Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923

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Journal of Cleaner Production
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Integration of sustainable development in higher education e
a regional initiative in Quebec (Canada) 
ronique Bisaillon b, Alain Webster b, Ben Amor a, *
Chirjiv Kaur Anand a, Ve
Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Universit
e de Sherbrooke, Canada
Office of the Vice-President, Sustainable Development and Government Relations, Universit
e de Sherbrooke, 2500 boul. de l'Universit
e, Sherbrooke, Qu
ebec
J1K 2R1, Canada
a

b

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 13 November 2014
Received in revised form
25 June 2015
Accepted 28 June 2015
Available online 3 July 2015

Integration of sustainable development in education is now being addressed in numerous educational
institutions across the globe. Based on different integration approaches, various teaching methods are
being developed, applied and evaluated. Efforts are also being made in the direction of strengthening
pedagogical approaches as well as educator training to address issues such as, lack of awareness and
resources required for a better transfer of sustainable development knowledge from educator to students. There is a strong need for these two approaches (integration & pedagogical) to work in close
association for an improved level of integration. Regional collaborations are an effective way to address
such issues. They can play a key role in achieving sustainability regionally while being influenced by, and
influencing, both local and global communities, and that is the main hypothesis of this paper. The goal of
this paper is to present a regionalized educational initiative for integration of sustainable development in
higher education made by two universities and five colleges in Quebec (Canada). This project is not only
dedicated to teaching or application of approaches but is also expanded to: 1) professors' support using
various activities (conferences, workshops and short lectures); 2) program integrations; 3) integration at
institutional level (as some institutions have adopted various policies and actions regarding their overall
missions of research, community outreach and operations); and, 4) regional collaboration between the
seven academic partners, which is a unique characteristic of this project. As a result, this regional
collaborative approach helped in building a critical mass of practitioners in the field and launched a
community of practice and integrated sustainable development in the member institutions at different
levels, strengthening the educator's knowledge on sustainable development pedagogy. Based on the
preliminary analysis of surveys taken by students, this integration has helped in developing the understanding of sustainable development by students and has also resulted in a positive attitude towards
sustainable development. In addition, the integrations as a result of the collaboration show that integration of sustainable development in higher education is accomplished not only through pedagogical
and extracurricular activities but is also embodied in the overall student experience on campus.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Sustainable development in higher
education
Regional sustainability
Sustainable development pedagogy
Collaborating for sustainable development
Teacher support

1. Introduction
Education has long been recognized as a vital means for
achieving sustainable development (SD). Numerous educational
institutions continuously make efforts to inculcate SD practices in
their pedagogy. However, questions regarding, the approach, to
teaching sustainability, as well as training learners to bring about a

* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: chirjiv.anand@usherbrooke.ca (C.K. Anand), ben.amor@
usherbrooke.ca (B. Amor).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.134
0959-6526/© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

change in a society, arise during efforts being made to integrate
sustainable development in education (SDE) (Burns, 2011; Stir,
2006) indicating the scope of improvement required in the area
of SDE (Lozano et al., 2013).
Different approaches such as integration of sustainability at
different levels (Sterling, 2004), preparation of manuals for teachers, inviting teachers to write manuals on integration of SDE,
related to their courses (Ceulemans and De Prins, 2010), nondiscipline specific frameworks (Rusinko, 2010) etc., have been
proposed for achieving SDE. Following such approaches, efforts
such as, introduction of a sustainability program (Vincent et al.,
2013) teaching of courses via faculty from different areas of

C. In the context of integration of SDE. stating the need for a sustainability working group in the province of Quebec. lack of shared language and understanding to discuss SD (Anderberg et al. Junyent and Ciurana. Learning. gives the students as well as the educators exposure to practically dealing with sustainability issues and challenges in the society. 2011). minors and graduate programs in different streams in the university. 2011)) was made by two universities and five colleges (French and English speaking institutions) in Quebec for integration of SD in higher education. All the institutions combined have a population of larger than 40. 2012). / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 expertise. 2007). Chase and Rowland. 2007). PACTE 2D is an ongoing project. There are currently 135 RCE's all over the world. 2009). a different number of students are involved at a particular time. depending on the integration initiatives at different levels in different member institutions. 2013). 2010). These RCE's involve educational as well as industrial partners and government. 2004). There are national and international networks that connect with educational institutions at regional and perhaps even local levels for integration of SDE. The attempt made via this collaboration is to provide both. The integration methods adopted in literature have pointed out barriers to integration of SDE such as. In the other member institutions the efforts were initiated after PACTE 2D. 2010. in all these declarations. As a part of a regional collaboration. The RCE Maurice/Centre-du-Quebec has 8 partner organizations including business. 2010). One such network is Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Canada. in possible cases also allowing them to be able to see sustainable solutions being adopted.. 2011). in Quebec. regional networking for integrating SDE have been recommended (Niu et al. 2009. A regional initiative. For example. out of which 2 were initiated in Quebec. Collaboration and Transfer in Sustainable Development Education (PACTE 2D. Their focus is on the very essential educator support and also non-discipline specific integration (UE4SD. The networks approach for integration of SDE has also been adopted by universities (E. 2009.. have been noted so far. The collaboration between the  de Sherbrooke.  de Sherbrooke and the Ce gep at Before PACT 2D.Net formed a regional network to propose an alternative university appraisal model based on university contributions to SD (Fadeeva and Mochizuki. Universite Granby-Haute-Yamasaka had some efforts in place in the area of integrating SDE. collaborating for a three year period (started in 2013) to re-orient the higher education curriculum to address 917 sustainable development. working together of students from different fields on a specific scientific problem (Barth et al. Bishop's University. the universities have started various efforts at local. as well as the Universite geps (Colleges) of Sherbrooke. perceived irrelevance of SDE. “Engaging in educational practices that lead to sustainable development” is a guideline for a sustainable future. the Ponderosa project at the Northern Arizona University (NAU) (initiated in 1994).. with regional working groups or networks in almost all provinces and territories. there still exist considerable barriers to integration of SDE because of comparatively less interest and efforts by educators in integration of SD (Evangelinos et al. PACTE 2D (Acronym in French for Partnership. has developed a solid versite . in some disciplines (Lozano et al. Anand et al. 2008).. Also. that several universities across the globe have signed. the approaches adopted aim to aid in eliminating the barriers encountered by educators to integrate SDE at different levels (course. and loss of essential course material due to addition of sustainability course material (Chau. 2009). over the last 40 years. environmental and municipal sectors being supported by one coordinator.. keeping in mind the importance of integration of SDE and the insufficiency of participation in SD by organizations (Zilahy and Huisingh. offer a wide range of possibilities and advantages. SD awareness via education and the using education as a tool to achieve sustainability and thus contribute to a positive impact on future citizen's behavior. Working on regional sustainability issues. curriculum & institution).g. Regional Centres of Expertise on education for sustainable development (RCE) were proposed and pilot RCE's were launched in 2005 (United Nations University. Another model (ACES) was also proposed by 11 European and Latin American universities to reorient higher education studies towards sustainability (Junyent and Ciurana. Swansea (1993). in various ways. the attitude to pay more attention to a problem in the vicinity. This paper aims to provide a SD integration approach at a regional level. The RCE at Montreal operated only for a limited amount of time and to the best of the authors' knowledge is no longer active. working in collaboration with partner institutes or regional industries to address regional sustainability issues. discipline focused nature of academic work. lack of curriculum time (Cotton et al. Granby-Haute5 Ce Yamaska. resulting in development of SD related courses. Member universities of ProSPER. etc. 2013). RCE Maurice/Centre-du-Quebec (founded in December 2012) & RCE Montreal (United Nations University. RCE Maurice/Centre du Quebec is currently in developmental stage and is yet to begin its working stage. compared to a nation for example. 2009) compared to campus sustainability efforts (Acevedo et al. involved faculty from various disciplines at NAU that were interested in environmental sustainability education. formal education. Quebec is one of the 3 regions where a ESD Canada working group has not yet been formed. As a part of this initiative. Regional consortiums either between universities or with industrial partners or both. by faculty that were involved in the Ponderosa project for several years. designing of projects under the supervision of academic as well as industrial supervisors (Chau. Zilahy and Huisingh..K. 2009). In addition. Yet. 2008. Drummondville. Uni de Sherbrooke.. 2013). use of regional resources in projects. Regional sustainability initiatives have the potential to successfully implement SD given the small size of the region. Fadeeva and Mochizuki.. have been adopted in previous years. Halifax (1991).. network and collaborate with people with a common vision and benefit from peer-review of the integration approach. For building sustainable societies. A regional perspective is also deemed necessary in order to apply national and international solutions at local or regional levels. 2007). such as Talloires (1990). In addition. regional as well as national levels with an aim to create a platform for sharing the expertise of partner network and benefiting from it long after the termination of the program. to help with creating links to communicate with PACTE 2D community regarding any information for carrying out the institutions projects. comparative newness of the sustainability agenda. it offers an extended support group beyond the educational institute and an opportunity to meet.000 students of which. The  de Sherbrooke. Lozano et al. For example. there exist various declaration. There seven institutions was initiated by Universite is at least one PACTE 2D representative at each of the member institutions. 2004). is considered an asset in case of regional sustainability efforts (Zilahy and Huisingh. possibility of interdisciplinary involvement for addressing regional sustainability issues. Victoriaville and the Lennoxville campus of Champlain Regional College joined forces to work towards integrating SD into higher education in 2010. Two regional efforts (from less than five years ago not including the current project). and focused on incorporating environmental sustainability issues in their courses (Chase and Rowland. The project is no longer active but it set the wheels in motion.. University educators for sustainable development (UE4SD) are another large network with 52 partners from 33 European countries.

2009). (PACTE 2D) of universities and colleges... which sets it in a large collaborative vision such as described by Huxham and Vangen (2005). the integration of SD raises questions regarding the pedagogical approaches used (Stubbs and Schaper.. / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 expertise in this field with its Master's program in Environment offered by the University Center for Environmental and Sustainable Development Studies (CUFE e University Training Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development). academic workshops organized in several universities and also online newsletters.. Second. articles.html. In addition. € m et al. 2011). 2015). professionals. 2006. This can include student engagement with initiatives taking place on the campus (Davis et al. in order to exchange their experiences on their teaching practices. Stubbs and Schapper. has a sustainable tourism program. as well as discussion. PACTE 2D therefore integrates two types of collaboration (operational and institutional). Peet et al. In November 2013. Regional collaboration is the foundation of this project. Cotton et al. 2009. In the manuscript.greenguide. Methods Collaborating to integrate sustainable development in education: As a part of this collaboration. contextualizing. the same fundamental questions always arise: how can SD be integrated into higher education. course specific assistance. The Piedmont1 project at Emory University in Atlanta. Possibility to consult modified course syllabuses.. 2. Strategy used: assistance and support for professors The assistance and support required by the teaching staff is fundamental for any approach aiming to integrate SD into higher education. 2008a). it includes more additional examples following the application of the developed approach in member institutions (Section 3 e Results and Discussion). Incidentally. the CUFE developed a new Bachelor's degree in Environmental Studies. higher education establishments should take up the responsibility of training the students to be responsible citizens and. For many. 2007. In addition to this Master's program in Environment. PACTE 2D more formally launched a community of practice (or working group) in SD education. depending on the respective needs of stakeholders. Anand et al. The PACT 2D community are offered general resources such as integration techniques. the article explains how these strategies are being used in PACTE 2D with case examples from member institutions where applicable. the integration of SD in higher education. the essential support is offered to interested teachers and professors. especially in a context where the programs are already overloaded and the professors often feel overwhelmed or insufficiently competent regarding SDE (Barlett and Rappaport. a connection is made between teachers and professors as part of pedagogical days or workshops on professional development. Finally. moving on to action till date comes with its own set of challenges (Shiel and Williams. the article will conclude by opening onto potential avenues for reflection and action to further advance the integration of SD into higher education and.nau. we aim to layout the proposed approach encompassing different strategies. and the Ponderosa2 project (1995e2002) at Northern Arizona University are among the first initiatives pursuing specifically to engage and support professors interested in integrating SD in their classes. The following paragraphs explain how operational and institutional collaborations can be used in integrating SDE. a teaching approach more centered on students (Barth et al. The PACTE 2D initiative was first documented as a part of a book chapter (Bisaillon et al. In parallel to such approaches. active since the last 10 years. i. curriculums and programs? How to support teachers and professors? What are the targeted learning objectives? And the approach presented in this article is in response to these questions. it lays emphasis on the need for regional networks in Quebec and demonstrates how the presented approach can be used to support the regional integration of SDE and thus the integration in a society. published periodically to foster and feed this community. First.K. At the institutional level. In the following section (section 2). the following strategies. more generally. This comes in addition to the added emphasis on the need for a network-based approach. the novel collaboration of PACTE 2D does not follow a predetermined formula but focuses instead. 2003). 2011) or. 2. Hegarty and Thomas. their mission and management activities. Granby-Haute-Yamasaka. in addition to the specialist training. Balantzian (1997) and Beyerlein (2003). experiential learning (Dieleman and Huisingh. The creation of a community or platSvanstro form allowing interested teachers and professors to exchange ideas and experiences on the subject of SDE seems to be the strategy offering the best potential to address the lack of educator support (Chase. to aid in integrating SD via their courses is available when required.1.. the collaboration tends to focus more on the policies and programs of the institutions concerned and on their interrelations in order to adopt coherent strategies. the focus on the past and present developments in integration of sustainable development in education (section 1) are added to highlight the contribution of the PACTE 2D project in comparison to other initiatives. No matter what the institutional level of commitment towards SDE or the strategies adopted to integrate it in institutions or programs might be.emory. These projects were based on learning from peers and seeking to create a community of teachers and professors interested in SD (Barlett and Rappaport. lies also in integrating SD to all the general and professional training courses offered by our higher education institutions. This manuscript is a follow-up of the previous publication. of their respective projects and SDE experiences. Although several teachers and professors recognize the importance of SD issues and the relevance to incorporate SD into student education. 2011. 2004). the manuscript presents more technical details on the need for each strategy in the approach (Section 2 e Methods). is actually seen by most as a cultural change to set up in our higher education institutions (Grange. from various domains. 2006. 2 Project's website: www. using unintentional learning. launched in 2001. on different strategies. These courses touch on a variety of fields from pure science to human/social science and healthcare. integrating SD into curriculums and integration of SD into institutional approaches. in the Quebec context. Finally (in section 4). providing support to professors. classroom management (explained in depth with examples in section 3). The resources and opportunities provided include. 2011) and is associated with more participative educational efforts (Brunetti et al.edu/ponderosa. In a distinct section (section 3). which can represent a strictly technical change at first (with added content in SD). Prior to launching the 1 Project's website: sustainability. lunchtime presentations. rez-Na jera. 2003). Jua As an objective of PACTE 2D.e. supplemented by in-service training. With core values such as transparency and coordinated dialogue. 2015). for instance. using community resources. The challenge. 2009.. encouragement reflection and commitment.edu/page/1021/Piedmont-Project/. websites. according to a logic based on progressive and collective construction. were adopted. reference materials. 2009). As far as operational collaborations are concerned.918 C. These resources also include the work done at member institutions. . to evaluate the learning outcomes of integration of sustainability in education. aiming to answer requests from specialists in the environment and SD fields. taking action.

Results and discussion As a result of the collaboration. offered a distinct program for new participants as well as more “experienced” ones as far as SDE is concerned. in the member institutions. operations and life on campus. . objectives and actions for SDE within the institutional community. curriculum. whilst contributing to an institutional culture integrating SD more efficiently. Initiatives targeting the integration of SD in higher education range from very specific teaching-oriented actions to faculty or institution led strategies.3. between the member institutions. two-day workshops have been organized as part of PACTE 2D. The four elements (curriculum. The issue resides instead in the integration of SD in the student's journey and experience. Strategy used: integration of sustainable development at the curriculum level In addition to integration of SD in courses. 1 shows a model of integration of SD in higher education institutions adapted from two approaches... research. The tourism program at Granby-Haute-Yamasaka College (a PACTE 2D member institute) is a great resource to teachers with regards to curriculum level integration (Lusignan. as well as peri-academic pathways including extracurricular activities. 3. a model onto which rest all the actions of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) (Chase. 2. another level of integration invested as part of the collaborative project is the integration at the level of curriculums and programs. The organization committee also widened the scope of the workshop to include teachers and professors as well as other stakeholders. the four targets (research. including students from other specializations. but also on research involving the contribution of all institutional strategies related to SD. ethical. This section discusses the collaboration as well as the application of the strategies as a part of this collaboration. This integration strategy echoes changes in professional practices inherent to the context and challenges of SD. 2013). from wide ranging fields including engineering. participants were invited to express their views on possible activities and angles to adopt. as well as community) for integration of SD in an institution can be fed by or feed the other three. being curriculum. business administration. their first responsibility being to adopt and commit to a vision. In 2011. community and culture) in the framework are interdependent and complementary targets in the integration of SD in mutually reinforcing universities (Jones et al. SD questions can no longer be ignored. conferences and presentations were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to promote the integration of SDE.K. 2014). the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board added SD among the qualities required from graduates in its accreditation standards and procedures (Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board. Integration that is curriculum wide or program wide helps students to relate to SD in the context of their stream of specialization. being to allow teachers and professors to position themselves with regards to SD and SDE. Anand et al. policy wide integration.2. Given the diversity of possible strategies and actions. This workshop is attended annually by 20e30 participants. As a part of PACTE 2D different approaches were used by member institutions for integration of SD at curriculum level such as studying the entire curriculum in order to determine the areas where integration was possible. In the last three years. ecology etc. According to our model of integration. 2011). in the member institutions. exchange and develop tangible strategies of action. and to adapt their teaching practices in this area.. 919 via awarding grants for sustainable projects. offering supplementary courses to all students. encouragement Fig. campus. social and environmental responsibility. 2. Such an integration is based not only on the expertise of teachers and professors. Fig. Hegarty et al. as raised by a number of authors (Barth et al. held in June 2014. 2007. 2010. In the fields of administraframework (Barreau du Que tion. introducing new courses with more in-depth relation to the area in question.C. The first two workshops were held in 2012 and 2013 and the third. to connect. The Barreau du Qu ebec also recognizes the importance of SD within the lawyer profession's bec. Chase (2009) identifies four elements to the integration of SD into higher education. SD should be integrated into a specific course or throughout the whole curriculum. The workshops targeted two objectives. and the whole lifestyle on offer in a higher education institution. law. following on the idea of a community of practice (or working group). the already introduced courses and programs are also reviewed and enhanced after their introduction with input from members. curricula and institution. / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 community also. Strategy used: developing a global approach for the integrating sd at institutional level A third category of initiatives concerns higher education institutions. In addition to development of new courses. (2010) and Chase (2009). university operations and relationships with the community. 1. Hence. In the first meeting (in 2013) as a community. the strategies discussed in section 2 were applied by different educators to courses. within which the students progress in their studies. mathematics. at the level of a student's program.. These workshops provide a platform for teachers and professors. In another approach. 2009). 2011). Model of integration of sustainable development in higher education institutions adapted from Jones et al. action plans and campaigns. Integration of SD can also be achieved at institutional level by methods such as. It is also acknowledged that the integration of SD into the student's journey and experience needs to focus on the academic. A specific (mailing) distribution list has also been recently created to support communication among members in between formal activities. tourism. the question is no longer about whether or not. humanities. to introduce issues and approaches to SD in context of different subjects. this is the framework adopted in PACTE 2D.

as on the installation of the new bridge (for example) and the options for its own replacement at the end of its life.1. functional analysis. Strategy results: assist and support professors in their SD pedagogical approaches The strategies that PACTE 2D introduced to the teachers and professors in order to aid them in their pedagogical approaches are explained in this section with examples (where applicable). Tilbury. students were asked to identify a problem related to the development of the campus in terms of management of natural resources. Following are examples from member institutions of how educational resources as well as resources from the field have been used in different focus areas. all the institutional actions focusing to integrate SD into the institutional policies and management are levers that teachers can use. Using available resources Resources are considered an important sustainability related curricula theme (Byrne et al. gep de Drummondville. at Ce the courses' content is presented in a perspective of energy issues and SD. as highlighted by various authors (Huxham and Vangen. gep de DrummondA number of biology laboratories at the Ce ville (Drummondville College). is made from cradle to grave.. The final report submitted to their corresponding client integrates results obtained from the streamlined LCA. 2006). On the other side. those responsible for the application of a SD policy or for a specific project. and the annual composting of more than 70 tonnes of organic matter on campus. The regional collaborative approach made it possible to pool and share resources. to introduce the concepts taught. filled with SD challenges. Having all these answers in hand. in Universite course Project Design in Civil Engineering (GCI 900) provides students with the possibility to integrate their previously attained SD knowledge. acquired during their undergraduate courses with a civil engineering project design affected by real problems and constraints.1. Several teachers already apply this by drawing the attention of students to the news. The potential of hydrogen as a green combustible fuel. Lundqvist and Svanstrom. 2005). 3.2. leading to a ban on plastic tableware on campus. The students were required to make a diagnosis and to establish a list of recommendations to the institution's planning and development committee.  de Sherbrooke was considering installing a As the Universite compost system on its main campus. 2014). all the teams have the opportunity to justify the preferred solutions in a perspective of SD while shedding light on possible improvement measures for the chosen solution. Although collaboration is both time and energy consuming. students can also lead their practical work in direct relation with their environment or with an aim to improve the environment.  de Sherbrooke the At the Engineering faculty.1. The students can measure the impact of human activities on their environment in a very tangible way (diversity and productivity of ecosystems. or teachers from other fields of study can have a different approach to that field of study and contextualize SD through real case studies. more centered on students or more closely linked with the community and environment . knowledge transfer in the context of SD is comparatively more obvious than in some others. SD can become the context surrounding the teaching content. this approach is also a powerful lever and springboard in the current project. impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality. etc. The course offered follows an integrated resources management approach.3. and to feed the reflection and elements of response relative to these questions in a more integrated and exhaustive manner. risk analysis. its replacement with compostable tableware such as bioplastics. as an assessment method of environmental impacts in various capstone projects. inspiring them to take action at community level Considering the end goal of SDE to train actors capable of not just thinking but also taking action (Svanstrom et al.K. focusing as much on the production phase of construction materials and choice of suppliers.1. The use of SD to contextualize such notions can also have a positive impact on teaching and learning by improving the perceived professional relevance and usefulness of acquired knowledge dard. Following are examples from PACTE 2D member institutions of SDE in the context of adopting SD for institutional management and improving the surrounding the environment. and even though keeping these collaboration mechanisms going in the long-term is a real challenge (including financial support challenges). the integration of SD into higher education tends to require a more active academic approach. At various occasions throughout the course. Environmental issues used to be taught more generally as part of the literature review. The streamlined LCA thus complements other analyses the teams have to run (i. take place in Drummond forest. In this context. i. teams have to prepare their plans and specifications for the preferred solutions. Contextualization Several institutions have already adopted SD actions as part of their institutional management. / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 Collaborating to integrate SD in higher education: PACTE 2D is a very timely project for several higher education institutions considering the introduction of SD as a professional competency by Engineers Canada (Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board.). In the second part of the course. Learning for a Sustainable Future. students grouped in teams are required to find solutions to a real problem submitted by their client (civil engineering firms or others). Now. PACTE 2D has helped reinforce initiatives aiming to integrate SD within partner institutions. economic analysis). giving students an opportunity to use a resource from the field in their learning program. 3. Using the streamlined LCA. The project progressed and was then taken on by students in the Faculty of Engineering. 2008. In case of some disciplines. Involving students. Anand et al. In the first part of the course. 2011). biomethanisers and issue of biofuels are examples used in the classroom to explain a number of theoretical notions. following a streamlined method of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).1. teachers call upon stakeholders from the field or college employees. of implementation from member institutions. Using resources from the field also leads to reduced costs in perishable material such as plankton (previously bought outside of and delivered to Drummondville). 2013). students have to analyze several approaches for a replacement. It helps them pursue and deepen their engagement in this field and expand it outside of their organization. 3. In the Natural Science program. predict their long-term consequences and find possible solutions to the problems observed. graduate students in administration carried out the preliminary feasibility study for this project. (Be 3. 2008b.e. gep de As part of a course on social practices taught at the Ce Sherbrooke.e.920 C. Therefore. In the case of a bridge replacement for instance. Teachers or program committees wishing to see their institutions becoming more engaged with SDE also find in this project a network with which to get involved. allowing the teachers to enrich their teaching whilst giving students the opportunity to compare their points of view with those of other experts. a professor joins this activity and accompanies teams of students so that they can apply it to the proposed range of solutions.

4. According to Orr (quoted in Jucker. as part of a project.g. PAEIC works to bring together university students and community to work collectively on community projects. with technological support from Internet platforms (e.. with links to local resources and expertise. This strategy seems particularly interesting in courses where teachers may not necessarily see a direct link between SD and their field of study (Barlett and Rappaport. sustainable development topics related to the course were introduced at different stages of the curriculum including senior design projects using course modules catered to the specific course. Strategy results: integration of sd at the institutional level Following are examples from PACTE 2D members of implementation of institutional level integration strategies adopted. teachers are asked to act more as guides in the reflective learning process than as mere “knowledge providers”. engineering.e. 2002).) to get to know community stakeholders and to better understand their reality. In their internship reports. the college also acknowledges SD projects as part of its annual exhibition Expo SAT (Science Arts & Technology). The LCA tool is also being adopted and explored by other departments on campus to implement it in their teaching. In addition an LCA model was also developed specifically for teaching LCA. tacit or unplanned manner (Cotton and Winter. in which debates on sustainability issues versite such as oil exploitation are conducted. nonintentional learning is used in a context that enables knowledge acquisition but without being explicitly targeted as such. The students are required to invest time in researching the topic and then divided to either represent or oppose the idea and encouraged to indulge in discussions and debates. As opposed to introduction of a new course. 2010). 2009). 3. 3. The analysis made by the students is then passed on to the city professionals.3. there is an on-going project to integrate SD tools according to the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach in the under de graduate Civil Engineering curriculum at the Universite Sherbrooke. This position taken by teachers allows them to neutralize the feeling that they may not be qualified or specialized enough to tackle SD issues with their students. various examples of integration of SD into higher education insist on the importance to question the learning process and not just the content (Stubbs and Schaper.1. several teachers choose to offer their course in a paperless version. According to this view. Hegarty et al.3. law. Those who did experiments with this approach conclude that it contributes to reinforce professional identity in students since they have to emphasize their field of expertise to their colleagues (Stubbs and Schaper. laboratories. Without going into too much detail for each of these initiatives.usherbrooke. thus building stronger links with the future professional practice. The Experiential Learning Program through Community Involvement (or PAEIC e Programme d'apprentissage  de exp erientiel par l'intervention communautaire) at the Universite Sherbrooke3 pursues two objectives. often in an unconscious. .. requiring that the stu dents lead their own reflection with regards to SD. 2011). homework. At the Ce Quebec Space and Methodology. At the Universite de Sherbrooke for instance. and offer solutions. 2011). texts or works to be translated or studied can be chosen in relation to SD topics. Non-intentional learning tends to be approached in a much wider perspective.1. The modules are modified and now slowly being used in other departments at the university as well. By extension. Encourage students to get involved with and compare their views on SD In the literature. This interconnection allows students from various fields of study (administration. 3.C. and to develop the capacity of community groups to fulfill their social mission. For instance. Anand et al. projects etc. 2011). i. the institutional framework as a whole. Encouragement via grants gep de Victoriaville aims to offer students the opportunity to Ce steer their project reports (required for successful program completion) or end of semester projects towards SD themes. In practice. It refers to all the messages passed on from a teacher or institution to their students. 3 http://www. Courses bringing together students from various fields of study can also enable them to compare their points of view to those of their colleagues and to widen their perspective. Moodle) or specialized correction software for their classes.K. and compare their views with those of their peers (Stubbs and Schaper. Students in the Tourism Techniques gep de Granby e Haute-Yamaska collaborate program at the Ce with community organizations as part of their training and integrate eco responsibility notions into the organization of events. Strategy results: integration of sd at the curriculum level gep de Ganby-HauteIn addition to the tourism program at Ce Yamsaka. In this perspective. the studying environment as well as the daily management operations of an institution also form an integral part of nonintentional learning. in a translation or reading comprehension course. An example is the environmental management course at Uni de Sherbrooke. Using non-intentional learning and managing the class in SD perspective Another way to integrate SD into higher education is to use nonintentional learning. the City of Victoriaville and the college foundation awarded grants to student projects dealing with SD. as part of the geography course. 921 3.5. students characterize sections of the riparian zone to determine priority areas for action. criteria related to energy efficiency and social acceptability of the project. Hegarty et al. At the program level.2. 2011. / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 (Rands. it should be pointed out that their main commonalities are the angle from which the question of training future professionals is addressed. generally running over a semester. Therefore. cost analysis and life cycle analysis are increasingly integrated into projects on Design Engineering. can be used as a stepping stone towards the integration. and the skills related to SD that can be developed at various stages throughout students' progression in the curriculum.1. Also called hidden curriculum. 3. Such initiatives make it possible to merge the learning objectives set in academic courses with the needs of a group or organization. 2011. students can also be invited to reflect on SD in relation to their future professional practice or experience in their internship workplace. develop their own critical and reflective thinking.. gep de Victoriaville. For example. 2009). to encourage members of the university community to get involved.ca/paeic/. the way teachers manage their class can also be included in the non-intentional learning available to students and can represent a first step in the integration of SD within the course. SD can be more efficiently integrated and transposed to a professional context. so that these concepts are considered ‘part of the course’ by students and not additional material. activities have been suggested where students have to run independent research to make up their own opinions. etc.

by project-based learning in a real context. Learning.4. du Loisir et du Sport.  Apprentissage. 10. Environmental Education..922 C.. 2007. Policies and action plans  de Sherbrooke. Educ. i. Int. High. ratif: le partenariat. 3. The survey participation rate was 14.. Therefore. (In English: Quebec Bar. A coherent modification of the recurrent program assessment will follow as a part of the SD policy at Bishop's University. their behavior in that field. Furthermore. bec. 368e378. Champlain Regional College (Lennoxville campus) as well as  de Sherbrooke. Paris. PACTE 2D conducted a student survey among partner organizations to assess their interest and expectations in the fields of SD and education. or as a means of revisiting our ways of living. solidarity and democracy. These guidelines led to the consideration of a new concern related to the integration of SD into higher education as part of the recurrent program assessment. standing for: Partnership. Godemann. L'avantage coope  gique.). Barth. Educ..1108/14676370910 990710. Students' engagement with processes of greening the campus. research. Coll. They thus seems to have a broadly positive opinion of SD. http://dx. n. (Ed. Preliminary evaluations In the fall 2013. as well as their interest towards topics related to SDE and pedagogical approaches.7% and the results from the survey still need to be closely analyzed. 57. analysis of useful synergies created by collaboration of people with similar goals. the ones involving actual concrete issues were given the student's preference. one is related to SD. Integration via institutional policies Champlain Regional College adopted a SD policy. Peter Lang. E. All these evaluations are essential in improvising the process of student education of SD. the three-fifth of the students have a more complex conception of sustainability integrating the social. 2012. Sustain.” related to this regional initiative. U. We thank to all the people involved in this project within the seven partner geps (colleges) of institutions involved in this project.3... Sustain. Editions strate d'Organisation. The proposed approach is applied by the member institutions and examples of their integration are also presented as resources for any one that wishes to integrate SD concepts in higher education. Activities to mobilize and raise awareness to the population will continue and a teaching staff survey will be conducted to identify academic activities that integrate SD. Barlett. Rappaport. As far as SD is  de Sherbrooke reaches for a synergy concerned. or by human development issues rather than cultural diversity issues for example.K. Hansson. the integration of SD to the At the Universite institution's teaching and research mission is featured in its 2010e2015 Strategic Plan as well as in the related policy and action plan. Sherbrooke and Victoriaville. B. Rieckmann. l'alliance Balantzian. Norde development in higher education: recent trends and a critique.3. High. B. i. which is based on four reference values: ecology. 383e393. 3. another guideline  de Sherbrooke aims to simplify. R. Int. open up adopted by the Universite and develop the synergy between teaching. 2011. B.org/10. 1997. A. by social issues such as health and quality of life. 2009. Communication and Sustainability.2. Collaboration et Transfert en Education au D eveloppement Durable. 4. In the next phase of the project. Conclusions This paper presents an approach for integration of SD in education and its implementation via regional collaboration. / Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 916e923 3. Acknowledgments This article was written as part of PACTE 2D (Partenariat. the Ce Drummondville. 2011. the approach should not only be to target the content but also the pedagogy and the sometimes compartmented disciplinary structure of our institutions. the Universite between teaching. Developing key competencies for sustainable development in higher education. Johnson. research and community relations (Strategic Plan R eussir 2010e2015). analysis of change in level of integration before and after the collaboration.. Stoltenberg.3. 3. an issue at the heart of this university's mission. pacifism. 73e82. Campaigns For its part. Granby-Haute-Yamaska. la coope ration. An analysis both by discipline and by program will guide program teams and teachers more accurately. J. 2009. with similar focus to integrate SD along the curriculum as well as the institution (at a regional level). More than three-quarters of students consider SD as an opportunity for brand new alternatives and solutions to actual crisis. Report of the Committee on current issues related to private practice and the future of the profession. M. Bishop's University led a vast reflection campaign on liberal education. students were questioned on their idea of SD and on their opinion about it. but the initial analysis already draws new avenues of reflection and action in order to integrate SD into curriculum.4.. 8. Malevicius. Among the skills that need to be developed throughout the curriculums and programs. Its Lennoxville campus chose to encourage the Brundtland Green Institutions approach.. J. management and relations with the community so as to gradually transform the campus into a SD laboratory. Collaboration and Transfer in Sustainable Development Education). pp..). Global learning for sustainable Anderberg. Les avocats de pratique prive e en 2021. the focus is to evaluate the strengths and weakness of the approaches applied in different member institutions. W. students seem more preoccupied by everyday life issues.e. Rapport du Barreau du Que  sur les proble matiques actuelles relie es  e et l’avenir Comite a la pratique prive de la profession. Teach. 416e430. Bonner.... it seems that the integration of SD into higher education requires a profound cultural change more than a technical shift.e.doi. Lawyers in private practice 2021. Considering SD as a new way to see the world and take action. Anand et al. P. J.. References Acevedo. S. . Economic and Social Sustainability. In case of pedagogical approaches. and also evaluation of student knowledge base via education and application opportunities during their educational experience. M. Knowledge of Environmental. According to their answers concerning their interest to deal with new approaches related to SD within their training. research and institutional management activities become mutually reinforcing and create stronger links with the community. They are more interested by field trips.F. The SD issues represent an opportunity for our higher education institutions to develop an institutional culture where teaching. We also Bishop's University and the Universite thank them for their contributions to the book chapter e “Sustainable Development Integration Strategies in Higher Education: Case Study of Two Universities and Five Colleges in Quebec. In: Leal. a project funded by the University-College Collaboration Program of Quebec's Minist ere de l’ education. While only one-fifth identify SD with environmental protection. G. environmental and economic issues. Students were invited to express their views on SD. It addresses the recurring question of pedagogical approaches for SD via collaborating to form support groups of educators. Long-term impacts of faculty development programs: the experience of Teli and Piedmont.3. For instance. C.

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