Surface condensers: - In surface condensers, the exhaust steam and water do not come into
direct contact. The steam passes over the outer surface of the tubes thorough which a supply
of cooling water is maintained. This type of condenser is useful where water is available in
large quantities it is usually very impure, for example, sea water and river water, but such
impurities have little effect upon its cooling properties. . In this case the purity of the cooling
water does not matter because apart from any leakages which may occur it is never in contact
with the condensate.
The condenser of 210 MW units 4 to 7/Stage-II/TPS-II is a rectangular shell of surface type.
The exhaust steam flow pattern in the condenser is down flow. The circulating water flow is
of double pass type and the lower tubes are in series with the upper tubes. The condenser is
with divided water boxes to have the tube nest in two parts in order to have 50% operation
during on load leak testing and maintenance. The circulating water system is of closed circuit
type with a cooling tower. The condenser primarily comprises of

Condenser supports

Hot well

Condensing chamber

Condenser neck

End tube plates

Tube nest

Water boxes

Air removal system

Steam dumping device.

The condenser is rated to handle 442 t/hr. of exhaust steam at the parameters of
0.1033 ata and 46.1O. C

Condenser .Fig.

This kind of support for condenser ensures effective dampening of vibration and shock and also gives provision for thermal expansion of the LP cylinder of the turbine. Prior to putting the system back in operation. jacking screws provided with spring support should be used for ensuring water weight being passed on to them.1. Condenser Supports The condenser is supported on 24 springs in the two rows (2 x 12) in order to have flexible connection with the turbine. It is a water reserve in the thermal cycle along with de-aerator and boiler drum. empty weight of the condenser is taken by the springs along with partial operating weight. Condenser supports 2. The purpose is to separate the condensate condensed in each half of the condenser nest for better identification of tube leaking zone. to avoid over stressing of springs. While conducting hydraulic test in the shell side of the condenser water is to be filled up into steam space up to one meter above the top tube row. Hot well is divided in the middle through a partition. Prior to filling water into condenser steam space for testing. The remaining operating weight is taken by the turbine foundation. It is rigidly connected to the base (Bottom half) of the LP cylinder of the turbine. Fig. Conductivity measurements are to be done in each . condenser must be floated over springs to avoid excessive upward thrust being passed on to the turbine foundation. It also collects the drains entering through flash boxes. condenser neck and condenser itself. Since the condenser has been floated over the springs. Hot-well: The Hot well is in the lower part of the condenser to form a storage tank for main condensate.

6. 5. There are 4 end tube plates. which separate the water boxes from the condensing chamber. Normal water level in the hot well is 750mm and its capacity is designed to be for 3 minutes of pumping by a CEP. The make-up water line and LP bypass steam lines join the condenser at the neck. . The thickness of the tubes should be as small as possible to have high rate of heat transfer. It is floated on spring supports and welded to the condenser neck and it’s top. to have divided water box construction. of tubes are provided in the condensing zone and 1240 Nos. The end tubes are cladded with stainless steel plates on C.W side for corrosion protection. The circulating water tubes have been roller expanded into end tube plates. These tube plates ensure a perfect sealing so that the purity of the main condensate is not affected.condensate outlet from the hot well to give a warning of any leakage of circulating water into the condenser. The hot well is provided with 2 level columns having level glasses. of tubes in air cooling zone. End Tube Plates The end tube plates are perforated plates. two on each side of the condenser. It is designed such that the exhaust steam of turbine reaches the condensing chamber with a relatively low velocity and very low-pressure drop. Tube Nest: 1. Condenser Neck: This is the part of the condenser to form an interconnection between the condensing chamber and LP turbine. level switches and level transmitters. The tubes are of outer diameter 25. The end tube plates secured to the shell provide support for the tube nest. 4. Condensing Chamber The condensing chamber is a shell where the exhaust steam of turbine comes into contact with the tube nest and gets condensed. 16418 Nos. 3.7112 mm. 2. They are also designed for withstanding against the difference in pressure between the condensing chamber and the water box.4 mm and thickness of 0. It is also provided with 3 no’s of drains at its bottom. Two lines from the bottom of the hot well will take the main condensate to the suction of the condensate extraction pumps.

The holes should have good finish and minimum ovality. A computerized design is used to optimize tube spacing. These intermediate support plates serve the following purposes:  To support the weight of the tubes thereby preventing sagging of these tubes  To provide increased strength to withstand the force of direct impingement of the exhaust steam. tube cross section and condensing surface of the condenser.5 degree towards the front water box side for self-draining during circulating water pump tripping or plant shutdown. Two front water boxes are divided horizontally to have 2 passes of the circulating water. The tubes are placed horizontally with an inclination of 0. uniform distribution of the steam over the whole condensing surface and equal pressure at the top and bottom rows of tubes. Quality of expansion joints determine whether there is any seepage of cooling water into steam space which has a bearing on the scaling of the water wall tubes of the boiler. To ensure very high quality of the expansion joints the expansion is carried out by torque controlled expander tools. 5. there are totally 4 water boxes. The steam then flows sideways from these lanes into the tubes 7. 4. The inlet and outlet circulating water pipes join the front water boxes through expansion joints. steam purity and silica deposition on last stage turbine blades.  To curb flow induced vibration. The water makes its entry at the bottom and leaves at the top of the front water box. The tube spacing is broken up to a large extent by the arrangement of the condenser tubes in bundles. Wide lanes from top to bottom are left between the tube bundles so that the steam can also reach the lower rows of the tubes without incurring appreciable pressure loss. The expanders should be set to achieve 7 to 10 % wall thinning The intermediate tube plates at twelve places on each side provide the support for the tubes.3. The principal factors to be taken into consideration when determining the tube spacing are low steam velocity between condenser tubes. Water Boxes: Since the condenser is constructed with divided water boxes. Water box inside surfaces have been protected against corrosion by application of protective coating over the surfaces in contact with the . All the water boxes are provided with vents and drains. Method for making tube to end plate expansion joint on at both ends of the tube is by roller expansion. The reversing chamber at the rear acts as an interconnecting chamber for bottom and top passes.

At the bottom space of the tube nest of each side. load throw-off etc. The pressure of bypassed steam has already been reduced partially due to throttling in LP bypass control valve. injection of main condensate into the bypassed steam is done here to reduce the temperature. Since the air and uncondensed vapour flow over the surfaces of 1240 Nos. Steam Dumping Device: Two numbers of Steam Dumping devices are provided for the condenser for dumping bypassed steam (from LP bypass system) directly into the condenser during start-up. so as to enable ejection is known as AIR OFF TAKE SYSTEM. Water boxes incorporate hinge arrangement to facilitate the removal of cover for enabling leak detection. This uncondensed vapour and the air will have to be removed by means of ejectors in order to sustain the vacuum inside the condenser. Air off Take System: Although the condenser is theoretically expected to condense the entire quantity of exhaust steam. which collects the uncondensed vapour and the air from the condenser. the reduction in specific volume of the air and the uncondensed vapour takes place (due to temperature reduction) resulting in reduction of the volumetric load on the ejectors. a horizontal pipe with perforations at its bottom surface only is provided for collecting the air and the uncondensed vapour. .. Each device is provided with an orifice plate which reduces the bypassed steam pressure to approximately condenser pressure. the pattern of exhaust steam flow is ‘Down Flow’ and the exhaust steam gets condensed before reaching the bottom. The system. of circulating water tubes separately provided in air cooling zone. Hence the air and the uncondensed vapour will reach the bottom space of the tube nest in each side.. 9. practically a small quantity of steam will remain in the vapour state along with the air ingresses into the system and non-condensing gases. A zone called as ‘air cooling zone’ is formed below these 2 pipes. there is vacuum inside these pipes. 8. re-tubing and cleaning of tubes etc. As explained earlier. The air and the uncondensed vapours existing at the bottom space (above the hot well water level) gets sucked (through the air cooling zone) into these horizontal pipes are in communication with the ejectors through two vertical pipes. Moreover.circulating water.

w. of tubes 15330 nos. Steam dumping (throw-off) device 2.83 m/s Pressure drop C.100% steam dumping can be carried out in condenser for a maximum duration of 10 minutes. and within this time.9 – Condenser Specifications Type Surface type. temp rise 10.4 x 0.W.18 mwc side C. x 25.W. Unit operation is required to be brought down to 60% and then the Unit may be operated continuously.3) TECHNICAL DATA OF 210 MW UNIT 6/STAGE -2/TPS-II CONDENSER:Design Features: Table 3.W. flow 22. Design c. Tube O. Tube material Stainless steel welded ASTM A 249 TP 304 Surface area 13727 M2 C.500 m3/hr Design cold wate 320c temp. Design back 76 mm of Hg (abs) pressure No.80c . 4. Fig.D. velocity 1. double pass with divided water box construction.7 thick thickness.


The diameter of the tower is progressively reduced from 94. NEYVELI:The entire shell of the hyperbolic cooling tower is supported by 72 diagonal columns on a foundation rim beam. main distribution duct and a branch R.C. From these ducts.C.). (R.42 metres at sill level to 53. the water is distributed through A. 1.) and the hot water enters the distribution network at 10 metre elevation.C.0 meters). From basin floor. the hot water flows up to middle of the basin through two hot water ducts.DESCRIPTION OF NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS OF STAGE-2 /TPS -2/NLC.4 meters at top (Elevation 124.0 metre).9 metres at neck (Elevation 89. The hot water from each riser is distributed with a R.C. the hot water rises through risers (R. Precast columns and beams support the internal fill.C pipes which are fitted with nozzles and sprayers (Poly .duct. Hot Water Distribution Arrangement: The hot circulating water leaving from both water boxes of the condenser flows in a single pipe (called hot water tunnel) towards cooling tower. Then it is increased progressively to 59.C.C. From the hot water pipe.

Operation Data: Table – Cooling Tower Specifications Type Natural draft type No. They are arranged in 18 layers. Basin of the tower has a partition wall for independent operation.C. the wind baffles are form the top of the basin to the bottom of the fill. 270c Design relative humidity 50% Approach. due to this arrangement. Basin: R. carryover of water by wind is reduced. 4.7 m Top diameter 49. 50c COOLING TOWER SAMPLE PERFORMANCE CALCULATION: - .9 m Throat diameter 46. 320c Ambient wet bulb temp. The cold water collected at each half of the basin is led through C.77 m Flow 25. Internal fill: The internal fill is of precast pre-stressed concrete splash bar (Laths). Wind baffles are provided to avoid a break-through of air during strong wings.000 m3/hr Range of cooling 110c Recooled water temp. hyperbolic. The vertical spacing of layers is 300 mm and horizontal spacing is 150 mm to 200 mm.Urethane). The length of the wind baffle is equal to the half of the radius from the outer end of basin.I Screen to a common channel. 3. The basin can be isolated from the channel by wooden stop logs and intermediate clay filling arrangement. double curvature shell with a big beam at the base supported on rocker columns Total height 117 m Base diameter 78. This channel takes the cold water to fore bay of circulating water pump house. 2. 1 for each unit Construction type Reinforce concrete.

1ºC to = 32.The reading for our calculation is taken from cooling tower of UNIT-6/STAGE–2/TPS-2/NLC.5 ºC .1 ºC twb= 25. Circulating cooling water at the inlet of cooling tower Circulating cooling water at the outlet of cooling tower Wet bulb temperature (WBT) ti= 38. NEYVELI.

0085 x 1.to) = 0.1) ºC = 6 ºC Now.Wet bulb temperature Approach = ti . iv. Range = Circulating water inlet temperature at cooling tower inlet Circulating cooling water at the outlet of cooling tower.6 % iii. Effectiveness of cooling tower Range = Range + Approach R X 100 % Effectiveness = R + A X 100 % 6 = 6.94 m /hr. 6 So. So.i.8 x 33000 x 6 3 in m /hr.1 .6 ºC ii. = t i .8 x circulating time x (ti .25.1 – 32.6 + 6 X 100 % = 47. Heat of water = 1 kcal/kg K) 6 = 198 x 10 kcal/ hr.twb = (38. Approach = Circulating cooling water at the inlet of cooling tower .0085 x 1.to Range = (38. Evaporation loss = 0. 3 = 302. 198 x 10 kcal/hr of heat is being rejected into the atmosphere through the cooling tower. 60 .5) ºC = 6. Heat load = mass of circulating water x specific heat of water x (ti .to) 3 = 33000 x 10 x 1 x6 (Sp.