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.. Lozano. Myths. th Mexican-born Patriots of the Texas Revolution. San Antonio. Ruben Rendon (1985). ISBN 0-292-75253-9. (1994). Texas A&M University Press. Viva Texas: The Story of the Tejanos. ISBN 0292730861. and White Roots of Mexican Americans. Texas A&M University Press. TX: Texas A&M University Press. TX: Eakin Press. University of Texas Press. (October 1960). 1835 to April 21. Margaret Swett (1982). Pre-Revolutionary Activity in Brazoria County. Misdeeds. NM: University of New Mexico Press.–Mexican Relations. ISBN 1-57168-041-1. The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence. Conshohocken. Horton. ISBN 0-938289-10-1. Vol. Josefina Zoraida (1997). ISBN 0-89096-497-1. Miller. David J. Recovering History. TX: The Alamo Press.S. Austin. and History. Centennial Series of the Association of Former Students. September 30. Stephen L. Nofi. ISBN 978-0-89096-135-3. Vincent.

org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Mexican_Texas&oldid=704494323" Categories:  Mexican Texas  Colonial United States (Mexican)  Independent Mexico  Pre-statehood history of Texas  Texas Revolution  1820s in Texas  1830s in Texas  States and territories established in 1821  States and territories disestablished in 1836  1821 establishments in Texas  1821 establishments in Mexico  1836 disestablishments in Mexico  19th-century disestablishments in Texas .wikipedia." /> Retrieved from "https://en. position: absolute.  t e Mexican Texas [show]  v  t  e History of Texas <img src="//en.