Way and










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S RadhokTishnan



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of Datta, most gcaaaus
Ladj, Her Highness Sri Kcmpu Cheluvajammanm Aram,
u ho show cd

the light

of Mysore, an example of the highest
order of Indian womanhood, a great detotee and a
the )usorani

hi trig and bemgn mother,





most respectfully dedicated by her


son, Jaja ChamarajalVadijar

To Mrs. Adiraja Urs,


mc an

mj maternal grandmother, who


herself a great vpdsakj
rcspcctfvUj dedicated


Lord Datta, and nas

of the Lord,


Wadij at.



h\c and the
jay a Chamaraja


deepest respect bj her grandson,


we way of life. This synthetic vision which is the characteristic of Hindu thought from its beginnings in the Veda has in it the healing different religions. life and history. Datidtreya. The Upanisad says. Religions spring from the encounters of human beings with the Absolute Reality that is and at the same time beyond all the 'I m phenomena of existence. These treatises expound the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. have known the supreme person.INTRODUCTION In this book. the author who is the Maharaja of Mysore and at present Governor of the Mysore State.* rdga-dvesa-vinirmukiah sarva-bhiHa-hite-raiahl drdha-badhai ca dhlrai ca gacchct paratnam padamjf 'cp Ttfartu Vpamsrt ahatn brahmett mhttya ahatn lhavam parttyaja t . beyond the dark clouds' vedaham etam purusam mahantam. gives us English translations of Jtvanmukta Gxta and Avadhiita Gild with his own commentary. Since this experience of reality cannot be adequately described. we must be gentle with the different versions of the experience. The works here brought together speak of the spirit behind all religions independent of the restrictions of dogma. The forms we worship are the splintered images of the Divine Reality. Visnu and Siva. cka eva iridhd s?tiriah one only but conceived as threefold. the radiant one. which offers the basis for a sympathetic understanding The representation among a being with three faces indicates the fundamental oneness of the three gods Brahma. ddityavamam iamasah paraxial. of Dattatreya as t of the divisions among religions today. m any place and m any historical circumstances. When become freed from egotism. The individual soul may commune with God at any time. The Advaita system which this book develops believes in the realisation of the Eternal as the goal of religion. The individual can by austerity and discipline discover he divine m him and establish the superiority of the inner man over the environmental conditions The experience is communicated and conveyed to mankind as the inspiration for a new once we discover the divine in us. Spiritual humility should be our attitude and not dogmatic pride or intolerance.

. a sadhaka. and notes reveal his vast learning and deep devotion. the practice and the meaning of liberation or spiritual freedom arc always interesting and often illuminating. The writer is not merely a theoretical student but a practising disciple. All religions express the eternal voice of upon us to renounce hatred and greed. the nature of the Absolute Reality. His comments on the in the classical scriptures of different metaphysical questions. and gentler place than hope of calling by the The practice of unselfishness in individual and social matters. 24/12/56. kinder. the status of the world. whose knowledge is stable and who is courageous fiec 1 attains to the highest truth. who is intent on doing creatures. 1 Avadhtda GUa RADHAKRISHNAN. the concept of Dattatreya. There is no chance transforming the woild into a justcr. of meditation. the individual self S.Introduction viii He who good to is all from attachment and aversion. Those who read this book will have a rewarding experience. He not only points out how the two writer's translations works arc rooted endorsed by Ins Hinduism but are own personal experience.

The Urge 2.the philosopher (Avttdhnta). 1.CONTENTS page mi Preface I It III the: divine in man (fivnranngraha): x.Epistemology. 3 86 IX 8 x^ x 152 238 03S 240 Index 283 . Ontology and The Avadhftta-Gtla. The Truth of Equipoise Dattatreya* The All-Complete Dattritreya 74 86 of Dattadvaita the Theory of Liberation 3. Dattatreya' Meditation $x 51 dattatreya: the spiritual discipline. The for Philosophy 3 Philosophic Vision {Praiibha) dvttatreva: the absolute A Dattatreya: 2. Dattatreya The Liberated IV 56 The Incarnation dattatreya. Translation and the background of Snttt V A CRITICAL ESTIMATE OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF dattatreya (with its background) 1. 2. The Presupposition 2 (The Philosophy of the Avadhuta-Gtta) DaiiddvaUa. 1. 56 in Life [Jivanmukla-Gitfi) 2 + Dattatreya: 13 21 Sketch X.

own limitations. This humble tribute has been written to interest thinking men in this noble subject and induce them to traverse this great road of love and faith. he has ventured on this token of his devotion. Sri guru dattatreyo vijayate . as all that there is in him is of of his Lord Datta. The author is only too conscious but. The grace of the Lord has been spiration for this attempt to serve the in- itself Him.FOREWORD This book is primarily an attempt on the part of the above ignorance and obtain a glimpse of author to rise the truth.

R. Yamunacharya for their assistance in bringing this book to its present shape. N* Raghavendrachar and Prof M. Soob the and help Rau and —Major Sri Sri L. Sri C. Datta Sarma May the Lord Datta always guide and protect thcml The views expressed else is responsible for are entirely my own and no one them* JAYA CHAMARAJA WADIYAK . know I am book has been scrutinized by them.ACKNOWLEDGMENT I must express my deep gratitude to Prof. May Datta protect them always* To many others who have helped me I offer sincere thanks I wish to mention three persons in particular greatly fortified to that for their unstinted co-operation Mahadcvatah. H.

one the face of 1 Brahma. These are the myths and symbols suggestive of the rich exuberance of India's philosophy. the Great Hunter for the souls of men. My . The art. owned by Dattatreya. It is the synthetic philosophy of the Veda that finds an embodiment his philosophy is expounded in two important works known as the Avadklta-GUd and the JivanmuHa Gitd. the Teacher and the Deity. conch and the ascetic's water-pot.' INDU Mythology and Iconography have represented Dattatreya as a Being with three faces. The discus and the conch are associated with Vipiti. These works are unknown to the wider world but in Dattatreya and deserve rediscovery. He ones hold respectively a trident. The ochre coloured garb of Dattatreya symbolizes sanydsa. the other ^ |. religion emanating from a unity {ekath and sat) indicates the unity of things which has given the ages. and the rosary and the lotus with Brahma. meditate on Him. the spirit of renunciation or detachment without which realization of ultimate truth would only be a half-hearted effort and infructuous in the extreme. universe as being the functions that emanate from one and the same Reality although each function is designated differently. life The four dogs portrayed at the trinity (trimurli) the synthetic vision of to Indian Philosophy down Dattatreya represent the four Vedas which follow at the feet of the Lord as hounds of feet of heaven and watch-dogs of truth. j I Visnu and the third of Siva of the has six hands of which the three right of Hindu pantheon. the ever-holy Lord. His hymn and His song too I Do i ^ expound by His irresistible grace. a rosary and a lotus-flower and the three left ones hold discus. The stemming from the same trunk represent the powers of preservation and destruction which are present in the three heads creation.PREFACE Dattatreyam gurum devarh dhyayannlSam sada&varh tanmantram tasya gltam ca vyakurve tat prasadatah 'Dattatreya. the trident and the ascetic's water-pot with Stva. the Lord.

The Sdndilya-Upanisad holds up this truth and declares it to be the cream of vedantic thought The task I have embarked upon is by no means easy but the urge for expression that surged up within me was like an experience of irresistible Divine Grace (ISvaranugraha) but for which this work would not have seen the light of day The ineffable experience of divine grace led me on to articulate to myself m the course of sddhana or spiritual the thoughts that occurred to me endeavour mapped out to the initiate. I have started the work with discussing how the grace of the Lord expresses itself m man and how it the efflorescence of the divine in the urge for philosophy and culminates in philo- (ISvaranugraha) is sophic vision. The third chapter is entitled 'Dattatreya: The Spiritual Discipline' Dattatreya is both the goal (upeya) and the discipline {ttpdya). In the second chapter entitled 'Dattatreyz. pleasure and profit. The Absolute I h&ve attempted to sketch briefly the absolute character of this truth in the which I 1 . Dattatre}^ is the teacher and the embodiment of this truth. In Upamwd this and interpreted according to the Vedic tradition. This forms the content of the chapter first m have named 'The Divine Man {Isvardnugraha)'. I hope. for* nothing can fall outside the Absolute. prahbhd.Xin Preface and close interpretation mentioned above and to set of the philosophy contained m the Gilds thought This. the meditation on It must be the complete recognition of Its absolute or omnipotent character. He is the way and the goal as well. The the fruit of meditation on the Absolute it sketch of the Absolute is Against it there can be no meditation consistent with the truth The Absolute being all-comprehensive. Dattatreya as ultimate Truth and ultimate Reality is the theme of this work consisting of five chapters.Indiscipline is bondage and discipline is equated with liberation. a bring out the most vital truths of a dynamic work object in this is to present a faithful dynamic morality and a dynamic religion leading to the regeneration the finer and deeper of mankind which is becoming oblivious of values of life m its hot pursuit of power. wiU forth its implications in the light of Vedic philosphy of life. equated with Dattatreya being . To illustrate this truth I have selected a passage from the Dattatreya Upamwd presenting the correct form of meditation and interpreting it consistently with the Vedic spirit in the latter part of the chapter. Meditation is aplme spiritual dj s l It is not outside the Absolute. Sruh or Revelation wherein this truth is connection I have selected a verse from $d\idxly a - light of the teaching of expounded.

e. ontology and the theory of liberation of Dattddvaiia. As already Estimate of Dattddvaiia have herein attempted to indicate how the with Its Background'. Dattddvaiia. the whole literature constituting the Vedic kept view in expounding the truth of Dattatreya. For the purpose of illustrating this truth which runs like a golden thread in India's philosophy. in the Brhaddraijyaka-Up&nisad. By necessarily the unfettered soul way is of illustrating Dattatreya as the liberated while alive. third chapter translated this is work with necessary the Vedic philosophy which does teaching. With regard to it the only source of knowledge is Veda. The ultimate truth is transcendent. This is the philosophy embodied in the Avadlmla-GUa taught by Dattatreya. equanimity chapters of the Avadhftta-Gita the corresponding Upanisadic texts are given. fivanmukta*. puma and equipoise as expounded. A conscious teacher. the Datta as advaiia* This chapter is divided into three parts. Dattddvaiia or the has given a fresh impetus to follow concluding remarks. Daitddvaita all aspects of Vedic the philosophy of perfection and plenitude. for example. The translation is given within inverted commas. equality. The fifth chapter f is entitled A I urge ultimately philosophy philosophy of Equipoise and the spiritual aspirant. translated and explained the Jivanmvkta-Gm attributed to Dattatreya. The body of the tradition is in exposition therefore incorporates the translation of Sanskrit texts. It is have therefore I full justice to in the notes. The second part presents an account of epistemology. I have. at the end of the translation of each verse in the first two resulting in sama. ! 1 . for Critical Next how results this in . indicated. i. In the first part an account of the presuppositions of this philosophy is given. in the former part of this chapter. At the close of the translation of each Sanskrit text a number is given following the * Jhanmukta is the name and exonerated whilst given to a living man purified from future birth and by knowledge all of Brahman ritual ceremonies. In the second part is given an account of Dattatrcya's incarnation as an illustration the gracious attributes of Dattatreya. In a work of this description a systematic reference to relevant works belonging to Srw/i and Smrti becomes inevitable.Preface xiv the embodiment of spiritual discipline is necessarily a person and he though embodied. of The fourth chapter is entitled 'Dattatreya: The Philosopher (Avadlmta)\ I have named the philosophy taught by Dattatreya. recognition of this fact is the presupposition of Dattddvaiia.

the Lord of all 'I offer my salutations to the Supreme Power. Peace Peace Peace. the Highest Reality. the ever-holy. With a view to demonstrating the £nrf^basis of the Avadhuta-Gttd the translation of each verse of the first two chapters is followed by a Vpnnisadtc text or texts presenting a similar idea. Let us not hate each other/* 2 Aum. the ocean of infinite bliss and knowledge. avadhiita. May our study become illumined. . In fact Dattatreya the integrated vision of a seamless Reality. The translation of the Sanskrit texts throughout is governed by the spirit and sense of each text* In a few contexts some Sanskrit texts are repeated* But the purpose they serve in each instance is different. Eastern and Education. expressions are m transliteration. the most marvellous Being. the prop of the whole universe. the support of all the worlds. the original Sanskrit in the text with appropriate reference is given in transliteration appendix to the work. May He cherish our endeavour to learn May we strive together with vigour. the Real. Government transliteration by the 'History of Western' sponsored by the Ministry of those that are adopted of India. that which is devoid of a beginning.xv Preface Corresponding to each number. who takes us under His is protecting wings as Isvara. the mother of all that exists and that than supreme/ 11 which there is nothing more * 'May He protect us alike. These chapters which artificially divide the book into different sections are not intended to segment the object of our study. Even in the body of the exposition all Sanskrit serial order. the lord of amhkd. the all-pervasive Reality vouchsafed to us by Hun as the philosopher. Itself needing no prop. The marks follow Philosophy. specific Dattatrcya. the changeless. * alike. a middle and an end.

the speaker. the Radiant one! Irradiate mine! May you have my the mind. . May that protect peace. ts tnie. 0 speech and power of bringing (unto me) (knowledge of the) Scripture (Veda). (0 mind!) away from me what has been heard by me from (0 mind Do of the not waft my preceptor. May aum? peace.My words are potsed on my mind and my mind has Us support in speech (along with the other senses). Brahman?) By knowledge thus garnered. peace <3) I shall ever speak of what protect the speaker. I meditate on Thee by day and ntght I shall ever speak of what May that (Brahman) that protect me. ts fitting. 0.

One his efforts* sense in which is it is day the truth flashed across my mmd> So many things cleared up. life or death? are those fortunate beings that are regarded as illumination? What are they fortunate? Who endowed with Are they fortunate because because of the grace of the Lord? What is the grace of the Is it something that is given to man or does he achieve it by of btrth or Lord 5 own What m God. The conventional meanings of these terms which belonged to an ancient heritage of which the seers or ms. are familiar mind and the questions I was to us. were the custodians. livara? Is it God the ordinary understood in the world* Is it the truth or reality. verbally speaking. 'Knowledge of undifferentiated unity springs in the inspired men only by grace of saves them from great peril '< 4 God and > the opening passage of the Avadhuta-Gitd by Sri Dattatreya whom the Upaniwds state to be the supreme Lord of the Universe. I recalled to mind the celebrated reference of Vasistha m his YogaVdsistha-Rdmayana {Vol 3-7) where he says that 'the truth flashed past one—like hghtnmg~in between the gaps created by the . It forms one of the passages of my daily prayer handed down through tradition Every time I recite it. on these it kindles deep reflection in my mind. What is it that we What is life* How is deailfi really fear {mahdbhaya). and it led me seriously to consider what meaning this declaration had conflicted with those in relation to actual experience of life.CHAPTER THE DIVINE IN I MAN (ISVARANUGRAHA) THE URGE FOR PH1LOSOPHV I. who shaped the very fundamentals of the culture. This was the message of Dattatreya to the world. the ultimate principle of alP These and various other serious doubts assailed me until one day through a chance experience I was able to gain some insight into the meanings of these memorable words. My constant dwelling words drew my mind into the deeper significance of the expressions it THIS is these expressions. the doubts that crossed compelled to ask myself could not be satisfied by the usual meanings Though contained my given to these terms.

It and adore something highei than om selves which we lecognise and know to be holy but about which we can never fully express oui selves effectively. A clear recognition of this urge mho is nivartantc ajmipya the heritage that has been handed down to us by our foiefathcis. Its expression is or . in the light of the Upanifadic teaching. iai satyaih (Ch. This finally resulted in the formula- which we are told that the whole field of Sruti and Smfli has but one single subject signified as Brahman or Atman. Hvaranugraha. advaita. Sndi 6). Sniti and Smrli. The M<wdf(kya4)pmi?ad defines this truth as Alman and characterises tion of the it as Vcdanla-SMra by Bddardyana peaceful. The Self underlying all existence is the object of realisation. Up. is a persistent effort to find out the unity of thought in $ruti. 'satyam jndnarit ana ninth hrahma (TaiL Up. the men of vision and wisdom. explain. iivam. to pic the torch- imagination more and more until Knowledge. secondlcss hrahma (Ch. Infinite It life. Therefore ful I attempted to co-ordinate experience. Illumination of difficult to this into a meaning- all how DaUatrcya became is importance began to grip became wns an illumination. in iantath. Up.' Indeed. Hvara who strive hard to (the Ruler of the Univcise). What is G) in is to those drives spiritual lie Brahman*. Our seers call this absolute reality. there is nought else than that state of non-duality. The urge a sign of for this realisation the grace of is innate in evciy individual It God. That bcai er of a new meaning and purpose my me for 'One only. But through- out the history of Indian thought . We arc told in the Taitlirtya-Upanipad that words with mind fall hack is the urge—the urge of self-realisation: to love baffled from liulh without touching \{-~yalo manned saha.) comes His tremendous the visible foim of the highest truth defined as 'Real. advaita. it man Brahman* is ckammldvitiyaih t the Vedas.Dallalrcya 4 absence of thought. into highei realms of existence is the urge to know the essence of our being. There is an urge in all of an attempt being made to us which cannot quite be satisfied without realise the truth relative to our being. advattariu For one who has grasped and intuited Brahman as non-dual. The Upanifads characterise this truth as non-dual. Sruti appeals to present divergent views about reality. the gift of God. holy and non-dual. understand the mystery of being. Their exposition of the truth the basis of Smflu is To a is called superficial reader.

called advatta. gives us an approach to reality. had its niche cut out for it m Indian philosophical thought. My obeisance to Daksinamurti. m but natural that every human being who is blessed with a keen faculty of thought there is the latent urge to turn towards the ideal of finding for himself. Dattatreya is no several other than Brahman. The apparent unity of all things js a theme continuously expounded and dwelt upon by the sage Vaststha m his discourse to his discerning and enquiring pupil. identity. the teacher incarnate of this truth/" 1 In this passage the word vtdyd is usually taken to mean illusion But this word gives different meanings different contexts In this work also the meaning of the word is governed m by the context. teacher and pupil. advaita. handed down from very early times m the Vedtc and Upanisadic ages. Sri Rama So this idea of unity advatta (identity) was not alien to Hindu thought. non-duality or that complete identity with the unity of all things. master and servant. Aiman Uvara or Advatta Of these concepts. under relations of cause and effect. that is. these concepts are made use the present work distinguishable These terms are therefore used synonymously. in the light the concept of Though in the course of later Veddntic discussions of identity. had been systematically developed by many philosophers and seers until it was made mto a terse.The Divine in operation makes one a 'man Man of wisdom'. by the vast work on the subject known as Vdsistha^Ramayana This large and voluminous work is a veritable compendium of the philosophy of advmia (identity). be made clear in the following pages. parent and child. In this connection I concentrate on the concept of m Dattatreya as it is handed down through the Ufanisadtc tradition. living metaphysical system by Sankaracarya and his followers Even before Sankaracarya. advatta. . advaita (identity). As it wall t Dattatreya The doctrine of non-duahty. 5 a man a *vipra\ of illumination. It is the realisation of the Therefore it is 'I-ness\ the 'one-ness' of all beings It is of this unity or 1-ness' that Sankara sings: 'Man caught in^the vortex of unreality looks on the universe awake or asleep. non-duahty is sharply distinguished from the concepts of in the Vedas inunity and so on. t x_ the meaning of An attempt is made in the present work to show of Vedic teaching non-duality or identity. advaita.

fails to or the envelope of he we it. 'one should not commit suicide. so long will the inner eye remain unopened. The Tripurd-Rahasya however expert. such as effect and all in things can cause. As long as vision will not cease to be extravert. nescience and illusion and seeing and realising. Transcendent truth becomes realized. there is behind all this in all aspects of life. and the in Tnfturd calls it Sankaracarya's woids it be of truth one attains immortality/* 31 the 'I-ness\ This l-ness' in relationships. finally. teacher and the taught. If we really look at the process of evolution it becomes possible to realise that amongst the many varied and variegated tilings in existence. They have no inward vision. Wander not in mind. The important thing. and it accepted fact that each man again is an has within himself a latent spark which supreme goal of life.Daiiatrcya g can come to very realisation of the unity of Reality The who have renounced the fortunate few. desires and are the l&aranugmha. animal minerals. and in utter con* ccnlration seek the truth. is the message that everyone should try and make the best of what one can do in ilus life-time alone. of divine recipients all few. to 1 says:— Not all the learned. avidyd or mdydvarana. The inward vision dawns on those only who have abandoned all cupidity. father and son. so . This is By own the realisation of one's Dm many is essence. though in reality it is only a rope. is ever present which who life. Meditation reveals all to you. in Maya. In fact whole world exhibits the are in and even life vast manyness a single cogent factor himself and arrive at the conclusion that the effects of the belief is that outlooks of all the beings any being who docs not try to realise gain release from ignorance. attains release. complete enjoyment of spiritual bliss: oneness or union witn Brahman. A rope is mistaken for a snake. As Safikara has said in his commentary on tho Havasya-Upanhad. however. 'sva-svampa as the work mentioned above. is destined to be reborn again and some birth. sec the truth of this. How could it dawn on one who clings to craving for things? Abandon then all low desires and fix thy eye on the Real. grace. The man in whose mind the impression of a snake is created. the Atman? would enable him to realise the * The truth of identity might be explained in another way. Consequently they are deluded and wander away. master and servant. believes in it. molm— complete freedom from bond. that is. The Hindu until plant like the string that binds the necklace of pearls. almahanana by not realising one's true innermost self.

nor is it real There is no opposition between mdyd andjndna—but it is only a comparison Maya is the mirror which reflects the image. It is a means to an end.The Divine in that at Man 7 appears to be really a snake. reveals the truth That truth is expressed in the Vedic statement There is no distinction in It ncha ndndsd ktmcana.„. is actually the supreme experience which can never be successfully described a general hat the ™ X^£^ST L ^H St V« -^tl^^^ ^^ ^ am h C ihl t trace 1 ledge ot advaxia-anubhava. pidna. the. are i„ fa fact . avidya or maya The removal of illusion or nescience. But if he were to persist in looking discriminatingly and long enough. maya or not the opposite of knowledge. Actually. as different as the rope is from the appearance of the snake The superimposition of the snake on the rope is called illusion or nescience. and he I-ness or the attitude of non^v^ty. can be a means for us to be awakened to the reality like a picture A picture on the wall depicting a scene is partially true and partially false. avidya.ake the form of thc b VurnL PmS who would be m<smM on( . Similarly it might be said that the world of appearances is like the snake superimposed on the rope. exist. comes through uod. advatta-bhSoana. mortal ° VV wM e come . and the dream the snake can bite us. If through proper discrimination we can see the rope and not the snake. so too we can similarly look at the world and be in a position to realise that the world as reality is quite different from the world of appearances.„ told in m commanded led Brahma b . and not the image itself—visvam darpam drfyamdnanagarilulymh. we can dream of a snake. (Sankara's Dahsinamtlrti-Stoha—z) illusion. 'though itself false. avidya or mdya. which wakes us out of the dream Therefore maya is like the unreal snake that can bite us out of the dream {svapna) into the the waking state {jagrai) Even Veddnta says the Mdnasoltdsa. which as the spiritual euide e for th We Wc niUation an. It is not unreal. he will realise that what he it it snake is none other than a piece of rope. As the MdnasoUdsa by Sure£varacarya sayS/ the Veddnta is only a means to awaken within us the reality. livara. nescience. So is it with mdyd (nescience). In fact it is only a state of super-] mposition and after its removal there emerges reality The Vcddnta has a simile for the truth It says. without which the world cannot had mistaken for a — 1 . is m m 1 . he to create creatures he would .

Non-duahty or Advaiia is called the highest truth. natural elements and all So the Self is to be seen. He is is also one who of his own will can work miracles anc the master magician of the world. it is about and meditated upon. Yajnavalkya replies: 'Not for the sake of the husband. heard. the of rive. paravtdrtha in the Viptnpurana. though it appears as the many. but for the sake of he spirit docs a So husband become with wife. which is the same as the highest truth. He would tli tin continue U the disciples immortal through His grzcz—guru-fataksa would for ever leave in the world the secret of the realisatioi all and He Brahman. or Bmhmavidya It was from Daksinamurti that it was handed down to the varioui disciples of his tradition {gurummpradtiya) who would cany it or of identity. Hence a man of wisdom ought to meditate on the impartite form of the Highest. God. Even thus will he. out and being witness of all is not bound by is in reality one only uniformly spread actions. It says: The Absolute is non-differentiated. if unattached. and it is the witness of all and it is ever present. mdya the illusion that he creates and those f i< who do not take refuge in It and seek It as their shelter will be at a loss and at their wit's end. worlds. For it is said that the highest self. no way better than this has been conceived to reach the truth. Tttpurd Rahasya says: and matter is similar to the image of a tit) a mirror. scripture.*™ The same truth is expounded in the Madhu-prakaram in the BrhadHwa#yaka-Upanhad where Maitreyi asks Yajnavalkya how one could become immortal. thought dear. atteaita-jnana for ever. property. Apartness in essence is a fiction and so an unimportant notion.Dattdtrcya g into the world to bless his disciples with the illumination of understanding of the state of non-duality—with the attitude of highest make identity. Nescience. the like t this science of ever flowing river of the sacred flow of the knowledge. Gangd. gods. One who is not competent to do this may meditate on the more tangible form which one can well conceive and undet stand. attain to a good unsurpassed.'w. Being the same in form it cannot be fancied that This world found one is in — of spirit superior or inferior to the other. Even if it takes crores of lives to attain. He who regards any of these things as other than the self is thereby shut out from the truth. sons. Uvara wonders. Atman. paramadimita-bhavana. It is beyond It is . the tradition of the illumined one gia mampraddya-pravdha.

and so on is destroyed. rajas. This is truth. then the individual ceases to exist as individual. Rbhu saw that Nidagha who was always doing some kind of action. His was Nidagha. with due courtesy and honour and asked him to have his food in his house. is allpervading. Therefore ask this principle. without nescience. 'O Lord. guru. Air. satya. and death. for the truth because it does not affect me (who is no other answer it foghest self. increase or decrease he is ommpresent. This is knowledge. difference in its Similar is the identity of the great truth. Rbhu asked for fine food which Nidagha got prepared by his wife and offered to his preceptor. where do you hve? . ommsaent: so how can he be asked. vdyu. It is the ever-present highest state of wisdom. buddhi. So thirst and hunger are physical needs I am called disciple " SSE" neither. not subject to thirst becau *e I ^ve subject to the thinking fn>m hUnger r from ° tu 'if' The natural happuicss T pnncple 1 of the mind is at. ^r„ ?a). which is the same as identity. advaita. had not realised what identity. activity.' Vismipurdna says: "The self which is in one's own or in another's body is essence absolutely one and partless. illumination. and delusion. vtdyd. home. It is ubiquitous. Nidagha was living in the town called Viranagara which lay on the bank of a river. Those who favour duality are of incorrect understanding. deva.f the water element becomes deficient there is thirst. "This is divine". Rbhu went to see him. He received his teacher. If the arise. all-pervading and immortal.' 9) delightful story is told to illustrate this truth. increase and decrease of body. caste. are you satisfied with the food. at. sadja The and so on. guru. advaita. was. cann"! haT Te As regards the other questions. tbe WghasTseff purusa. There was a sage A Rbhu. karman. obscuration in the form of differences. » not subject to satisfaction.— < The Divine m Man 9 intellect. So why do you ask me? In the human body if the earth element is burnt up by fire there is hunger and . form is caused by external activities. and is your hunger satisfied? Is your mind peacefuP Where do you live? Whither do you go from here and whence did you come'' In reply Rbhu said: 'If you had satisfied one who was hungry satisfaction would have come but I was not hungry. It admits of no difference within itself But when it comes through the holes of a flute the differences defined as musical m notes. So he decided to teach him the highest truth— paramdrtha. birth independent. After the food was taken Nidagha asked Rbhu. form or time and sovereign and lamas.

To a man who cats there no difterencc in food. is fixed to a place.fl0J I t icaliscd the truth of the self. 'Know t be one only.[n) It to say that aftci the lapse of years IJbhu visited Nidagha again. You are below and I am above. wrsia)nia was to see whether your reply would pertain to the mode of one who had mysclf. I have done so to make you Rbhu 'You are like the king and I am like the elephant. and realised at once from your questioning that was you and no one else. Wc cat because wc want to live by taking in such particles of food to supplement what already is in the body. advaitn-bJiavana as you my teacher.. The whole universe admits of no difference. Therefore what ar* thou and what am I? Tell me that?' When he heard this statement. it is consumed. The elephant is the vehicle and the king the lidcr. He said that the Ruler was on the elephant and all the others were his followers. The reason why Even I am not asked you for fine food. You arc You are not yourself. This twice-born Nidagha saw all the creatures I it . Rbhu in reply said: 'out of compassion for you I have already expounded to you the truth of identity. adwUa~tath% that you may learn it without doubt/ So saying he went away. Rbhu asked Nidagha: 'Why are you standing apart fiom othcis?' Nidagha replied to him that the Ruler of the town was coming in ptocession on an elephant. gu)u and tells lum the truth. Having is in reality understood this. It concludes the story thus. Nor are the others themselves. which is known lcvcals this to forms the as Vd$udeva.' Thus answering Nidagha's questions Rbhu himself as his teacher. aima-iaihm. . keep yourself m peifcct poise—equanimity— samamstha. Who cannot understand this?' Rbhu questions again: 'What is below and what is above?' So Nidagha climbed on the shoulders of Rbhu and said: 'You are the elephant and I am the king. nature of the supiemc The story goes on self. . whether good or bad. Nidagha knew it was his teacher understand. Since food is part of the caith principle and necessaiy for the body. Rbhu asks: 'Show me both elephant and king— winch is the elephant and which is the king? What aic their characteristics?' Nidagha answers: 'The lower is the elephant and the upper the king. {guru). The others also arc the same. Nidagha had the realisation of Truth as Vipmpunlna says. Atman.' replied: Rbhu and same prostrated himself at his feet saying: 'No one else has the pure outlook of identity.Dallaircya J0 Whence did you come and whither arc you going? Because "I am neither the one that goes nor the one that comes. just as wc plaster mud on a mudhouse in order to keep it intact. I am not one who also the same.

dharma. is seen as being white. have done. There othing beyond that. Even mSya. it is made many. n the same manner 0 the knower of Truth. . II thus devoted to Brahman obtained the highest liberation. acyufa. (sdencfif ^en you . Even as space. beyond ich is naught else. advaita-bhava nas Dattatreya said in his Avadhuta-Gita'— m TJatby **»ich all this elf-How am I is filled to offer my and that which pervades the self salutations to that formless. blue and on. I am He. The other person is He. belongs to and it is not devoid of truth. VVhen Suka and the other sages approached Dakiinamurti with ubls their minds. the enemy and the relative are the le. If you ?^»««Mvdy. KnowThe highest knowledge is identity. From death ^immortality is the same. but from the complexity of duality and multiple said to i v to the simplicity of unity. but of action and conation d thus of involvement in a false condition. ^ » w«M listen to it tads is fullv which is taL. O Lord of the Earth. though it is one. error is a matter not merely of thought. you must know that Atman is all5t ocating. From the unreal to the real is not going from thing to another. There is no escape from the Self. from which knowledge ° the only release. un^ and inexhaustible Holy one?'"" The Yoga-Vasisila also comes to the same conclusion. Knowing one is knowing all. What exists in the world is one. It is imperishable.— terentiated it is indeed possible to attain to (this knowledge) which pounded here*. ge is it one.vffl undeka^d the ^StS The conviction that the to . advaxta. by those ^hose vision is vitiated by illusion. He. You are He. This identity this is delusion of difference/* ^ach ists t is js is the essence of Self. "like a musician who y\s his notes and a piece of music kno\s s all pieces of music through idea of notes We may go and find the self. the Lord expounded to them the truth of vt&y advaiia-tattva and the attitude of identity. tCal iftnS IT ith and not otherwise. though Atman we. as the ground which offers resistance to our necessary for walking. Atman Abandon 15 * —the AIL In the world what therefore a part of the infinite us also helps us. you also ! be one to whom the self.The Divine tn >e Man He became identical with his self.ho removal of their objects of the sense. as many thousands cience.

Brahman is the discus for cutting it asunder. then the inward liberated. naught is availeth the world after that once God.' The Yoga-Upamsad indicates what transcendent advaita-bhdvand is like. like which made a man of wisdom Sankara exclaim thus. Dattatreya.e. In the event of the knot of the heart remaining. guru. i. The impure ones are the cause of birth. the grace of the philosopher. without the chance of attaining knowledge. The pure one puts an end to birth.' Datiatrcya 12 mind. Uvara. "I am Brahman" will arise only if the thought. Should a doubt arise. paramddvaita-bhdvand is a matter of special grace of the preceptor. rebirth. Avadhiita. This distinction known a is distinction of dualism and non- the work of nescience due to the notion The conviction. Our desires which uphold our bodies and minds bind us fast as if by thongs to the dissolution of small particles of our bodily prison. periods of time. If this is perfected there arises in it bliss of men the essence of like Otherwise there self. advaita the gift of the Lord. The same {14} is said to have known the truth and to be therefore pure. the . The same disposition divested of the germ of next birth like a parched seed is maintained to support the body. complete abandonment of desire is known to be the best of liberation. the supreme and is eternal no peace to be had by you. the grace of the Lord. The extinction of desires leads to the immediate extinction of mental activities even as the absence of recurring cold leads to Brahman. 'By no means there is dualism. What is of identity. 0! Brahman. It is the It realisation of the great unity within. 0! they are loosened. It is the only correct step towards liberation.. Dispositions are of soul is two kinds—pure and impure. Uvara t is else matters. Brahman must be resorted to as the certain. 'What availeth the shaft availeth the lake after the water and relatives after all wealth the essence is realised? ae) The youth has gone by? What dried up? What availeth friends of love after is is gone? truth behind this statement realised. The attainment Uvardnugraha. of the external When the the non-self becomes the stealer of the self the only guard gem of the self everlasting bliss/* is the Absolute Brahman who is composed of of 153 can therefore be seen that the attitude of identity in the highest sense. moksa. merged in the depths of (empirical) sciences for thousands of kalpas. "I am the body" becomes painful. If ice.

prdhbhad-vd-sarvam.The Divine in Man 13 Through this grace. is that part of the intellect which develops without any special cause and is able to lead on to real knowledge. When the advattapractice of discipline. 'Brahman highest I truth — am'. It is intuition from within. it is a very force capable of tremendous possibilities. mdyt They radiate their specKd genius. yoga. a&vattanuhhttoa Tiie development of illumination. yoga. praltbM which is the gift of the divme is due to a man's latent disposition. He Yoga-Sfilra (11-33). the development of the individual illumination. 2. praMd. Through discipline. the divine spark which suddenly illumines darkness into light It is that which gives through God's or Isvara's grace the realisation of identity. which suddenly ripens through divine grace. For those who have experienced it. but there is no doubt that it W relates to experience. pralibha. We speak of men who have received divine il umination. who have through the Iat nt -° P° sslbilities ^ated nomination 1 and Z 3 7 ' understanding in a world of darkness. 'brahmaham'. yogm) knows all else'. prahbhd-mms. samskara. the it Lord. the great wisdom comes man's immense opportunity to ascend to the highest plane of being: the supreme T. by the iakU occurs. It is extremely difficult to explain the concept of disposition. prattbha- {Svaramtgraha come? It comes Through Grace of Patafijah maharsi all spiritual success is attained. They then are he men who through a flash of Rumination intuit the grand . through the gift of understanding. for the benefit of mankind. samskara. points out that illumination. makes the momentous statement in his 'From the philosophic vision also (the aspirant. he means that by yogic concentration the intellect can be developed to its perfection. How does THE PHILOSOPHIC VISION (PRATIBHa) this identity.

He refers specifically to the discipline of yoga. in which the self comes to true self-knowledge as well as knowledge of reality in its fullness. Morality life. One who can thus find satisfaction with his solitariness is truly a fit soul for Solitariness here from release all earthly bonds by the attainment of non-duality. Hegel and Bradley have made it an integral part of their theory of knowledge. Here knowing partakes of the character of being. More recently Bergson has referred to the discipline of yoga and its claims in his Two Sources of Morality and Religion. The idealist philosphy of religion attributes a revelation to such mystic experience on the part of the founders of religion. Alman everywhere. religion and philosophy. samadhi of the discipline of yoga. we contact reality in its fullness and harmony. Mystics might be those individuals of the race who rise to a higher level through intuition. It means oneness. subject and object become fused. advaitamfta. vision of God in religion and unitive knowledge in philosophy. which its expounders have called intellectual intuition. be grasped and enjoyed by all. that there no reason to deny that in mystic experience the mystic comes in touch with a circumambient world from which saving experiences is come. The experience is called inspiration in art. as it were. Spinoza. advaifa. is man evidence to think that there higher than are perceptible And man can by effort live at higher levels and tap sources of power normally considered impossible.Dattalreya need not mean loneliness or aloneness. Idealist philosophy from Plato onwards has believed m a way of knowing recognised as higher than discursive reason. He applies his philosophy of creative evolution to religion in the book and finds in mystic experience at its best. the oneness of the self. instinct is . In the spiritual life of art. The technique of yoga is indeed a method by which release of such higher powers might be obtained in a systematic way available to the individual and verifiable by all who make the effort in the prescribed way. In the other places referred to he argues that there are levels of energy and power in in ordinary experience. So can the nectar of identity. derives corroborative support from intuition. PJotinus. Meditation. Similarly William James speaking of the claims of the discipline called yoga. nature's way of rising to a higher level of In nan surrounded by an aura of intelligence which again is crowned with intuition. says in his Varieties of Religious Experience.

rcs But it uses reason in its analysis and in persuading xhe to discover the real source of his neurosis. imbued with the new morality of the mystics. Yoga. Bergson attaches great prominence to intuition as the method of philosophic thinking as contrasted Intelligence m its usual procedure in ordinary with intelligence.. points to the results of the positive umtive. Intellect therefore gives us static snapshots of changing realities. c«ta-vrm. m this light will be the line of advance of By example. to be understood and to coincide rhythm may be questioned whether the discipline of yoga through the meditation of different degrees of intensity called dhdra\ia. But philosophy is interested knowing reality as it is. mrvajnata. The procedure of suppressing the to point to the negative waves of mind. society is creative evolution. It must therefore seize reality on the wing. life and in science by analysis Such analysis introduces static phases or points a continually changing whole and places them side by side as in proceeds m space for convenience of apprehension. dhydna and samadhi is one that leads us to the heart of reality or away from It it. intuitive way. namely knowledge. full Also Jung's theory of the unconscious as the racial memory or potentiality charged with God implies that the mind is surrounded by an aura transcending the ordinary limits of sense perception fhis line of thought supports the yoga hypothesis of aloofness kaivalyn unity. Mysticism brings the experience of love as the core of meaning. seems way But actually the result claimed. In his metaphysics. Another point of contact between psycho-analysis St and the 5n an Sense * depreciates 1 reason as rationalisation or defence of unconscious or suppressed des. as it v ere It must be a kind of sympathetic imagination placing itself jn m the heart with its of the reality sought. advaita through intense meditation/saw^/. inflnoSTtte is sought to bl . Creative love is its life's revealed as the essence of the universe. he observes. imposed to help the individual to overcome I* °?f Wlysis Snt Th^sSoSr the pnnaple of the waves of the mind. Mystic experience therefore becomes a w ay of expressing the direction and meaning of evolution and so receives support from nature and science.The Divine in Man 15 m anses from group pressure and is limited to group welfare action. ciila-vrtti.

Since the life of man depends on the nature of the Patanjali's Yoga. mind and soul and preparing them for the beatific vision. and even the few who have had those rare moments of vision and awakening fall back quickly into somnolence. rid ourselves of is our With faith and concentration we can even The normal limits of human vision are not citfa. however. And that modern thought seems to support such a standpoint is quite evident from what has been briefly mentioned above. then the supernatural is also a part If we of the Most of us go through life m th eyes half shut and with dull minds and heavy hearts. But this concentration is not meant to penetrate the essence of the object but only to assist the rise of the mind to the higher level bttddhu Depreciated in the process of suppression. The yoga discipline is nothing more than the purification of the body. pratibha. Dr. ills. It is good to know that the ancient thinkers required us to realise natural.Dattdlreya i6 suppressed altogether to attain concentration on one subject. It assumes that we have all reservoirs of life to draw upon of which we do not dream. in east or west the whole yoga scheme of attaining perfection appears to be only an elaborate process of self- hypnotisatkm. other forces than those of material nature. necessary to bear in mind the fact that from these vagaries. 372-3). mendicants. So it advaita behoves us to study deeply and with faith and understanding . reason is appreciated in the role of intellect. help to make our minds run into Such a view gains some support from the popular confusion of the yoga system with some of the repulsive practices of the tantra cult and later adaptations of Patanjali's Yoga by fanatical particular moulds. mind. S. Radhakrishman says in his Indian Philosophy (pp. It formulates the methods of getting at our deeper functional levels. There are other worlds than that which our senses reveal to us. To the modern mind. htddhi. in its original form. It is. Intense and solitary meditations accompanied by physical exercises and postures. have faith in the soul. of intellect. other senses than those which we share with the lower animals. the possibilities of the soul in solitude and silence and transform the flashing and fading moments of vision into a steady light which could illuminate the long years of life/ The reference to the views is a great deal in identity. of modern philosophers shows that there of force in the claims of our forbears for their belief and the help it received from illumination. the limits of the universe. citta t it is free always within our reach to transform our nature by controlling our mind.

knowledge and bliss. his own self. it is existence. 15 En It Z H and makes all and puts an end the greatest of all and directs the Atman because it has all. a stone and a piece of gold are the same. who is unchanging and master of his senses. in honour or dishonour. and impartial. the highest truth. pratibhdSdlins. In answer to tht queries with which we started our discussion. we may now note that identity. companions and foes. in everything. his supreme self abides ever concentrated. It is Brahman because it is complete all complete. among those who are among samts and sinners. woksa through identity. iS made to ex P°und the «»«*t ° f the U anisadic teaclu P showing at the tCSt teaCher of llberatlon g « this life. The Sanitlya-Upamsad brings out the character of this one subject of the idstras by showing how as the source and aim of all. at and dnanda. ^^^^^^^ t^ tZ S that nZ l offers ex^s * ? nH I 'V^ te ^ ^ t ?„l meamng ° ° > f ° f ^ a PMos avadhutalva. is the one who is not only liberated. knowledge of identity. sees all as equal. but also the philosopher of philosophers. is said to be controlled (in the rich heritage that is — who 'He is among those hateful and equal-minded who among friends. sat. whose soul is satisfied with wisdom and knowledge. he excels. avctdhtlta. hesv ar« because i4 is U I** world This great truth of the character of the V^°f atUre f graCe am< raha and lt ' has ° given Z Af n the form of their son For thls reaS0n Sic? kn ° W tWs trUth f Dat is to be the ° ZZ* « it is e < i 5? nJ-T hSiSS Sfi T« £ / » ?T ' m - brah?' mvid ^ya fiwnmtkta and ava dllula. Atman. m pleasure or pain. advaita. jivanmukta. For he who is thus poised in himself.? The Divine in Man our legacy from the past. makes a !" . taught our scriptures is rich m m implication and is of practical value. The Bhagavad-Gitd defines the person who is thus qualified: 'In the case of that person who has conquered his self (lower) and has attained to the calm of self-mastery. Yogi. to whom a clod. We then become men of 'impartial outlook'. thereby gaining liberation. living in this very body. advaitaparamartha and thus becoming men of divine illumination. and he is at peace whether be it in cold or heat.' 11 '" are neutral Telated. as a result of knowledge gained through true advaita-jndna. samadarhns. 'The ascetic. here and show* that it is al rCal °P^ .

radiates happiness the life being a man and light. there develops within himself divine illumination. his disposition. samskdra.Datldlrcya In conclusion isvardmtgraha. ftratibha. o{ . him to experience the meaning of identity. a pratibha-idlin. He is the blessed one who through illumination. leading to the state of liberation in jtvanmttkti. may be it is the wherein it is advaita. through which highest truth is intuited. And when first possible for stated that the grace of the Lord step that leads one to that frame of mini. matures.

me May the Gods the grace of speech (as ancestors also assent to what say™ Aum £antih Santih./ will only think of sweetness The words that I speak shall be sweet cate to others shall be sweet. sweet to the Gods protect me occasion I May and which men by imparting befits) and will generate sweetness. . and may to my I and what I communiutter words which are love to hear.

jndna. Dattatreya the Lord. Lord who is dear to the yogis. the tranquil. WHAT a DATTATREYA: A SKETCH name to conjure with! Its resplendence brings what miracles does it devotees and what accomplishments. the Lord whose entire limbs are smeared with holy ashes. maya t investing Aiman. it contemplate the greatness of the incarnation. {kdtyuga) they are the truly liberated beings. The Sdnditya-Upanisad which most beautifully describes Lord Dattatreya sings: 'He who would meditate in accordance with the mode laid down in the Upamsad on the Deity Dattatreya. the Lord who wears the crown of matted hair. the mighty one. the Lord who is the treasure-trove of knowledge. idnta. and discipline.— CHAPTER II DATTATREYA: THE ABSOLUTE: I. There is nothing more fascinating than to siddhis. vtbhu. the Lord who has the cardinal directions as his garments. achieve for its has showered on the faithful followers: truly those who have uttered that glorious name even once are indeed fortunate. digambara. Thus aum! the truth. the glorious Lord. the Viho is the witness of all. delighting in His own marvellous power. lild. the Lord with eyes opened wide like full-blown lotus flowers. avatdra. ptdua-yoga-nidht. siddhd-sewta. prabhu. dhna-mayd-rata. Even in the age of hah. the Lord who is the one philosopher. and invested with distinguished limbs. forth a splendour unimaginable. yogijanapnya. bhaktanukampin. the Lord whose activities are his sport. the Lord who the world-teacher. itva. of the supreme Lord as Dattatreya. calurbdhu. such a one. released from all sins will attain beatific bliss. uddrdnga. jatdjtltadhara. yoga. the Lord tender to his devotees. the gracious. the Lord who is is vttvaguru. sarvasdksin and the Lord who is served by accomplished adepts. the Lord of Lords. avadhuta. the Lord four-armed. bhasmoddhillitasarvdnga. praphulla-kamalekscma. the Lord who is lustrous like sapphire indrantla (in complexion) tndranttanibha. Thus the . To touch the lotus feet of even those devotees is punya or holy merit.

his means who is informed meditates Dattatreya'. soham. donated himself to Atri.< Dattdlreya 22 This meditation conjures up before our mind's eye a supernal vision ineffable and incommunicable in a woefully inadequate language. who was engaged in the most arduous of penances and who wished for a son which he lacked and for the reason that Atri's son was born of Anasuya. There are several mystic formulae same Dattatreya which enable a devotee to attain to all that his heart may devoutly wish of terrestrial and celestial happiness. by Lord Narayana thus: 'I am the Datta. as the creator (himself Dattatreya) that one who has given unto Brahman. It is the form that lures and fascinates the devotee's mind that becomes merged in it.. like 'Siva I am'. dhydna.. taraka.' 231 The name of Dattatreya is the boat. dattoham. {Ihara} or the realisation of the 'I-ness' as being the fusion . Brahma the i. sets his eyes II Datlatreyam\ Thus begins the meditation.e. towards his devotees. i. whose unconcealed with raiment. for these reasons Further. What does the nomenclature of Dattatreya mean? Why was he ' ' called Dattatreya? it known The Sdndilya-Upanisad says: 'Wherefore then is as Dattatreya? For the reason that the resplendent lord. 'dattoham' (the great Lord devotees the sentience of the peerless to be employed for the attainment of the state of the non-differentiated Brahman) does not have to go through the vortex of worldly existence. of the Lord. it is the divisible-indivisible form.e. whose four arms semble the petals of the lotus. It may be mentioned in passing that the conception. this name it is known as Dattatreya. that enables a devotee to cross the ocean of life with success.(22) represents the partly divisible and partly in- form of Brahman: 'Then of that Lord whose own energy divisible manifests itself in his creative play. Dattatreya'. 'I am Datta. and whose form is spotless in its re- purity and sinlessness. . mightily pleased as he was. iivoham and 'He I am'. It is the vision of a splendid form on which the devotee and becomes ravished. Atri. The ihka (prayer) is replete with ideas each one of which needs to be elaborated upon in order that we may grasp the fullest significance and quintessence which brings balm to man's afflicted soul. whose form beautiful body is who is is filled with compassion that of Dattatreya. implies the complete unity of the individual (jiva) and the of the supreme.

in The next name Dattatreya as Siva.s aI *' tilas > «s is Siva is became Dattatreya. the east. He is mdeed the south. He is mdeed the below. the three orders of society. and the one whose grace is the world's blessing. as applied to Dattatreya b and 2 U Prim rd beB * Mahe^> *£2 S£££ n h? mfoId SpQrt ' ™ T^tT Dattatreya and Dattatreya °. bhivah. vwui and mahetvara). ksatra and vaisya) and the three sacrificial fires {gdrliaspalya. bhargo devasya dhimahi. jndna. dhyo yo nah pracodaydt). m and they constitute the pranava. tfirce tins great He. the absolute identity. He is indeed all Dattatreya is the form of this God full visible. paramd&vaxia or the highest of goodness umtive experience. He is indeed the north. Stva means the most Auspicious one. hva-iakh-axkya. the great wizard sports with his wonder-working power. while playing with his own creative power assumed the form of Dattatreya. the gods {brahmd. awn). He is visnu. abounding with abundance. m the powers. He is indeed the back the west. who is plenitude of his heart Df all beings. Yajus and Sama). h. suvah). gdyatrl consisting of three steps {latsaviiuh varetiyam. He is indeed the front. As Siva. three Vedas (Rk. vamas {brahma. lokdnugraha-karana The great Lord.1 The Absolute Datldlreva 23 and energy. jagannalha. This passage aims at explaimng the fact of complete identity of Dattftreya L MaheW The attribute hva. Three vydhrits (mystical exclamations) [bhilh. Dattatreya is the most auspicious Tins signifies that without his grace nothing else can be attained For this reason he is in daily prayer generally described as the Lord signifies of the World. He is brahmd. may I bnng forth the progeny'. 'iivam'. dhavaniya and dahstndgnt) came into existence. That alone is the highest knowledge. mdyd. who pervades all and is seated in the God Mahesvara.'"*" So the great Lord Maheswara. Afterwards from Him who was performing penance three letters came into being (These three letters are a. He is indeed the above. u. in the intensity of thought wished 'may I become many. He is intra He is all gods and all creatures. So Siva .

Siva. and knowledge. . If you meditate on ndrdyana as Dattatreya .(20 >. this identity of Godhead is the highest truth that can ever be conceived. . This principle. This truth alone ought tions to Dattatreya >. the ever Holy. This explains is ndrdyana himself. cogitation. {narayana) said: 'Meditate on my essence which is pure and which is the same as truth. Salutation to Dattatreya is salutation to Siva i. how Dattatreya who is &iva> (bondage) birth and death. dhydna." Tell me that 0 revered sir!' Requested in this manner.. saddiiva. pertaining to Dattatreya is SadaSiva.. It .Daffdireya 24 who understands all. cit.. satya. by the process of meditation.'. It may be noted in this connection that the seer or preceptor of the sacred mantra or syllables. meditates 4 Siva as applied to Dattatreya brings out the character of this identity. This truth is t . is . the same [ndrdyana) becomes the boat. Dattatreya is the subject matter saddiiva r§ih daitdircyo devatd. the highest God as t2G) This passage evidently I am he* becomes the knower of Brahman/ presupposes complete identity of Brahman. The Daitdtreya-Upanisad repeatedly mentions *Sada£iva seer.. This revealed as the All-God. ' « to be understood. If the truth were otherwise how can the knower of Dattatreya be the knower of Brahman? MaheSvara himself is Dattatreya. bliss. upon him (Dattatreya). vh\m rudra and so on. i. This is why is he is brahmd. MaheSvara is Brahman. This unity. an interesting fact. The character of this identity is further brought out by studying an earlier passage of the Upanisad where it is said 'Narayana himself (28) The same idea is further illustrated as 'Brahma is Dattatreya* requested Narayana "who is the boat (that helps us in crossing the ocean of bondage or life in the womb). etc. It begins with saluta120 * and concludes with salutations to Siva< 27 Siva in this connection is sada&va himself.. This all is spiritual the hymns. Further one who indeed by means of knowledge. application. i. updsand and understanding. or mahdvara the identity of God-head in one supreme mechanical process of the conception of identity.e. as "I am in all circumstances Datta. by a hymn.. mantra. r$i in t mantras. because he is the how mahdvara is God of Gods. It is not a It is attained to is saddiiva. Hence Dattatreya is no other than saddiiva. Dattatreya is Brahman.e. vijndna. MaheSvara and Dattatreya. idea is further illustrated pertaining to Dattatreya.e. The same is the the object of meditation. Dattatreya himself". the boat that takes one across the ocean of womb. dnanda.

thus achieved. to lead the life of it and thus to understand it is the most auspicious thing. Siva and also of one who has through deep contemplation of the form 'That (para-brahman) am I'. Peace is that great quality of that which is auspicious. This means that is auspicious. is tranquil. The realisation of this identity that exists. is is IV The next attribute who Dattatreya 'Sdntam'. 'the tranquil*. To meditate on this truth. Santa. He is auspicious. It is indeed the identity that recognises all sense that the identity of the individual Brahman is established. with the stalk of the lotus otu s aped navcl * th God of « • • ! . form of prayer to is: 'Perfectly tranquil reposms on the serpent couch. PrCSCntS P°S * ' ' ^ re ? himself' «. Sastdhara e <^ *« 'Meetly tranquil md wearin S the moon iteelf t0 ° l0tus seat ' f tran is: atWbute Wearin S the moo » ' itself the the usual apellation of Siva. To reabse it is to be the truth This how Dattatreya maheSvara and maheSvara is Dattatreya. It stands for complete identity of all. the truth of Siva. Santa. The Upanisad brings out 25 this truth in the The manner meaning it gives which vxaheSvara takes the form of Dattatreya is an illustration of the highest truth manifesting itself as Dattatreya and of the complete identity of God-head to the name of Dattatreya. fiva is in this and the universal self. Stva.Dattatreya: The Absolute Brahman. advatta To master it is to realise it. It is in not the identity that ignores or negates the world. His disposition is one of peace. brings out his disposition. It self. He is tranquil sTva'msllL^^ ^er - Zl^fZ 84 aUSpid0US f0rm ° f pn J*!?5 « * i J" . It is itself the truth of mahesvara. as well as its process is itself divine. He is therefore of peaceable or peace-loving disposition. itself. Siva. the usual SM'S ? vim f tL5 * . This is the truth of Dattatreya being Siva. The is word tranquil. peace within and peace without. Stva. This is beautifully illustrated in the Stva-Raltasya. sohambhdva attained identity with the auspicious. is Smiilarly.

As an pleased with the sight of the rain-bearing cloud. The comparison of the rain-bearing cloud has the special advantage of illustrating the pleasing character of raghava. in a later passage. This word also means one of blue colour.e. ought to meditate on this highest Brahman which has assumed the form of a man as T. is . . It describes Rama the highest truth as That. This is and visnu common siva together appellation of iiva he is composed and and visnu calm. Dattatreya himself. which with the root matter prakrti. to one The body who has had even the fleeting glimpse of it/ (32) further characterised as form. is 'Gandharvas meditate upon this truth as form. MudgalaUpamsad referring to this truth as a spiritual principle. rdma> earnest farmer is i. kdldmbhodhara-kdnti-kd7ttam and 'having the limbs of transcendent splendour'. bearing cloud of the rainy season'. establishes the unity and identity of the Deity.. One comes to have the C same form/ t33 \ Several other Upanisads make use of the same idea under different denominations. His body is deep blue. 'That spiritual principle assumed the body which gives liberation. f 1 ^ roil \ ? Dattatreya is * ^ ( described as resembling the complexion. It presupposes the moksa. Upamsadic view of the highest truth. 'one whos* body is so pleasing as the rain. ujvaldngam. so the devotee pleased with the sight of the form of the blue-hued Dattatreya. gem called indramla in This term means that his body is of the colour of indra-mla (sapphire) gem. indra-mla niblta. signifies t the pleasing nature of the concept of the truth.. meditate without break on Raghava whose as pleasing as the rain-bearing cloud of the rainy season and has the limbs of transcendent splendour. that on which one meditates. of pure crystal body is . Rdmapiirvatdpmyupanisad presents this idea as sydma.Dattatreya 26 As Dattatreya sdnta. I .'* 34 Rdmarahasya-Upanisad brings out the significance of H^S3 > * with the idea of attaining liberation I meditate upon the supreme self as being blue in colour having the splendour this idea thus: 'Only . is blue in colour.. purusa says. riipa. Let us understand the significance of this attribute. brahmana.' (36) 'The putting together of 'berg in blue colour' 'having the splendour of pure crystal'. who One becomes is devoted to Brahman. ' > . Therefore one riipa. of navy mohair in colour.

the highest of those that are attainable. the father. prabhu. universe. the foremost. The whole idea presented by the 'all-powerful \ prabhu who resides in all like a light. It is thought by modern scholars that to attribute body to God is theism (the theory that God is a person). (him) indeed who is all God who created the Vedas. to attribute a body to God is to WW uruier DJ7 attributing a body to God. he grasp of our mind more easily than when he ^ff. as well as men That the highest essence of visnu which the of wisdom realise without fail/* 37 Passages like these support is ' same conclusion. Ordinarily the He word master is used But the Up&nisadtc sense really the is to of the Sanskrit master of the mean a leader or ruler. But the Upamsadic different. 15 According to it. Attributing a body does not necessarily the limit the limitless'. jyoti becomes an illustration of how of all t things m the world he alone is pleasing. word prabhu totally is different. The Sarabha-Upamsad says: 'Hun who is the master. Therefore a reference to modern ideas may be of some use. Dattatreya: The Absolute 27 vr Dattatreya is all-powerful. of .* m Z$ ?° Sr?? described terms beyond comprehension This character a or ' called wdm-ntta'. the only source of knowledge. It only helps the devotee to glimpse something which can never be grasped otherwise. This illustrates the significance of such expressions as 'one who resembles the gem called is is and 'Respect to him who is blue in colour. He is pleasing because he is the giver of knowledge Tins how he by giving Veda. the father of all Gods first .. the saviour of mankind. The present hymn which presents Dattatreya attributes all these qualities to him and for this reason he is called the 'all-powerful* prabhu. » is brought '*» *ho resembles the gem 6 VII Dattatreya is 'intent on the unravelling of power mav* m„„ e t! . the highest brahmu and taught him all. the the master. They hold that this modifies the absolute character of God-head. Le«. who is along with Lakpnit the goddess of wealth and who is known as Lord visnu tndra-nila\ the great'. indrantla-prabha.

Dattatreya. vidyds. Ydjnavalkya-Upanisad says: 'This power. The Lord of brahma. tiilvam and vaiitvam.. May Brahman the auspicious protect me. All things. is of three aspects. Having thus shown things N?simhottaratdpany-Upani?ad says: it creates the illusion of it to be separate from itself and nescience. mdyd. a view to understanding Upanisadic passages may be this.Dalldireya 28 Dattatreya intent on unravelling the power. Itself predominant. The on his of no power other than creation. good. Sarvasdra-Upanisad adds: 'What is called Mdyd has no beginning nor an end.' * l) 'Being intent on the unravelling of power investing dtman* alma* { mdyd-raia as applied to Dattatreya elucidates his independent character. the highest truth. The Lord of Veda. It existence. is the master of power. as distinguished in the Upanisads. The Lord of all creatures. Dattatreya in view of the present hymn. certain studied.e. enveloping the Power. greatness of this power itself.'* 40 Veda says The Lord of all sciences. With self. vidyd or true knowledge. mdyd. i. Uvara. It is both real and unreal It envelopes all It can be said light. It shines of its into illusion own spiritual The passage explains how mdyd is no other than the creative power of njrsimha i. prdnptih. It can just be by any other termed Mdyd. activity and delusion/** 2 ' This brings out clearly the comprehensiveness of the concept of power. being perfect and one being the other. Mdyd is power. Commonly the is Aiman. mdyd.e. because they are the outcome of all is such that it admits other powers are only itself like its the yogic accomplish- ments yc^asiddhis. . This It is highest truth. laghimd.' <3S) neither to exist nor not to exist. but own power. The same idea is is brought out by Tripddvibhuti- mahdndrdyana Upani§ad: 'God. bad and indifferent are only different items of the i operation of power. The all auspicious at(m. the master of Mdyd. On being described is the other hand. animd mahimd. He does not depend on other's power. This is it itself 'Itself becomes transformed wonderful indeed. is a very complex concept. illumination. mdyd. prdkdmyam. and hence of all learning. garimd. ){m can thus be seen that mdyd forms in no sense a second to the indicated but is incapable of differentiating characteristic. is it neither existence nor non- not subject to modification nor it is capable of being differentiated from other things. It is the sole means of bondage. mdyd. Sanskrit word mdyd means something unreal The Upani§adic use gives mdyd a meaning slightly different from that in daily use.

In or without power. such passages as. and having disappeared become latentfurther. cit. the source of all. those others realise whose He him activities are his sport. maya. vrn DattStreya Lord whose activities are in sport'. itself being of the nature of knowledge. catianya. Again and again.J„ s sport . atma-maya-rata is the author of both bondage and liberation by means of his own power. deva. thus: 'He is the Lord wte ar. Hid. and it is thererealise m fore called ctdathbara in Sanskrit. Finally is nothing but pure spirit of consciousness. unceasingly. there "I" is says: 'The then neither isvarahood nor jivahood. 'That am I' ioham. deva. Manlnka-Upani$ai introduces the concept of deva as* 'The God in whom all things disappear. that invests the self before and is discarded at the end is that which is well expounded by those that uphold Brahman. whether he creates bondage or liberation. He is all circumstances he He is ever the same with the truth of identity expressed as pure consciousness. It is He that is God.> Dattaireya: The Absolute 29 same power. dmnda. te. which is the overflow of his beatific bliss.'* 431 who All these ideas meditated upon as 'one who is intent on unravelling of power investing alman. if there is the disappearance of power with its Vardha-Upamwd operation.imVmiflnas. They indeed disappea^Sd become latent They indeed disappear * in Him and become « Dak mmurU Ufiani ad defines ? the concept of the Lord V : acuities are his sport. aWhty is as the Lord They identify Him as Brahman nothing but Brahman.sappearmkrns^^ time of dissolution of aU l ^ h^zmade . They disappear ttS a Him and[become delved into Him (become of Him or Se HimandinHinilorbecomeof Hisessence). signify that DattStreya is Rata implies that his whole activity in either way. May it direct our intellect/'"' Therefore. who at the E^vW aHd. vtdya. he is described as that which is wrapped consciousness.deva. as is illustrated is m 'May we understand and the truth which is consciousness. the self in God which is one is the essence of the the body with the individual soul and is present throughout the operation of different causes.They enter into Him. in his sport. they again and again see the state of being patent and is 'the take their birth like bubbles. Those who know this truth are those devoted toBrahman. If this is identified as power by means of discrimination.

wife. There is absolutely no duality in this (Brahman) \ and so on. avadhuta. (The root div means both sport and shining). paramahamsa and philosopher. He is He is the the philosopher. He that sage. dissolution or no dissolution. It is unaffected. avadhiita. and son also become is liberated. meaning of the great statements of $rutt\ 'Thou art that'. It is ever there.' He is the liberated. sanydsi. Dissolution does not mean the cessation of his nature. It (the essence) is in the form of the Lord whose activities are his sport. 'I am Brahman'. This is the Upanisadic conclusion. 'All this is Brahman'. He He conclusion. the absolute principle that shines in illustrates all. svdtmananda. the divine activities mentioned by the definition this it follows that all previous passage are only the expressions of the spiritual bliss of the Lord whose activities are his sport. by means of meditation which admits of no duality. It is the light that ever shines forth. avadhiita is teachings of Sruti and Smrti and has his By realising the truth of the He is Nirdlamba-Ufianisad one well versed mind in the fixed in Brahman. is the person who is the revered. how he is in all).'* 48 * . all it lives The deva. By the sight of him the whole world becomes consecrated. the nectar which who has says: solely f In the manner defined so engaged himself in drinking no other than Brahman. aspirant. (It is vdsudeva because as the shining principle of whose activities are his sport'. deva. the nectar which is the outcome of incessant meditation becomes the greatest of ascetics. deva. the is defines avadhiiia thus: The avadhuta. It lives in all and shines forth in all. is is the highest of the ascetics. Even an ignorant man who is devoted to his service becomes liberated. It is therefore called vdsudeva. Therefore for the same reason the lines of father. MW) The From supplements the previous idea. His nature is bliss itself. the person who has selfcontrol and leads the life of his own determination becomes an ascetic. This is the (47) Mandala Brdhmana-Upani$ad far. Creation or destruction does not increase or decrease the essence.Dattatreya 30 the same manner. devoted to Brahman. as applied to attribute 'The Lord Dattatreya vdsudeva. vikalpa. the ascetic. IX Dattatreya philosopher. (Devotion to him) liberates one hundred and one generations of the devotee's family. It is always the same throughout. and having the conviction that I am nothing but Brahman itself.

replied that one was called avadhula on account of imperishability (aksharatvdt). the sinless philosopher {avadhula) he asked. and on account of having the realisation of 'That thou art' as the only object to be aimed at/ to Briefly. avadhiila is one who has shaken off from himself all worldly taint and ties. vwksa or in other words pva becomes itva by discipline. He who has cut himself off from all worldly pleasures save the pleasure of resting in his is the veritable philosopher. Jiva stands for meditation. brahmavid. Therefore the avadhula is literally one who has shaken the shackles of nescience. So the philosopher. imperishability. avadlmia. sddhana. avadhntai Dattatreya. Who is a pure philosopher. at-one-ment are the characterjstics of the philosopher. sddhya. Hva for mok?a. The Absolute 31 Avadhula~Upam$ad defines avadhiila thus: 'Samkrtt said thereafterHaving approached Bhagavan Dattatreya. itva. meditation and liberation.*f It means that he has the four quarters of the earth as h. ' excellent umvoridhness. He is therefore the identity offiva and ftw.s garment. avadhuta. a philosopher is the knower of Brahman. an excellence to be devoutly unshed for. This concept has a profound s^ificance For as the Parmabama-Ufianitad says: 'Pammahamsa ho^vho hll . naturally emerges from them x ^ c^tl T C d Wh ° has carduial Actions as his garments dtg+mban. The concept illustrates own Atman* such a one of the philosopher. (varmyatvdl) and on account of casting off all wordly taint. sddhana and the end. avadkCtta as applied to Dattatreya how he is the whole truth consisting of the means. filled with utmost compassion. He is individual pva. The previous attnbutes explain how the concept of philosopher. avidya from himself or ignorance of misunderstanding which comes through attachment to worldly things without realising that it is eternal bondage. down The root avadhft or frighten means to shake off or to shake out or away (enemies or evil spirits or disagreeable things).Dattatreya. Therefore through meditation comes liberation. He is auspicious.

necessarily one To define has cardinal directions as garments. who has abandoned all.1 Datidtrcya 32 bliss/ one from whom all desires are cast out. dig-ambara. 'Yes. who is indeed a philosopher. From it appeared the (cow) called bhadrd of black colour. all 'having the and philosopher. From this came (the cow) called Nanda of brown colour. From its dung (ashes called) ksara was produced. dtg-ambara the highest ascetic. From aghora fire came. body and action are fettered. one who has as his garment the four quarters of the earth. bhasma. whose garment is the four quarters of the earth. avadhuta on nothing/ 151 is him who as one has who to concentrate philosopher. From the dung of this cow (ashes called) bhasma was produced. dig-ambara. connected with being those qualities that make him a avadhuta. He is the holy one is Dattatreya. that gives the knowledge of the means for attaining liberation'. one who is liberated from bondage of all kinds by which mind. From the dung of this cow (ashes called) vibhuti was produced. (having shaken off the who is bound by shows how intimately shackles of nescience from him) and A study of these passages cardinal directions as garment'. vibhuli . Brhajjdbdla-Upanisad says: teach me the Sndi (called Brhajjabala). avadhuta. From it came the state that Kalagni-rudra) : . From it came (the cow) called suilla of white colour. Dattatreya being a philosopher. XI He whose limbs are smeared with holy ashes bhasmoddlmlita-sarvdnga. From it came detachment. whose possession is only his body.From ialpnm§a came air. From it came the (cow) called surabhi of red colour. parama-hamsa is is the directions as his garments. bhasma. . Thus (said From sadyojdta the earth emanated. From the dung of this cow (ashes called) bhasita was produced. . who has besmeared The Upanisads attach his great sacredness to 'He the well known Bhusuncla came to (the famous god) Kalagni-rudra. body in ashes. From it came peace. From it came learning. From vdmadcva came water. one who has his face turned away from the world he becomes the liberated one in the manner of a creeping worm transformed into a hovering bee. ashes. Having come to him he said 'O God! teach me the sacred significance of ashes. This is <£0) the Upanisadic conclusion/ Sanydsa-Upanisad says: The highest of the ascetics is he whose body is besmeared completely in ashes. From tidna came ether. From it came resort. speech.

and It is called vibhiih because by means of the five names it immediately brings about spiritual power. All that comes from it is power. They are the substance of the world. It is The Upanisad holds that the whole universe representing the universe is power. bhasma. But the universe as it is created by Stva is not without impurity. The fact that the impurity.' whole universe to a single truth has in view the conscious recognition that everything in the world is permeated by the same truth and is therefore a mark of the truth. It burns away all is With the removal of impurity. ksdra because puts an end to protects one from the fears caused ll„ i t T lw decay and bondage. the inward realisation of the union of itva and iakii by burning away all impurities caused by the illusion application of fire to of duality. Siva is the cosmic fire. delusion of duality. it ail sins. is. the higher is the status of the thing in question Throughout the Vedic tradition the cow is consistently recognised to be the embodiment of the manifestation of truth. It is for this reason taken to represent the whole therefore described as sarvadevatdmayi. Impurity is the illusion of duality. bhasma. five - five of of ashes. It is called bhasma because it consumes It is called because .The Absolute DattSireya: transcended peace. that is. the and Sakti become one. all divine. iahtu The cow power. ' iad£va demons 8hora evils. that the illusion that there is something outside the self.cflt^f t T" aspects tt > > e ^ Z £L l *^t***4k9tas and the kindsSo ° ?? Ittl°Z ^ ° the session £S£ ?V Me Universe en f f r . itva dung results in ashes is an outward symbol of the inward union of itva and iaktu The application of ashes to body indicates for the same reason. It is called raksa by the living creatures. mental Mpurusa and Udna are the five fMahttora. bhasita. It is called bhasita because it gives iUumination. The dung coming from it is power.rdksasa. has five names: vibhfdi. They give . It is found out that it contains all that is good trace the in the universe. 'Ash bhasma. universe. From this it follows that the higher the manifestation of truth. It is the creation of the omnipotent Stva. l it ^ S lfitS ?. The same Upanisad states further 'Aeni tbrA . ksdra wAjo.« nna xx~ • . To From its From it dung came came 33 (the cow) called snmand of mixed (ashes called) raksa. trahma. colour. lt is of the philosophical implication of ashes.

moon. As there is burning in the upward direction there is purity effected in the downward direction. For the same reason ilv location of moon is downward and it gets the name £iva-$akli auspicious power.. agni. Siva. the essence of moon which is fire itself. Illumination is like the act or flash of lightning. Outside. iakti. The body-burning causing fear and illuminating is called fire. Moon. Sakii has two forms. soma. it — and having illumination and knowledge as its aspects is the moon. It is power and immortality—fakti and amrta. auspicious power. The know- of Veda . the essence called power.. agnu The body causing power—having the immortal as its basis all beings. This has a spiritual significance. With this realisation there is no longer mere Sakti. is the power of moving downwards. &iva. bhasma. Essence is of the nature of mellow moving and non-moving things exist because of the difference in illumination and essence. the fire that scorches to ashes in the individual any notion of separateness or . 'I am He' is equated with Agni. It is thus regularly merged in fire. For this reason indeed the fire that causes dissolution. (It is above fire) till it lets down the nectar. is r The universe signified as moon is based on fire. The cosmic fire that sweetness. agni-soma is the means of oblation. Similarly. Because of fire.Dattatrcya 34 thing. The upward pull as the downward pull signifies a unity which is brought about by regular swinging of a cosmic rhythm of agni-soma or Hamsa. amrta. gross and subtle. power. The whole world without exception is enclosed by these two. The whole universe is indeed of the nature of agni-soma. is one. It has the upward pull by means of the same fire. Hva and sakii is realised. of lifting us upwards as fire. above fire there is power. The world of fire and nmon. that is. soma is the power. It is indeed the essence and illumination in all things. All causes dissolution is determined to be the basic power.' That is Sakti. ashes. Thus the unity of fire and power. kdldgni has downward pull and power has the upward pull. soma and fire. the sun and the fire. fire-moon. (The idea is this). Linga-mahd-ptirdna gives a clear exposition of this unity or identity. for ledge constitutive of hamsa. the mother them I am in all circumstances the identity of Siva and im sawnya. The immortal amrta comes from fire as fire is nourished by the immortal nectar. It forms the inner essence of assumes the form corresponding to that of a thing. Its location upward. but iiva-Sakti. Similarly. rudrdni or gdyatrl. (The word power signifies) all that is transcendent nectar that forms the essence of moon. Illumination has two forms. In conclusion it says: Those aspirants who understand me as rttdra.

bhasma. is intended to overcome mortality. He is rendered immortal. bhasma is the symbol of the truth of the auspicious. The Absolute He becomes identified 35 with £wa. iiva. with which the body of an ascetic is besmeared. the root matter. the power that permeates all. Thus is the Upantsadw is conclusion. the same as the auspicious he who is bathed in the immortal power following at the same time the path of spiritual discipline. Agm is the fire that emanates from Stvn-Sakii. bhasma. It presupposes the realisation of the complete oneness of all that exists Its application signifies that the person illustrates has in spirit burnt the world of bondage and only ashes. The application of ashes. the holy and becomes invested with that power Stva-Sakti. bhasma. If the touch of the immortal. tSSLT low old constituent. The hymn significantly commences with the word 'agm' and this is in the fitness of things bhasma and is bathed in the moon. prakrlu If (ashes) bhasma is applied and applied to all parts of the body.'' 54 ' The whole passage how ashes. the its all dung are and what presuppolT^ ]s J3d is the reai p-er satva. secret and sacred truth in the manner expounded so having produced ashes out of rhythm of the fire-moon combination is never re-born. These ashes become the holy ash. s the crimination between the constituents. bhasma. It confe from' hem By deluaon. In the absence of its application it causes bondage from root matter. domination. the auspicious and power is attained how can there be mortality? He who has understood this abstruse. the all-consummg fire that leaves no impurity unbumt to ashes. It shows how sacred a cow and daphnes the preparation of ashes.Daiidtreya: duality that may linger. iX S . Having burnt the body by means of fire which far. It admits of no dualism. bhasma with the proper understanding of its sacred significance is the highest stage of ethical perfection. Learning in tlm bas* UCntS ° f ' (Knowledge. It is the symbol of identity. So in the case of those good '(Ashes) is the power of fire people the application of the immortal ashes. the symbol of the m question m his case there remains immortal principle of out 01 row -flung. This is the saving truth. pow of Icaming n gum. activity raias and the basis of learning. frakyii ceases to bind. tamas clllT is P^gunas. It is symbolical of the ashes in which all impurity or taint or sin has been scorched away. yoga is rendered immortal. there h a downpour of immortal power and owing to this.

. of the SMras . is rudra. t they occupy the place of knowledge. That which of rudra what goes by the name is of ashes which fire of is ashes are burnt. . spiritual discipline. ksatriyas.. of those that live as house- holders . Therefore times besmeared himself with bhasma essence of the is at all vitya. It is also an may. . of varnas and indispensable wisdom by whom the mark of three lines by ashes.. bhasma 65 * ought to be prepared/* (Ashes) Bhasma. rudrdgni. mantra of Veda beginning with the expression manastokena* The brdhmanas... the man of dirama and the rules of conduct as well. Even he deserves respect who has given up the practice of the duties of vania and . of all .. bhasma-nistha. The application of ashes indication of moral and is life &mU lays on ashes the of all can never be over- the ritual of rituals. Daildlrcya 36 them it makes them evident. It is in its identity of all. by the hrahmacdrin of the yatis . is borne on the forehead. (Having understood the position is this) ashes. same the highest essence of the ashes. The Upanisadic expressions arc based on great spirituality. He. has thus very great spiritual significance. who bears three lines of ashes^who sleeps on the bed of ashes is the man who is recognised (by Sruti) as being devoted to ashes. the of the application him who by the bath fire is of ashes devoted to is known as who is devoted to ashes. bhasma. having consecrated the ashes.. of those that aSramas ..) A cow is the three-fold guna. all limbs of whom are bathed in ashes. The same Upanisad notes 'Ashes. is.' W) one * Thus in the light of the emphasis that importance of ashes in rituals and daily estimated. however. of do not observe the rules people (the application of ashes) is others all . Those men who practise rituals without the application of ashes never obtain liberation from bondage even through crorcs of births. the He who is as purify By means the sins of fire. three horizontal lines of ashes. therefore indispensable. vidyd that discriminating aspect. vidyd. Its dung and urine have become knowledge.. tratvarntkas.. bhasma ought to be applied to the body. if he only bears even once. The whole life of every individual to whatever order of society he may belong is own way a preparation for the realisation of the (Ashes) Bhasma is the symbol of this realisation. bhasma by means of hymn. is he by whom the scriptures arc studied and understood and all rituals arc observed. I he who has he who has vigour.. be noted that in understanding these passages no room must be given for loose meaning. It . . This expounded by the Upanisad. further all those of the three-fold vanjas.

whose face shone with three horizontal lines of ashes. (Ashes) Bhasma is the outcome of the creative activity of mahesvara with his five aspects. Bhasmajabala-Upanxsad illustrates this idea as: 'Further. this the external discipline leading to liberation. whose body was besmeared with ashes. It makes life worth living. iiva and therefore Dattatreya himself. the God of Gods. pleasmg KmVre^r^ The One all hmbs of whom by upon the are besmeared with holy ashes. aum. It is therefore all-inclusive It is the independent means for attaining liberation. advatia-iattva This is mahch'ara. the D> h. . following this destruction. It It is is devotion. It moksa. It is liberation. moksa. who was attnbuteless. It is thus Bhusunda and requested mahadeva who lived at the peak of the mount kailasa who was of the nature that forms the origin of Veda.L Datfflreya : The A bsolulc 37 marks are considered to be the outcome of the nward realisation. the mark of the destruc- both the means and the end. This is the truth of identity. (Ashes) Bhasma gives all purusarihas. mere mark means nothing. thus—O Almighty bhagavarf Having brought the essence of Vedtc teaching to light teach me that method of bearing three lines which gets liberation. It is the truth of mahddeva. who was partless. Without realisation. It is activity. Jabala tion oi bondage. It is the oneness of means and end. who is!r* ^ P erson wh0 <***n«s the applicaHavinS left body he attains Almightv addS '° ne Wh0 itself '««> cWmues t0 ™*kte having the *ho!e body smeared with ashes. who was the truth of identity and who was auspicious. In following this idea it must not be forgotten that the application of ashes means finally that all those things that are other than essence are destroyed to ashes and there is the realisation of liberation. moksa to the offered salutation individual without requiring any other discipline. mahddeva. is knowledge. It is the expression of moksa. What is the substance of It is clear from this that (ashes) bhasma is the highest of the disciplines. advaila. wdyojdta and so on. bhasma^ ^ annC dcfin k - unl vfftt back. These are the forms of Brahman expounded by Veda. who was marked by peace. It is the only content and form of the spiritual Consistently with. So said ? 30 far ' the ^ kalagnt-radra. moksa.

. In view of these ideas legitimate to characterise Dattatreya as the Lord whose but it is entire limbs are smeared with holy ashes.'* 60 to the Almighty. sadhya* therefore identity. vioksa. of the garment yellow in colour. whose body is as white as milk and who has three eyes. What is the substance of ashes?'* 01 This passage brings out the Vedic character of ashes and how intimately and indispensably (ashes) bhasma forms the content of the means for liberation. Further Dattatreya is a man of manner in * attitude of identity. . jatd. avadhftta. mahesvara. whose matted hair. spiritual discipline leading to liberation. He is is the realises himself He is thus the aim.' tC3 The same observation holds good as 'The > with reference to Dattatreya crown of matted who is described as one hair. advaita. jata. iejas.e. the to siva .' (62J The Daksindniurii-Upanisad presents the supreme Lord is Lord who is in the sitting posture. He is a great ascetic. 'Salutations bhasmoddulita-sarvanga. mahesvata. sanctioned by the Vedas is whose body is besmeared can never be defied. 'Bhusunqla having offered salutations * who is the supreme God. prakrti. sddhaka oryogm. jatd-jiita-dhara. bhasmoddulita-sarvanga. with ashes and whose splendour. moksa. whose body was besmeared with teach me 0 Almighty. TripuratdpinyUpanisad prescribes the sacred formula for meditation. as the identity of Siva. who wears the . He is moksa. Bhasmajdbdla-Upanisad explains how great is the importance attached to ashes in the words. ashes. i. Rdmapurvatapiny-Upanisad presents Rama as 'One who along with root matter. who is the truth of identity. thus one who is undergoing discipline. moksa.Dattdtrcya 38 the highest lord. is adorned with the shining part of the moon. without requiring any other means. advatta-bhdvand. jatd-jfita-dhara. He He and philosopher. jivanmukta. requested by way of bringing to light the essence of the Vedic teaching. Dattatreya who is no other than mahehara is so described. following liberated while living. blue in colour. having the lock of hair reposed high upon his head. which three lines of (ashes) bhasma are applied to the forehead from which there is the realisation of liberation. xn Dattatreya is considered to be one hair. who wears This term means that he the crown of matted is one whose lock of reposed high upon his hed-L In the course of the Upanisadic teaching the supreme Lord is constantly described as having matted hair is hair.

Dattatreya. Hence the concept of the qualified and the concept of the attributeless is higher. vtbhtt. calttr-bShu. We £7' of God w. wbku. the most has his being everywhere. non-qualified a" d allfied attributed is the Ibsolute f t It is devoid of all ^ ' ^ attributes. vibhu. vibhfths great might and supernatural powers (avwitidiinfinite asta-siddhts). The is lower atSdS £ . Dattatreya. . 'The glorious lord'. vtbhtt because from him emanate or manifestations of numbers of accomplishments. To attribute property. universal. attributes previously described having shown how the truth cannot be otherwise than that pertaining to one described as the glorious lord. and being 'all-powerful'. Caittr-bdhn is another characteristic of one who has four arms. viblm as applied to Dattatreya brings to light the greatness of this state. prabktt. vtbhtt. lord. vtbhtt Such a noble one gracious.Daltainya: Iht Absolute 39 xin Further. He is He is therefore rightly called. indrantla-samaprabha. Dattatreya is described as the glorious Lord. XIV 'With four arms'. The meditation on the supreme lord as being a person with four arms is quite common and it may be well to remind ourselves how this conception is far from is bang considered as theism This has been explained under the concepts of 'resembling the gem called indraitiia in complexion'. all-pervading. as vtbhtt >l "» So the term vibhu meaning the 'glorious lord' lays emphasis on the absolute punty and uniqueness of the Lord which can be understood only by those who have the eyes of knowledge among the twice-born or only those with the vision of the truth can comprehend the meaning of 'The Glorious Lord'. who that glorious lord. Absolutism has in view the To attribute a body to it is to bring down its absolute character This is why theism is not the highest truth. have a corresponding difference beta** the conceptions. ana is to intm is highest reality. Absolutism higher than theism. the glorious also considered as the glorious lord. is omnipresent and eternal. Mantrika-Upamsad says 'Those twee-born ones who have the eyes of knowledge see only him who is one only and who is the purest.

itmya because it is above all contradiction. richness and completeness of Reality. dhydna. sarvam khalo tdam brahma. holding respectively. the aspirant. akhanda. for he is also the horse-faced hayagriva. advaita. It is the undifferentiated. the result of on the non-dual. This that is a matter to be appreciated fully only by means of study and meditation. ought to meditate on mahd-visnu who shines with colour of aiasl (Sesbania Grandiflora) flower. It is not mere negation. MG5) presents the significance of the four arms as hayagriva who has the his seat at the Hayagrtva-Upanisad f We meditate upon four arms. The Upamsads insist that without meditation. yogin. shines like the full moon/ <fl0. the highest sign of indicating learning.Daitdireya 40 Brahman. Dhydna-bindU'Upaiiisad mentions the meditation on the highest thus: 'By means of the control of breath defined as puraka. knowledge. so as to appreciate the absoluteness. cakra. This the is that it is this is prescribed the meditation on the Lord with or without attributes. This To hold of the the reason why Upamsads while concentrating on the highest truth confuse the two view-points. reality. The qualified is only an appearance i. though the negation of the lower conceptions is in it. is the highest in the sense it has all the advantages of all other theories of reality. cannot be appreciated. nirgwm. It has all the virtues of the lower conceptions without losing its absoluteness. The word void. the attributeless.e. the truth character of the Upanisads. pusiaka. is than the absolute of modern thought* This is the significance identity of all as presented by the passage of the Sruti as 'All indeed Brahman'. The and who significance of the four arms stood in terms of these ideas. mudrd and book. iaiikha. But the conception is totally different from the buddhistic one. super-imposing duality. higher confusion the commonsense view of things and to deny the is is not to to uphold Upanisadic The Upanisadic statements never keep the truth out of sight. stinya is applied to it following the Upani§adic tradition that it is void. The concept of the attributeless. But is the attributeless nothing? Is it void in the buddhistic sense? No. is must be underno other than mahd-visnu. place of the navel and who has four who has arms. who of Dattatreya . nirguna. conch. Viewed from this point of view. disc. This circumstance in the Upamsads rather explains the richness of the unity and identity of non-duality.. dvaita.

* . earth and Veda. yoga Jndnayoga-nidtn. serves him. becomes immortal what is his form? It is the one that has eyes which resemble a perfect lotus. praphtdla-kamaleksana. which has two arms. praises him. riipa. guru. the Supreme Lord/*"* their intellectual activities. udardiiga* well built and is of generously proportioned limbs is called Dattatreya He who is is itddr&itga in Sanskrit.Dattatreya: The Absolute 41 XV described as one who has capacious limbs. which has the hue and the lustre of the ram-bearing cloud. and Spline. may a. beautiful eyes denote a beautiful disposition towards the pupils and the world (generally speaking)- Gopalapurvatdpiny-Upanisad illustrates these ideas: "Who is Krpia? he is one who uproots sins. which as a whole is the mystic symbol of knowledge i. In the course of the Upani$adic teaching great significance is attached to the eyes because the eyes physically manifest the grace of the spiritual preceptor. Further. xvi further described as one with eyes resembling fullblown lotus flowers. praphulla-kamaleksana. which wears the hghtnmg-like raiment. who gives birth to the community otgapis and . He who is the treasuret . which wears the garland of forest flowers and which is Hvara. all this no other than Krsna. This qualifies the grace of his body and further enhances it.c. All is enfilled . xvn Dattatreya is further defined as the treasure-mine of knowledge jnuna. whose existence is revealed by cow. One who meditates upon him. This passage illustrates how form. illustrates the character and having eyes resembling full-blown lotus praphuUa-kamakkfana as applied to Dattatreya brings out of Krffta significance because Dattatreya is flower. The proportion of limbs as well as body beautiful gams a fresh significance because the face Dattatreya of Dattatreya 1$ is made more beautiful by the fact that he has eyes which resemble a blossomed lotus. on$ who has gracious eyes which resemble the full blossoming lotuses. . with Him and He is veritably the Supreme Power.. So all is nothing but this highest Brahman. .

mayd. jivas are invested with pleasures and pains. indnyas. It is the same as the revelation of one's Atman. not attainable by birth. Consider it to be an individual self. lord of 'I all organs. mdya. but of their union as well The Ufianisads do not separate the two. They emphasise the union so that in the end both become one by leading to the realisation of the ever present the treasure-house of this union which essence. Jndna-yoga is a compound term. jndna. It is pure. The truth of the highest Atman is free from change. death. It is illumined like water. hatred. there appeared ego (ahamkdra). . by the pure ones the name applied to the supreme of Atman. This means. It means either knowledge with discipline. yoga. Sdstra? It is partless. It is free. is is the one only. It is knowledge attained is purity from all evil. The hr&ikeia said. iattva. w He is the most and the best of the ascetics. real — f 1 with its eight preliminaries and motor organs. that puts an end to the net of nescience. In it. Yoga4attva Uftamsad says: 'Vt$f w the well-known lord is the highest of the aspirants as well as of those that are accomplished. The highest truth to be that takes one all sorts of by itself. For jiva is this reason. The father of fathers. an individual self. How then did it come to have the state of being a. and discipline. How can it be revealed by empirical sciences. It presents the idea of the union of the two. also . that destroys. away from mortality. The truth to be attained is beyond description. katvalya. It exhibited pleasures and pains. pitdmaha (brahmd). the net of nescience. It became defined by particular characters. Desire. idstras (connected with different paths) are for this very reason deluded by their own knowledge. Understand'. having worshipped this lord of the world and offering salutations to him prayed to him teach me the truth of yoga yogtns. peace within and peace without. Those that have fallen down into the web of empirical sciences. firakrli. matter. jiva. in this circumstance. sensory teach you the truth. It is defectless. aloofness. old age and path is illness. This supreme being is like a light on the path of truth. It cannot be defined even by Gods.iw? It transcends all that is existent. The same truth being obscured by the results of merit and demerit (appears) in the form hi an individual jiva. fear. All selves. Dattatreya as not only the source of knowledge. (I teach you) the path that gives them liberation. jndna with yoga or discipline with knowledge. There appeared a mass of matter consisting of five aspects which was determined by root itself. yoga with jndna. It is peace itself.Daitdtreya 42 house of all that called jndna-yoga is is called jndna-yoga-nidh.

. cattatiya which is devoid of birth and destruction and which is enduring knowledge. death.'w* The Upantsad has expounded how the union of knowledge. It called it thus- known that usage they differ from one another as mantra-yoga. is knowledge. kaivalya.' 149 itself. sin. nm As to what is is yoga. ont nm consists years slow yoga is of many kinds. destruction and recognition or memory. ^'£ a it*%2X T m S1StS in mind. cumulativeness. really bring about liberation. haiha-yoga. [yoga) is indispensable. also littleness. It is differentiated described The same is for twelve the ei*ht yoga. jnana mean? The consciousness. It is defectless. 'Only so far nescience. yoga. the Sarvasdra-Upanisad defines knowledge thus. it sitting sleeping Understand further haiha-yoga. whose ******* the dest ™tion of the many ways. miserliness. One who repeats matr t attains the knowledge along with m understanding of these that arc after discipline. ^ Jt syllable. jnana. yoga. kcvala. moksa. exhaustion. bliss. 0' Understand them. misery. fears caused by them. which forms the essence of the It is partlcss. birth. mantra M and so on. [jnana) and discipline. is is One the cause of bondage. Therefore one who desires liberation. This at the outset the nature of knowledge. thirst. foolhardmess. Walking. yoga which is devoid of knowledge is unable to lead to liberation. Therefore in order to put an end to these defects I teach you the means. elevation— from these defects the individual self. pain. being different from rajayoga Commencement. ought to practise both knowledge and discipline. discipline. It is ' Further. the Yogatativa-Vpanisad expounds Further. dejection. moksai Indeed. Brahman I A hymn. moksa. What is knowledge? The same Upamsad continues to expound knowledge thus. By knowledge the only source of object. devoid of birth. omnia by knowledge. 'What does knowledge. How can the knowledge which is without discipline. hankering. laya-yoga. shame. that 5s liberated is understood to be pure. eventfulness. existence after birth. is is liberated only Knowledge understood the highest truth called aloofness. hunger. jlva. ajnana. I teach you spiritual discipline. It is reality. maturation and steadiness characterise discipline. at and self. iaya-yoga. la. This is what is called knowledge. gradually well In all finition in brief • is forms. sat.Dattatreya The Absolute 43 delusion. yoga.

At times the word is taken to indicate an idea of sacredness too.. locating him between the two eyebrows and absorption. tnahdyogv. When by means of raja-yoga activity in the is effected same circumstance by the accomplished ones. He is the best ascetic. Visnu the well known is the highest of the accomplished ones. vUva-guru. He is beings. . control. Next indeed occurs raja-yoga. this By him all this is pervaded. him. that is. meditation on hari. that path this so he is supreme being the basis of and is how is real. He is the most real. the light the supreme principle all reality. bodily virtues. mahd-tapdk that shows the correct path. truth/™ is Jnana-yoga-nidhi as applied to Dattatreya the highest truth expounded by the Yoga- no other than Dattatreya himself. yogins. is the The person who understands him thus and who meditates on him becomes one with him. how Visnu . preceptor of the Universe. With reference to the correct path. which is the state of equilibrium. meditation. niyama. yoga. illustrates like all this. dhdrana. dhydna. guru is Advayaidraka-Upanisad says: 'By the grace of the supreme teacher the light that concealed in the cave of the intellect or in the iurlya level of consciousness becomes inwardly realised. He is the real He of all. and the highest of ascetics. praiydhdra t breath praiidsamyama. 'Dattatreya the preceptor triumphs'. a light That in determining the correct this discipline. That is the highest truth. The person who has This is is. But the Upanisadk sense of the term is really profound and it is in keeping with the truth taught by the Upanisads. the Upanisads explain the unity of knowledge. Dattdlrcya 44 The yama. then to the aspirant in question occurs indeed detachment with discrimination. dsana. yoga. intense unworldliness. he purusottatna. vUva-guru or world-teacher. positive virtues of restraint. are the eight preliminaries. attains this discipline. jnana tattva-Upanisad. meditation. ordinarily understood. xvm Dattatreya is further chpmcterised as the preceptor of the Universe. postures. As a teacher. He is the basis of He is in view of verily the greatest of those that follow the yogic discipline. That vision lies . guru dattdlreyo vijay ate is a prayer which is repeated by the devotees of Dattatreya. So Upanisadk teaching Dattktreya is is the greatest of mahd-bhuta. samddhi. attains union with highest truth.

He attains the fulfilment of all his desires. The teacher is one who is well versed in the knowledge of the scripture. The preceptor himself the best resort. knows the truth. his bondage becomes removed. He knows all about yoga and is well practised in it.^ Dattdlreya: The Absolute 45 good conduct. The preceptor The preceptor himself is is is himself the last point of approach. sadguni or saddedrya to evoke the mmd of the pupil a spontaneous reverence and devotion to the preceptor.e. Whoever repeats this once at least. pertaining devot on to vijnu.'"' This passage does not merely present the concept of a preceptor. Brahman. V n \ It stances (samtava) is carries this thought further: 'Further knowledge! What is so fitted to receive J° the ldS e°° d f0r aU «* fa «n circum' all-supporting truth. as the outcome of the teaching of such a preceptor m 'J 0 indeed P^ m f ya U ' l - l who is h& kh Sonvya.. to one who is not pure . It insists that it is the duty of a proper preceptor. The preceptor the highest learning or knowledge. Thus is the Vpanisadic conclusion. The one who has these characteristics is truly called a teacher or guru. The purpose of all this elaboration is to fix the connotation of the preceptor by doing which it JS sought to fix the connotation of the science of ultimate reality. purusdrthas He who knows this. One ought not to teach it without oneself completely understanding it. Brahmavidyd. It elevates him to the rank of a deity for the reason that he has realised the deity within himself and has become one with it. i. There is the realisation of all forms of accomplishment. For the reason he teaches this truth the preceptor becomes the best of the preceptors. He has the soul of zyogi in him. the letter gn means darkness and the letter ru means that which removes darkness For the reason that the preceptor is the remover of darkthe root of is ness he is all The preceptor guru himself called guru. The sin committed by him throughout his whole course of life becomes immediately destroyed. one who . is pure and imbued with love for his preceptor and above all has realised the Highest Person. dharma. the best treasure. Of the two letters in the word guru. The preceptor himself himself is is is the highest the highest abode. is a lover of the all-pervading supreme Being and is free from envy.s not prepared to eaS one «h«« mmd is vitiated by attachment. One ought not to teach it to a peSon vho makes much of tradition.

and has no endeavour to assimilate what he has learned. to one who does not himself go to the has not made a mental effort of his own. and who is stubborn. Without the preceptor. The preceptor alone is the highest sustenance. 'to one who does not know it and is eager to know it and who has all the necessary qualifications for receiving it. If those pupils that have set their minds on knowledge and Brahman (vipras). whose ways are crooked. brdhtnaya. to one who does not the Self. True learning can never lead one astray. vtdya. The man to whom the preceptor is not are devoted to the master to be lovingly served. wisdom. (brdhmams) do not venerate the preceptor m speech. and to is one who has come seeking the preceptor in search of knowledge. Such is the commandment of the scripture. The preceptor alone is the highest aim. Only then this not indeed am I allowed to manifest purely spiritual is my efficacy/ This learning. neglect one's duties. He is the knower of Brahman and he hies to the beyond. That which leads not endued with the spirit of living laborious days for the sake of learning. If a person ceases to be beholden to a teacher who has taught him even a syllable.Daiiaireya 46 in intention as well as in and teacher. he will only be itself to prostitution wasting his time. mind and action (then they never would reap the harvest of their study). then all that learning or know- ledge oozes out like water kept in an unburnt earthen pot. Please do not give me away to one who is envious. It made this request: 'preserve me. knowledge. The greatness of the preceptor consists in his discriminating judgment as to who is fitted to receive knowledge. dharma. to one who who has the capacity to grasp follows the rule of celibacy. It is the truth is of Thou ought to teach it only after thorough examination. vidya which no other than devotion to vistw. Upanisad. vidya went to him who is devoted to Brahman. fed and tenderly catered to. or the God of learning.' m) This passage lays special stress on the following ideas. Is what is taught by the great seers? The same truth is expounded by Veda as follows:— It is well known that learning. brahmacarya\ one the study of scripture and Brahman which is its who it. to one who body. This gives him an opportunity to find an apt pupil for study. As is the supreme devotion to God so is the devotion to a preceptor. If The capacity for privation the pupil is is the test of knowledge. . vidya. So says tl . learning becomes barren of results. The preceptor is the cherisher of learning. to one devoted to meaning. is no learning at all. and who does not will his approbation never reaps the fruit of learning. I am your treasure.

The further that the science am 'I dakmdmftrit. no other than preceptor. This is Veda and Vpanisad. consciously and absorbingly. the one who imparts this great wisdom known as hamsa-vidyd The pupil. Dattatreya is rightly called the preceptor of the whole world is han.' "' inauspicious. and is Dattatreya himself. because he is the treasure-trove of knowledge and discipline. the supreme Lord who shines like a light in the centre of the navel. is the science of He is the preceptor of the world vtsva-guru. must obey implicitly what the teacher commands without pausing to consider whether it is auspicious or to eternity. the peerless. The man who is unceasing in this practice attains to lordship. Man thus learns the hamsa-vtdyd from the teacher faithful attendance on him. The giver of this knowledge is the preceptor. Brahvia-Vidyd itself. there is one preceptor. sajs. jndna-yoga-nidht. filled with gladness. Apart from hamsa-vidyd. soham- Brahman. hamsa. disease and the like. attained that complete identity wfai^ni. mahehara himself. not only because he through scorching austerity. Ml me body is spoken of as a temple and the individual . and besprinkles him with the nectar-hke 'I am He' and 'I am He' will be nd of decrepitude and death. by 1 The science of bhavana. knowledge. vih'a-gxvu. that is. O Bhagwanf This body has originated from sexual union It never found together with understanding. ddi-gum and the one is all. nothing else leads one One must serve unceasingly. Brahma Vidya-Upanivad presents a further the final teaching of definition the of concept* 'He who meditates upon mahddeva. It 'I am He' is the attitude of 'He I am'. He is therefore one only. The Absolute 47 Single-minded devotion to the preceptor is but a stepping-stone to devotion to God. He is han himself in the real sense of the term. The two are complementary to each other. yoga. It is the whole Veda. the preceptor of first He is the very source of therefore the preceptor Brahmavidyd-Upamsad says He'.Dattatrcya. of the whole world. It is itself it fa replete with impurity of all kinds. 0! Lord. but he has tafas. He is han. to one who dwells in such s answered. jnSna and discipline.

yogins. I am stainless. they are also lovers of iiva. I am the all. I am devoid of grief. I am knowledge. I am Brahman. literally to Atman which is which means t merge oneself 'to in the universal ever present. yoga. that being or eternal is. in this discipline. jndna. I am all the worlds. I am the pure. am also the preceptor of all the worlds. yogins. vtiva-guru. I am I the holy. I alone am. They have Dattatreya as their peerless object. &W (7B) Therefore the manifestation of Hva as Dattatreya is nothing else than Dattatreya being Siva. the auspicious. He is is their innermost self their beloved because the and constantly full of love for their Atman. I am the supreme. I am the moon. that pertaining to wisdom. The word yoga is derived from the root yuj conjoin' or to yoke. dtma-firiya. So it is but right that Dattatreya is called the preceptor of the whole world. the beloved of the aspirants because he or Atman. .Dattdtreya 48 I In elaboration of this truth of identity. of aspirants. called pure consciousness. That is wisdom. yogins continually meditate on the supreme Atman. I am the eternal. He is the object of affection of He the beloved of is all classes all classes of aspirants. He is always beloved of all aspirants because he is their love and the object of their spiritual aspirants are always quest. their of Dattatreya. jndna itself. Therefore those who practise this discipline of merging the self in the universal being are called aspirants. XIX Dattatreya is yogi-jana-priya. the self. is in Dattatreya. siddha. I am He. and he resides in them. he says further 1 am I. am also the other. It is all and everything in this world and nothing is without it. I am L I am always He. I am excellent. I am the source of {all things]. All that is is and they always love it so that Dattatreya one beloved of who is Because of this he That true wisdom is is is Atman and no one else but all classes of aspirants. and He is especially knowledge called the treasure-house of true wisdom. I am all that is good. I am qualityless. Atman. I am consciousness. I am equipoise. I am without honour or dishonour. Since they are the lovers of the Atman. I am the accomplished. cinmdtra in the Tejo-bindu-Upamsad. Hvapriya.

Dattatreya is full of compassion towards his devotees. jndna-yoga-mdht and the of all classes of yogins' . sarva-sdksin in the following wordsHe is called the wtfncss of all {sarva-sdk^n) for he is himself the witness of the origination and lapse of the cogniser. and discipline. He is the object of affection of all yogis. destroy all sins of his worshippers and the next. not only because he is the treasure-mine of knowledge and discipline. bhaktamthnmpin. it is the expression of his nower overflow of his bliss. is intent tM 15 he watness of aSftS those occurred dtma-utdyd^ ««v/ Tt1 1« T' C^^^TSV . the toil and the travail of knowledge and practice as the spontaneous flow of the Lord's compassion. ananda. He is ever ready to give them of knowledge. As the witness of he the ' bllSS ' of a We all "S e VOtCCS He is the author ° f on the unravelling of power.s ofkno. preceptor the whole world. This t$rm means that he is the eternal witness of all things Sarvasdra-Upanisad explains why he is the all-witness. sarva-sdksin. yogms. grant them liberation. the attribute 'one full of compassion * towards his devotees'. His disposition of compassion gives a fresh significance to the previous attributes. so as to enable them to realise their union with himself Further. bhaktdmikamput signifies the truth that that which gives liberation to his devotees is not so much their painful endeavour and upward struggle. So he . XXI Dattatreya described as the all-witness.Uedge. visva-guru but because he is compassionate towards his devotees.. All is his creation. yoga. He is the protector of his devotees.> JS« i he • . by his grace. He is all-witness because he is free himself from ongination ds byh Vnllght ''"'^iswhyheisdiaracS Z %1T 1 Aman is Vr > and sacdd™™*« "ad considered to be "nt* thmgs. Those who worship and surrender themselves completely to his grace are under his protection and will be looked after comfortably in this world and He will. cognition and the cognised.Daiidircya: The Absolute 49 xx Being the object of affection of all classes of aspirants. pidiia. 'being the object of affection yogx-jana-pnyam and so on. Nay their knowledge and discipline themselves are the mark of his compassion and an evidence of his concern for his devotees. yogi-jana-pnya.

Iraddhd are his faith. thus attains liberation free from all sins and will not be lacking in the auspicious vision drsti which is necessary to attain success. So the title. Since an achievement of success rests on his grace. It is liberation that yogins feel attracted towards because he is him for his own sake. but they ai classes of aspirants. jndna.Dattatreya 50 the author of their liberation. Dattatreya is born of penano iapas. As the Lord Dattatreya himself say he loves those most who meditate on him as 1 am Datta. XXII Dattatreya is further defined as one who is served by tl accomplished ones. discipline. This one accomplisl no other than knowledge. those who becoir accomplished persons have no other purpose than serving their masft and thus grow to be like him. the witness of all is what all-witnes sarva-saksin signifies. yoga. the most eternal. dattoham\ The one object of the accomplished ones become one with one's preceptor and serve his lotus feet. siddha-sevita. the peerless. siddhas. This explains how his compassion the real means for the liberation of his devotees. and elaborate meanings for tt . bhakti. Dattatreya the giver of all is everythic for them. Thus the Ufanisad projecr before our vision the meaning of Dattatreya as the gift of the Lord MaheSvara to the stricken world. The truth of Dattatreya as it is far indicated implies that for his devotees he is more than liberate s This is the real significance of his being the object of affection of a not for the sake of obtainir attracted towards him. creatioi And he who is in all. is fittingly accorded to ment 'served by the accomplished Lord Dattatreya. an liberation. and by penance alone can he be intuited and grasped. siddhas'. that i is r Dattatreya'. One who thus meditates upon the greatness of Lord Dattatrey the God of Gods. He He is more than liberatio the magnet that attract is without difference and gives to all the benefit of that magnet impact. He is the be all and end all of their existence. He always and continuously s> ^ed by the accomplished ones. moksa in unison. yogi-jana-friya. Their so object is to emulate the example of their great preceptor. The devotees then is and selves with their devotion.In ordt to to do so the Upanisads give subtle devotees to think about. Those who have been touched by his grace are the accon all plished ones. devadeva. the author of liberation.

In the Bhagavata-Pttrdna he is credited "with having great spiritual powers and being the teacher of discipline.'Tnpurd is purely of the essSfe ^ £ . But eye. which is in the caUed la™ oYSi?£2K complete called. does this mean' Literally it means one who was created or took his birth or came out of the eye of Atn. astdfiga-yoga. So it can also be said that figuratively he was born of the eye of Atri. rnpt<ra-r«ramdvarh The content of this knowledge work dcBncd thus. pidna-caksus or sphurtl. ntlra also means eye of knowledge.Dattatreya: 2. the ultimate purpose of -which is attainment of oneness with §wa. a few words on meditation may not seem out of place here. the Upanisad says: 'If one realises in the absolute sense. avalaras of of it to his favourite disciple.. Dattatreya. Dattatreya is considered to be one of the Viim. jndna-caksus. For such a person. Samkrti. to a number of disciples. flame of penance. yoga. The Absolute 51 dattatreya: meditation To sum up what has gone before. and mahekara being thus pleased w. are clearly and explicitly stated in the fdbdla-Dariana-Upanisad when the Lord gives a masterly exposition incarnations. the eye symbolising the eye of knowledge.. Commonly speaking. Atri was able to grasp mahdvara.. In it is described in great detail the his tapas (penance) gave himself {parameter?) boon to us devotee (Atn) The « to result of Atri's penance *as was the identification of Atri and tnahdvara as on? In another work called Tripura-Rahasya. the It we see Dattatreya as exponent 0 sdkia worship generally and also the advocate of t ^^^^^y^^'^a . one who is bom in the family of Atri. the self as it is. But at times he is also invoked as 'one who is born from the eyes of Atri'. The intuition of truth that penance gives can only be discerned w ah the inward eye It also signifies that as a result of the severest of penances. Lord Dattatreya's views on spiritual discipline. atrinetrais generally What samudbhava.''"' Dattatreya invoked in prayers as atn-gotrasamudbhava. iivatva. is M it is £ . consisting of eight limbs. yoga. vidya. yoga.. and there follows spiritual bliss. then the whole world becomes realised to be nothing but sport. that is mrayana be naught else but his own Atman. tapas.

will remain and will always continue to remain when all else that is nescience disappears out of the Lord's supreme attitude grace. hold It that of it all this world as experienced by all is only a reflection. through the grace of God. Therefore It is like the reflection brought out very clearly of an in the image of a city seen in the depths of the mirror. is that the supreme being who by its of life world in the different forms and matter that together constitute the world. It is best described or under- satisfactorily. It is for this reason the world is that it (the world) but the reflection of Aiman. This liberation comes through the grace . Uvardmtgraha. It is supposed to be is the realisation that comes to great souls when they intuit that the only form of existence or life there. yoga. It is like the objects in the dream that one dreams. The knowledge own volition manifests itself in this that arises out of that fact is all the real case of knowledge. is part spirit. This idea is Dahindmftrii-Sioira by Saiikara: — shines forth. It is the only thing that remains. object in a mirror. the very embodiment 'The universe is like the of a preceptor/ m) He who while he is gains victory over illusion. No appears independently. the celebrated and renowned king of Mithila. apurva-samskdra thus attain to this state of beatitude. gives a list of those rare souls who attain to this state in this very life. It arises out of the self due to illusion. Atman enables it to appear as the source of illumination. is the liberated even zKvQjivanmukia. jndnakdnda. It looks as if the world lies out there. This very is difficult to explain clearly or only intuited by the fortunate few. Knowledge. or who by some rare gift. But because it reflects Aiman it is of that Aiman. This is why it is inert. mdya. It appears only because of The world caitanya.Daiidircya 52 mdhdtmya is greatness and updsand meditation. 'Those who understand what reflection is. The chapter on knowledge. one of them being Janaka. Having arrived at this conclusion men of wisdom hold. therefore taken to be like the reflection seen in a looking glass/ (7D} So the world is but a reflection or image. It cannot shine forth by itself. jnana. Salutation to Sri Daksinfimurti. jnSm is considered to be the only vital factor that is essential f or the successful termination of the mission of life. stood only may however be noted that the foregoing ideas show that the world has no status of its own. vipms. On waking up one rcalibcs that all that was seen was those in one's own undivided self. It is at best by those who attempt to practise spiritual discipline.

who is the dispeller of great fears' who bestows the highest knowledge. saddiwa. advaita. a mad man and a devil thus: who is a great yogm. In recognition 53 and practice of this truth Avahduta-Gtta begins with the words: 'The fragrance of non-duality tMt In this passage Lord Dattatreya is the graceful gift of God to men\ makes the momentous announcement that the gnosis of nonduality. yogic sddhana. m his undertaking the Having understood the significance of all remains for us as our one duty.'« 8J > says: is The puma character of Reality. Dattatreya himself. Dattatreya— One should utter awn. the preceptor. advaya. adhikann for spiritual wisdom and who is the recipient of the himself grace of the Lord. who is of the character of knowedge and bliss. The following is the chain formula of the deity. can succeed discipline. Unto him that bestow nil kinds of powers: thus: here one should call of the joy of him Anasuya. anughraha. Au»r salutation unto the Lord Dattatreya . (ftsya). highest Brahman is self-complete a salutation of saddhva himself. (plenum) This explains how the truth Adhyatma-Upamsad and non-dual.DaMtreya: The Absolute of mahesvara. that is. Therefore only an aspirant who is fitted. advaita-jnana will not come except through the grace. Unto the agitato here one should pronounce Here one shoutt proda Unto the long lived: here one should utter vaj. non-dual.* a beautiful chain formula of the deity. propitiated by remembrance alone. The meaning of this is therefore naturally spiritual There It is brings out the all-absorbing. Uvaranugraha. [sahasra-kautala-pitha) of the devotee. of the Lord Iivara. his mother. who 1S a philosopher. there always execute his great dance of grace on the pedestal of the thousand-petalled lotus. Dattatreya. as represented by Dattdireya-Upaiusad. Pray do subjugatc-Do thou attract-here one should utter all im Sus ^ ^Ulfm md m VauZ Do : * S ho U . who is the enhancer the son of the sage Atn thus* «ho bestows the fnnts of all desires of the devotees' heart* Here one should utter aum. this. and that attracts is upon horn Unto aLSt kinds of accomplishments like here one should come out with sauk. It is taught to a devotee of great detachment. In the course of the meditation the devotee prays for spiritual strength and shelter from It is all evil that stands as impediment in the way of spirituality. Unto the redeemer from the bonds of Morklly cx Is tence-herC one should say krtm. the preceptor. who is m the guise of a child. the prayer: 'May the most auspicious five-faced god.

He is the means and end—apasna and mok§a. Do thou counteract. Iinm and so on invite Dattatreya.1. Do Do thou thou melt away all nourish (my) body. or 'sportful disposition'. These two are the real contents of life. thus aum. sarva- on Sakli is the significance of the attributes 'being intent unravelling of power'. Do thou counteract the malignant influence of evil spirits.DaUdlreya 24 Here one should say huth. Do thou Do thou drive off melt away all all anguish. This is the highest form of the realisation of the one-ness of God-head in the face of which all faiths of narrow outlook melt away and there shines one supreme Reality. Dattatreya. In illustration of this truth. aunt. incantations. grahas. the Sanskrit letters or words. of scriptural teaching. Do thou Unto thee the real form of all mystic fill the mind with joy. These evils are the possible adverse circumstances that stand in the way spiritual realisation. all creatures and all that exists.30) says: it 'It (stated in $rtUi). thou nourish (my) body. Do thou cure all ailments. thou nourish (my body). Do thou khakha. This is his identity. Do thou paralyse—Do thou paralyse: here one should mutter attract: Do thou kill—Do thou kill: Salutation to the highly accomplished one: salutation to the highly accomplished one: here for the sake of the all accomplished. life. dtma-mdyd-rala. penury. Thus the Upanuad. signifies the realisation To understand this is to see the unity Sruh and Smrti.(B * } has because there is the realisation of Sankaracarya gives the meaning of ihcSfdra all also It must be accepted that this absolute divinity is omnipotent. Do thou drive away— Do thou drive away—Do thou drive away: here one should pronounce tha tha. Do thou mangle. all penury. one should proclaim avdha. all mystic symbols. Do nourish {my body). do thou tear beyond shape (my) adversaries' mystic incantations. . Do thou antagonise—Do thou antagonise: Here one should mutter phat. dtma-krida and so on as applied to Dattatreya. Repetition of the prayer of power in any sense as being an attribute an exclusive sense of the truth. mystic symbols and mystic formularies. all mystic formularies and all mystic Do powers.'w In this prayer. He > is thus the whole of character. Do thou cure all ailments. advaita or advaya . Do thou drive off anguish. The truth that Dattatreya is of all-power. Brahmain Sutra (2. absolute. Why? Because it is the truth expounded by the Statu Sruii expounds as: omnipotence to be the attribute of the Absolute/ 185 Dattatreya is thus all gods. salutation unto Siva. Do thou fill the mind with joy. the omnipotent to chase away the evils. that is.

and as bemg a philosopher. Datia-mtinasa-stvti. ocean of bliss which is no other than himself. The need for meditation will thus surely be realised as the one sure and successful means by which that understanding which passeth all words can come The act of intuition and establishment of the person's whole being in the realisation 'I am He' 'I am the Hmhsa* is the last phase of this spiritual process. realisation of this truth is liberation. the guru {Dattatreya himself). may be concluded with an invocation to the preceptor.** 87 ' 'Auspicious I am! Sivoham* Aum iantih ianlth ianhh* . The preceptor Mahe£vara. the eternal truth. The is the means. Thus the sketch of Dattatreya including meditation on him is an exposition of the truth taught by the Hymn to Dattatreya The Upam$ad concludes thus 'the sacred mother of the Vedas. Salutations to that Preceptor Dattatreya.Dattdtreya: The Absolute 55 the highest truth. satya. moksa. jivanmuhli and the state oi bemg a philosopher. sddhana. The state of being liberated while being alive. For its complete fulfilment and fruition meditation is the most necessary ingredient and the royal road to success* It is the method adopted and perfected with great skill by our forbears.' m) T offer my salutation to the Lord Dattatreya. the divine and the remover of the illusion that causes bondage. The preceptor is no other than the highest 'The preceptor himself is is Brahman. and as the teacher of these ideals is therefore imperative in understanding the truth of identity. advaita-tattva. the secondless. The preceptor is Visnu. the divine tree that satisfies those that are devoted to him. avadlmiatva are the We have studied so far how Dattatreya is To study Dattatreya as being jiwnmukta. Dattatreya sddhana as well. the truth of DattStreya. Brahma. aum Thus the Upamsad* — This mental pictorial praise of Dattatreya. avadhuta. liberated while he is alive. chief contents of means.

1 THE JI LIFE. Tejobindn-Upanisad bhavam give all. The Ufanhadic verse is followed by 'tubhyam mahyam anantaya mahyam tubhyarh cidatmane. for you which is the self. 'Having attained the conviction all egotism/ 'I ni&itya aham am Brahman'.' 'For you.33). which is the witness of all actions and true knowledge and which is no other than my 'I offer again which is innermost This self. up < 1<)4 > says: aham brahmeti parityaja. for me which is infinite: for me. I sarva-bhutantarasthaya nitya-mukta-cid-atmane pratyak-caitanya-rupaya mahyam eva namo namah (san^a-bhutantar-vartine nitya-mukta-cit-svarupine sarva-saksinc mahyam eva svatmana eva namah. VANMU KTA-GITA (attributed to Lord Dattatreya) MAftGALAM ma sad gamaya tamaso ma jyotir gamaya mrtyor ma amrtaih gamaya asato me Lead me Lead me 'Lead from the unreal to the real from darkness to light from the mortal to the immortal. . which shines forth as consciousness. cit and which is ever liberated. nama iti dvir-uktih adarartharii) and again humble salutations to that great Being immanent in all creation. spiritual' Consistently with this idea mahyam This is is in the present verse refers to the self underlying one's innermost self.CHAPTER III DATTATREYA: THE SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE: DATTATREYA THE LIBERATED IN I.' verse taken from the Vdraha-Upanisad (2.

dream and dreamless sleep. and five elements ether. vijndnaviaya. the spiritual. five subtle UvaT^\ yU Mi S tZ ir. ahamkdra. water. ianmSlras.. the five sheaths of the body. cidaddrMa. the subtle. and the blissful. seven spintuaUnonspintual. Mia. the three-fold state of existence. ananda-maya'. taste and odour. called linga the prdna-maya. knowledge of knowledge. are five pmtual ctdrupa. It is the principle of mind. personified as pure consciousness. fire.imp ° rfCCt aCtion The spiritual categoric Take the ^ Hindu concepts * ™<* ' of man's creat. hand. Cit' at is consciousness. frahrti the intellect. The who is ever liberated'. mahat. tattvas. organ of excretion and organ of enjoyment. The non-spiritual zrc avyakta tfwfy*. caitanya: 'We understand that (truth) which is the spiritual principle underlying all and the primus inter pares of all knowledge. and r S? T ^ ^ S ™™> SpintuaI are iakh > sad C s mtual ' P ™»spmtual are mdyd. mano-maya. and earth together with spirit purtm. the twenty-five categories of vital. the mental. eye. colour. the five sense organs. that is. The fact that the present verse is the restatement of the Upani§dic passage illustrates the Vcdic character of the Jtvammtkla-GM.on consbtute the sum total of . tattvas. waking. mamfeSt om and omnipotence Th? C nantual^ons^ritma categories manifest imperfect ?.. egoism. The Devi-Bhdgavata begins with a salutation to that supreme being (the Goddess Atnbd—the great universal of mind. ? roga and^mja. the and the body called saguiia. ear. tongue and the organ of touch. According to the philosophy of iha-iakh there are thirty-six categories mcluding tf„. manas five subtle e ements. the physical. ntyati. the root matter. vidyd of vidyds. five sensory organs. . speech. the exists transcending the two-fold body ' to it body . It is the truth. rcahty. It is the source knowledge or understanding itself.the soufc k^mll i«T 5^ ° f thC Percepti0n of pleasure »d paa. 'one that supreme being (the May it direct our minds/' 88 Supreme Being) gross. It is the highest mother). air. 'himtm mants. The trurty-sax categories. anna-maya. It is beyond mind. nose. and mind. touch. sound. five motor organs. the underlying principle of all. five motor organs. food.Daitdtreya: It follows from all this The Spiritual Discipline that aham according 57 to the Vedic tradition refers to the Self. mtya-mukta refers (whom we term God) as that state wherein expression.

then death must be taken to mean liberation. sidctfias. whereas. mukti therefore is person is called one liberated even as he who is liberated. Therefore peoples. jtvanmukti. the state of being liberated while alive. jtvanmukti and still believes in liberation.' The point that Lord Dattatreya wishes is to bring out that the state of being liberated while one profoundly different from what the It is in it is is alive. For carefully defined occurs to one who activities of life. mukti that t body engaged an expression in all the of complete marked by misery because in But the state of being liberated is the single exception. ii jivan-muktiS ca ya muktih sa muktih pinda-patane ya muktih pinda-patane sa muktih Suni sukare (jivan-muktir iti ya muktih ucyate sa yadi pinda-patana para sa muktih sukaradisv api prasakta bhavati ity arthah. The whole meaning of this very iloka is that the Supreme Being is the same in all elements of existence. first by is common is be. of being liberated while alive. then that liberation which results from the death the physical body of applies equally to the animals such as dogs and pigs. jtvanmukti} It is it proves necessarily preceded by the state of being liberated while alive. yogins. patanam na jivan-muktir The liberation It Pin<Ja- bhavah. mukti. Further if any one does not believe in the state of being liberated while alive. is still in the physical In the second place cessation of misery. Liberation. jtvanmukti. the disciplined ones.) iti while the individual connotes a definite state. Life in general general it is the source of misery. This is the witness of the same to is it illustrated by its different religions and all universal immanence and its being all action. ordinarily understood to Death place different from death.DaMlreya 58 man's physical as well as mental being. He is therefore . Therefore and understood. mukti. is a rare gift that occurs to particular human beings. is it is it is it must be liberation. But this explanation is too nothing. wide and What is then the state is that state wherein a alive in the body. while alive. with the death of the physical body. or the accomplished ones. to all creatures. this passage jtvanmukti. jtvanmukti. tarhi is still alive If it is identified is called jtvanmukti.

In the case of a pam and man who is alive. so on which are the states mind. In illustration of this point 'The Jwamnukh-Vtveka* of Sri Vidyaranya may be cited. illustrates how ftva is hva. Independent works too are written on this problem.— The Spiritual Discipline Daitdlrcya. doership. Annapunta-Upamsad and Upantsads this concept is defined and t elaborately discussed. 1 * 9 * m Who is he that is liberated while alive. It consists 0n th e ofher hand in seeing the truth of Hva in what is called jlva. jivanmukta} The Lord gives the answerjlvah &vah sarvam eva bhutesv evam vyavasthitah evam cvabhi-paiyan (jlva &va iti hi jivan-muktah sa ucyate yah sah sarva-bhute^v-api Sivatvenaiva vyavasthitah eva. and being of the nature of misery become causes of bondage. 1 am ami. bfiuk^u vyavasthitah. 'Datta I am'. 59 an important concept in VediC thought. The removal of this misery is the state of liberation while one is of alive. Thus is emphasised the identity of the individual with the universal So affirms the Sruh: 'That Thou art'. The fact that this spirit tattany* which is the underlying pnnciple of all is immanent j. immanent sees only this truth m hfe is in all said to be 1 'Thus in the manner defined' refers to the opening passage 'sarvabhutantarasthaya pratyak^caitanya-rupaya'. In these Mahopamsad. Siva I am\ Svoka*. in all creatures. tat tvam ohm MhnOmi. pleasure. dattoham: and si on jden u ty ls not t h e identity of P'va and fa*. 'He alo™ am I' asi. enjoyership. In the Dariana literature also the problem of pvanmukti has acquired great prominence. tad-jnanl jlvan-mukta ity arthah. 'He am I\ soham San' s^Xl £ n^a.) 4 Jlva is Siva itself. It is thus in the creatures The person who the liberated though alive manner defined. In the Mundaka-Upanisad we are told vimuktaka vimucyate—'One who is already liberated becomes liberated/ This one 'who is already the later Upantsads liberated' is the one who is called jivanmukta Jivanmukli is m such as Vardha*Upamsad Atmopanifad. StvalcoZ .

Men of wisdom see it without break'* 91 *. Its all is no Brahman bliss. . there is there all no world at intent on unravelling of power.' light in different without Brahman. dmnh. that is is. It is this intuition of the highest that distinguishes the one that liberated in life from others. where is then the necessity for the appearance of an individual.) ity 'Even as the sun illumines the whole world. Brahman which is immanent in all creatures illumines the whole world. the being. nor the moon. To appear as individual. jiva. This seeing or understanding the is of the nature of intuition. caiianya of illumination of the world. The Katha-Upanisad says. mdyd. IV If identity is the truth. The unseen is non-existent. jiva? Lord Dattatreya answers:— sarvam akhilam bhasate ravih samsthitam sarva-bhutanam jivan-muktah sa ucyate evam brahma jagat (yatha ravih sarvam jagat bhasate evam brahma sarva-bhiitanam atmatvena samsthitam sat akhilam bhasate prakaSayati* evam evanhipaSyan ity anuvartate. nor the stars. that is. 'May we understand form of the Lord'< 02 \ and so on. sah tadr£ah jnani jivan-mukta ucyate ity arthah. is to unravel power. The person who stand based upon this truth which is immanent within himself said to be liberated in sciousness is life. Similarly Without the sun's Seeing is finally life. nor does the fire light up the things. siva. He who realises this is said to be liberated in forms we do not see the world. Brahman is therefore bliss. own power. It is is just the recognition of the universal existence behind all the manifold particular forms of many that . Dattatreya. no lightning flashes. ananda* This is the teaching of Sniti. All is illumined by Its illumination/ m) The idea that the person who realises this truth is zjivanmtikta is the exposition of the statement of the Sruti such as 'This is the highest visnu visnoryat parantampadam. Jiva is the same. mdyd. Brahman. The sun consists in unravelling its does not shine there. the illumination.Dattdtreya 6o takes his and bliss—cid-dnanda. dtma-mdyd-rata.

Indivisibility is the truth. The Spiritual Discipline With this intuition the one who 61 is liberated an indispensable evidence for the truth of identity of the an life is individual with the universal.Daltdtrcya: constitutes living reality. and yet it is one single entity. VI The Lord taws the why gives the reason self is the one who cnt" y of of all persons only the one is liberated in life. upadhi for the many forms of Brahman is the power of vtdyd Manyness is merely the -appearance.'**" Tins is the truth Brahman/"" and 'There to is differences within itself/* C3 > all is taught by the Lord. being absolutely indivisible) Only self it is who knows the truth of Aiman is said to be liberated jivan-muktaS the cause of (or occasion for) different reflections of the moon. upadhi-bhedena ity adhyaharah dr^yate. Similarly the cause. Aiman the forms (and yet that person in life. evath atmanam yo janati sah ekadha bahudha caiva atma-pani jlvan-mukta ity .my . the basis (adhtsth&na) of all reality. v Brahman answers — is How can one- it have many fonns^ Lord Dattatreya ckadhi bahudha caiva ddyate jala-candra-vat atrna-jnani tathaivaiko jlvan-muktah sa ucyate (jala-candra-vat jalc candrah yatha anekadha drgyate tathaiva ekah atma. Water appears as many when it takes on different one only. ucyate. lakes. nvers or pots.s ""-*» 50 SSEJf auamr Lord ?»-. . in the form of tanks. DatUtreya answers: sarva-bhutc sthitaih brahma bhedabheda na vidyatc ckarii cvabhipaSyath§ ca jivan-muktah sa ucyate who is the * .) 'Even as the moon which appears manifold when reflected in water. This is the teaching of Sruli: 'Brahman is devoid of the difference from the similar and the dissimilar is and itself devoid of 'AH this is indeed not duality in any sense with reference Brahman. . The reason A""a ".

To distinguish is to modify universality. yatra bhedah abhedah bhedabhedo na vidyate. abheda. that is. It smumna-nadi or is two physical eyes the eye of intuition. or is difference-non- The person who sees Brahman strictly in this said to be the liberated though alive/ In the previous passages the knower of identity is called the liberated though alive. difference bkeddbheda. This eye sarasvati. Identity is non-difference. evam abhi pa£yaihs ca yah sa jivan- mukta ity ucyate. Brahman which is universal as spirit. jnana-netra. in the middle of the forehead. bheda. the are is also called unseen third river which is supposed Ganges {gangd) and Jumna (yamuna) at Prayag. how no ordinary it is achievement to become liberated in life.— Dattaireya 62 (brahma sarva-bhutasthitaih. caitanya. It grasps or sees things that the unable to grasp. mind and to flow at the confluence of the What is the character of the man who has realised this truth? Lord Dattatreya says: tattvam k§etram vyomatltam aham k§etrajna ucyate aham karta ca bhokta ca jfvan-muktah sa ucyate . This eye is in the middle of the eye-brows. To define Brahman m terms of non-difference. To define is to distinguish. bheda. transcends therefore definition per To realise this is to realise identity identity is as such is and a rare it is gift. difference. tat ekam eva. abheda is after all to bring Brahman down to the plane of difference. To sc. buidhi' W) because as Katha-Upanisad explains 'it transcends all the instruments of knowledge—speech. talk of easy. it non-difference. The person who has this realisation is usually called the one who has the eye of knowledge. where the right eye is the ganges and the left is jumna. while between them. This is the so called third eye of the man. but to think of the state of transcending definition extremely This shows difficult. abheda. Braliman that is realised by this eye of knowledge is the highest with reference to which the Brhad-Aranyaka-Ufianisad says: 'It is apprehended only by the intellect.) 'Brahman is immanent of difference or identity. is the sarasvati. manner is For this reason it devoid cannot be defined in terms of in all that exists.

It consists of five subtle elements. pcrs0 „ activities of tacJ^tSSL? . jndnvu According to the Bhagavad-Gttd 'This is now obtained by me. ajttdna/ im But the *aham\ the verse referred to in the previous paragraph but the which means the pnramatman. tatha cetah karotl JLSff^ hC JSP* faculty . self. ahatnkara. the liberated in life/ The idea underlying the above text is this: «. karmendriya pantyagi dhyana-varjita-cetasah dtma^jnani tathaiveko jivan-muktah sa ucyate U^^^^T tyi& ^^vyapara-rahitani jnanendnyam ^nnendnyant ca kurvan tani parityajati ity arthah. body comes into being and goes out of it m the course of the an individual. This body is called referred to is not the gross vyomdtxia or transcending this hnga-iarira or subtle body. eleven buddhx. spective but xc]]n ^ cvam advayam M * nMi y*h s* the ^native senses and the introhas realised the soul within him is said to be bC Jhanmukta. To attribute doership and enjoyer- ship to the supreme individual is up the illusion that the the doer and enjoyen To give it up is detachment.e outgoing senses and a roving nund With the .) The Spiritual Discipline Dattdtreya. I shall now have the fulfilment of my desire/ 'Thus vatragya. paramatma k?etrajnah. egohood. are they deluded by nescience. individual till life of he gets liberated. T T is (I) of not the deluded viii Lord Dattatreya presents the further traits of the wise man's character. hnga-sarira accompanies the organs. While the gross and the material principle of intellect. 63 ksetram aka&Itftam. kartjrtvarh bhoktftvam ca tasyaiva evam yo vijanati evam (tattva-svaruparft ash* sah jlvan-mukta ucyate 'The nature of Reality is follows*—The body transcends as The Supreme Being is the soul in it I am the actor and the experience as well He who knows it thus is named the limitations of space the Jivanmukla. the liberated in The body ' life body. because it is defined as atmosphere. ksetrajna is to give That is the very first item of the character of a man of wisdom.

Mo0 > IX Lord Dattatrcya presents the next step of the wise man's.. then his knowledge becomes steady. The Hdvasyopanisad having first expounded oneness of Atman.) 'He whose somatic activity is free from grief and infatuation. having obtained those things which arc called by others good or evil. then that state is fixed in the highest they say.e. ckalva. . the person retracts his sense organs from their objects. Bhagavad-Gita says: 'If like a tortoise which retracts its limbs fully. By means of the psycho-somatic discipline that is so far expounded he has his detachment well entrenched. 'Where is moha. jndnin's realisation. and the one who has no concern whatever with what is agreeable or disagreeable In this is called the liberated in passage the Lord life. is docs 'The person who attached to nothing.' teaches the principal ideas ex- and Smfti with regard to the present problem. parityaktam bhavati. life.e. the knowis ledge of this person is established. This makes him the knowcr of the self and the liberated though alive. < . If the turmoil of multiplicity is quietened the mind would cease way and he becomes Aiman. life. tac ca cvarh tcna £ubhu&ubhfulikarh £arlra-pariraksanayaiva.DalUUrcya 64 engaged or extrovert (bahirmukha) full of somatic activity.02 > The same work says 'If you happen to be completely devoid of activity then even the continuation of the body i..'* 103 * .' (10l) The same work says body earlier i. does not either appreciate or hate. becomes impossible. observes. The Lord answers: Sarlrarh kcvalam karma £oka-mohadi-varjitam r 6ublh i6ubha-parityagl jivan-muktas sa ucyatc karma kriyatc (jniinina yat kcvalarii tat £oka-mohadi-varjitam. With this sort of detachment what kind of life is open to him is the question. 'delusion? Where is Soka 'grief? in the case of one who has realised the oneness of the Lord/ ao0) The pounded by Srttii Bhagavad-Gtta says 'The person who does only that thing which absolutely needed to effect the continuation of not suffer from sin. sa jlvan-mukta ucyate.{08) The same idea is illustrated by Katha-Ufianhad\ 'If the five-fold knowledge with mind and intellect to function in the usual docs not function. His mind and activity arc dispersed and dissipated in a world of multiplif city. .

and m spite of . ata eva karma brahma-svarupam eveti vijanati sah 'The person jivan-muktah who has come any sense that ) to the decision *I do not know any supposed to have been ordained (by iasira). is one who is said to be the liberated m Jife/ activity in This is the answer given to the question about dualism. against a doer the creative principle is cannot be established.Daiialreya: The Spiritual Discipline 65 x Is this to welcome dualism to this extent at least? LorcLDattatreya says 'No/ karma sarvatni adisfarn na 3 an ami ca kimcana karma brahma vijanati jivan-muktah sa ucyatc {yah adistam vidhyuktam karma na janati kartrtvaropena karma na karoti ity arthati. To retain activity in any sense. call it caitanya or Brahman. illustrates XI Lord Dattatreya states the expounded: results of the discipline so far rinmayam vyapitarh sarvam aka&ih jagad^varam sahitam sarva-bhutanam jtvan-muktah sa ucyate h ^Kvaram rit-svarupam aka^vyapinam ih J? bhuta-sahrtam sah jivan-mukta ijE a iti ity api janati of S 0I ucyate. gives no room for dualism. the person who never observes any action by superimposing doership on himself.) T derStands ^ Anally h0 U' sarva^ sees the supreme lord therefore as being given along with all creatures. is one ulio is said to be liberated life/ m ton that the lord is the underlying principle of all. It rather the truth of the creative principle rather than the individual doer set over against it. and understands that activity as such is Brahman itself. retaining the super-imposition of 'doership' is to give room for dualism. the centres of activity. that is. But to retain activity as the expression of the creative pnnciple itself. For. This is the nature of activity taught by iastra.

— ' Dattdtrcya 66 may their belief in a lord they see things apart are therefore devoid of the knowledge of the knower of of the self all.) (serve§u bhutesu 'The jiva of the creatures that exist from the beginninglcss time Siva himself. They lord. the behaviour of a person within himself in relation to himself that makes him passage his relation to was expounded. because duality by the the very context defined So me being given along with passage does not in this to sublated by state of being liberated while alive. In the present other creatures which makes him liberated in liberated in life For the reason that jiva is Siva himself. Sruti holds 'The body is the temple of the Lord/ 1108 For this reason Kafhopanifad says. Bhagavad-Gitd: 'Those my A similar who know me to be and the divinities that arc in my control are those that have the mind resulting from the practice of spiritual discipline. Jiva therefore truth the person liberated in who is nover destroyed. . atah sarvesu bhutesu nir-vairo yah jlvan-mukta ucyate. to him I points* out do not cease to exist The expression 'as and mean this word must be taken expression found is he does not cease to in the exist. The same Upanhad 'Know thou that alone to be Brahman the lord of all. meditation and so on.(1O0) creatures'. 'Jiva does not kill others nor is it killed by others/' 100 life is stated. Ml07) along with the elements that are in control XII The next stage of the growth of discipline is: anadi-varti bhutanarh jivah £ivo na hanyatc nir-vairah sarva-bhutesu jivan-muktah sa ucyatc yah anadih jivah sah £iva eva. Kcna-Upanisad presents Brahman as 'That which is presented in every case of experience or knowledge in generaL' tl04. sahitam all duality. Having known bears no hatred to any creature is is this said to be life Hitherto. all.(105) Bhagavad-Gitd says 'He who sees me in all and sees all in me. He jagad-Uvara. . mean to is the absolute reality. But the case self* reality of actually sees that him actually presented to For him the from the that of the is. is is different. * * . lord this reality that it is is every case of experience but not the in object of ordinary perception. ata eva sah na hanyatc. but not that which is commonly supposed to be Brahman.

etadrSa-dhyanena jnamnah yat paiyanti tad eva jnaninam mana ucyate idam eva sohanwnanah etadr&-mano-v&stah jnamnah cid~aka& itv * at 7^ l tc vilaya* yantity arthaK eva* f sthita^ya atma-tattvasya jnani ity anuvartate sah jivan-mukta ity 'By means of internal introspection r^H? S" HC r*m^ C XhSS? this truth is fflind iS hC ' He 1 that which the wise see *m ' ***** ^^ding siva I fto be / said liberated in hfc/ This passage explains **** . For both therefore there is no subtraction and no addition.' — • Daitaireya: The Spiritual Discipline 67 XIII Lord Dattatreya teaches the two-fold relation of the self: alma guruh tvam vi£vam ca rid-aka^o na-Iipyate gatagatarh dvayoh nasti jlvan-muktah sa ucyate (yah guruh atma sah tvam eva. Jtva and Siva are Jius the same. there is no meaning in attributing this movement to it Further. It is in life The Sanskrit expression gatagaia also means forward and backward movement of the self from one world to the other world. XIV Does this says 'No/ self continue to be individual? Lord Dattatreva J garbha-dhyanena paSyanti jnaninam mana ucyate villyante jivan-muktah sa ucyate soham mano (garbha-dhyanena antar-dhyanena ity arthah. The person who knows this truth is said to be the liberated pervading spirit. sa eva nir-hptah cid~aka£ah. It is the all- never affected by anything. tad eva sarvam ata eva tasya gatagatarh gatam agatam agatam gataxh va na vidyate* cvam yah atmanam sah jivan-mukta ity ucyate. Tins means both gata and dgata.specs of how mM ™ s itself. It is yourself It is all this. 0( thc *u . are absent in the self. is their W ™th He who the w ^ VZ^Z^ the duality of the stibWfk*. going and coming.) 'The self is the preceptor. When it is realised that Atman is all. gaidgaiarii dvayath ndsh is a possible reading of the passage.

. xv urdhva-dhyanena pa^yanti vijnanarh mana ucyate gunyam layam ca vilayam jlvan-muktah sa ucyate urdhva-dhyanena samadhina yat paSyanti tat vijnanam. The knower of this truth is said to be the liberated in life/ This passage illustrates how spirit. the mind of the wise. in the The same is taught by Smii. is not directed towards some- towards the person of this mind that disappears itself. yasya manah dhyana(yasya layam dhyane layam gatam. auspicious shines. state of nothing. . cit. by means of introspection seeing the highest Brahman becomes Brahman itself. prahdiana of the all-auspicious. Advayatdraka-Upanisad says The person who always meditates on himself as being in essence spirit itself . The same is called mind.) 'By means of meditation that which the wise see is the spirit. destruction and wholesale destruction. tat te?am mana ucyate. destruction of mind. actually indicates the shining. the consciousness. mind and so on stand for and how void. The same is called void. vilaya. laya. f finally there shines the all-auspicious as the self characterised as Brahman • . thing which is 'He I different It finds itself. tadeva Sunyarh layaih. xvi abhyase ramate nityarh mano dhyana-layam gatam bandha-moksa-dvayarh nasti jlvan-muktaht sa ucyate jnaninah manah nityam abhyase gravana-manananididhyasanakhya-tapasi ramate krldati. and wholesale destruction. yasya bandha-moksa-dvayam bandha~mok?akhya-dvandvaih nasti sah jivan-mukta ucyate.' tuo) Hamsa-Upanisad explains how the mind of He I am* soham-mams disappears in the ultimate and how ultimate truth. tadeva vijnanarh. It is 'I am herein He' the . destruction.. the mind from It is rather directed it. all 'One ought to meditate on one becomes the highest . .1 Daildtrcya 68 of the meditation. It is am'.) . 1 1111 So the expression. tatha atma-jnani atmanarh janati yah sah jlvan(jnaninah mukta ucyate. itlnya. have in view the truth of consciousness. This shows how this position is profoundly different from nihilism.

the essence of knowledge ^hich is Brahman ' Itself is said to be liberated life m ° Sltl0n eX JELV One u?J uho knows as 1 upamtai making a ^ unded such Pa«ges of the n Brahman becomes Brahman itself f W Upantsads Kathn- reference to those that know Brahman observes Happiness occurs only to those but not to others Peace y to those but not to others uu > occupy . The idea expounded by this passage is the position established by the Upam?ads and studied by the Smrhs Sveiasvatara-Upamsad 'The form of this truth does not belong to the world of experience by clear conception Nor does any one see it by means of the eyes Those who by means of mmd understand this truth which says mind as become immortal** 11 -' Katha-Upamsad says 'It ought to be realised only by means of mind There is absolutely no distinction in it 't 113 The Bhagavad-Giia substantiates the same idea in many passages such as The spiritual aspirant having his mind fi\cd realises the truth of mine which is peace itself being underlies such. > the highest stage of liberation XVII ekaki ramate nityam svabhava-guna-varjitam brahma^nana-rasasvadl ilvan-muktah sa ucyate {yasya jnininah-manah ity anuvartate nityam svabhava-gunavarjitam prakrti^gunatltam. sah jnSni ekakl kn<Jati ]Ivan ramate atmany eva brahmvjnana*ras5svadi brahmakhya^nana^rasasvadi sah mukta ity ucyate 'That uise (person) whose mind has transcended the properties o f the root matter is absorbed in joy within himself Hs *ho is absorbed in spirit.) ' Datiatrcya The Spiritual Dtsctphne 69 uhose mind delights always m understanding. reflecting and meditating and is absorbed m meditation and who is free from the relative ideas of bondage and 'He is said to be the liberated in life liberation The ideas of bondage and liberation are relative to each other* are therefore of the character of bondage The wise man is free They from them.

heart are nothing but spirit. They then see reality as 'He I am\ He who understands the self in this manner is said to be liberated in life.' The Hamsa-Upanisad distinguishes between two forms. dhyanena praka&rh paSyanti taih manah kriyate— tesam manah abhivyaktam bhavati iti yavat. tena sahitam brahmancjam hrdam hftstham bandhakam mohaih ca cid-aka£arh tarn atmanarii caitanyarh eva pa^yanti.e. iiva-fakti.. and the transcendent "I am he". The person who understands this truth is said to be liberated in life/ The concept of the auspicious power. is the underlying principle of several ideas that are in vogue such as Kalidasa's praise of parvatl and paramehara. hamsa and the transcendent being. the individual being all. Siva. With reference to this knowledge it says "He I am". XIX &va-£akti-samatmanam pinda-brahmandam eva ca cid-aka£am hrdam moham jivan-muktah sa ucyate (jnaninah &va-£akti-samatmanam £iva-£akti-samah yah atma mahatmanam. 'With a view to understanding the nature of word and its meaning I offer my salutations to pdrvafi .) Those wise men who by means of meditation see the illumination within themselves are those by whom mind is achieved. tada te 'soham' 'hamsah' iti pa£yantl evam atma-tattvarh paSyan jivan(ye jnaninah hfdi mukta ity ucyate. Pindah sariraih. paratna-hamsa is the truth approached by means of this ' knowledge/* 117 By this the individual is required to transcend individuality. paramahathsa.) The wise see that the great self which is the same as the power of the auspicious. hamsa is the seer of this hymn. the whole universe including the body and the delusion that pertains to his mind i. yah evarii atma-tattva-jnanl sah jivan- itt mukta f ity ucyate.1 Daiidlreya 7o XVIII Hj-di dhyanena paSyanti prakaSam kriyate manah soharh hamseti pa£yanti jivan-muktah sa ucyate.

the parents of the world so intimately related to each other even as word and its meaning (are related to each other)/ 4118 *. dream and dreamless sleep and becomes dissolved in the all absorbing spirit 3s said to be the liberated in life ' Katvalya-Upanhad expounds the same position: 'The same jiva by power.) man whose mind 'The wise soham is constantly meditating on 'He I am'.. At the time of sleep all become quiescent. drinks. xx jagrat-sv^pna-su^uptim ca turiyavasthitarii sada soham mano (yasya 3naninah villyeta jtvan-muktalj sa soham man ah soham ucyate dhyanaika-param iti manah jagrat-svapna-susuptim atltya sada turlyavasthitam sat cid-aka£a-paraTnattnam villyeta sah jnani jivan-mukta ity ucyate. etc. and the concepts. ardha-ndrUvara. and it comes to have the disposition of joy which the is . pasupati and so on. pleasure and pain in a world by themselves posited by its own power. tamas. ntdyd. illusion. .) . XXI soham sthitam jnanam idam sutre§u manivat param soham brahma mrakaram jivan-muktah sa ucyate (idam soham sthitam jnanam sutre$u manivat cid-aka& sthitam ity anvayah soham param brahma nirakaram evam atma-jnatu yah sah jivan-nuakta ity ucyate. umd-maheivara. all this experience is obtains the spirit.Datidtreya: The Spiritual Discipline 71 and paramcfvara. and in this spirit disappear . At the state of waking the same jiva has satisfaction by having different pleasures. The same jjm enjoys in dream. women. . indya. hamsavidyd. lahsfanwtdrdyana.. food. I am that Brahman that is of all is sccondless/<»« This passage explains how the individual experiences misery in the three states and the manner of overcoming it in the state of transcendence is to attain to the outlook of 'He I am' 9 $6ham~bhdva. All these ideas refer to the esoteric meaning of the knowledge 'He I am'. jtva is obscured by darkness. fhed in the state of transcendence ha\*ing transcended waking. that being deluded body and does all. caxtanya the nature of bliss. partless three states the basis of and is.


This knowledge



caitanya, even as the

presented as 'He




defined as 'He I am', soham,


the highest

in the string.




itself. It is





One who knows this truth is said to be liberated in life, jivan-mukla?
(Brahman) connects the beads, (individuals) of a necklace, through 'He I am', soham. So it is the bead or seed which links
us with the transcendent. The attitude of He I am' is our affirmation




of union with the transcendent.


Lord Dattatreya observes that
nothing that


at this stage of discipline there


cause bondage.

mana eva manusyanam bhedabhedasya karanam
vikalpanaiva samkalpam jlvan-muktah sa ucyate

(Vikalpana idarh ittham evetyadi tattva-viruddha kalpana sa eva
sarhkalpah iti prasiddah tad eva mano-rupam sat manusyanam


mametyadi bhedabheda-vyavahaTa-karapaTh. Evam yo
jnana phalam ca sarhkalpa-rahityam tatha ca yah sarvatha

samkalpa-rahitah. sah jlvan-mukta ity ucyate.)

'The notion of this and thus and so on

and that



activity that




commonly known

the cause in ordinary




opposed to truth

as volition. It



this mental

of the distinctions of I


He \yho is aware of this as the result of the knowledge and lack

of self will


entirely free of volitional activity*

Such an one


spoken of as the unfettered soul though embodied/

This passage clearly explains

how to be impressed with


due to a warped outlook, It is a miasma of the mind.
To yield to it is not a sign of wisdom, It is a mischief that our mind
plays with us. To be aware and conscious of this mental tendency
is to prevent oneself from succumbing to it. He who knows that the



eternal spirit within us transcends all these transformations
liberated soul.
of the


two birds one


illustrates this point




the story

which looks on as a spectator while the other

eats of the fruit of suffering.* 1201


Lord Dattatreya points out to a stage in
which the promise and potency of liberation

spiritual discipline at

begin to



The Spiritual Discipline

mana eva viduh prajnah


siddha-siddhanta eva ca

sada drdharn tada moksa jivan-muktah sa ucyate

viduh kimiti? yadamanah sada drdham
bhavati tadaiva rnok$ah itL Sa eva ca siddha-siddhantah. ya evarii
siddhantam veda sah jlvan-mukta ucyate.)
(yat prajnah jnaninah



that liberation which





known? It is
the condition where the mind becomes

that which the wise and the knowing have



the established truth

He who


aware of


the unfettered soul though embodied/



a sxddha. He has so far taught the
perfection. This is his established position and

steps to reach sxddhx,


this is therefore called stddha-stddhdnta.

Lord Dattatreya concludes by declaring thus:
yogabhyasl mana£-£resthah antas-tyagi bahir-jadah
antas-tyagi bahis-tyagi jivan-muktassa ucyate

yo yogabhyasf yogarh abhyasati sa so mana£-£resthahmanasa £re$thah evam vidhah ayaih antas-tyagi antas-tham

sarvarn api maya-sariibhutam tyajati iti antas-tyagi
Ata eva sah
bahth jada-vat acarati. evarhca sah antas-tyagi
bahis-tyagi ca
sa eva jivan-mukta ity ucyate.)

'Whoever practises yoga is one who has attained
excellence. One of this type is a person
of inner renunciation, called
so on account of the fact that he has
renounced all illusory objects
That is the reason why outwardly he conducts
himself as absolutely

He is


thus the tao-fold renounces hoth within
and without
spoken of as the unfettered soul though





COinplete CeSSatl ° n

° f the mental

Lord Dattatreya the teacher of
this Gild is himself Sva.
He is
himself the liberated
life. He has attained this
he practice o spiritual discipline,
He 1S of supreme mmd, IfciS


tnus an aspirant.


He «



compassionate to his devotees He is a J!
served by the accomplished ones.



the best teacher of the spiritual discipline that makes one liberated

both in

this life



and beyond.

off false

and sincere


are capable

conceptions, internal [dntara) and external (bdhya),

we can

attain to the highest that







Dattatreyena viracita jivanmukta-gita

'Thus ends the song on jivanmukta composed by Sri Dattatreya,
the Lion of Veddnta.'









Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar/









dattatreya: the incarnation

be appropriate here to consider the conception of the

incarnation of Dattatreya. It



m the Upamsad that Dattatreya

Lord mahesvara to the sage Atri as a result of his being
pleased with his austere penance. For the reason that he was given
to Atri by mahesvara he was called Dattatreya. Dattatreya, it further
says, is the Lord mahesvara who was born as Atri's son.

was the gift


In the puranic version the story is slightly different. There it is
said that Atri went to perform a sacrifice, yajna, leaving his dear
wife Anasuya to be in charge of his hermitage, dsrama. Anasuya who

a chaste and devoted wife begs Atri, her Lord, to give her permission to keep the sacred water (tirtha) after washing his feet. With


his consent she agrees to look after the guests

and conduct the


Her fame was so wide and well known that Narada, the
celestial musician and divine sage taunts the wives of the trinity of
Gods, brahmd, visnu and rudra that even they cannot hold a candle
against Anasuya s devotion to her husband. The three spouses of the
trinity of Gods grow jealous and prevail on their husbands to go and


besmirch the


Anasuya. Accordingly the three Gods,
brahmd, visnu and mahesvara go there as three brahmins and ask to
be entertained. When the offering of food is placed before them they
refuse to eat it. Anasuya is worried lest her piet}7 towards guests be
in question. So she entreats them to say what they want. They reply

by saying that unless she




serves their food without

not eat their


any garment on

Anasuya having thought over


The Spiritual Discipline



water that had
a minute agrees to do so and taking the holy
guests who are
washed her husband's feet, sprinkles it on the three
and given their
turned into babies, They are fondly suckled by her
his wife has been unfood. In the meantime Narada tells Atri that
and has three babies. The sage Atri returns home in a rage,


but on learning the truth




pleased with


s devotion


After the lapse of a long time, the three wives of the trinity get
upset because their husbands have not yet returned from their

Narada for information. Narada tells them what has
happened. The wives ask Anasuya for the return of their husbands
and they are restored to them. All of them being satisfied with the
penance of Atri and the devotion of his wife, grant them boons
Whereupon Atri and his wife ask that the three Gods be born as their
sons The wish is readily granted and so resulting in the birth of
soma with brahmd's blessings, durvdsa with itva's blessings and
errands and ask

Dattatreya with vnnu's blessings, but Dattatreya incorporates
within himself all the attributes of the Trinity, So it came about that
Dattatreya w as the special incarnation of the three Gods in recognition
of the penance of Atri and chastity of Anasuya.* The date of the


in the



said to be


Wednesday, the fourteenth day of the


of mfirgaixrsa.

Dattatreya occupies a very special position in Indian
mythology. He is not merely a symbol but a great living and ever

auspicious presence,
as an





as a devoted son to his parents,

a great teacher of sdkta and saiva doctrines
as evidenced in Trtpurd-Rahasya, Devi Bhdgavata, the AvadhutaGiid and $tva~Rahasya. He is the preceptor of Paraiurama and
t&mhriu He is one of those that were liberated though living. He is


as 'Dattatreya the highest and beyond all measure/'" 3 *
In the Tripura-Rahasya Dattatreya is depicted as the one who is

outwardly fond of wine and women. It is said that it is a cloak to
hide his greatness, because he was tired of being harassed by

sorts for the highest truth.

Nobody knew better than the Lord
no one who was not an adhtkarm, responsible person, should
initiated into the secret of the science of Brahman.
So he repelled all
those not worth teaching, from coming to him.
It was only the true





a temple



Travancoro State built *herc the trinity of Gods
h" *
at thc Placc
Svctndram In passing ,t nu> be


S" T*
thai temple there
* ithtn


a shrine dedicated to Sri Dattatreya




aspirant, the disciple with real devotion that


through his

and thus would be ready to receive his grace and
blessing. Such a great devotee of Sri Dattatreya was ParaSurama.
Alter testing his sincerity, Dattatreya initiated him into the secret
of Ttipura. Parasurama owed his inspiration to worship at the feet
of the Lord Dattatreya to the sage samvarta.
Dattatreya was also the teacher and guide of the legendary hero
Kartavlryarjuna, the great ksatriya king. It was Kartavlryarjuna
whom Parasurama defeated and destroyed in his attempt to rid the
world of all ksatnya kings. Both these great men, great heroes and
great ascetics, sddhakas, were the disciples of Lord Dattatreya, So
spiritual power,


for the greatness of Dattatreya as a preceptor, guru.



a belief widely held that Dattatreya also took the form of

Sripada-vallabha and Sri Narasimha-sarasvati, two great spiritual



activities (Itlas)


even today. Their

and miraculous doings



excite the admiration and

enhance the devotion in many of the Lord's devotees, as well as help
to enhance the Lord's radiance and glory further. In both these
incarnations Dattatreya is always the philosopher completely
detached from the worldly things, the embodiment of renunciation,
true wisdom, universal kindness and enormous spiritual and mirac-

ulous powers. These great souls were ever bent on giving succour to

humanity, always ready and willing to help sincere men in
their ordinary existence into a higher plane of spiritual and moral

grandeur, to enable them to achieve the highest end or goal of

the state of being liberated in



jtvamnuktatva, through the

enjoyment of the nectar of identity, advaitdmrta, as the result of the
grace of God, Uvardnugraha, helping to develop the individual
disposition, samskara, into complete fruition

by the development


the intuitive faculty, pratibhd-ialdi. Thus were the great preceptors,
Sri Sripada-vallabha and Sri Narasirhha-sarasvati, the incarnations
of the Lord Dattatreya, the embodiments of all that is highest in

Indian thought and culture. They were the Lord in human form, the
preceptors who illumined the dark world of dreariness and tmwhole-

someness by their wisdom, piety and truth. They were no other than


characterised as truth,

the eternal presence.
Dattatreya is a sacred

wisdom and the ever

name and a symbol

present, that

of the sacred

T. He


the vital principle we call by various names, Mva, visnu, rudra,
brahma, vdyu, prthvi, indra and so on. He is all of them; he is in every

then even this attempt on my part to compose a hymn is free from any blemish ' <1S3) 'O Dattatreya' 0 han* 0 krsnrt 0 0 the Giver of the Highest Bliss! 0 the child of Atri' the Form covering all the directions of space' (O the product of the men of wisdom') 0 the demon! 0 the Ocean of Knowledge' '< 1141 Awn ianhh ianhh iantih CONCLUSION By way that were of concluding this part of the work. it Lord With - it U rcsults in the realisation of identity. And his presence is felt by all who have that faith and love. All paths lead to him alone. He is the preceptor who confers the nectar of unity. then the praises of even And are inadequate for thee. . This . As Puspadanta says of the Lord. action 'If the praise of thee by one who is ignorant of the extent of thy greatness be unbecoming. all his devotees turn for protection and guidance. the significant ideas so far expounded may be recapitulated so as to present to our mind a coherent view of the reality. ? .t. ? it in 1 mngful T ^ ^^£t^ G*d £ me 3 is gim C ° " ? ^ disposition is * the To understand & oi the meaningless. advaxtdmrla by his mere glance. with a view to understanding the truth of identity more readily Identity is the truth that underlies hfe as such. May he watch over us.Daltalreya * The Spiritual Discipline 77 and belief. his grace is enough to give the pupil the boon of the nectar of identity. Lord Dattatreya. °? • i emb0d d stvitlf^? dm t£J A. To him. ^S7u lspos. particle of thought. and bless us with the realisation of identity which is the grace of God. Dattatreya. a pmpose at Gach Sta e 6 i0 m °- 11 jntegrates * -th ^ the spontaneous grace of acqu IS .on of Advaita bhava or the Advaita attitude. if all Brahma and others remain unblameable by praising thee according to their intellectual powers.

It enables him fo overcome adverse circumstances of all kinds. They are instances of witchery created by tion Dattatreya. an equanimity of mind. realisation and and an egalitarian outlook (samadrsfi) is the outward poise. implication of the Dattatreya concept. is so complete The concept is the of Dattatreya not the object of study the very principle of study and knowledge. work we studied the concept of Dattatreya as presented by the same Upanisad. which expression of an inner tranquillity. This is the consummation devoutly to be wished for. It secures for him a serenity of spirit. This is in short the subject matter of the present work. In the first chapter of this book we attempted to understand realisation of that identity by means of several definitions offered Further. the peaceful and iivam. The things that appear contrary to this identity have their source in nescience and illusion. The truth that is thus realised is the monistic truth expounded by the scriptures. Meditation implies one The meditator in his effort to become one with the meditated is chastened and purged of all taint of evil and imperfection. in the light of Sdndilya-Upanisad of identity is by men we noted of wisdom. It is am' and 'Dattatreya I It is illumination. identity. In this process it thus the preceptor of alL It self-revealed. In the language of Sdndilya-Upanisad. Dattatreya creates circumstances that make who meditates. The several attributes like bantam. passions and prejudices. Advaita. and comprehensive that it is and knowledge. both the process of meditaIt is the oneness of updsana and tcpdsya — and the object meditated upon. the master magician. the good ascribed to Dattatreya should not be taken as in any manner giving a description In the second chapter of this . practice of meditation a necessity. It is self-established.Dattatreya frame of mind comes to permeate every phase of a person's activity and enables him to steer clear of illusions and delusions. As identical with daksindmurtt it is the source of an unbroken stream of teachers and teaching {gurusampraddya pravdha). that the truth the origin and the aim of the whole creation* the rich content of this truth it was signified as To indicate Dattatreya by this Upanisad. It is For this reason it is meditated upon as 'Siva am'. self-understood and I is spirit. happens to be the preceptor of liberation in life and the philosophy of equipoise. The process of meditation culminates in the direct which is meditated. the realisation in the most intense way of a unity in the midst of diversity.

The Spiritual Discipline Dattatreya of it. They are supposed to have a definite meaning according to ordinary usage But the Upamsadtc use of these words is profoundly different. It baffles description understanding of But it One can arrive at a (hbdabrahjna) by a process of and definition. enquire into it. Atman and mahcivara. He taught him Mating.(Brahman is) food.t. mmd and peech He further taught him. By food those that bom T. are supported. These words are also used in common parlance. This holds good of the truths revealed in the Veda. 'from which these creatures the are born by *hich those that are born are supported. This signifies that whenever the concept of Dattatreya comes to our sat. he understood that food is ™*^ F cnatuit* are born. mind. That is Brahman'. This cannot be said of our knowledge of ultimate reality. They enter into food and become united 0 ntm. vital breath. This may be illustrated by taking for example Dattatreya as identity As identity. 0 Revered Sir! a e withTt teach me Brahman' He taueht him . He meditated upon . ear. 79 Description presupposes a familiarity with a thing and its features. Dattatreya was said to be truth. his father and requested him '0 Revered Sirl Teach me Brahman'. Having meditated upon it. The attributes mentioned are however so bound together that each of them is logically integrated thinking this is \uth the others They are interrelated and interlocking and find their solidarity and transcendence in the absolute. Brahman. eye. we must see that in the same concept all that is signified by these Upantsadtc words must be truly represented. the concluding part of this Upamsad opens "Bhrm the celebrated son of Varuna came to Varuna. at and bliss. dnanda. theoretical disciplined only preliminary to realisation. A reference to the Upantsadtc applied with great care to a definite shows that each word is position at which the Upamsadtc seer has arrived after deep meditation under the personal guidance of an expert teacher A literature reference to the Tatttmya-Upamsad illustrates this point further BhrguvalH. The principle that all negation was adverted to in this part of the work. knowledge. into which they enter" and become united. At tins stage of our study the question of interpretation becomes determination is very important.

Any other method of intcrpteling The problems connected with it docs not do justice to it. The effervescing of ananda in the manifested universe is termed the creative play (Ltla) of the Divine spirit. This is the experience of the holy (tivaw). bliss Dualism therefore picsupposcs identity. evokes ' (£dniam)> The holy and the the aesthetic It a is tranquil peace is the is The holy passcth under- the harmonious and harmony experience of the 'luminous like a Indramla$amaprabha\ that it. Brahman. The ultimate kinds is is It is therefore not ultimate. ananda. By deep austerity and meditation it disappeais. Duality is only a phase in this process of understanding. knowledge. This As it is may now is implied in all be briefly indicated. already suggested. For the sake of clearness made in the following pages to show how these various of Dattatreya in an attempt is terms point to the same truth and how each idea other ideas. It beautiful sapphire'. Dattatreya transcending duality of the one source of all that is verily defined as omnipotent. all The omnipotence is so great that its creative power knows no bounds. It is a necessary stepping-stone The manifested and the manifold universe the effervescence of the inherent bliss of the Absolute (Ananda). at. The annulment of duality characterises the Advaitic experience. In the piesent woik an attempt is made to interpret the attributes terms of the Vedic ideas. It is a system-maker as well as a great magician.Dattatreya So gradual stages of reflection to the comprehension of Brahman* The piocess of meditation which led to this is essentially enquiry and reflection culminating in the hannonisation of all the vedic texts and ideas in such a way that they receive invincible philosophical justification. This is is the Absolute and the one the implication of the Upanifadk definition of Dattatreya as truth. Aiman and mahdvara. the signifies soundarya aspect. It is the overflow extension of its . 'numinous' experience as Professor Rudolf Otto puts is the tranquil standing. It is its sport. (sundaram). bliss. this aspect of interpretation arc the subject matter of the Vcddnta-Sfttras of Bfidatayana. the relevant Vedic passages must be scrutinised and the meanings have to be fixed. is it. The Ufianifad says that from bliss everything emanates and into every thing returns. sat. identity. In both cases its creation is a spontaneity. 'Dvaita' or the duality of the cxpcricncer and the experienced has 'advaita* implicit in to Advaitic experience. In order to understand an Upani?adic idea or a woid. Dattatreya and emphatically non-dual.

t implies that it is the one protection of all. It its is thus the author. It therefore needs no protection. The transcendent is implied though only a part of it is being discovered by us. 'Deva' means "to shine' The real truth nor is is what Deva as applied to is derived from 'div' which etymologically of Dattatreya cannot be revealed by word of mouth there anything in the light of which it can be grasped It is presupposed in all knowledge and is svaprakaia or self-evident. It is m this sense intent on unravelling Si power.Strat0S h°W nr^sTf V energ) that scorches of Dattatreya Dattritre ya S WT all evil « smeared. This does not not known does not exist or that what is grasped What is grasped it by each perspective is part of the and the other unseen parts are mentally fitted up by us by a process of what a psychologist has termed 'noetic synthesis'. It is self-illuminating. This Dattatreya implies. peaceful and so on But the whole it is the case with the highest truth. Similarly hill. Everything no It is m this sense the shining principle of Truth is like mean is we can say view. the particular facets revealed being parts of the gem. all. This word S]gnifics absolute absence of protection At the same time . It is not only t! ° nS ltS Sament but !t is the Sarraent of a" m ^ dtctmns riil* m i. of both bondage and release Its creatorship involves emanates from duality. a many-sided gem.U. It is its own protection. 15 a11 that is holy and gy is what is that -hite hea to ashes *ith which the Tins all unified as body beautiful1 bl. The ordinarily comprehensible portion of it consists of those attributes by which we term Dattatreya as auspicious.JZ^ . reality of Dattatreya transcends all that. It is the very perfection of all spiritual discipline. self- illuminated and self-illumination. Likewise is visible to and it hill is that truth a is like hill which can be glimpsed. The only way by which it can be known is by a process of immediate knowledge or direct realisation {saksdtkara) It is then that it reveals itself as the one and one only (adventa). It is for tins reason characterised as having the cardinal directions as its garment. It is the teacher itself. It is avadfmla the sense that it stands unveiled in its unwrapped spotless purity (dtgmnbara).» The Spiritual Discipline Daitalrcya Us of bliss. Only a part of that what the whole finally enters into it.

with which he was able to see the vision of the cosmic form of the lord. The top-knot of braided hair (jatdjiita) is indicative of penance and austerity of discipline. It is The whole idea is that truth and beauty go together. all that how it is is is knowledge.'< 12G) Bhasma surging sakti is siva himself. literature to The truth Dattatreya. the inner eye. all that is discipline. To separate them gives no meaning. the power of agnu So is bhasma the power of agni. It is also indicative of the tangled world of existence braided together reaching an apex of a pyramidal It is the inner meaning and reality. It gave him the vision of the cosmic form. meditation.Dattatreya 82 There is thus nothing in the world that is not permeated by iiva-iaktu Again and again this world is burnt to ashes by agni. That is what they say. For this reason Dattatreya as having source of absolute purity. Philosophy and aesthetics together give life a purpose and meaning. We have to understand its special significance and circumstance on the strength of which alone it is considered to be the only source of knowledge of the ultimate truth. Dattatreya is thus the repository of all power. The expansiveness and all inclusiveness of this personality that is indicated by the description 'four-armed'. Arjuna was vouchsafed with this 'divya caksus\ the divine eye. special significance that entitle this be regarded as a pramdna or authentic source of knowledge of ultimate reality. all is defined all-pervadingness. Dattatreya all that is explains is thus all that austerity. omnipresence. spiritual most supreme. from each other they degenerate into sophistry or vulgarity. this reason It 'having the lock of hair reposing high on is This described as head'. of all these ideas can be appreciated only by those that have the eye of knowledge. 'JatajuiadharcC as its an apellation of Dattatreya must now receive our attention. the manifestations of might or power (vibhuti). Therefore our ancients laid stress on the interlinking connection between . Divorced the figure of a fully-blossomed lotus. The words indicate strength and beauty. It is this embodied manifestation of power that is characterised by words like 'caturbahu' and 'uddrdnga'. Power implies a an embodiment and medium of expression. They call the ashes bhasma. all that is evil is scorched to ashes and all that is existent is signifies fused into a single seamless reality apart from which nothing else exists. The efflorescene of this beauty is indicated by personality charged with it. For and reflection. the truth of Advaita wherein all that is diverse is forged into a unity.

This is the identity of truth. that is present in all. DuaJi sm would mean setting over some reality against at 3 I)attatreya is therefore to negate Dattatreya. Discipline without this ideal is only a waste of energy and time. clarifying the whole {sakata) and the part are aspects (vibala) of the one Reality. Having a power addition to it and along with * » to moduy and deny it. is not attained by any agency to else effect this transformation. It is therefore the preceptor of all. It is the one It is ^hich all sacredness belongs. re that 5 nature of **» or co ° f thC Lorf at the °P enin& this *ork is ?*l * e CC ° f Da «*«*».The Spiritual Discipline Dnttdtreya. h-? But Dattatreya is the real It is the pnnciple of negation also. After knowledge . the meaning and purpose of philosophy how and S3 aesthetics. ^r\ - ^ m ZtT* £S2 mtr T^ ^» W8* ^ " ? ^ ^t^^^ V° S ^ W ™^^?£SX?^ U noDhL » u nS ' PKlJ ? 0ur Prior to the knowledge and thcreforc meaningless. DatUtreya both perfection and the discipline leading to perfection It is the treasure-house of knowledge and discipline. Hence man has no power against at. This omofogicai unify is the essential nature of Dattatreya. * bCCaUSC takes the placed prayer is meaningless So grace is thJ d Citation t^at not the nork of the . Nothing can be postulated as an This would be tantamount to lapsing to dualism which militates against the Absoluteness (Advatta) of Dattatreya. and as the ideal to be reality to cipline realised of by means of the all classes of aspirants. This explains how personality illustrates the absolute truth. It is the one aim of all disboth as an ideal aspect of discipline. This is the expression of the unity of all. To attain to this stage of thought is not exclusively a matter of personal endeavour. the rich embodiment oijn&na and yoga. This signifies devotion to it The devotees and a ll the circumstances connected with them . beauty and goodness This is equally is the implication of the identity of the all-inclusive aspects of Reality and all-exclusive the truth that can be the source of knowledge from which everything else is derived Dattatreya is the light that illumines all. discipline Without For this reason it is the beloved no discipline is possible. Hence the o*er in queshon P q ° f Da t5treya . this ideal Even the impulse to achieve this is to be ascribed to the almighty Dattatreya.ItS Work its is 11 ^herefore deT„ed as being compassionate to its devotees.

This sttmmum bonum as a of existence. attribute of Dattatreya does undefined. Its only object service or devotion is Dattatreya. To do this. Not to know Dattatreya is not to know it as unknown. For this reason it is called the all-witnessing The principle. Hie not in a position to know what it is. To know it as unknown is knowledge. Its power is so great that it is everyis . Wisdom is unknown as unknown. This preparedness consists in being entirely free from pre-possessions. Dattatreya triptird. Brahma* the process of understanding the Upanisadic statement what is 'To him to is whom it is Further.'* 127 ' a great magician! It is more than a magician. It has in fact nothing else to serve throughout the course of discipline whatever realisations or perfection may come it to have. The interpretation of the attributes of Dattatreya exhaustive. Meditation is Each the outcome of the implication of the definition of Dattatreya. Dattatreya not known to him alone it is known. It is Dattatreya of its own accord that gives it. individual self at the point of receiving grace is endowed with a preparedness. The whole attempt indicates only as by no means a possible method of interpretation. It is the unknown and attain this conclusion is is no other than the unknowable. The meditation on Dattatreya which is thus purely is of served intellectual in character concludes with a re-affirmation that this meditation on the highest of is all that is divine. the essence of the Vpanisadtc teaching as such is and thereby indicates that this can be understood only in the light of Vedic teaching. the true meaning of detachment. Chapter I unknown no doubt define Dattatreya. It knows best all about it. but Dattatreya requires nothing. that is. To overcome this seeming contrarequired to realise the diction is Vidyd. A Magician requires something as the basis for his magic.Dattatreya 84 the work of the Lord Dattatreya. the individual self has nothing else to serve. philosophy is required. when it comes devotee or student. Dattatreya for this reason by men who are the accomplished ones. It expected from the study of philosophy. the The passages from the Tripurd-Rahasya quoted in of this work showed how the real wisdom of knowing the required insight and intuition. Further in the course of this text certain details connected with the meditation of Dattatreya are considered. Philosophically to the aim of this humble work. At this state. a meditation absolutely without break the expression of the untainted purity of the aspirant who result of this attains the Dattatreya. It individual self is is and what its work is.

It is the teacher of its own truth. It is the philosopher. cannot be overestimated. a person. It all inclusive. avaa*Mtta/<tm The spiritual. It is the repository of all-power and as such it is the subject matter of the whole Veda. doing good to all. It is the discipline as well as the one who practises the discipline. ethical and social importance of the concept of the philosopher. It is invoked as the doer of everything in the chain formula. Apart from it there is nothing in the world that does anything It is the fivefaced Lord of all.Dattatreya: 5 thing. It is the gift because it is the all-auspicious. Who can teach this truth? Dattatreya itself. You arrive at Dattatreya as the only auspicious verity. It : It is all. the most enduring of all beings. of a sinless disposition. It is It is the God. absolute. . one who has realised himself. What it teaches has immediate effect on the person who understands teacher of Jivanmukta-Gita. it. of the essence of truth. Reflect on the auspicious. Dattatreya. The entities that are consistent with the attributes of Dattatreya are the contents of the world To reflect about them and repose on them takes us to the highest truth. avadhula. harmless. It is therefore the "Kind. This is the character of the pfri/osopher. Nothing is therefore greater or smaller. The essence of everything in the world is Dattatreya. : The Spiritual Discipline becomes everything. It Anasuya received. a is the gift that Atri and at the man. unaffected. It is all is 85 exclusive same time.

As the author of the Bhagavad~GUd is Lord Kr$iia the author of the Avadhuia-Glta is Lord DalkUrcya. aifoarya. Both arc expositions of the Vcdic truth called Brahman. H t A (Avadhuta): THE PRESUPPOSITION OF DATTADVAITAI THK PHILOSOPHY OF THE AVADHUTA-GITA 1HE Avadhuta-GUd presupposes a knowledge of the Veda and the Upanisads. The subject matter of one is Bhagavdn and of the other avadhtita. One means the other. metaphysical views and spiritual meanings. of sarva-fafdi (omnipotence) and purnatva (fullness) concepts in the . They are celestial songs communicating comfort and wisdom to suffering humanity. It is in fact a faithful exposition of the Vcdic and Upanifadic thought. Both envisage all-power.AUM CHAPTER IV DATTATREYA: THE PHILOSOPHER I. It is therefore most advanced in the disposition of its philosophical enquiry. But serious thought about the background of the Vcdic and Upanifadic teachings leads us on to the knowledge that the words simple at first sight. of this great work ideas arc not only symbols of profound ideas but hallowed experiences which echo of Vcdic and Upanifadic thought. safva-Sakti. Both these works arc signified as Gita or song. An attempt is made to show how this work is in spirit identical with Srttti and $mfli and how its chief contribution lies in its explication y . The words in The it may appear to be may appear to be trite or didactic. Bhaga (in bhagavdn) means omnipotence. fore arc just an attempt The Avadiita-Gttd In its character it in of down the ages the very essence The following few thoughts there- the direction of illustrating this truth. In the light of the foregoing considerations these two expressions arc inter-changeable. Hence all-power or sarva-fakti omnipotence is the source of both the works. in its composition resembles the Bhagavad-Gttd* is an exposition of Brahma-Vidyd in the same manner as the Bhagavad-Gttd. Avadhula explains how it is omnipotence. One is the explanation of the other.

irulyakla. (i) that knowledge of the ultimate principle of all. all). Without recognising these two ideas no aspect of Indian thought can be understood correctly. the source of their knowledge is V«la Therefore Veda for this reason of the is. The Philosopher 87 concept of Dattatreya. complete. Veda. defectless and independent. Only the God that existed before the creation of expounded therein the world Assisted by nothing else he is created the whole world. Veda . From this it follows that He is the God of Gods. to the things that are above sense perception.. but it is the very theme of his instruction This is illustrated by the Tnpurd-Rahasya. SKA therefore the J wt.«re3 a ongm as thc saddhva of the form of aum It means the same. it the teaching of the Omniscient Being and gives rise to the immediate apprehension of all. hvara. therefore He js For the same reason He is the independent principle of To keep this firmly m mmd helps towards appreciation of what defectless. ? <»« This fear >t$t" ] Uvara means all-power Srutt defines Isvara thus all branches of knowledge and is the lord of all rf. With regard . The substance of these verses may be stated and the concepts they employ may be studied in brief 'The monistic disposition springs up in those who are inwardly spirit of nC **? y hy thc grace of God and saves t^m from a great is the opening passage of the work.'' 12 '" (The idea is this— He is the God of Gods.'. that Truth that is is AH. h . is the highest of all the sources of knowledge. . the He presses over creatures T All -Holy bTess ledge. that is. m7 It is therefore theme of the present work is the highest prinrinlf illustrates. May He. Pranava p™«* 6 of all life. Brahman can be only that which is expounded by Srutt.— Dattatreya.and the gods. Snjft alone is the source of This recognition is particularly indispensable in following Dattatreya. s the all-auspicious. Therefore He is complete. The concept of Brahman as light of the expounded by Srttli implies the recognition of two ideas. follows' A the study of the first five verses of the AvadhtVa-Gitd presents to us m the teaching which is essential understanding the philosophy that underlies this work. The fact that it is the very presupposition of his teaching is not only amply illustrated in the Avadhuta-Gttd. and (2) that the ultimate principal of all. Under the sketch of Dattatreya we have already studied how Dattatreya is Brahman itself as expounded by Sruii. It opens in the name of the Lord.

The Loid's creation is but the expression of his wish/ (1M Reality in its essence the state of freedom. one who has 'Vipra' in the vedic sense means the 'inwardly stirred He is the seer. His wisdom is who knows from all the attainments of intellect. the disposition the gift of the Lord as the Bhagavad-Gitd says bondage/ U33) Through my grace you transcend The one to whom the giace occurs is defined as man. able to defy him. they are not undefied and they do not transcend misery. Nothing in the world. is consists 'in having the equanimity of the endurance. and the man of discrimination. It > the state of union with Brahman. In the light of the context quoted above it is evident that the attainment of these qualities is the result of the Lord's grace. In the present context the person is specified by the grace of the Lord and the disposition of identity. mcdhd. His grace is nothing The Mdndiikya all reality. peace. patient. under- a person becomes w undaunted and undefied. having detachment from all tilings that arc worldly and in going to a spiritual preceptor in order lo receive knowledge/ tm) Tranquil. dhira and transcends misery/' 2 So man. It is is is is realisation. This union The is a matter of particular disposition leading lo this realisation of identity.Dattatrcya 88 The Lord presents himself one source of desire. to say that the whole circumstance of the man of discrimination having the disposition of identity is the result of Dattatrcya's grace. the wise and the sagacious. may bravely faces every situation however appear to be. the fragrance of non-duality. the state of being a mcdhavin. the person who and he is a person specified as undefied. the realisation of the self- having examined and concluded that establishing nature of the whole world it of self. freedom from bondage. . 1 . It is the but his lo us as Dattatrcya. puman. is Katha says 'Having stood the all-including the all-pervading self. This is that is. in the present context signifies the Upant$adic undaunted and undefied dhira. implying that others are persons only in name. subdued. however exceptional He is undefied. In the words the Mwtdaka-Upanisad mind. self-control. karman i in being one who is devoted to Brahman. Vipra signifies discrimination. perceiving the world-process as the result and devoting himself has these qualities is the man to Brahman' Indeed of discrimination. prior to advaiia vdsand. in the work of action. The literal moaning of puman is a person. He adverse it is He undaunted. within. vipra. the one who is undaunted and undefied. says. inwardly turned. he sees the of deeds Atman in himself. dlnra. The Upanhads call a person specified similarly. puman.

It is similar to the water superimposed on the rays of the sun To whom indeed shall I pay my salutation' I am the only being that is defectless. only a way of express™. It is defectless identity. 'That by which (all this) is all this is filled created and in the up same it is the Self. From the fact that truth is defectless identity it follows that the world as being different from the self and as being defective is superimposed even as the water on the rays of the sun.'' 13" The world is of the earth. complete and final. It What is the disposition of which brings about liberation? is identity. Union is an experience. So even to presen expos tion all relative. non-dual. But it is beyond limit. It is therefore self-established. It is only an appearance like the water in a mirage. air and ether. It is imperishable Being evidently free from all limitations. There is therefore nothing to modify or destroy it. What forms the self of an individual being is therefore reality. It is not a reality. because there is no worshipper outside it. fire. It nununac th c absoIutc character Qf is ^ is «™ g^ed never intended . trUth * Differcnce' It removes non-differenc^ Each implies the other. pain and evil of every kind. It is therefore formless Nothing is outside it. There is therefore nothing other than itself as the object of its worship. Dattutreya answers By the same self it freedom. never represent the truth completely. It is the state of spiritual bliss. auspicious and inexhaustible''""' As the origin and goal of all. How pay my salutation to that which is formless.Datlalrcya* The Philosopher 89 With the disposition of identity the person transcends bondage which is nothing but misery and pain. the Lord defined as self in the present passage is complete. indeed can I What is the status of the world which appears differently from the sclP Dattatreya says in answer 'The whole universe is nothing but the five elements. The state of transcendence is liberation. The significance of defining the effl iw They Presen to ' tiVC 5 J ™™x thG ls tence ™ Lord as self is profound. exists. It is all-identity. it is the auspicious It is beyond worship. life and death. birth and rebirth. To give it a form is to limit it. water. Reality is the Lord the Self or Dattatre)*.

It can be bliss the absorbing character of in the sense of This is transcendent reality only how knowledge is bliss. hand we have thinking. iabda-pramdna. So from the Indian point of view philosophy without verbal testimony in the fonn of Veda is inconceivable. results in wonder. We may distinguish four stages in the growth of this importance.Daitdtrcya go the Bhagavad-Gitd says 'A person who has realised the truth sees it wonder/ tl30) Knowledge of the truth becomes wonder and wonder as is a circumstance in which both the realiser and the realised become wonder. A careful analysis of verbal testimony has led the Veddnta thinkers to accept the conception of a case of verbal testimony which is identified as impersonal that. In this stage particular aspect of verbal third is the testimony is Mimdmsd recognised to sublate all other sources of knowledge including other aspects of verbal testimony. In the modern way we In this context a of thinking are not expected to lay emphasis on verbal testimony. This is the Sankhya stage of thought. Even though Veda is not recognised in philosophies such as the cdrvdka system. the quintessence of II. This of truth results in liberation defines as equipose. A But to do full justice to the subject on along been faithfully following the Indian mode of note on the whole course of the Dariana literature in all an idea of how verbal testimony as a source of correct knowledge gains more and more importance. This is the Nydya stage of thought. having no person as its and defined for this reason as Veda. In the first stage verbal testimony is recognised to be one of the sources. The whole idea signifies that the knowledge of the truth must be a case of bliss. THE DEFECTS OK EMPIRICAL PHILOSOPHY the philosophy of word about the method adopted in developing Avadhuia-GUd may be mentioned. perception and so on. In the second its development does not fail to give us stage particular aspects of verbal testimony are considered to be more decisive than the other sources of knowledge. if it which the author harmony. In India from the very commencement of philosophical thought Veda that has given rise to the philosophical problems and it origin is it is the interpretation of Veda that has solved those problems. The stage. the mere rejection of the . The exclusive importance given to verbal testimony finds its culmination at the final stage of Vzddnla thought and in this stage only an aspect of verbal testimony becomes the only source of correct knowledge.

of the truth. Answering tw nf? *Z oT thTdemand . Both are indispensable as we are to understand the unseen with the help of a preceptor. then Justice to Indian thought is not done at all. So in the following exposition emph&s. So there are two senses in which the expression. s on the traditional way of expounding Indian philosophy. if at all they can be satisfied. interpreting our is laid are satisfied only through the Indian method of own ideas. even including carvdka. the idea implied is philosophical systems of India In calling a philosophical that the immediate apprehension vision. If this is in any manner ignored. further. At thought the semblance of enquiries. Butlt 5hous how imperative the examination of these states fought gives equal attention to all these states A study oi »n &L modem UmZ c2 felnS demands CXclusive attenti0 » at some stag I < other to alt facts connected with these states. verbal testimony. From this point of view it may be said that the whole of Indian thought is primarily devoted to the establishment of Veda and its importance against all that is empirical. In modern thought we are f amdiar with the consideration of two state of an individual life. This is in a sense an indirect recognition of the importance of Veda. This realisation led thinkers to the evaluation of verbal testimony and the veracity of its speaker. addition or recognition of verbal testimony as an important The source of knowledge has given to Indian thought a special disposition. the field of experience examined in Indian thought is very extensive. are called darianas. This gave rise to the concept of a reliable teacher [apta). of the truth that has occurred to the originator of the system in question is the origin of the exposition of the system This exposition can only take place through verbal testimony. is used in Indian thought—the expression as impersonal and the expression coming from a reliable person. Dar&ana all means system vision. The state of deep sleep which is common to all livJ beings and the transcendent state called tutiydvastha which is the special pnvikge of some spiritually gifted persons have not received the recogmtion they deserve 2 in modem psychology.Z Daitaireya * The Philosopher 91 Veda has occupied much space and the verbal exposition of this rejection is taken to be the highest source of knowledge. the waking and the drearmng. Further. So the circumstance that applies to modem thought does not apply to Indian thought and the demands of Indian thought.

This is because of their careful analysis of some conditions which go by the name in In this respect they resemble physical sciences and they deserve the respect that must be given to the sciences. however be. If we can is evident that no one appreciate the significance of thcsi ideas. he himself does not know. They are <?vcn to comprehend unable . If a person whose confined to sense-experience were to lie in make pronouncements making statements about is of life h about things which he happens to be a philosopher. If and serious he may about something he has not directly experienced. They intend to give clear ideas about the concepts transcendental in character. But their main 'spiritual'. At this stage it is necessary seriously to reflect on the foregoing ideas because the concepts made use of are beyond the scope of ordinary human understanding. But because of their empiiical disposition they are unable to do this. sincere he experience like the entities the different sense organs. Similarly. reference to nil these ideas gives altogether a different (rend to philosophy. Some of them may appear to be great and exceptional. self presented common experience. Further. the concepts and so on are not gained by these great concepts. For this reason it becomes very difficult to deal with is possible only if modern thought along with traditional lines philosophies not being en rapport it is and the case in not possible for of one to be compared and contrasted with the other. But with all is our assertions do they take us beyond? It really able to say 'yes' in icply. With these preliminary remarks we may continue the study of the Avadlnlla-Gttfi* We have so far made ourselves familiar with the position expounded by the first four verses of this work. for instance. purpose is not this. evident to our mind that all it becomes philosophies which have their support what we call normal experience suffer from the same defect. If these concepts and words arc correctly understood they may no doubt be taken to mean a reference to things beyond the empirical. These concepts and the words that represent them may mean something to a person who knows these truths personally. But is after all saying things to the philosopher in question they mean practically nothing. is not a matter of identity.Dattalrcya yi our philosophic enquiry follows the Indian tradition. however scholarly he is known to be. The considerations that \vc have weighed at the opening pages of this work only* show the allpervading and indispensable character of the Indian mode of thinking. The grace of God.

So in the hght of these considerations wc have arrived at a definition of f E ' . how can they assert or deny it. » n P d ^S? °P y nothing new. One sure test of the correctness of philosophy is this bupposing that philosophy is absent. because P without h £c 13 h xndf andt existence is ? in danger. *? WUh the truth of hfe «»d e ^tence 1 " *?? * CVjdC tly indls ens ^le. The Philosopher 93 At any rate what the Indian method of thinking presents as transcendence is beyond their reach. a Us S?t£ t tweUhT* bcm 5 " J" spirit ? "phetry.7 IV. Illustration what transcendence is.Dattdtreya. Philosophy must lead to the elevation of life.' this life When it said that philosophy must have a reference to life. How can they even conclude that they must remain silent' Any reality. is not unknown to modern . What life cannot achieve with all the empirical equipment must be achieved without fail with the help of philosophy This philosophy is therefore something totally different from all that is empirical. When their method is empirical through and through and they cannot speak of the transcendent on legitimate grounds. There them as there responsibility involved in negating is is as much m asserting their There must be sufficient justification to do either. Shorn of \ truth of philosophy becomes the trut and . In dealing of this truth is with these concepts they must either assert their reality or negate them. decision m answering these queries is after all a decision pertaining to the subject matter transcendent m character and the philosophies in question have no right to entertain it. Without it life is like a } machine driven by a man *ho is entirely ignorant of it. of this discussion life.. The of We ™ d «stence. To speak of these defects of empirical philosophies is not to say that philosophy has no reference to life. what does man lose? 'Nothing' bCCaUSe thlS hilos h teaches y is IT*! 5 ?5. Empirically successful people are no philosophers and the so called philosophers are generally taken to be day-dreamers. not rare in this work. But to do both they have no basis. the intended meaning of the word life is spiritual life. There is the common saying 'philosophy bakes no bread. Life in this connection is not intended to mean the empincal—fatfAtAfi—character of life. Further these empirical philosophies have no right even to make use ol the concepts which they somehow call transcendent. The empirical conditions of life must be transcended. To help no philosophy is needed.

All these are empirical considerations. It philosophy and TRANSCENDENT and existence is necessarily transcendent* The understanding it is what may be called the philosophy of The truth process of IS is life has been already indicated that the scope of empirical limited. If in one philosophy it is is nothing beyond the asserted there is already another philosophy to negate it. The truth what governs the whole of life. There is thus no finality in empirical conclusions. In disposition. the life of all creatures and all worlds.Dattdtreya 54 A European philosophy reveals the fact that from the time of Parmenides down to the present time empiricism of all kinds is condemned and inner vision to reveal Truth is sought for. TRUTH III. It must be not only all comprehensive but also much more than all that put together. No human mind is able to grasp it. A religion ceases to exist with the dogma. A philosophy which has its origin in wonder curiosity ceases to philosophy having its grow with the m origin satisfaction of the religious satisfaction of wonder. presuppositions and aims. Cdrvdka readily points out that the world is self-sufficient and it needs no author. the life. Instead of governing the whole of life it is itself governed by the creation of artificial compartments in a full life. is highly transcendent in its origin in science loses itself in science. All that is said about it or that can be said about it is drawn from of life is God. present and future. What may he called God in the modern language is called livara in Indian thought. of this truth. The nous of the Greek philosophy and intuition thought. Even in India if the philosophy of Nydya holds that God must be accepted as the author of the world. past. This is how empirical conclusions are . Even to observe it is nothing more than being empirical contradictions in terms. A philosophy which has its none of these cases does it enjoy freedom. of reference to the history of modern thought how indicate there is a consistent effort to transcend the empirical level throughout the history of thinking of the western world. How can such a philosophy deal with the truth of life or truth of existence? A philosophy that deals with this eternal truth about the spring of eternal life. in all its phases. It is empirical conditions so that the total output empirical. life with its conditions.

may have faith in all that the knowledge of that truth promises This attitude of man is called religion But has man gained ^hat h e lost philosophy? The man of faith simply says 'yes\ but the philosopher says This seems to be an eternal conflict. a theist or a mystic. because they are thoughtless. But no follow him. because his tnes to find of influence others sheepishly solace to To life. If in any man consistency is found. This accounts for the reaction mode follow But is very the philosopher himself follows his own mind is it ever growing. At RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY this juncture. the idea of The idea call it an 95 intellectual necessity life a riddle. But man can have faith in it. The attempt to bring the two together ness of philosophy. This is the cause of duality in life. To say that philosophy has its origin in wonder. activities against truth all this is negate themselves. Empirical no solution of this perennial problem. difficult He populanty of philosophies. . Man is unhappy without solving out some solution. Truth cannot be reasoned out and it cannot be understood. It finally makes the philosopher doubt everything including himself. By reason of this pam he becomes a sceptic.Dattatreya* The Philosopher God. The riddle is so persisting bound by his own conclusions. If others adort> him he sees more and more the insufficiency of his own thinking. Philosophy and faith do not go together. it is forced on him With great difficulty it is practised. it becomes more confirmed. In the attempt of going away from it. religion or in science is only a particular riddle. Nobody knows when he will that no man is turn his back on it. It leads on to show that with or without philosophy the world is the same and thinking is therefore the truth of life is never touched. his failure to overcome painful to him. Against them the riddle becomes more pronounced and the But to be agnostic. is what makes this riddle is the comforts that man enjoys. consciously or unconsciously seeing the uselessman has recourse to faith What he losses in intellect. to sny that philosophy. 1\. mind does not bring else's of reacting to this this riddle. he thinks. m W. of truth. he gains in faith. With all or a figment of the imagination. If he is a man of is able to remove the riddle. No determination and no philosophy agamst it is successful. demand some one satisfy a particular Others may philosophy. This is how the nddle of life is never solved by empirical thinking. an not to get nd of the idea of truth.

humanity is marked all religion The history of civilisation of the whole of by these different stages of interaction and strife of religion and philosophy. Understand a thing. To believe in a tiling to arrest the progress of thought. So philosophy does not presuppose the negation of thought. It breeds further beliefs. Philosophy which deals with the truth of life and existence difference may not be readily conceived. While philosophy is possible religion is the failure of thought. Politically wars not fought so much for material possessions as for ideas and evident law and order. It religion in the name is the defect of mediaeval also the defect of all those who uphold is of philosophy. But belief has nothing to do with the reality of the thing believed. dharma-saiitsthdpam. Consequently philosophy is and no philosophy. Thus it negates thought. Protection of The between philosophy and religion as has been so far defined is this. There scope for further understanding of the same. their distinction result to effort. the other. One has no right in believing a thing which one is expected to understand. to negate philosophy. Believe in a thing. This by the history of every country. effort. uphold either gives and religion commands that there no is rise mistaken to for conflict.DaUdtrcya 96 neither philosophy nor faith. Religion in this sense To is is the worst possible introduce religion into philosophy made are is enemy of philosophy. is the keynote of every war. It is is One ignored. In this circumstance the language made use of by philosophy is borrowed by religion* For this reason both appear to be similar. The suffers. If understanding takes place there is no room is . Viewed from this point of view history is nothing but the outcome of the interaction of religion with philosophy or in other words of the status that philosophy enjoys. Further to understand a thing is to recognise the reality of the same. But An attempt Philosophy means becomes popular. It is just the recognition of failure of thought. This is philosophy in the west. They are considered to be companions and complementary to each other.Thcy appear to be interchangeable. This companionship seems to be indispensable. It is obvious that every idea of possession is governed by an outlook and an ideal. in But the case in is it proceeds it enriches the of religion is different. But there is in thought everything that helps the formation of that philosophy. ideals. Religion therefore support. Making use of the available elements thought philosophy proceeds on and as thought process.

'" 40 * stage. all that is meaningless and all that is unintelligible. As he goes on depending upon it. iraddhd means unalloyed devotion to know ledge or devotion to truth. Even the belief in great and God does not command truth. may seem to give some comfort and solace. to worship it. philosophy liberates Srtth says: 'Of those who has understood the Truth in the manner expounded by Sruti becomes immortal. But it does not ensure the reality of the object. It is this circumstance no longer hostile to ph osophy but is an aspect of understanding itself. But the sense in which iraddhd is used in the Upam$ads is different. religion binds. it may even be translated as faith and faith in this condition may be termed religion. Instead of relirinn endCnC>' t0 imitate must be decked .ch the language of the Upamsadic iraddhd ma> be apphed. It is no* something to *h. efforts to find At a higher it may express itself in making out that philosophy which deals with the truth of stage We and existence. Having fully recognised this significance of iraddhd devotion. It may express itself at the first method. To attain aspirants only he which it is is in to immortahty there is no other Sometimes an Vpamsadtc word Sraddhd is translated as faith. Further if such a philosophy adopt effectively the truth it expounds it may then be termed religion But it is found to and to practise it accordingly must not be forgotten that in both these cases faith.Daitdtrcya: for belief. come But belief is taken The Philosopher 97 to be a necessity when the thing does not to the purview of understanding. Ail cases of belief are therefore of the character of super-imposition. man is soon assailed by doubts which he cannot quieten by means of exceptional tilings such as belief In this circumstance the result and Thus while it all his religion is gone. to adore it. As religion n m his sense is rare. m rejecting all that is empirical. in other words. In this sense it is distinguished from the faith we have so far considered. To believe in it. religion is mtellectualised. and to depend upon it. its imitation is t^^^T^ ! very easy. Disappointment becomes an addition to the already existing misery. To believe m something does not mean the existence of that thing To attribute great and exceptional qualities to it does not mean that it is made substantial. As distinguished from this faith.

Even in the happiest moments man is never at rest. It is for this reason that empirical life is characterised as bondage. bhwili. philosopher or what what food. samsdra. The only an appearance. It does not apply to Indian thought. It life is only an appearance is not the life of reality. To enjoy it again. further quantities of is given. It is life and existence. He never wants to confine himself to individual. may a. IN WHAT ENVIRONMENT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE TRANSCENDENT POSSIBLE? and existence Is the philosophy of the truth of life is the main question we must possible? This seek to answer. Empirical conditions therefore give no rest to man. and The real existence. is its origin is illusion. So they take us to the question of the source of that knowledge* If there is a real source. and misery. The Indian thought call critics of the Indian attitude pessimistic. Its equivalent in Indian thought is start with the definition of philosophy. It Can we understand it as it is? is the truth of Can we Is the philosophy of this truth possible? We see life and it in its entirety? are out to discover answers to these questions.Dattatreya 9S V. duhkha. This thought only shows that the so called happiness come is but misery as it is the outshows how reality is something in reality nothing as well as the seed of misery. It is therefore something to be rejected and something to be dispensed with. To understand this truth is also to understand the cause and law of taitva-tasira. one enjoys delicious But soon it is swallowed. Philosophy the science of 'the truth' of life and existence in the circumstance in which life as life. It superimposed as nescience. food are required. arc fixed. It is the knowledge of the causes and laws of all phenomena. AH these are the questions pertaining to the problem of knowledge. and being as being. and existence empirical it is To know the truth of life and existence is to see life in their entirety with all their presuppositions. At every stage he is anxious to see further and to see lies outside the present. To give a simile. by Indian thinkers. then this knowledge is possible At the and not otherwise. empirical level the field of to the knowledge caused by human knowledge is confined the five sense organs and manas which . there is a serious attempt to transcend what is immediately given. But pessimism implies the temper that emphasises misery and ignores happiness. In answering this question we may is the science of being as being. therefore transcendent. That evidenced by the fact that is in every no philosopher.

Can we point to a similar source of the knowledge of m S ™ . 7 .Daitdireya. is commonly inference is The Philosopher translated as mind. is after all an attempt to reduce the transcendent to the level of the empirical as it considers the former on the analogy of the latter. it does not produce * d the knowv edge of odour. pdramdrthika-pratyaksa. yaugikapralyakm Sdnkhya and Yoga maintain that the apprehension of the instals truth angas. by the practice of yoga consisting of eight limbs. The Jina upholds immediate apprehension reveahng reality. But it is is very cruel on one's part to expect that others should respect him for it even though they have no hope of seeing God. On gg the basis of this knowledge constructed and communication by means of knowledge The normal and abnormal activities of these sources of knowledge are distinguished and right and wrong cases of knowledge are determined. only a certain value. and it is more cruel on one's part to appear as the saviour of mankind and by creating an illusion of gifts (o make men forget all about the Ultimate Truth and its omnipotence. but not the higher they have and public value One welcome to think that he actually sees God. one's seeing God is of no avail to them. the source of the knowledge of colour. immediate apprehension resulting from an extraordinary condition of the subject such as the practice of yoga. The eye not ot capacity in one and of another capacity in another It al ft i mdlS Cn sable lf the P knowledge of a colour is « t on cn it. savtdnyato-drstdnumdna. Purva-mimdmsd asserts that what may be called the inference is effected proceeding on the strength of analogy. is. To speak of the extraordinary conditions of the individual seer of God does not carry us far. Similarly to speak of a mystic experience is nothing more than stating a mystery which nobody understands. Whatever truth may he in these positions. \ nat we need is an objective source which is universal application even as the eye. because so long as others are not able to have the same condition. The Nydya-vaiiesika is effected. None of these sources is able to present the truth that lies beyond the normal Some of the Indian thinkers hold that it is possible to manage the knowledge of the truth by means of the sources that are already stated. The Buddha speaks of the immediate apprehension of reality. sdmdnyaio-dntdnumdna. It has therefore all the defects which beset subjectivism. is able to give us a general knowledge of the things that are transcendent m character. These positions are therefore highly subjective Even inference by analogy.

but the mmd the power of a source of knowof man. which is consistently denounced by genuine Indian thought from the very beginning. He Ubda as a source of recognises iabda. But with regard to verbal testimony he exercises a certain amount of high-handedness and unwillingness too. Such ledge. the unreal and unnatural directions superimposed on the mind owing to man's illegitimate contacts become removed and finally there shines the mind in its pristine purity and fullness. inference and verbal testimony. With this study. He has not accepted verbal make testimony. mano-nigraha. But when a Sabda relevant to the thing occurs to him in spite of himself. But mind is always there man what may be called man's life is his mind itself. the divine gift. consists its . he has the knowledge of the thing. is able to teach us that knowledge also belongs to this procedure. It is said 'Mind alone is what leads to bondage or release of men. to use of the Sanskrit word. Mm) As leading to bondage mind itself may be taken to be bondage. because he is He may determine not to know a s thing. pramdnas. It is practising unreality. What all is man does not called control of mind.Daitatrcya 100 In arriving at an answer to this wc shall re-examine the field of the source of knowledge. out of his free will helpless against it. To assume that someone. We recognise the knowledge recognise knowledge because there is cannot in any manner of colour because the eye cognises it. someone assume. The greatness of Dattatrcya. that is pramana on the mind is. It is bear. or control of mental states. to think that someone able to teach us. It is a wrong procedure to assume something as the source of a particular case of knowledge because we want to have this knowledge. This character of mind is overcome by the study of the sources of knowledge. anrta. perception. ciUa-vrUi-nirodha and so on is not the negation of mind. and to posit in place an imaginary mind. the avadhula. So the study of pramana is nothing but the study of the direction of the mind. The correct procedure is to the source of knowledge which be dispensed with. After directs him. It to negate one's is laying on the is capable of seeing it is too much to mind a very great burden whjch it cannot own mind. knowledge. having himself obtained the knowledge of the divine. direct the mind. normally man follows the dictates of the first two. With regard to the directing so that ultimately divine agency which is is highly transcendent. Similarly is there any source of the knowledge of the divine which makes the recognition of this knowledge inevitable? Of the three sources of knowledge.

By such methods one is not helped. One rather becomes blind to the truth* Allow the eye to have its function. It testimony which has an absolute or complete meaning in order to give that meaning is completely furnished must have therefore nothing derived m We in it. What happens 7 It gives the knowledge of the thing for which it stands without any interruption. Hence it also is comes under derived hn*^ . INDISPCNSABILITV OF VERBAL TESTIMONY.He says 'If the mind and speech are not capable of expounding anything. because the latter case of language has its origin the modification the meaning of this language. ^ABDA IN THE VI. The derived languages are many. Similarly allow verbal testimony to have its function. What happens? The knowledge of colour happens. The word Samskrta primarily applies to this case of verbal testimony. The modification in the meaning and the corresponding changes in the formation of the testimony give rise to the language which may be called derived. with reference to A student of this literature is comprehend from a preceptor?'* 14*) required to see that this very sleeping remark. In tins circumstance what we defined as Samskrta becomes the basic language. So what are commonly known as instruction and so on are only different methods of taking away from one the operation of verbal testimony on the mind. it a is could be but one must have it. making it subjective is This method has negative and positive aspects We have at the outset to distinguish between two cases of verbal testimony. He repeatedly observes m proper contexts the havoc done by imaginary means supposed to give us knowledge. may call this case of verbal testimony absolute. common y call Samskrta as one we among many languages not above Ration in the meaning as *ell as in the psychological conditions hdimd Us formation.Daftalreya essentially The Philosopher - Xoi m boldly facing this false situation and asserting the great- mind and its pristine spontaneity against it. as sweeping as the capacity to it. They are the work of human agency at some stage or the o ier Diftctent modifications governed by the subjective t and objective condrtions give rise to different languages. One is the case of the {verbal and which itself. where is there the possibility ness of the of having instruction. What m m . PHILOSOPHY OF THE TRANSCENDENT How shall we allow verbal testimony to speak for itself without a question that demands senous consideration.

Language is not individual. and convention human human the is governed by thorough study of the languages spoken by beings belonging to to reveal that after all all. If in this circumstance there occurs an inter-relation society does not learn from the between the society and the child. The limitation superimposed on the meaning of the word is the is work of human agency. but the child corrects itself according to the needs of society. child. All this indicates that language is communal and universal in character. This brings to light the identity . It is social in its implication. covering the whole world without exception. in the sense that it is the basic language. and the word is basic usage being patmiseya. Further. As an experiment we may leave a child to itself. So he is a master in a very limited sense. and the meaning of this its complete sense. The same word is used very commonly and it is taken to mean a master having something under him and something opposed to him. cutting it off from the rest of society. But the very occasion brings to it a social connection which never remains passive without introducing its own language to the individual that is so far cut off from the rest of the world. Man may exist in any part of the world. If men are not brought together in any other respect. and a systematic study of this subject is bound to take us on to a language which we call Samskrta. Vedic word occurring in such passages as Isvarah sarva-bhutdnam. in language they are brought together. word in the common this usage is as incomplete as it could be. if there is an occasion for it to do this. Hence circumstance and the psychological background of the Vedic are totally different from those of the common being apauruseya. impersonal. Either it becomes dumb or it develops certain sounds to signify things which it experiences. of the common derived* Convention the origin of the derived languages.Daitdireya 102 Any word Take for that occurs in Veda serves as an illustration of this example the word Ihara. But from the point of view of language he is still though unconsciously in communion with man at large. unlike the human master he is master at all times and in all circumstances. But the Vedic To word isvara means master in master there is evidently nothing opposed. and that which is under him is completely dependent on him having the very existence derived from him. Even that which is under him not under his complete control. So the meaning of the Vedic Hvara is complete. A usage The Vedic word use. places and to all periods of time however well defined. coming from an agent. is is bound convenience. It is essentially human. they is are derived. It is a point.

of the

purpose of



The Philosopher

hfe to

commune and

talk to one another

philosophy is the property of all
through language- This is why
pertains to the very self
without exception Unlike other sciences, it
reason called, in Sanskrit, adhyatma.
of man per se. It is for this
To arrive at the language which is really basic is by no means easy.
presupposes a clear understanding of the nature and function of
and articulate
verbal testimony, the distinction between inarticulate

and its
sounds, the question of the relation between the word
meaning, the question of organisation of sounds into words and

and so on.

A brief study of these various ideas may be made.

meaning, it
forms per se the very disposition of the essence or character of sound.
Nobody is an author of this disposition. You may take it to mean
something which it does not naturally mean and something in which
you are interested. You may even force the hearer to mean by the
sound only that thing which you want to emphasise by means of
dictionary or grammar. Even then the primary function of sound is
first to give the idea of that thing which it naturally means You may


it is

articulate or inarticulate to



employ the sound produced by smiling to mean mourning But to the
hearer the natural meaning of the sound of smiling comes first to the
mind* What applies to simple sounds also applies to words and
sentences as well

You may employ

the word 'good' to



But to the hearer the natural meaning of the word 'good' comes first
to mmd. Hie relation between sound and its meaning is thus
spontaneous. A technical meaning may be attributed to it* But even
then the same sound is not deprived of its spontaneous meaning. If
the word 'God' is taken by a devotee to mean only the instrument
to realise his selfish ends, it does not mean that for a philosopher the
word ceases to mean the protective principle of all. If the meaning of
a word is spontaneous, then the formation of words and sentences out
of simple, articulate sounds

must also be spontaneous. If anybody
the author of this formation, then the words can never have

spontaneous meaning, as the author of the formation becomes the
author of the meaning also*


an idea prevalent among philosophers that the world
of meaning means much more than the
world of sounds. An analogy

from common experience gives colour
to this idea. Often
the experience that the complex
idea of our
by uords. On the strength of this


of us


mmd cannot be expressed

analogy it is considered that even
though we attain to a language which
is truly basic, we cannot hold


I0 4


has a spontaneous relation to

meaning, because



meaning is reality itself as it exists. To solve this difficulty it is
assumed that language fails to comprehend reality. Reality is a
matter of immediate experience and it is only suggested or pointed
to by language, but it is never denoted or connoted by it, There is
even the theory that bare language is not enough to touch reality,
but the total effect of a word gives us the idea of reality. Against all
these ideas, one essential point may be noted. Supposing all this is



unable to grasp reality and the knowactually obtained, is the fact that knowledge is actually

true and language

itself is

obtained clear to knowledge



If it is,

expressed. In this case




or not? If

In case


it is

not, then

must necessarily be capable

it is


of being

the expression does not take place, then

expressed in

serves as language. It



never the defect of language
whichever manner, then the expression

the defect of the environment, but


it is

it is

in fact this aspect of language that can

be truly called basic*



Having attained

to this language

conditioned either in

by any

this sense it




formation or in

external agency. It


it is


easy to see that


it is



capacity to mean some*

self-moulded and self-formed,

called impersonal, apaurufeya.


it is


not conditioned by anything external. In the




depends on the person who happens
to be its author. If the author is supposed to have understood what
he wants to communicate and reports it correctly, or in other words,
if the author is an dpta as he is called in Sanskrit, then his expression
ordinary language,

its validity

supposed to be valid. In Indian philosophy the author of each
system is taken to be a person of this type, dpta, and on the strength
of this assumption the teaching of each is relied on. Whatever value
may be attached to this mode of thinking we must not fail to see that


on in such cases is one man's thought. Its merit may be
anything, but so far as we who are in need of some sure knowledge

what we


are concerned,

has only a private value and there is nothing public
or universal in it. If the author is really able we may miss his ability.
If what he says is correct we
may fail to understand the correct



of his statement.

Even though what he says






The Philosopher

may be the danger of attributing a correct meaning to it Even though



not serious, sincere and meaningful, because of the love for the
and the subject we may attribute to him all seriousness, sincerity

and meaning. But the case of the impersonal, apauruseya

is different*

Its validity is self-established.

Truth is transcendent.
Empirical sources of knowledge, pramdnas, are not enough to reveal it

We have so

far arrived at this conclusion*

a source, pramana, to reveal it, then that source, pramana
ought to be impersonal, apauruseya. Which is this impersonal source
of knowledge? It is in the first place not that of which the author is




Even supposing the truth



exposition is


revealed to

any person,


not revealed to him. While the truth is revealed, the
his. Any sacred literature of the world may be taken as

work of an author. The author is the person
to whom truth is said to have been revealed. In this search we come
across one case of literature which is handed down to us as being
authorless, aprastddha-kartrka. It is what is called Veda consisting
of four divisions, mantra brahmana, dranyaka and upanisad. From
the beginning it is considered to be impersonal, apauruseya, and there
is no circumstance that tells us that it is composed by any author.
From the beginning, in spite of the changes the world is undergoing,
its purity is preserved and it has been handed down to us from mouth
to mouth. By the best of thinkers such as Sankara, Ramanuja and

an example.

It is the


Madhva, it is respected as impersonal, apauruseya, its thought is
expounded against all that is personal, pauruseya (commg from
authors) and is established*
After introducing Veda as impersonal, apauruseya, the thinkers
did not rest there

ucre completely



all tests of

validity to

satisfied. Originality in thinking,

novelty of the


subject matter, non-sublatedness of the position taught, endless
continuity of spiritual growth and the disposition of the knowledge
to effect eternal peace

and immortality in the possessor of this
knowledge arc some of the main tests of validity m this context,
Originality in thinking

is the characteristic of the impersonal
verbal testimony, apauruseya. If Veda were a revelation it
could not
be original. In every case of revelation the truth is revealed

it is

given out

by the person


whom it

his net of grasping the truth

It is here that

revealed. In this circumstance

has originality. But his giving

already lost novelty because



it is

the defect caused


out has

what is once
by authorship becomes

after all imitating



evident. All cases of revelation suffer

impersonal, apauruseya,



this defect. Veda being

original in the sense that

no revelation.
What is presented by the impersonal Veda is novel

no mind behind
such that


It is

it presupposes

It is therefore

it is


by nothing

in every aspect.



is therefore

nothing by which to measure the impersonal Veda. As its subject
matter is given by nothing else, by nothing else can it be substituted.



it is

to lose everything worth possessing. It

that the subject matter of the impersonal Veda



for this reason



understood only by means of Veda, vedaika-samadhigamya.




characteristic of the impersonal

position arrived at,

it is




necessary to see that



reference to every

it is

not sublated by any

an implication of the idea that the
subject matter of the impersonal Veda is not apprehended by the
other sources of knowledge. If they are incapable of apprehending it,
then they are incapable of denying it, It is here that an exhaustive

other case of knowledge. This


study of the relative merits of philosophies of


grades becomes


show how the non-vedic philosophies of all grades
teaching the Truth absolute, This accounts for the

necessity so as to
are incapable of

highly philosophic character of the study of the Vedas.








another characteristic of the impersonal
apaumseya. Empirical knowledge does not indicate the growth

of the

burden which the innermost desire wants to shake
off. It is entertained to gain an advantage. If there is the realisation
of the advantage or if it is known that it cannot be realised owing to

It is in fact a


immediately an attempt to forget
this knowledge. The knowledge obtained by the study of
condition, there


sciences belongs to this class.

With reference



arts and



to say love


knowledge' or 'knowledge for the sake of knowledge', is more a
fashion than the statement of a truth. But the knowledge obtained


the Vedic study

marks the growth

of the self.

With the increase of

study and knowledge, man achieves a finer outlook and deeper
wisdom. Judging from this point of view there is very little to support
non- Vedic philosophy, i.e., the philosophy that has its origin in
empirical conditions of


More often

this philosophy


as a

what has been already constructed in the mind of the
philosopher. By whims and fancies
man gets a certain idea and
subsequently he finds some philosophical
justification for what he

justification for


The Philosopher


has subjectively constructed. For this reason he himself has no faith
in the philosophy attributed to him. If occasion demands it he

changes his view and develops something else. Men may mistake it
for originality and honesty. But it never helps the growth of the


philosopher's outlook.

in the case of empirical philosophy,

because philosophy here has nothing to do with real

hope of spiritual growth. But this



it is

mould the life that follows

It is to



not the case with Vedic


to assimilate




It is to lead the life of it.

in its direction It is not to find, in

philosophy, the justification for an activity of


But rather

it is


philosophy in one's own activities of life.
Vedic philosophy ensures endless continuity of spiritual

find the justification of






give the philosopher eternal peace

and immortality



human misery
always the mark

characteristic of Vedxc philosophy.

In every case of

wrong knowledge. Correct knowledge is
of peace. Peace is in the Vedtc language, dnanda It is spiritual
integrity. It is the realisation of the completeness and self-sufficiency
of the self. With this realisation man docs not depend upon anything
external to him. This is a state of transcendence, turlya. No
state is marked by this realisation and the resultant
peace. The other
the cause is


avastMs of


are empirical. They are waking, dream and
dreamless sleep. In each of these states man is made to
depend on
things external to him. In the waking state he is
drawn by

senses to the external world. There appears
the senses, hdriyas. This seems to be



be gratification of

caused by external objects

gratify the senses is to exhaust himself.



To own

the grati-

acknowledge his dependence on thines
external to him. To depend on
them is to be disappointed soon
Nothing is stable in the external world.
What is seen is not there the
next moment. The sense that seems
to cause gratification wears out
«ic next moment. Within
himself man wants a change. He flies
bCC ° mCS rCStlcSS Soon he 15





«*™*ted. At
wakmg state is over. Sleep overcomes him.
But dreams
HC rCaUSCS that Wakin is ^^ery,






Ml *?'

[2vW f


t0 SlCCp

£ b£0



S° 0n


slce P



beCom <**

™* of misery

thc reP etit5on of thcse states.

{ t0 hlm
an Cnd



Phy ° f
man in a fresh

m one Ws


Every !tem of this



He become





This has given rise to the and heterodox nasiika schools of thought in Indian partially or totally orthodox dstika The orthodox thinking is marked by the recognition of Veda and the heterodox by the rejection of it. This is the attainment of spiritual integrity. In every case he is drawn away from the truth of himself. amriaiva. a matter of deep study of a serious nature. life after death may be constructed in terms of heaven and hell. of This is how empirical knowledge. This oneness is specified by the Ua Upamsad: 'All this which is called the world is permeated by the Lord. of this all individuality. With of he has all. VEDA AND THE PROBLEM OF We have so ITS INTERPRETATION broad features of Veda. find your peace in renunciation. he understands the truth underlying his individuality. is constructed by man. They are and the and mortality are the marks of wrong knowledge. Be satisfied with what he gives you. empirical construction empirical philosophy do not help us towards peace. It is the source of wrong knowledge. While by means of the empirical sources of knowledge. Some deny the truth of Veda. apaaruseya* It deals with the inner truth of man. paunmya. M133) This is the realisation of the alldoership of the Lord without misappropriating it in any sense. Empirical life is therefore the life of wrong knowledge. Some distinguish between the earlier and the far outlined the later stages of Vedic thought.Dattdtreya io8 man. that is. dnanda and immortality. by means of the impersonal Veda. Do not desire for the appropriation what belongs to others. Even this thought becomes a source of misery. svarga and naraka. Misery impersonal. this attraction according to their . All that is personal. the latter falsifying the former. one thing becomes certain that thinkers of all centuries have been profoundly attracted by Veda and they have reacted to predispositions. because he lives in the very truth which is all. The source of right knowledge is therefore places of mortality. VIII. This is the state which admits of no change. It is a state of this realisation bliss. that is. Ordinarily Veda is taken as one among the many literary works of the world. no old age and no death. truth seeing that it is He appreciates the pervasion the underlying principle of He has thus realised the oneness of all beings. Whatever the dis- philosophy. man is drawn outwardly. To appreciate its distinction from non-F^ is. position of the several conclusions may be.

Even granting that the spirit of approach is correct. To that recognise Veda as Veda to see is the indispensable expression of universal philosophy. the method of its that it is The student who is after the truth of life and existence arrives at the conception of Veda with great responsibility of thinking. iravana. the common meaning given that there to the «oris unconsciously interferes with the interpretation of Veda In this circumstance when the common meaning is earned on to Veda HscU becomes lost. prattbhd works itself. at least most of them. This is by no means easy. Without it no amount of education can help. guru. If the one in bnnging out the knowledge of truth.Dattatreya * The Philosopher 109 may however be noted that the circumstance in which Veda becomes a necessity for the man who is really after truth brings all It none of them is less or more important. This circumstance makes a correct approach to Veda very difficult. In whatever way intuition. In the process of the attainment of Veda itself. reflection and assimilation. 'From Atman came ether'""' J edo Si m XLTk ^ ^ T ^^t is in conflict . manana and nidtdhyasana under the guidance of an expert preceptor. Veda a collection of contradictory state! a Cmi becomes a contradiction 3* cachrstat in terms One statement. pratibhd. then the teaching of the whole Veda must be present every item of its whole Veda is m teaching. A recognition of this demands an interpretation of Veda equal to it. These usages have come down to common parlance. As has been indicated in the opening pages of this work. So even before we know is such a thing as Veda we are already familiar with the Mords. and there it becomes necessary to support at least indirectly branches of Veda together so the need for recognising Veda. to see the truth of all this requires intuition. The desire to do this must have an inner urge which the Katha Vpanisad calls victkiisd. The words that constitute Veda arc generally used by various authors according to their own convenience and in the sense that is relevant to their convenience. made use of by Veda. Unlike those who regard Veda as merely a part of interpretation is suggested Indian literature he cannot consider Veda in a light manner.c word we do not understand anything new bui C d mth the ^mmon meaning J r' J becomesFurthcr attached to Veda. merely to posit it is to become aware of the danger involved in upholding any empirical ideas. Either it stands as a whole or not at all Even to see and appreciate this is a matter of study. So far as the knowledge of truth is considered we remain where we are in spjte of our study of Vedabecause by the l^.

jmna.Dattatreya 110 with another statement 'From which all these elements come .'* 14 ** Whether 1 am t\eAtmantmdBrah?nan . by chance (Uvardnugraha) come across a Vedic tradition (sampraddya) which alone can be of advantage to him. Moreover its profundity and vastness made it difficult to comprehend. 'All this is indeed therefore identify myself with Brahman. karma. having divided it into suitable divisions so that might be more readily understood. The other portion appears to deal with knowledge. Owing to a degeneration in the outlook of its later followers Veda ceased to function well.'* U8} This is how Veda is handed down from mouth to mouth. does not apply to all it the circumstances of Veda.iU(i) is another stateknow nothing about creation how can I accept that I the two. however serious and scholarly appear to be. When am Aiman. someone's satisfaction with regard to a meaning may not meaning attached to it by the Vedic demand. . Further ment. I the creator and Brahman. the source of Brahman is Brahman' ili7) given as all Still less this can I by the statement all? Moreover. the creator of all at the beginning of creation gives him all the Vedas. We have to reject one or the other if we are to accept either. All our attempt at interpretation in scope. that Aiman is Brahman or it is different from Brahman we do not know. It therefore emanates from the creative principle itself. Further. In answer to all these difficulties a student may. Any attempt at removing the contradiction results in a greater contradiction. Therefore may is very much limited our attempt. this reason the giver of Veda becomes known as Vedavyasa. THE RISE OF VEDANTA At this juncture. The student who is born and moulded in Indian life is naturally introduced to this tradition. apauru$eya. . The satisfy the tradition is this —Veda is impersonal. Further. an entirely novel method of Vedic interpretation becomes a necessity and without it nothing is got out of Veda. to help the interpretation of Veda the same Vedavyasa For it . The same creative principle appeared as the giver of the Veda. This is stated by Veda as 'he who made Brahma. The same affirmations cannot be made of is Brahman. Some portions of Veda appear as dealing with action. The reason for this difficulty is that we do not know the whole Veda and its entire meaning. Therefore arises the need for the determination of the meaning Veda and of this determination is called Veddnta* IX.

«» Can Brahman be understood' Can it b! expounded Thui quesUon is answered by the fifth aphorism.'«»> What of all this (world) the source of knowledge of this Brahman? This question is answered by the third aphorism.""5 * p. sddhanddhydya and phalddhydya. In the third is shown how the correct under- standing of Vedanta the one discipline that is truly spiritual in character. In the second. it is Veidtita. reflection and assimilation. adhydyas. called Vedanta. In the first chapter the unity of the whole Veda is brought out so that the one meaning of the whole Veda with all called in order. samanvayddhydya. What is Brahman* This is answered by the second aphorism 'Brahman is that from which birth etc. the subject matter of Veda. Because it decides the meaning of Veda. how can then idstra be the source of knowledge' This .s answered by the fourth aphorism' Only Brahman . The first five aphorisms introduce the subject matter so thoroughly that the student understands the very essence of the whole teaching beginning with 'Next is therefore enquiry into Brahman. that is Veda in favour of something else. its details can be easily understood. 'It (Bra a subject matter of idstra and it is f '.„jm . This is the work which is celebrated all over the world and called Brahma-Stitras. 'Because idstra that is ' Uda u the source of knowledge.Dattdireya. therefore that is Veda^ 2 and Veda alone ana is not }J >»TL A exon. starts. ought to be' conducted. dnanda which is immortality itself.'""' With the first aphorism. „ma M4 tf .s the meaning of the whole idstra. avirodhddhydya. that They are is. consists of four chapters. . Brahma-Sutras. Zr f- that Veda * » Vcdlvy^a «** important l*M^S£?7£L andJ. enquiry into the Brahman Enquiry in this connection means understanding. because the Vedtc words being understood in the hght of the whole Veda g. In the fourth it is shown how attainment of the knowledge is whole m a spiritual joy and results giving eternal joy. comc. '^ .^^ This means that ? I'" is <truly 5 the ^ow the one cas? of th* tas composed several other ~ m*. m The Philosopher showed the way by following which the one meaning of Veda can be found out. all oppositions including the opposition of philosophical systems of all types are removed.v e Sdv that mcamng.*""' If lt 1S possible to {ni snsira.

anything can be if The same point may be further illustrated. It is indeed sung as the highest principle of all. Thus he attains self itself taught by Veda by self who understands the truth in this manner: who understands the truth in this manner/ tm) All this is . . the mother of Veda.Dalldtreya 112 They cannot be appreciated without a correct understanding of Vcddnla. It is auspicious. the the imperishable principle of all. that is. 'Awh. is the imperishable one. Chdndogya says: Thai which is the truth taught by Veda. This explains is in its how turn reduced to the said method of Vcdic interpretation consisting in seeing in each Vedic word the teaching of the whole Veda understood out of the indispensable is Veda. That this self has four the fourth one has no syllabic mdlrd (to present it) and it 16 aspects therefore inexpressible. awh is imperishable. for transcending bondagc. This is itself. Meditate upon self as the truth taught being born in by the Veda. that It is and whole Vcdic thought. Brahman. It is the is whole Veda: and the whole Veda awh. is demanded by Veda itself and the Smrlis arc composed to illustrate how this point may be briefly Veda. It ought to be meditated on as being the highest truth. samanvaya. that is.(1Cfi > Taiilirlya says: The awh is all this. Aiman. aunt is Brahman. Mm> In the light of these ideas it is clear that the whole of Veda is an .'"™* Mundaka says: That truth taught by Veda. nor is it a device invented by the later thinkers of the country to meet certain oppositions. Its extension is (all this). It is the state in which the manifold world has disappeared. In this passage the whole reality by Veda. It is identity. interpreting the whole field of Srttti and Svtjii in terms of the whole Veda. It is beyond darkness. It is the only this (self) You have done means the best. Thus this truth is self itself. num. the past. It. truth taught origin of the It is reduced to atwi. the truth taught all this. moves within the heart of every various ways. This method of interpretation. present and future only the truth taught by Veda. The outlook of samanvaya. in favour of Brahman is by no means a burden imposed on these works. of interpretation governs the method is. In its extension threefold aspect of time also is it is nothing but the truth taught by Veda. . Thai which is beyond the indeed all is by Veda. This indicated: Mandftkya-Upanisad says.

aksara. as aum'. This means the reduction of the whole Veda into one single truth as its meaning. Ramanuja. is Brahman Aum Srult says 'that As the is equivalent to 'That which For which is signified is all. Knowledge measures all Thus Brahman is satya. It is one with Veda. As it is e^g the source of the reahty of ]n all . aum is its one meaning. the imperishable. 'aum is signified as which A aum is Brahman. Atman infimtC this Ws spcaficd sense aUth0r °* the 11 iS is formless because fading. that is as bhapaJtaras they have done great service to is humanity. ananta. Brahman is complete. the imperishable principle this reason it is called origin of aum %ti means constitutes the letters a. This requires an explanation. The word aum stands for a sound. Sankara. Mman. that is. puma. Vedte thinking is no other than Veda To see the identity of the two is to have Veda To have Veda is to have Vedanfa. it is all. the the nature of knowledge. aum is Brahman. It is the process of Vedic thinking. artha. as a is "That u and m.' The expression. This is the truth divine posed in its true character It marks the greatness of Indian thought. So to understand the meaning of the Veda is to see that Brahman. Brahma' Brahman. and jnSna. that is. Madhva and a number of other great philosophers of the country are great because of their realisation of the oneness of Veda and Veddnta. The root man means that which measures. It is of all that exists highest. As salya and jnana. Brahman .The Philosopher Daiitiircya: 113 extension of a toft and the truth taught by Veda. m tins difficulty the course of the history of philosophy several The Veddnta solutions have been suggested.m° What forms tn s a oime self. Brahman is an entity. thus not a system founded on the basis of Veda. is signified is solution is that the It is it. To distinguish it from Veda is to deny it. U means ucca. The outlook and equipment behind this Vedanla is the method of interpretation called samanvaya. i££S HC *w*ft«*GH* at the ^ —Lent the quintessence of Veddnta. That means that it is it is appears as a what infinite it 1S all-p is of know. To overcome Therefore the identity of the two requires justification. As bringin* out this great truth by way of commenting on Veda$. J^l^^TTf/* n « slort uork. Upanisadic expression. the knowledge as the explanation of all. The Upaitisadic word aum is taken to mean the truth by Veda. the source of the It is therefore called *». reality of all.

knowledge does not occur. the life is itself Lord is the gift of the Lord. pure and imperishable/ llfl0 With reference to the world 'The Sruti "neither this nor that" shows that the world of the five-fold element is unreal/ (16l) Throughout in 1 this truth in various > his teaching he insists on the spirit of samanvaya which he presents samarasa. Sruti expounds manners. the outlook of equipoise. This holder of Veddnta. Having thus established that the disposition of identity is the origin of the whole process of the spiritual realisation consisting of knowledge and through it liberation. Sruti is of He no use. is. never helps (the student) (102) He confirms the same idea in several other connections. How does the grace of the Lord come and with what presupposition? An answer to this question is absolutely necessary. 11691 He says further 'AH Srutis are one in teaching {Brahman) as attributeless. the Lord mentions that the one origin of the disposition of identity is the grace of the Lord. Being the the origin of the whole spiritual of the aspirant./ Dattdtreya ii4 This makes it clear that what he expounding is in the shape of the Avadlnlta-GUd is the quintessence of Veddnta. 'It is well established that all this is Sruti Brahman. does not give knowledge. the outlook of samanvaya. so what he says becomes established. there . it He says 'With- out samarasa. advaita-vdsand is the presupposition of the knowledge the source of which is so far defined. the the expounder and up- clearly points out that without samanvaya. This grace origin of the disposition. as samarasa-magna. that is as of interpreting an He presents himself in the essence sama. Without this disposition in spite of the source of this knowledge. VEDA AND VEDANTA ARE THE GIFTS OF THE LORD ISVARA TO SUFFERING HUMANITY X. Without a satisfactory answer to this question if one simply believes that one has every realisation through the grace of the Lord. Veddnta-sdra-sarvasva* He repeatedly points out that Veddnta is no other than Veda by illustrating that what he teaches what the identical with is says. This means that it has every reason to establish it. Lord Dattatreya in the very opening passage of Avadhuia-GM notes that the disposition of identity. one who has dived deep means that he essence of samanvaya. What the Lord notes comes with conviction. the hymn called Veda. that is. chandas. the art expression of Sntti in terms of the whole Veda.

Believing loosely self irresponsibility for one. evil action and so on. This is how in this light of this passage. the son need not make am* special effort to prepare the father.Datiatrtya. Fittedthe language of the Avadhuta . Whom it chooses as its is by intellect. the gift of the Lord takes place. the further- preceptor. Xactketas becomes more confirmed m his desire to know Brahman and insists upon obtaining knowledge- Yama is pleased with the pupil He explains that to understand Brahman is very difficult because Brahman is 'something that cannot be discussed as it is very subtle. The same idea is further studied in the Katha Upanssad. that is. great The concepts. is Wc science itself. Yama says. Moral is the possibility of losing recognition of one's the ordinary sensed the result of the life is m that the Lord does responsibility for one's action. advatta. Kaciketas prays for the knowledge of Brahman.' 4161 He continues ' f by O Dear' This knowledge (of Bra A man) cannot be had means of reasoning. Similarly the Lord. vdsatta and so on belong must therefore find the answer to the question in this Brahman. the effort required to understand the concept. anugraka. ness is He to whom it the disposition of identity occurs m is fitted to have it. This observation means that the gift of the L^rxi is not indiscriminate. 115 The Philosopher With this belief there the danger of one becoming irresponsible. namely. one may develop within one's things and thereby immorality. '0 agm1 For our sake 3-ou for come in contact with good Similarly the sake of destroying our evil you become prepared. With regard an example to both these cases is given. in the same manner" MU3) The idea is this The father is good to his son out of his own will. Ha\ing to . To test the pupil 1 ama trres to distract him. producing knowledge/ 11 * 51 This Aiman {Brahman) Further.* Hence as the concept of grace is great. capable of is continuation. he attain to this truth by means of who has peaceiess mind. nor 1 peace. does not knowledge/" 873 The idea is that he does not obtain knowledge because of his inherent inability. its essence/' *" Docs Aiman choose any one it pleases 5 'No' says Yama 'He who has not retired from evil actions. To him it reveals its forms. nor by much own. That which is taught by another person. by him it is attained. to the science of Ifrara. come to Yama. one's faith in moral life itself. he who is distracted. agm § in the present context is invoked be good to the devotees of his own accord. he who does not maintain study. "just as for the sake of the son the father himself becomes prepared. in not attained b\ learning.

It is therefore the Lord's Grace circumstance makes us understand itself. nor could he demand it. 0 Arjuna. T take care of those who are devoted to me > without break. So it is You Lord are born with the divine disposition. So to teach what is good for him is purely divine grace.'* 171 > In this passage Arjuna acknowledges that the instruction he of Krsna* . the Lord. the reason being nothing but my says: 'By is (173) So it is not Arjuna that makes the revelation of the divine form a necessity.' DatlatYcya Gild. how Reflection upon this the grace of the Lord is the crowning principle of moral and spiritual discipline. because he has been already endowed by the Lord with a divine disposition which alone is the light that guides.. 0 the bravest of KttrusJ il1i) The expression that 'it cannot be seen except by. the highest revealed to you. nor by charities.'* 1705 Arjuna says {Arjuna is the pupil whom Krpta is teaching) Tn order to do me good this secret science pertaining to Atman is taught to me by you. The statements of this work are self-explanatory. study. but him it necessarily means nothing but the grace clear by: 'Further hear (understand and great in is is mine revealing the best of all secrets. The Lord insists that the grace. show me yourself the imperishable/ tl72) This means that the gift is gift Lord's not indiscriminate. the most secret truth to you who are devoid of envy. He is receiving is the continues: '0 Lordl If you think it is possible for me to see the Lord of Yoga. As you are beloved of me I tell you that which is good for you/' 1 "* Arjuna could never conceive what this is.' (lflt. sacrifice. nor even by action. This made is Arjuna himself. 0 PdndavaVwv The of all. Lord Krpia says: 'Whenever there is the destruction of dharma (right knowledge in this context) 0 Bharata! then in order to put an end to adharma (wrong knowledge) I create myself (as a teacher) 'I teach this. The Lord me form of me who is pleased with you. is the only means because by means of Veda. can this form be seen in the world of men except by you. anugraha. practise) the best instruction of 'Do not feel' does not mean that it covers there is all: 'Not something great in in this context that which of the Lord. By my this illusions are removed. The Bhagavad-Gttd explains further how exactly the grace of the Lord takes place. the grace of power.. the unconditioned creative principle not correct to think that he selected Arjuna because of is . nor by severe austerities. but it is purely the divine will.

than equipoise. with regard to the same there is indeed no Veda.a 0 d thi fav to the philosopher. In fact with the Lord's grace Aijuna moment actually bora with this divine element. this The indication of the grace is implied 'Therefore sasira is is at this by the Lord's statement: the source of knowledge to you with regard to the discrimination between and what is wrong. It reveals itself but not on account of the discipline that one undergoes. Offer your salutations to me* You come to me. reality which indeed 110 other This discourse is the science in the sense defined in the course of the foregoing exposition. that is. Be devoted to me. To practise it is to understand and realise the truth it contains. It is the gift of the preceptor. you are beloved of me/« T9 So all that religion appears to give or promises to give has come to the philosopher.Daiidlrcya: The Philosopher 117 element in him. Praiha 2! w*V f H^ ^P° n h devoid of ^r^^f ? m a. Therefore having given this science to Arjuna the Lord asks him: 'Be one whose mind is fixed on me. I assure you. indeed. The subject of realisation is the truth of equipoise sama. Such is the grace of the Lord. The discipline is rather the forerunner of the divine grace One who does not understand this truth does not have knowledge in s spite of I tda.'™* So it is insight. Having ordained by sasira. result of the > The Avadkiita-Gitd echoes the same To in a more explicit manner a person who has received this discourse from a preceptor and who has practised the truth taught. That is what science means. Be one who observes sactifies because of me. The Lord k r "gard to him Veda te ^ sax's- is 'The ***** wv Ph?w n of .a^u. reveals is itself The Lord szys: 'With regard to which there is indeed no knowledge. Veda you what is right what is to do the right/ aT7> therefore understood become qualified The Lord states the effect of this science: 'Having your mind fixed on me. you transcend through my grace all miseries that are impossible to transcend/ 41 rs To fix the mind on the Lord is onfy the > study of this science.

e. ontology and the theory of liberation The Avadhuta-Gita is philosophical in its disposition. the science giving expounded 2. air and ether.. It characterised as and self. Take any expression. i. is how When can there be an object of salutation? To have to uphold duality The proof established? am identity. In fact there are throughout this work glimpses which tell us that the exposition enumerates those fundamental principles of thought on which the Veddnta outlook itself is based. In its truth-value it is no than less any Veddnta system usually known to us. I am is and negate identity. bondage. 'The — world consists of the interaction of the five elements earth. that is. in its completeness. With this.{185) The world is therefore inert. But a closer study of the expressions reveals the fact that it is no less inductive. Sri "Dattatreya in his Avadhuta-GUd develops a system of thought which has an individuality all its own. one is a man. It only the creation of the truth in recognition of its spiritual character world is made by Self to exhibit its omni- potence which is no other than the overflow of its auspicious nature. Overflowing with complete bliss is there- . Avadhuta-GUd appears to be deductive in its apparent setting. fire. per- own. and it resembles the water superimposed on the rays of the sun. is is he that transcends all fear. How is identity given in the former half of the verse. This knowledge. .Datidtreya XI 8 The gift of knowledge is what called the grace of the is Lord at the opening passage of the Avadhiita-Gtfd. that object is defectless. The spiritual is identity which admits of no duality. rise to this of of It knowledge in the following section. Atman. the vaded' is f 1861 by the spiritual principle statement That by which all this therefore sublated signifies that the world has no individuality of not a second to the truth. The non-spiritual is In the previous verse. of the fact that the is its of is all. The disposition on the part the student that is the forerunner of knowledge is the disposition identity. the blissful character. for example:— The exposition 'To whom shall I of the offer salutation? I Defectless identity this is the truth.' 11841 the identity that admits of no duality. Through the employment of a simple and melodious style. dattadvaita: epistemology. water. Omnipotence is auspicious and the auspicious is bliss. because it is nonspiritual. and a man of discrimination.

So what is called Vedic or Upanisadic style is not a fashion. The details of all the fore not be expected in it. But there is enough indication prethat a detailed discussion of those problems is a necessary supposition of the whole discourse. the fact that his treatment is in its entirety objective is revealed. His teaching is thus not barren. Each word.Dattatreya- The Philosopher "9 illustrate an indispensable aspect of omnipotence. This truth is not conveyed to a novice but to an discussed may adept who is well prepared to receive the instruction in all its completeness as best as he can possibly comprehend. Every philosophy that bases itself on subjectivism is liable to be wrongly praltbha founded. In the light of the discipline given by all the foregoing ideas a philosophical study of the Avadhiiia-Gitd may be briefly indicated. He handles all problems connected with the truth of knowledge so clearly. The soundness of a philosophical system depends upon the importance given to the theory of knowledge. It is practical in its very setting. The Lord arrives at his If philosophical conclusions with exceptional ability. and it is inevitable and indispensable in an exposition to follow in which. As an exposition of the Vedic and the Upani$adic truth the work has maintained the Vedic and Upani}aAtc style. Epistemology must lead on to ontology. His conclusions as a rule give no room for doubt. It is not mere speculation. They are invariably the ontological implications of his theory of knowledge. then philosophy becomes fallacious as in this case the theory of being becomes only an assertion and the theory of knowledge is based on a false idea. If the position is reversed. one looks at the Lord's statements. more than learning is required. each context and each circumstance in which a concept is used in the present work brings to our mind the fact that the author is aware of the whole implication and responsibility of what he teaches. definitely and effectively that his exposition goes home to the mind of the student and finally he has no alternative but to practise the life of the truth he has learned from the Lord's teaching. oneness or identity. To understand and appreciate it is to embrace a new life which is otherwise impossible. insight. The scope of this new life or new outlook freedom resulting in uniqueness. He analyses with great care and insight the whole field of knowledge. These ideas how the whole composition of the present work is full of implied its method philosophy and how it is through and through inductive in problems that are to be of approach to reality. is .

that saihvitti. But the knowledge of the natural existence can be the There is source of instruction. is stand by this expression 'natural existence'. In support of this meaning the following maybe noted. nor is it the instruction given by an upholder of a dogma. But in this it What cannot be the basis of instruction. svabhdva-bhdva and calls He of knowledge: knowledge calls this (i) (ii) idstra- samvitti. It is svabhdva-samvitii. It is space-like. The same idstra-samvitti is the presupposition of svalhava- idea is the basis of knowledge in its The expounded on essence shaped by the knowledge of concluded: truth is philosophy. So the implication of the whole negation as the presupposition of svabhdva-saihvitti is that the knowledge caused by on. In this connection what exactly the author means by svabhdva-bhdva also becomes clear.' W1) It is possible to underThis self in its essence. no point in saying that natural existence is the source of instruction. The statement reasoning and so on not only defines it. . mental arrest and so As that it is not from the foregoing considerations. 'Knowledge is not loose thinking. It is what is called 'T\ It is reality.{im All these attributes qualify the knowledge called svabhdva-samvitti. supposes the negation of all those cases — but points out that it preloose thinking. So svabhdva-bhdva is a case of knowledge.120 Datidtreya So the Avadhiita-GUd may be studied with profit under three heads Epistemology. it is philosophy. svabhdva-bhdva knowledge knowledge is further supported forming the by essence is a case of the expression 'instruction of of self. mental arrest.'* ") 1 The fact that 'knowledge in its essence'. to negate loose thinking and mental arrest and so on is to posit philosophy in their place. (i) Knowledge Svabhdva-bhdva means ledge. nor is it conditioned by space and time. Ontology and the Theory of Liberation. It is spontaneity. This is stated here is in its essence: svabhdva-bhdva a case of knowpresented as the basis of the instruction as: 'What is based on svabhdva-bhdva. — L Epistemology: The Theory of Knowledge The author distinguishes between two types essence which he knowledge in its knowledge caused by philosophy. dtmasamvitiwipadeia . clear is. text the source of knowledge that is is is demanded sense in this con- the source of instruction. nor is it yoga in the sense of meditation. It is all-enduring.

nor demanding action from me.Every chapter is therefore an instruction of the knowledge that forms the essence of the This knowledge Nor is it is it That h further defined as: that which is of the nature of nature. non-extended and neither. I define it> It is It is knowledge. It is How can dtma-samvittL not that which meditates. s knowledge in essence. defectless. Venly it is mind that is all auspicious without exception. for the sake of this spirit which is beyond the reach of the creatures having two legs and such other beings. an indnyai) How can it be expounded by speech?' In this passage the Sanskrit word manas is used in two senses. if the Truth is one. intellects and minds? The knowledge that forms the essence of the self is therefore self Jtsclf and it . The author distinfmishes it further from all that is relative and it is shown to be the highS tSh In the arcurnstances. organs. How can it be apprehended by manas (in the ordinary sense of a sense organ. Svabhava-bhava is thus distinguished from manas as a sense organ. how then can there be objects. It meditated. It indeed transcends all concepts—extended. why do you bother withm your mind? Equipoise is all that exists/ 11 "* The same concept of this knowledge is further developed: 'Verily. is its freedom. for the reason that which is is not known and that which is not known are unreal indeed. mind that is all-permeating without obstruction. secular in character. It is is 'It is self. Tor the reason that which is expounded and that which expounded are not real. partless and alUusptcious. ^ w SjM S£t litS of ^ rCfCr 1 T e ?" ^ * - y P^^c explains how it is Ji£ the knowing pnnaple and thereby room for duality in under- test ^ and n° f0tm? 1116 hi hest truth 8 » rCfCrenCe t0 U Wh6rC U thG P0SSlbUit of ° t giving no how can one h ° W Can there be "e of the form Han the very essence of the subject illustrates any sense how it is pure P ideS t ty . not a case of instruction. the very essence of <T7<"°> which is all and partless for the sake of this spirit which is ail and absolutely all enduring. It is further added: 'For the sake of this spirit.Dattatrtya: 12X The Philosopher concluding each chapter. (i) the knowledge that forms the essence of self and (ii) a sense organ inside the body helping it is the the generation of the knowledge of external objects. In the same context its all-pervading character is brought out so as to show that it is all auspicious.

In order to show that So. 'Brahman is truth. In bringing together is truth and knowledge the Upanisadic position brings about the absolute character of the reality which it shows to be completely Brahman. It is and followed by non-knowledge. Defined thus knowledge. reality are one It is Brahman as truth Brahman as knowledge the one subject matter of his exposition. The whole world is essentially 'knowledge in essence' itself. samvit and so on and it is in the same context distinguished from all that this is relative. knowledge in essence is knowledge is absolute knowledge. 'Knowledge in essence' relative is the truth underlying the universe. Atma-samvitti means that self. This is the reason why the author presents this knowledge in a negative fashion as 'the highest truth which is marked by the absence of knowledge and non- unlimited. In itself it is limited by the subjective and objective conditions. It is therefore the state of equipoise. Dattatreya shows throughout how knowledge in essence is self -established and all else is of a derived nature. essentially spiritual. While knowledge in the ordinary sense is opposed to and therefore relative therefore preceded to non-knowledge. The realisation of this truth is 'knowledge in essence' itself. All along the discourse he expounds the Upanisadic truth. it is defined as manas. Bhdva indicates its absolute character. That is the highest accomplishment. almasatitvittL The Sanskrit word samvitti means knowledge. . self is knowledge. 'Knowledge in essence' is the same as spirit. This is the reason why it is signified as the highest reality transcending both It is knowledge and non-knowledge. 'knowledge in essence' ledge and non-knowledge. That is liberation. the basis as well as the origin of the universe. It knowledge is essentially relative. Therefore it falls short of 'knowledge in essence' which is Brahman itself. It is allcomprising as well as all transcending. For him truth and Sri and the same. This word further indicates that it is a case of spontaneity. Atman.Dattaireya 122 what is called svabhdva-bhdva. signifies that it is signifies that the source of the truth all reality.' < is 105 > That which is It is relative to commonly called non-knowledge. The same is the meaning of svabhdva-bhdva. knowledge and infinite*. caitanya. is the same as SamviUL Hence. Svabhdva means self as essence. has a beginning and an end. The is the basis of both know- knowledge as well as nonor matter or content of what is called the knowledge forms the stuff universe.

This type of knowledge or any aspect of it however great and exceptional it may appear to be is just that great care which knowledge to confuse in essence is not The evaluation of the ideas connected with the several items of this knowledge shows that the author has a definite analysis of this knowledge in his mind chalking out the programme of the work. jndndmrla'. holds But ultimately it npho ds ideahsm as . in point of the r final unreality of its object. The distinction of these incorrect. These kinds may respectively m be called. Ulustrated by the example of a mirage. the author calls immortal. what is because that each case of knowledge it is relative to its object. This {») Knowledge in the is the self underlying it 'knowledge all. a realistic view of knowledge. Each has a reference to its object. in so far as the empirical reality » concerned. But their distinction consists in this. To employ the technique of expression of the Dartams this explanation of wrong knowledge is a variety of anyathd-khydti. purely relative in importance Each is correct and of the same content and therefore what applies to one in the general sense applies to the other. normal sense and knowledge as philosophy. On the whole the work maintains. This Wrone insS kno * led §c S compared to wrong knowledge . He points out by way of implication in different connections that must be taken not any aspect of this knowledge with 'knowledge in essence'.DaUaireya' The Philosopher 123 samarasa. dima-sammttt Other cases of knowledge arc also recognised by the author and they are the different items of what is commonly called knowledge.t points out that there is only one reality which it calls In y 'knowledge in essence'. Accordingly wrone knowledge is that knowledge which presents an object that is not given. aiming knowledge is at this conclusion this is the method followed. ( \) Knowledge other than the knowledge in essence. is two cases of knowledge. correct and incorrect. In illustrating this pomt. He distinguishes between two kinds of this knowledge with a view to showing finally that after all these two kinds are the same in the scheme of Reality and in their essence. It is repeatedly » show*To bo . Correct knowledge presents something actual. but presented by incorrect knowledge is not existent. idstra'Samvtttt.

arc thus dispensed with. If all there normal knowledge? is is. If it is inconsistent then even though it is practically sound. Their relative taken as the basis of showing their non-absolute nature. Thus there is shown one operating power. art' and so on. It is inconsistent with 'knowledge in essence' and 'knowledge in essence' sccondless. If on the other hand what is called normal knowledge is consistent with 'knowledge in essence' then it no longer maintains its individuality against the latter. normal knowledge two knowledge may be taken follows that with reference to it may be distinguished. that and is is. it is so that there finally shines only one truth. Either this to be consistent with 'knowledge in essence' or inconsistent with it. It is to point out that the real is the absolute and the non-absolute is not real. This is 'knowledge in essence' dlma-samvitti* At the same time the author takes up the question of the relation or reference of 'knowledge in essence' to the normal case of knowledge. it is aspects sublalccl. This in all.DaUatrcya !24 Both similar to a mirage. no longer there. 'knowledge in essence?' In answer to this question. how is then there this unreal thing against the one reality. it is reduced to the latter has realised 'knowledge in essence'. having nothing of its show itself and all else connected with it and even the inconsistent and wrong knowledge related to it to be the work of 'knowledge in essence' each item of its work illustrating its wonderful capacities. pervading like space. It is identical own. to be consistent with 'knowledge in essence' is to show only the absolute character of 'knowledge in essence'. it. It 'knowledge in essence'. but present itself not also to as something completely derived. Being consistent with it. The absolute is thereby conceived as the meaning of the character is That thou several texts of Sruli. Further. 'knowledge in essence'. It is it is relative is complete and To one who therefore impossible against the latter. actually given as is that knowledge which presents an object that it is. the state of equipoise of all is emphasised in the teaching and the corresponding outlook From this is expected from the student. That It is the state of equipoise in There is is no individual against all. Right Knowledge Right knowledge is it. It is is all (b) is to There is nothing outside immortal. It is all identity. is How 'knowledge in essence'. The problem that is this. For not therefore self-establishing. The definition of right knowledge in this . negated by 'knowledge in essence'.

Mmd. ears and nose. manas or mind independently of the as sense organs. manas is the abode of all mental activities—perception and non-percepdon. The . Perception: perception is the knowledge caused by the sense organs in co-operation with the mind. continuous meditation and absorption In tins discourse * perception it is a subtle distinction is made and immediate apprehension. The proximate causes of right knowledge are what is ordinarily called mind. breath-control. Further with great skill he points out that after all the so called right knowledge is nothing bat an illusion even as the illusion of mirage. reasoning and verbal testimony. giving inward direction to the external senses meditation with interval. By this form is very illustration he has distinguished the illusion from right knowledge. only eyes and ears are mentioned in the work. Perception has two stages. knowledge in the presence of the operation of the causal conditions comes into being and after its function is over it goes out of it. more often m The t W ktteTis^SS other systems of thought used in connection with the apprehension of the highest truth mo account of perception Sh is closely based on psychology. Mmd by itself causes the knowledge of pleasure. Even wrong knowledge. The Philosopher 125 the necessary implication of the contrast of right knowledge with wrong knowledge and then showing its similarity to the latter. pain and so on. manas and sense organs. the organ that apprehends taste and the organ of touch. The discipline of yoga is recognised as capable of giving rise to This may be treated as a variety of perception corresponding to yogi-fratyaksa of other systems. has therefore the power to tjosit things which are imaginary and not Mmd real. posture. Yoga is said to knowledge have hmbs. The author takes up the illusion of a mirage for an instance. The trend of the exposition however implies that other organs also are recognised by the author. right The sense organs in co-operation with mind cause the knowledge of external objects. Of the five sense organs that exist on the outward surface of the human body. Mind by itself causes the knowledge of external objects.Dattalnya. eyes. mdetermined and determined A sense organ presents its object in an undetermined form and rnbd contributes determination.' Perception is immediate and non-perception is mediate.

the obtainment of this knowledge presupposes the knowledge that smoke implies fire and without fire there is no smoke. hahir-antara sandhi vicdra. Through the practice of it the individual is supposed to have gained of yogic powers. Under verbal testimony three aspects are distinguished. Verbal Testimony: Like a sense organ and inference. kaivalya. vicara. Independently them mind is the origin of feelings of pleasure and pain. an individual self. Inside the body there is a sense organ called manas and this word is translated as mind in the foregoing pages.DaHatreya 126 knowing agent is considered to have a body with five motor organs of speech. In this work several items of enquiry are mentioned by reason of the as the enquiry into dimensions. Inference is indis- is called tarka. In this connection the distinction between the and incorrect inferences right correct also is presupposed. foot. One has knowledge of smoke. and so on. In dream there are no activities of the external organs and sleep is marked by the absence of even the mental activities. doer and enjoyer is called jiva. Inference is of the character of enquiry. bhinna-vibhinna-vicara. own The It is this shining principle merits gives rise to all the states and their several realisation of this principle is called the transcendent state. It does not give rise to knowledge. the enquiry into the distinction between the moving and non-moving entities. the enquiry into the and internal. the knowledge of fire. short difference and and long. (i) Understanding something from what . which by its functions. Inference gives rise to correct knowledge. verbal testimony also gives rise to knowledge. Inference: Inference is the knowledge caused by reason. car deara-bheda vicdra. But throughout these All these operations states. samdihu however characterise the waking state. imagination and other mental constructions. Vitarka is defective reasoning. The knower. the culminating point of which is absorption. hand. and the five sensory organs. It is the state of beatific bliss. knowledge in essence operates. By the control of these several organs an individual self is considered to have special powers. dream and dreamless sleep. the organ of excretion and the organ of generation. Empirical life consists of two other states. Nothing is all the problems of philosophy too sacred for enquiry. (W8) These enquiries indicate relationship of the external that a regular enquiry into pensable. On the part of the person who obtains this knowledge. Its opposite is called vitarka. the enquiry into identity. With this the other sensory organs are in contact to order to give rise to the knowledge of their objects.

who has the thirst for knowledge of the highest truth which is beyond all that is empirical. there should naturally be nothing cmpmcal m the instruction given. of verbal testimony. Inference is based on perception.'' 5011 The Relative Value of these three Sources (in) With regard to the Knowledge relative value of these three sources of may be ledge the following of noted. others have said. 1 > conditions. This instruction is called gnriipadeia' {i0t (3) The teaching of Srttti. But unless the person to whom the information is given is prepared to follow what is said it is not fully useful. is false at all if or subject to doubt. Instruction from a preceptor becomes therefore inevitable. (2) 'Instruction given by a teacher.' 1 " 'The yogins understand all this. The preceptor in question may not have attained that eminence which is required for imparting the truth Especially with regard to the highest truth. Perception is know- limited to the given m space and time only. In most cases the instructions given by them may not touch the core of truth.Dalialreya- The Philosopher 127 The highest aspect of this understanding is stated 'The men of wisdom say that reality is one only'. it becomes either given. three cases of verbal testimony are distinguished. regard to this certain details are to be noted. There Even with are preceptors and preceptors. it is apprehended. being above all self. If it were to give the knowledge of things that are beyond what is given. Of them the information given by others may be complete in itself. You are all equipoise. This is illustrated by such passages as 'Thus by means of Srulis "That thou art" and so on is established the truth with reference to That you are. Throughout the present work an empirical import is shown to be of no avail to one. if it is understood that there is nothing empincal in it.'* 1001 and so on. He is the preceptor of preceptors Z <*»«tre}a . nstniction of a Preceptor?' Passages like this j ^ructions of empirical import are irrelevant If the full implication of all this is properly appreciated then the CCCpt0r is not to The author H distinguishes the teacher of the truth as one who makes pupil absorbed in the teaching and to this pupil he tha 0 "/ 3 T 1 f ' gri sa^. The author asks 'How instruction with can Mi"! *t tottSi.Sv himself. is A thing that is beyond what apprehended only by means As we have already noted.

how says is the present work That which expounded by is nothing but the exposition of Sruti. He says. The question naturally import of Srutil This is s rises. His thought is moulded by Sruti. He is really only the shadow of Sruti.Dailatrcya 128 How this preceptor possible is the real problem. that He as only that which is. These passages indicate is lost. all this is Brahman. the real made more imperative by the we to understand the problem. 'Srutis expound the truth in various manners'* 2081 and *Srutis in various ways. For him to teach the truth is to expound the teaching of Sruti.* 2001 He comes to the conclusion that without Veda truth is defined as auth' {2m . knowledge and specialised knowledge is this. . He recognises how it is very difficult to arrive at unity of thought in Sruti. that thought teaches. The answer is real preceptor is he who does not is found in the concept of Sruti. The pose himself as the knower of the truth and its teacher. a special emphasis the negative how The way then are third chapter underlines with of presenting Brahman following the tradition of Sruti as expressed in 'not this. Form or no form does is . 'All that forms the quintessence of the final teaching of Veda.'*™* The Sruti "neither this nor that" illustrates that that which is made of the five-fold element is unreal' (207 >.{206. formless. all-pervading by nature.' {m) He ever sees unity of teaching in Sruti. I am self. not this' neti neti of the Brhad-ArMiyaka-Upani$ad. To expound the teaching of Sruti is not to take something from Srttti and discuss with great elaboration independently of Sruti. It is neither of the nature of purity nor of the nature of impurity. This is to confuse the non-empirical with the empirical The principal idea may be it taken from Sruti but the elaboration at some stage or other becomes mixed with empirical ideas. The negative way of presenting Brahman concluded in the third chapter as 'It is neither of the nature of void nor of the nature of non-void. 'Sruti teaches adopting various methods. Lord Dattatrcya makes He it clear that development of nothing but what Sruti at every stage of the what lie says is says. Veda. But ever keeps Sruti in view is as a rule expounding Sruti itself. In illustrating this idea he says. He indicates the subject matter of his exposition as: 'By the statement such as 'That thou art" the real self is expounded. and so on. To get rid of this difliculty one must give up the habit the one who of explaining things having kept Sruti out of sight. The demand for solution is way in which the highest truth is delineated throughout this work.

Datldtrcya: The Philosopher 229 not find a place in it Nothing but equipoise absolute *«»» is the reality. the false meaning of Veda is dismissed.'"") The reason he gives for this m the never knows anything of the truth'. It makes one highly reflective. To a wrong meaning of Veda is to lose Veda itself. The name n0t hdp the situation 88 the name *z made P ™y «se nftr f*1 of for aJu sorts of purposes. It is same context is that 'one necessary to understand the implication of this reason. Veda is after all a statement like all other statements. But the composition and evaluation of this meaning can never hope to transcend the empirical level.. This reason after all characterises the truth. that is. Just as a false preceptor is dismissed by 'no preceptor'. For one who does not readily appreciate the highly secret nature of truth. "There is no Veda . because in the presence of this belief there is no possibility of correction. He says. What is the source of this knowledge? If it is anything other than Sruii. Ponder on this deeply. so also Veda with false meaning. So to bring in the conclusion of Dattatreva ***** " ^ ***** * mUSt ^ by means WW" M * wh0 kiww SI lll ?T ^r* 5 °f auSorhfmse^ f lettm in i° C *'h bG underst0 1 & iven the of these truth contained . however exceptional the value given to it may be. no preceptor'" 111 and so on The expression. At this juncture Lord Dattatreya warns the student and points out that truth is beyond Veda. So it is a case of knowledge. The author makes warning really significant when he concludes a number of chapters with the expression. Under this condition a person may think that what he knows is really Vedic. then the position becomes empirical To hold that the mind of Dattatreva is such that it breathes truth is after all a position beset with all difficult^ to which an empirical position gives rise. 'There is indeed no necessity for this eda %V3th reference to truth. In this circumstance one is likely to give it just that meaning which one would give to any other statement.. But in fact it is not. It does not stop merely with this negative idea. 'No Veda' does not dismiss Veda just as bclte\e in the expression 'no preceptor' does not dismiss preceptor.

The theory knowledge underlying this teaching thus gives the aspirant that truth which is all-inclusive. It is is expounding is He declares the quintessence of Veddnta in thus the truth. is the process sound and unsound ideas in their distinction. of safnarasa. The indispensable unity of these two is expressed as 'By those that are absorbed in the process of thinking consisting of Veda and Veddnta/ Lord Dattatreya clearly indicates the greatness of enquiry into the or the complexity of this thinking at the very outset. Evaluation is a mark of determining. Hence Veddnta must mean something else. This means that by the words Sruli or Veda he understands Upanisads also. those meanings that claim to be Vedic are not all The true Vedic meaning attained is by the really reflection of those of a very sacred disposition. It Determining is is meaning not the property of all Fixing is the process of evaluation. may be studied under two heads: . This is Veddnta. It is rather the whole view without giving room for any other possibility. What he teaches is not one view of the several views that may be based upon the essence of Veddnta. It must be coupled with Veddnta-vdda. that what he details. This is how it establishes the truth of equipoise. this meaning in the present or Sruti the author cites the passages. It is all that is to be correct understanding realised. the process of fixing the meaning of Veda. Can By Veda connection? No. what one is supposed to possess all its after the and appreciation of the very essence of Veddnta. 'That thou art' and so on. The capacity to fix the heart of the Vedtc great spirituality. The Theory of Being The Ontology of Avadhilta-GUd the empirical and the absolute. Ontology. This point is further discussed under the head 'Discipline leading to liberation' in later pages. bhdgavatottamas. This verse is evidently a restatement of the discipline given by the very first verse of the work: 'The disposition of identity.Dattdtreya 130 we accept understood Upanifads. equipoise. occurs only through the grace of the Lord'. It is not mere Veda-vdda that is enough to understand truth. having nothing beyond itself. that is. Brahma-jijndsd. What is this something? The clue towards the solution is given by the expression. sarvasva. The same is called enquiry into Brahman. 11. 'by those that understand the real heart of the meaning of the letters that constitute Veda\ This gives us an idea how Vedic.

Dattdtrcya. vyakta. The recognition of the of the world as an orderly system is the one significance its different expressions like that the whole world 'Know is . salva. manas t may be taken up consistently with the spirit of the outlook that governs the whole thought. world as an orderly system. It is therefore manifested. God is the maintamer and the destroyer of all This is clear from the very expressions such as 'The t . the ideas \Vtprakrit and mahat. 'Nothing of the world beginning with mahat and so on appears to me/«« n Tins world has its origin in the root matter called prahrtt. He says. and so on In those passages an emphasis is laid on the concept of the whole. rajas and tamas The theory of causal relation that governs the whole thought is evidently what may be called existent-product-theory. The non-manifested. . prakrt. 'The whole > 'The whole world is of the five-fold element'" 17 *. avyakta is its cause. five motor. (21fi They are sound and so on. the expression sound and so on must be taken to be the language of subtle elements. The Etnpi ncal Reality: The world consisting of and matter consisting of all that spirits. The root matter consists of three factors. To decide the subject philosophical matter and to define it is of very great significance in world with all thinking. irreducible in character. It is an expression of the recognition of the world is presented to be . the individual selves 1. The spirit of this statement makes it clear that the world consisting of these items is origin in mahal-laltva. world beginning with mahai\ tu * and so on. earth. because it is this world that is said not to appear in the case of the philosopher. The present discourse presupposes that the is non-spirit. 13 1 The Philosopher manifold aspects. characterised mean not by attnbutes like that this position is objects are reduced air > connected with the material world. fire. that is. /<«•>. water. tanntdtrds* Along with sistently with the other ideas the tanmdirds the eleven organs. five sensory and mmd. (1) The World of Material Objects. avadhftta. and its evolution. All these entities have their origin in what is called ahamh&ra-taitva which in its turn has its by the author's statement. is the subject aspects. Tins is indicated The } the object of common experience. indriyas. prakrtu God is the origin of both the root matter. matter of this study. sat-kdrya- idda upholding at the same time God's wonderful creatorship The world beginning with mahat-tatlva is the object of experience. It is the root matter. presents an organised and unitary system following its own law and order. The material and ether. (219) But this does similar to that of Vatiestka Con- to five elements.

Of the two. . Time is duration. 'Without time space does not cxist\ <2 w The process of the world is bcginninglcss and endless to a superficial mind. mi) and The such . It gives duration to the things existing in it. present the enjoyer. of entities is produced. But to a man of wisdom everything however enduring it may appear to be has a definite beginning and end. . considered to he an it is individual having other individual selves on the one hand and the whole of the material world on the other set over against is made of the five elements. as. The whole life has thus become an aggregate of . Reality that transcends appearance is denied. 'There arc neither the Vedas. It gives extendedness to the things existing in it. To explain this continuity of the world is is my different items of Each of its actions is supposed to have a reference to chain of action. it. This It is supposed to connection 'docrship' and passage in which the author points out that I body identified as auspicious 'enjoycrship' are superimposed on the individual. The egotistic tendency in the individual self finds no bound. The to be understood as being in the heart of the middle'. Brahman alone is the only Reality'. and future. prakfW^ <* 24 'By the mere fact of the Lord all this 'All this is made by the self . nor the world. In T. past. < it exists and is 22C > The whole world consisting of these various elements exists in space and time.* 220 ' It is signified as be the doer and enjoyer of the results of its of the individual self causes distinction action. some action and some other inauspicious. Appearance is mistaken for reality. It in which it is is truth ought (228) called in Sanskrit is r in a body. (ii) The Individual jtva. If it is taken to be housed. I a wrong view. All about reality is forgotten. This is implied in the following 'Of the action. past. traced to Its The narrow outlook doing. The whole cause no room for doubt/"*** assumes that action of life is is thus made an assumption and a super-imposition. time and space. Space is extension. illusion. time is taken to be the origin of space* The author says.1 Dattalrcya 132 l{2n) 'The manifested is the whole world beginning with maItat-taUva whole world and the non-manifested is the root matter. In these circumstances between this is some past action and future action. present and future it is posited. not the doer. This is the implication of the passages nor the Gods surface is . moving and non-moving destroyed. Nor am it is am realisation giving The man being ignorant of truth finally bcginninglcss and endless. It is essentially confined to the body Self: An individual self a knower. The middle is correct knowledge.

explains this point in m the course of his teaching. There is finally the illusion that mistakes misery for happiness. sen-ants and so on. all its details (m) The Individual Self and Socteiy: This world and the other worlds. It falsely hopes to get release by means of certain other delusions which only bind it further without the is question of releasing The Lord it.' The Philosopher Daitatreya: and baseless imaginations Under illusions. by its its The Lord enduring character is and attributed to birth emphasised. With it different items of miseries are and encouraged. He has a pirty to sirve and If^f Slw^ discipline Cfe ^ f S' H f i ^ * e P^Wp ^ a wife to enrich ^° ngS {vama and a irama). In youth he is after worldly pleasures. Placed in this predicament an individual self is supposed to go from one body to another. In adult life he has his own way of doing things having the comforts of a house. It is supposed that merit constantly engaged in ceaseless movements. Illusion is suffering. enemies to destroy. He has in the form of duty. It is thought that there than what man can do. he can lead a life according to the satisfaction of his desire. Life is nothing but illusion. being deluded. Leaving it is death and it is Thus a secondary meaning death. The discourse of the Avadhiita-Gm refers to a definite social life which is highly evolved with all the developments and of cultural An individual begins his life in a family from a father and in the w omb of a mother. wealth . Illusion is not passive. own is condemnation of a view like this says 'O Mind! Why do you. Receiving a new body is birth. He to a ^ » ^ He has his own has the power to 15 He h«SS ~ P L? f erC " lty ?° mterP 15 *** Vei* t0 rct life and immunity or he relatives to serve is and innicfm^ in n oth^ or --fice T^e God ^ve Wm A* knowledge ht the good. theories of the individual self and 133 this condition different enduring character are expopular and thus unconsciously or its pounded and they are made consciously an attempt is made to keep away the whole of humanity from truth. In childhood he is engaged in innocent activities. Even the possibility of selected nothing higher real happiness is is completely forgotten. purusarihas. It breeds further illusion. to realise to suit his convenience. run away like a ghost? tssi An individual self in > thus in endless bondage. He has the environment in which spiritual institutions.

The bad ones cause demerit. papa. There mok?a). Lord Dattatreya a view like the above with 'Having left the immortal self which is effectively opposes regard to the reality of life. There is the system of preceptor and student and education to help knowledge. Accordingly the paths are defined. dhuma-ntarga takes one to hell. He illustrates how it to think that it is is By way and its is all that He shows how the very idea of direction has nothing commendable in it. of illustrating this idea he says: 'That. from the unreal to the real). Law and order govern everything. The path of smoke. To is realise a definite code of good and bad actions. the fearful you not life here to go to fallacious to hold that the highest organisations can bring us happiness. no other than the state of equipoise. He notes a fundamental defect in the empirical view of things however promising it may appear to be. artha. $varga. such as excretion. One can safely depend upon things around one with a sense of security. is Why do asks the man he can really convert misery into happiness. from civilisation? What need there to bother about ideas that is away from this world of here and now? (iv) From asat to sat (Lead me from the are From the empirical to the transcendent: from appearance to reality. individual to the universal. fiitnya. mi) What more do we expect every comfort. see? 0 secret organ is mind! made of the same Why do you run into it? . He says 'Beginning with duty and ending with anything. The hell. in the doer. But can a illusion give him that who all empirical is indifferent to man of the world be indifferent to the truth? Can his real solace in life? . liberation we have absolutely no desire to attain to How can the men of wisdom imagine things on the basis of attachment and detachment?'* 237 ' His idea is organisations are utterly irrelevant to a person them. the imperishable this crow4ike man has gone astray preparing himself hell. Above all there wealth to is give (233) Added to this the mind is capable of creating happiness and a happy environment. Good actions give rise to merit. and the path of light. Merit takes the individual after death to the world of happiness. kdma and each of these he has definite institutions. mz) Everything is thus in its place. the beginning of life freedom. and demerit to the world of misery.(230) He of the world to reflect a little if stuff.™ He points out how foolish exists.Dattdlreya desire and liberation (dharma. to heaven. dtpli-mdrga.

sarvasama. and philosopher. the state of equipoise. He notes there that there is no source of the knowledge of reality except the proper preceptor. It shines all in all when the empirical life cekses to operate. sama-rasa-magm. In the light of Brhad-aranynka-Upanfrad. knowledge is signified bv the wholp 'Knowledge in iU^ence4 thas the it is said to be manifest from the latter! . the absolute state of equipoise. The real preceptor is he who is absorbed the state of equipoise. Our knowledge is unreal. The preceptor one who is merged m this essence. avadhiita. How is then the knowledge of reality possible? How can the knowledge which is unreal in itself (v) present the real? If all that knowledge present the reaP is is What unreal. It is not the same as poverty. It is conditioned by nothing empirical. Philosophy „ its presupposition. Because of this circumstance his whole hfe is holy. Equipoise is the essence of Reality. It is not the same as fullness. ft is all equipoise. The World of Reality Is knowledge of Reahty possible* This question is inevitable* Everything that we know is unreal The previous considerations have led us to this conclusion. is Instruction pertaining to the nature of reality him must come from The Lord defines the nature of this instruction as being based on knowledge in essence' brought to light by philosophy. It is not the same as bondage. All we know is unreal. then to whom should the the status of knowledge in this circumstance' Considerations like these are involved in the original is question. We ourselves are unreal Everything connected with us is unreal AH our reflections are therefore unreal and our conclusions are unreal. This knowedge is a case of spontaneity.' DaMtreya: The Philosopher 135 The Lord at the same time illustrates how all the high concepts made use of by a man of empirical interest are hollow and are far removed from truth He says: 'It is not the same as release. sama. Why do you bother in mwd about its nature? t238) So he asks the student to find out and understand the truth. ever here. bhavUa-puta. It is not the same as demerit. It is not the same as merit. He xs a philosopher. is the highest truth. He has nothing worldly in him. Is knowledge of reality possible' The Lord's answer to found in the two concluding verses of the first chapter. this question is m purified by meditation. In the light of the present It is E W ? f though km of philosophy 01 ! f tht t ideas.

In the light of these considerations it is possible to see that in all the philosophy that we generally talk of there is nothing but the process of learning new words for old ideas and in some cases an imaginary extension of the ideas. It can never approach the talk of reality in of reality are considered by it. as one who consists in the helps him to achieve his selfish ends. On the analogy of a human ruler God is imagined. To a man of commonsense. The real idea of God never occurs to his mind. God as absolute ruler is never . but what is said is nothing but a word and he has his own meaning for it. Some aspect of this attempt is generally called philosophy. he thinks of Him only in terms of his experience. happiness is material. Nothing empirical can be identical with this. Explanation borrows words and words are taken to have only the meaning that never goes beyond individual limits. very great. as he is seriously attached what he thinks. It end of plain words as the meaning of a word and in this circumstance is necessarily bound to have only an empirical significance. This is nothing but the extension of the ideas connected with ruling. How is then this knowledge different from ordinary knowledge? The Lord's answer is that it is different. from the standpoint of philosophy recognised by the Lord. He is therefore similar to a understood. It is to indeed difficult to escape from this web. Its origin is individual experience The implication of this position with all its reality. Though it is said to have its origin in philosophy. Whatever the depth of this philosophy be. On this basis the world ruler is imagined and he is called God. Without philosophy human reason appears to solve all problems. limitations But yet there and is is relative character. If a person who serves a master to attain selfish ends and who has become expert in this direction. For instance we are familiar with a human ruler. happens to think of God. Take the case of happiness for example. human ruler.DaUdtreya 136 So the whole cause of knowledge is 'knowledge in its essence'. that is. If he were to hear that liberation gives happiness he may use the same expression. it is spontaneity. better than the teacher. but the happiness he attributes to it is nothing beyond the empirical. With reference to his thought the word God is borrowed but the meaning is his own* Somebody may tell him the meaning. Most of the attributes remains a mere talk. it goes counter to the latter. It is in fact meaningless to him. But it still it. For this reason philosophy partakes of its nature.

Knowledge in the real sense is the identity of philosophy and 'knowledge in its essence*. His different faculties are constantly at war with themselves. He does not accept what he believes. One does not lead to the other. Empirical life is therefore of no knowledge and of no reality. the law. All this is illustrated in the course of this teaching in greater detail. Empirical knowledge is in truth no knowledge. To be of a civilisation circumstance. It is the gift of knowledge. Philosophy 'knowledg is i^t ^ therefore independable . But he has no peace within himself. what is learnt is the same. He is a no avail to him. but is a burden to him.Z Datlalreya: In what we call scientific The Philosopher 137 learning there is the increase of the but no corresponding increase of knowledge. to grow. This is the significance of the Lord s insjstence on the point that 'knowledge in its essence* if tCd by pha0S °P^ s is not *> \* 2tll° dependent on the latter. Similarly in other cases of knowledge he has only developed his imagination but not knowledge. He man is but he never follows them. in understanding the nature of knowledge the latter must not be made the starting point. From the point of view of knowledge he has never gone far from the starting point. At best he knows only how to please others with his fine imagination. The identity of the two is life itself. In such objective items. philosophy and knowledge in essence'. In the case of empirical knowledge there is no relation between the two. the principle and the application of knowledge are the same and the objective contents aTe different. because materially all civilisations are the same. but his teaching is of of it. m ™ ^? Lke In- 'Wled^b appro^ToTtl Further Xmt dZ no other than philosophy being the same in all circumstances tie disciplined more appropriate than the undisciplined one aphne which is can never be conceived. But it is to remove possible errors that be committed in the ^dividual interests. expression and experiment. His imagination may be appreciated by others. because as they are they do not transcend empirical import. The latter without the former is uncontrolled and the former without the latter is myopic. To start from 'knowledge in its essence' ends in subjectivism as it gives no room for the objective test One therefore ought to start from philosophy and arrive at knowledge its essence' in its light. that is. No peace comes out or not of it makes no difference in this prescribes things for others teacher. Knowledge: Of the two limbs of knowledge. He is the same. So even though the knowledge of science is supposed cases not developed.

if so what is the real meaning of the word? Then inference the person has mentally entered into the field of the non-empirical To put whole this question effectively the person studied the human language and reduced it to a system with the principle of the whole system. self-valid. Veda is therefore profoundly different from revela- Veda comes from the root vid to discover. To be the source of this knowledge it needs to be recognised as Veda. Hence it is eternal tinctive feature of Veda. It comes from no author. This frame of mind is sure proof that then only in must have this is is a case of realisation. a revelation or a eternal revealed scripture. The process of tion. perception and inference are governed by our likes and dislikes. It is therefore the one source the knowledge of the Ultimate. . For there is no author to give it validity. It is the ability to recognise Veda as Veda. He must at the same time field of governing see that the relation between the word and being subject to nobody's will If he is its meaning is spontaneous able to attain to this position. It is self-established. The term Veda is not something that can be applied to any piece of literature. svalah-pramdna. and verbal testimony called instruction. It must have no other interest. This is to admit that the meaning of revelation is already familiar to the person to whom revelation occurs. Of the three sources of knowledge. Without experience or the knowledge of the taught there is no instruction. In empirical life its meaning is conditioned by empirical ways of thinking and in this circumstance the verbal testimony is not left to itself. It presupposes nothing and is followed by nothing. Its subject matter must be that one reality underlying all reality without exception. Sanskrit as and nitya. It is therefore something the meaning of which is to be found out. because all these presuppose experience. of Veda is not limited by experience. apauruseya. This is the recognition of the dis- Veda is impersonal. It cannot be applied to an instruction. he able to appreciate the function of verbal testimony the scheme of knowledge.Dattdtreya 138 What To begin with philosophy? is it must transcend aU that is empirical consisting in their broad sense of the fields of perception. If a person were to put to himself the question—What I understand to be the meaning of the word in question is attributed by me to the word. and indispensable. It for this reason signified in is impersonal. upadek. but the case of verbal testimony is different. Further a revelation needs to be intelligible. and indispensable.

The same fresh significance body perceived at the empirical level is something opposed to Truth. 7 and beyond thC *. Both are thus together or they are together absent. . This means that Veda and Vedanta must exist in a single mind.non-duality. It is therefore the negation of Vedanta. Learning Veda without Vedanta is not to have Veda. With T^rX'ft I' G "l rm °°n harmon a a ™Uy two standpoints offer °? ?s ? PP TtosJL Uicmsclvcs . From this point of view.n the Vedtc tea<*mg. Vedanta has no occasion. »*m He seriously asks f He duality dvaita rather asks us J'to how can one be ZZ free Lord about from duality and not . The absence of the one means the absence of the other.° rld limitation. The meaning of a Vedtc word therefore must be such that it must be completely harmony with the rest of the requires a careful m m Vedic teaching.s P ureI3 y transcendent y .The Phtlosopher Datldtreya. To find out the meaning of Veda is to see harmony the whole of Veda with reference to a single meaning. Take for instance the God inferred as the author of the world. then they are together. In this circumstance what is presented by perception and inference is an aspect of Truth and it is no longer second to truth. The same body perceived at the because then it illustrates omniscience and the omnipotence of Truth Similarly a position reasoned out at the empirical level is not higher than imagination and it has reference to a relative idea. even perception and inference which were once supposed to go against Veda come to have a fresh significance and with this significance they become one with Veda The observation that experience consisting of perception and inference is limited refers only to that circumstance which does not give room for Veda. Otherwise they are not. life becomes completely spiritualised. But God as spiritual level amplifies truth. If they are. thC la °" the UaEC Spiritual level . meaning 139 Veda and Vedanta are therefore one in purpose. The popular idea that one knows Veda and the other Vedanta and so on is not based on truth because it creates a gulf between Veda and Vedanta Sound knowledge finding out the is called Vedanta. Against Truth it demands selfishness. advaita and Dattatreya accepts neither. Though it is called God on the empirical level it is in no way be ter than a pot-maker having all his limitations. Veda has no purpose to serve. It is the negation of Veda. Learning Vedanta without Veda is irrelevant. But m the presence of Veda these two sources of knowledge gain and with this. study of both by the same person. But without Vedanta. Without Veda.

2.Dattatreya 140 duality if one continually engages one's non-knowledge? self in knowledge and (239. Each of these words nas its individual significance. knowledge immortal.(M0) is Brahman. self. sama. Neither is over emphasised. as absorbed is. It shines absolutely in its own' context. It is for this reason in the concluding verses of several chapters the Lord reminds the student of the insufficiency of Veda and in this connection he commends the importance of teaching of the philosopher who is avadhiita. His is of the essence of equipoise which is all inclusive and all transcendent. that wisdom. The state of equipoise is the truth that pervades through all of the grades of reality. Nothing in existence opposed to it and nothing is an addition to it. sacrificed for the sake of the other. Pleasure. All this is the necessary implication of basing 'knowledge in its essence' on philosophy. paramam. This implication is further justified by the fact that the Lord calls the Truth he expounds Brahman as it is clear from passages like 'It is established that all this . including duality and non-duality. At the same time it is far from barren non-duality or identity. It rather emphasises the importance and indispensability of Veda and Veddnta. It does not replace Veda. jndndmrta. His exposition of Brahman or of Vedic thought tolerates no dualism. exposition of the relevant Vedic position. Apart from it there is nothing. the Reality. the philosopher. It is the one possible explanation of all that exists in various ways. In the light of Brhad-Aranyaka Upanisad this view-point is free from all prejudice. the auspicious. Duality Neither is and non-duality find in it equal recognition. Viewed from the point of view of the state of equipoise Veda with reference to verbal meaning without insight needs to be transcended. ahafh. The Absolute: Brahman Lord Dattatreya brings out the significance Brahma by of the concept various expressions such as equipoise. Each idea he makes use of is an on. and so of I. Sruti teaches the same truth in various ways. pain . World or no world it it. sama-rasa. tattvam. There is nothing with is Even non-knowledge and illusion are not outside it. The man author defines the of the essence of truth. the outcome of 'knowledge in its essence' based on philosophy. The present work Avaduta-Gttd is an example of this. iiva. is the same. Against these view-points he emphasises the outlook of equipoise. essence. in equipoise. equipoise- Mman.the highest.

the all-reahty. does not amplify It and make It all in all is unreal That which goes with It is Itself. It is partless. Some are auspicious and some are nonauspiaous. meditates upon It. hension and beyond exposition. To It is beyond compre- It is 'this* is To say that It wrong. eka establishing all in the same circumstance * u * n The world considered to be different from It is unreal. Some and some are evil. Some axe divine and some i . everything. It is not the mere creator and sustainer of the universe. The Lord illustrates this Truth by the example of space. That which goes against It is unreal. puma and self* established. To say that distinctions because it presupposes distinction of 'that'. There is for the same reason no self that knows It. complete. It is a unity admitting of no division. Though the world appears to have its own individuality. Certain entities are apparent and certain others are nonof the subject* It is not r t ' apparent. Some entities are limited and some appear to be unlimited Some arc opposed to truth and some are unopposed. meditated upon reflected on and realised. reflects upon It and realises It It has nothing objective in it because it is the very essence it It. something known. It is complete. Some appear to be spiritual and some non-spiritual. Some have binding effect and some appear to effect Are good freedom. whatever its disposition may be.Daitatrcya: Ths Philosopher 141 and such other qualities as well as relative nature do not fall outside it. It is the essence of equipoise in the most exhaustive sense. That which does not recognise It. It is the essence of the universe. It is devoid of internal and external As being the essence of equipoise. This is only an illustration and it has all the limitations of an illustration. distinction is wrong because which has distinction. has no presupposes the distinction of that say that It is the creator is wrong because it presupposes the created apart from To say that It is the ruler is wrong because it presupposes the ruled. is an evidence of this highest truths 42 The Lord's study of Brahman can be brought under two headsthe proof and the conclusion. It pervades all* Its auspicious character is such that the auspicious and inauspicious are the same to It. It is the only explanation of the universe* It is not auspicious as opposed to the inauspicious.—There are in the world all aspects of reality with all shades. p™of. Some are relative and some appear to be absolute. It is the all-absorbing Reality. It is in itself distinctionless. akhanda. Looked at properly. it is not without the element in it which finally negates it and in its place installs Brahman. That which modifies It is unreal.

The ideas are relative. He easy to it is is and see therefore no God. of these conflicting elements has its is Some irrational. Thus the contents of the world are relative. comprise all The circumstance and that exist because being work of God. Each Even the so called non-relative called absolute is own Each place in is relative to others. All the same there is this idea of God operating in different minds based purely on imagination. The non-relative is God.Daltdtreya 142 and some are real Each location some are are rational and Some non-divine. Unity. Supposing that this absolute that is is He is called is God. that is then it God and becomes a mere idea like other ideas that are of the world. This is also an item of the world. relative. Each as indispensable law of existence. The removal of it ensures knowledge. The relative existing by itself is a contradiction in terms. is life. relative to the relative. falls fulfil a definite Similarly without misery happiness The contents of the world be relative. Even to say that they are relative is relative. Is God related to the world? To hold any relation is to bring down God to the . The relative to the non-absolute. There is nothing so- that Even illusion has its own place and it has to purpose. It is falls God. Without God there is neither circumstance nor realisation. Does the relative exist by itself? Does it establish itself? 'No' says the Lord. After expounding the non-relative character of God the Lord takes up the question of the relation of God to the world. all The If that is relative to non-relative is anything relative it. They are all with all their circumstances nothing but imagination. non-duality and duality are relative. after all relative to the relative world. The truth of God is therefore such that it short of the content establishes the relative without Itself being relative in any sense. In the very opening passage of the AvadhiitaGlia he definitely concludes that self and are the its realisations realisation of an individual self all work circumstances of an individual of God. This means that the relative exists relative it presupposes in the non-relative. The non-relative is therefore the explanation of the relative. The world is relative. outside the system. is that the status is equally it —the relative world being related to the absolute world vice-vena. God is therefore the explanation of all. It is all the necessarily is beyond introduced into all it. The ideas of worship and so on are the contents of this item. Relativity is the as others. is arc illusory. equally significant with others. But what The Lord's answer of the world as a whole? relative may not promised. identity.

is unconditioned existence beyond everything that neither knowledge nor n^LK£ is . state there It is i i In untamted He " r is. that is.The Philosopher Dattdlreya One cannot be world. It is the truth of equipoise. The As complete. MOK?A ae * ««*. sama Vedania of the truth complete. duality and identity. It is pervading. If God is and points out that God is that by which all this is filled up by means of Itself in Itself. the relative is the then there is no longer the relative.»«> ^. It all same time the maker of wonderful power. It mark of the wonderful t^Dacity of God. u PP°scs notWn L?rd ^d characterises this truth as admits of no cause behind THE THEORY OF LIBERATION. because in the face of negation of all there is no occasion to establish It. mark of God* If once God is understood the is As such. But It does not negate all. Sama. So he discards all proposition. because it is then the world of 'all'. God. Its non-relative character is such that once you understand It then you do not see anything else relative ideas It is is all all identity.**"* Duality negates the complete. and the real •# «• self in w ViJiV? 'It is P rc every individual. the Lord observes The imagination of duality and identity is indeed the greatest of the delusions/""* He says 'How can I say that all this is identity or duality? '"" and concludes that the Truth is knowledge immortal. It the following: is complete in the sense that It is all and there is nothing outside It. identity It is It is the self of all. level of the 143 blind to the implication of this brought to a lower plane it simply means that the problem of finding the source of all remains the same. It is devoid of all the implications of the concepts. But the Truth is complete Truth itself negates duality and identity. The relative does not exist self-existence. Ill SSf nrfat. Brahman. This is the Truth of Self. This is its as a second to God. that is.™ comparable to space«"« that CfineS ? this hbcratl0n . Identity makes the is is complete non-operative. That which is relative in any sense cannot be the source of all. Atmmu To understand this is to see that all this is God. It is at the the relative. The essence vedtinta-sara-safvasva.H"^. Equipoise. 1 the essence of equipoise. S ? for this reason the auspicious of the auspicious. Conclusion:—The Lord points out that to understand this Truth by the study of philosophy is to see the very essence of Veddnia.

—— — Datialreya !44 enduring awareness. human It does reasoning. It is is is by yoga. ununderstandable it and to one's entire satisfaction enjoys is it. It is ever to it. It is pure existence. It is like space. It is self-established. who is intent upon doing good to all creatures. spatial and temporal conditions make it realised. nor not presuppose particular not obtained by means of the instruction consciousness spontaneity. Brahman. It is reality. It is stable/ In order to understand is it of a itself. It is knowledge in its essence. The Lord says: 'The person who is free from attachment and hatred. enduring. of a preceptor. To do good to others must be the very disposition of this one. It is the self. One must be able to appreciate the Truth beyond conception. no discipline and no It is the Reality. It is a state of all It is untainted by any sense. It <250) it one ought to be free from attachment and hatred. one realises the essence. It is equipoise. svabhava- relativity in has nothing mediate in it. It is more than the state of bliss. One's knowledge of the Truth must be beyond doubt. It is THE DISCIPLINE LEADING TO MOKSA Lord Dattatreya sees no meaning in the conceptions of discipline made popular by various Darianas such as yoga with its six limbs. It is self-established/ t249) Reasoning does not help it. It is knowledge in its essence. It is T. There is no preceptor to teach it. It preceptor. He sees that they are irrelevant to the truth of self. Verily it is Itself. unborn. being complete in It Atman. It is untainted even as space is. itself. not attained Nor is it attained by the instruction its six is it is limbs. instructions by preceptors and institutional morality. 'This The Lord knowledge is says: not of the character of the meditation prescribed space and time. He says: 'That which with Not pure is by means of the discipline of yoga attained by the destruction of the mind. Atman which is pure in itself. the Truth which shines beyond all and is in itself. bhava. If then one never tainted is . It is free from all defects. Knowledge does not lead No meditation. whose knowledge is stable and who is irresistible attains the highest Truth/ t25l) One must possess wisdom. beyond relativity. It is absolutely immediate. It is Reality. The Lord says:— "Spontaneous. It is suspiciousness itself.

He is therefore no God. One must be very careful in following all these ideas. no teacher. following the instructions of particular The Truth is beyond The Lord observes:— connected with "There is required no Veda. There is no use in by defects. all this. because God must be all-inclusive and all-explanatory. If this truth is appreciated then the questions of duality and identity lose their significance. This is how a mendicant or a once. practising teachers. It is beyond all relativity.'""* person who practises austerity There is no use of There is no use of a Mind study of even Veda any religion with great devotion. Liberation » It m beyond bliss. The consideration of the reality or the unreality of the world for its own sake is not justified unless it has in view the establishment of the truth of equipoise The Lord compares the world to a mirage. right world the problem of having a God is denied. no sacrifice removing hair. no pupil. the all-enduring. To hold that God is the only reality. It is beyond is therefore The God who stands outside the creation in any sense is no God. only to illustrate the absolute character of the truth of equipoise. V^ith this realisation the common ways of worship. Realisation of this truth has a practical importance. It transcends even the state of equipoise in case it has in its purview anything relative. no wealth of different kinds and no religious marks. The God who is considered to be within the heart of the world may after all be relative to the world. no discipline. (!W he attains to. With more and more of realisation the same pristine and venerable expressions like 'equipoise' and others gam . good and is evil. To speak of liberation In a sense it is an expression of the narrow individuality.Dailatrcya: The Philosopher 145 Merely because this realisation has not occurred even any action. one ought not to do is not bound.' terms of bliss betrays one's self-interest. real and unreal without giving room for duality in any sense is no God. That is the Lord Self. To concentrate on God in an exclusive sense is unwarranted. The God who is incapable of giving rise to the universe without in any all Gods. the God who incapable of and wrong. because with the denial of the explaining all aspects of the world. sense being modified by the creation. To deny the world is to deny God. to hold that the world is unreal or to hold that God is a mere abstract does not solve the problem of God or of the world. meditation and m oisaphnc disappear and thejr place contemplation on the truth of cqunwse emerges slowly. Atman. The Truth is equipoise.

preceptor and so on. Such is the case with duality. A word by itself is of misery. sama. provided the correct meaning is apprehended. An appreciation of this aspect of the teaching has a great disciplinary significance. . a way of life that leads to its realisation. But commonly the words are made much of and the effect of the meaning is totally ignored. The Lord notes that the truth The Truth is of equipoise mercilessly not relative even to the relation of the He insists thereby that what usually takes the highest Reality which teacher and the taught. With the correct understanding of the truth all these terms become retained with a fresh significance. It is neither the cause of happiness nor the circumstance connected with even those words that figure in the expression of opposites such as happiness and misery. but never the words themselves. it is attached to them. that is. Brhad-Aranyaka- this truth as the meaning of the whole Veda. demands a way of life consistent with it. He readily respects all words provided the meaning is truly Vedic. the absolute of the absolutes. the Vedanta thought* Upani$ad expounds As it is is in no sense forced on already noted. and he is in the same breath prepared to signify the Truth as identity. advaita or duality. if a lower 0 : relative meaning is attached to it. It must not be forgotten that after all he is out to determine the meaning of Veda having the whole of Veda in view. This is innocent. knowledge. What we have to note in this connection is that what is negated by the Lord is not so much the negation of the particular words. It is therefore the truly the expression of the truth of equipoise. reality and unreality. and a way of life by which the person attains to this truth. The Lord has so far indicated the negative aspect of the discipline. The discourse therefore mirrors the spiritual growth of the person in question. When the Lord says that the truth is not this nor that he is considering the meanings of the words. The philosophy of 'equipoise'. dvaita. Thus to a discerning eye there is throughout a systematic growth of spiritual discipline presented by the Lord.Dattdlreya 146 more and more significance.' 264 ' is place between a teacher and a pupil truth is all is irrelevant to truth. sama. He is prepared even to reject the term 'equipoise'. samarasa. good and evil and so on. because transcendent. but it is the negation of the thought behind these expressions. In these cases the real opposition is not between words but between meanings meaning that is the cause of different emotions. identity and so on.

Each is the negation of truth The philosophy of the Vcdas is therefore neither duality nor identity the philosophy of equipoise. sama. I'vM^t* °" usual mstructions him the Reality So he distinguishes the teS « i °f ****** » p^Zr essence' based . as the Brhad-Aranyaka Cpam?ad puts it The same is the philosophy that Dattatreya It is has expounded in the Avadhiita-Gita. but it is really born .Dait&treya The same is The Philosopher 147 To understand substantiated in the Aiadhuia-Gitd this thought both in £ruh and in Smrtt... the Lord calls it the h«ghest and purest. Not to see the unity of thought in them is often due to the mistake of trying to draw too close a distinction between duality and identity. duality and identity. both are true and both are false The history of is to see the unity of Vedanta thought illustrates this point Men of wisdom have from the beginning insisted on the perfect unity of the Vedtc thought This is beautifully illustrated by the Yoga-Vastslha — 'Duality and identity are innate even as a tree is innate in the of the seed One who sees the world beginning with ctt body (the Ultimate Truth) and ending with an atom (an insignificant thing) (with an outlook consistent with this truth) is one who really sees tiSS * 'Neither duality nor identity neither the seed nor the sprout neither the gross nor the subtle is not non-born. In recognition of the seriousness and purity of the exposition. to itself •<». It is w ith the background of these ideas that the positive side of the Lord s teaching can be appreciated He says 'Avadhuta absorbed in the essence of identity and punned by the contemplation over it expounds carefully this highest truth '<»> One must realise that this a serious d lS course. Of the two.. pralatana is Sisstt^ From the cquipojse gum to shines whom th ° ^ ™ this drscourse is gI ven. "t » Neither duality nor non-duahty is therefore the truth Each is born Each is the work of the imagination.

Dattatreya. heard. the preceptor is ever there and ready to help him.Dattdtreya 148 according to individual taste does not help knowledge. then the intellect is able to operate. samarasa. union with Dattatreya. the philosopher. his instruction is ever is To approach purity is this aspect of discipline requires purity of heart. desire for wealth * 4 process of discipline leading to liberation. to them there is no rebirth. the Auspicious of the Auspicious. is the highest truth. Both are presented in what called Veda and Veddnta together forming a unity of thought. As inspired by Him it is expounded by Jaya Sri Jaya Chamarajendra Wadiyar Bahadur. that is. If it is free from worries.' (260) To the person who is equipped in this manner the Lord says: 'By the Lord Dattatreya.'* Aranyaka-Upanisad 0 dear. Those who study it and appreciate 261 After the teaching of the Brhadit. All this is Dattatreya. dattadvaitam paraih tattvam yatha-mati jayoditam dattasyaivarpitam tat syat sarvam datta-mayam £ivam no other than Datta. The Lord demands: Therefore the mind must be protected from all evils. This is detachment of the highest kind. the embodiment of peace itself is expounded this great truth. that is. desire for and desire for woman. To a person who is prepared to receive instruction. This marked by non-attachment to the things of the world including the ideas of the truth. meditated on and appreciated/ t262> This is the one sons. the essence of equipoise. May it be dedicated to Dattatreya 'Equipoise which is — Himself. understood. 'equipoise'. It is the complete absence of the three-fold desire. Self must be realised.' . The person who is endowed with detachment must have the devotion to truth.

his flight contribute towards our welfare. pusan contribute towards our unhampered in Aum. Peace. Peace. who are possessed of organs (drawn away from the external world and fixed) on the subtle truth attain an eyes of knowledge the auspicious existence free Deva from (Praja-pati). defects. who is heard of by the May the omniscient welfare. the performers (of which is no other than meditation) see with our forms of the truth. . May Tarksya ancients contribute towards our welfare. May of a duration prescribed by Indra. Peace. sacrifice hear with (our ears) the May we.0 Gods! May we [the seekers) auspicious (truth o/Vedanta). May we.





The Philosopher


another work composed




Sri Dattatreya. It

289 ihkas (verses) of
different metres The whole work is devoted to expounding selfknowledge, svalma-samvilli. The fourth chapter is given a special title,
consists of eight chapters comprising in all

the Definition of Essence, svarupa-nirnaya.




entitled the exposition of insight into the truth of equipoise,



sixth chapter




entitled the determination of

The work claims to be an exposition of Vedic thought

liberation, ntoksa,

of the teaching, "That thou art'

in the light

and so on. Consistently with


m the name of sama,
The tradition has given the name pure identity,
iuddhadvatta, to this system of thought. Though the thought seems
to be a variety of identity it has its own individuality. This point

lays special stress on 'equipoise'


samarasa and so on.

be illustrated in a later section.



Vedic or Upanisadic



character. It appears to be
simple and commonplace But closer acquaintance and
reveal that it is very difficult to grasp the
thought behind it. The
thought is profound. To understand it presupposes

a careful study



literature. It is

apparently nothing but mere repetition
of contradictory ideas but in reality it
is a consistent growth of
very complex thought, slowly emerging
from identical expressions
In the following pages an attempt is
made to translate the Sanskrit
verses. The translation of each
verse of the first two chapters is
olloued by passages from Sruh
presenting the same idea The reason
for tins is the following
Lord Dattatreya in the course of his teaching
repeatedly reminds the pupil that
his teaching is nothing

but an

ONposil.on of Bruit In illustrate
of this idea it is thought that
sta emcnt of passages from
$ru tl may help to shou the Srult

underlying each verse.


thZZv T

philosoplncnl in


Smti arc taken only from the
well-known ten
C Upa
ds are S eneraI
to be purely
chancer. Judgmg from the standpoint




„s exposition Dattatreya
at times

£K ? m

makes use


thL teJ

of the


1CUkr Connecti °ns he explains
the position
these circumstances he
keeps in new the em

»f ,?





Sruii teaching so that he presents nothing independently of §iuti

and what he teaches

the very essence of Sruti in


its entirety,

vcddnta-saia-saivasva* All this will be indicated in paiticular contexts

of the following exposition.


and the background


of Sruti)


i£varanugrahad-eva pumsarii advaita-vasana


mahadbhaya-paritranat vipranarii upajayate.
will there arise in

'By God's grace alone

men who

arc inwardly stiircd

the fragrance of non-duality which will save them from great fear/



i: teavasyaiii idarii

sarvam yatkim ca

whatever exists in this world of becoming,
the Lord. The world is based on God. It is the work



jagatyarii jagal.

permeated by


God, Without


the actual presence of

thus not passive.



does not exist* The Lord's pervasion

It is essentially operative.



have effort, What appears to be effort is an expiession
That is the grace of God,
Mandukya*?: icchamatrarii prabhoh srstfh


Lord's creation



fiat of his will/

one cannot

of disposition.

According to Sankara

Iuh ikd by Gautjapada and according to Madhva


this is




Kaiha (1,2*22): yarn evaisa vrnute tena labhyah,
'He is obtained by him whom the Lord elects/
Kaiha (1.2.20): paSyati
dhatu-prasadat mahimanam atriianah
'He sees by means of His (Lord's) grace the all pervasion of Atman!




yenedaih puritam sarvaih atmanaivatmanatmani
nirakararii katharii

That by which

vande hy abhinnarii Ovarii

all this is filled

created and in the





self it exists.

salutations to that which







the same

indeed can



self it is



auspicious and


Brhad-Aravyaka-Ufianifad, Sattii says: purnasya purnam adaya
purnara eva ava£isyate,
'Take away the complete from the complete. It is still complete/


Dailalrcya: The Philosopher


brought out as follows.—
Brhad-Arankaya (1.4.17): atmaivedam-agra asit eka eva so kamayate
atmaivasya karma* atmana hi karma karoti
jaya mc syat
pantam idarii sarvam yad idarh kim ca tad idam sarvam apnotL
This truth








va cvam veda.
'There was only self before the creation of this world. It was one only.
.' The activity of all this is
It desired 'I must have a wife.
itself. It indeed takes place by means of self itself. By the same
agency one has activity
(By the same) all this is complete with
all the accessories five in number. Whatever there is, all that is
complete with all the accessories, that is, it is the work of the pervasion of the self. He who knows this obtains all this.'
Kaiha (2.5.14): aruparh
katharh mi tad vijamyam.


'It is


'It is






indeed can I understand it?'
It is further said, neha nanasti kim ca na
'There is no distinction in it. (Distinction, like one who understands,
understanding and the understood).'
Mandfikya 7 sivam advaitarii



and non-dual.'

pancabhutatmakarh visvam marici-]ala-sanmbham
kasy&py aho namas-touyam aham deo niranjanah.
'The whole universe is nothing but the five elements.
It is

the water super-imposed on the rays of the
sun. To
shall I pay my salutation? I am the
only being that

similar to




laxiixriya (2-1}:

tasmad va ctasmad atmana akasah sarhbhtitah
aUsdd vuyuh. vayor agmh. agner apah. adbhyah
From that self which is expounded here,
this text, ether came
* rom ether came air. From air came fire. From fire came
water. From
by SeU COnS1Sts f









(1.4.1): atmaivedam agra asit. . . . nanyad
npasyat soham asmity agra vyaharat
tato aham namabhavat.
There was only self before this
creation It saw nothing distinct



(3 1.3J.






paramam samyath

not be confused


attains to




(2.3.17): tarn

vidyat Sukraih amftarh.

'One must understand It (the truth) to be pure and immortal.
The idea is that the whole world of matter being similar to a mirage


It is

indeed the work of God.


realise this truth

is to

transcend bondage.

atmaiva kevalam sarvarh bhedabhedo na vidyate
asti nasti kathaih bruyarh vismayah pratibhati me.


nothing but

'All this is



nor difference-non-difference.


neither difference, non-difference,

How can


say that


it is





rapt in wonder.'


yas tu sarvani bhutani atmany evanupaSyati. sarva-bhutcsu



tato na vijugupsate, yasmin sarvani bhutani atmaivabhud






Atman and the Atman in all things is
To one who knows the truth all things become

sees all things in the


his Self.



sad eva

somyedam agra


the aspirant of detachment and devotion.

existence before the creation of
Taittiriya (3.7): asad

There was only


va idam agra


There was only non-existence before the creation of this
Brhad-Avanyaka (1,2.1): naiveha kim ca nagra asit.
There was nothing before creation/
To put these ideas together makes it impossible to
cither as is or as is not. The only conclusion is:—
Kaiha (1.27): aicaryo vakta
a£caryo jnata.
The speaker of it is a marvel and the one who knows



define Self


it is

a marvel/

vedanta-sara-sarvasvam jnanam vijnanam eva ca
aham atma nirakarah sarvavyapl svabhavatah.


'What forms the quintessence of Veddnia, what is knowledge or
specialised knowledge is of the form "I am Self, formless, allpermeating by my very nature"/









'AH those to


strong conviction

become liberated/
(4.11.1): soham asmi sa evahamasmu
am. That alone I am/




the truths of Vcddnta have become matters of

Datlafreya" The Philosopher


1 am

(4.4 5)-


ayam atma brahma

am) Brahman.'

self. (I

Mtqtiaka: yas sarvajnah sarvavit yasya jnanamayam tapah.
•He who is omniscient and possessor of all is he whose austerity glows
with the heat of thought/

yo vat sarvatmako devo niskalo gaganopamah
svabhava-nirmala§ Suddah sa cvaham na samSayah.


•That which



all this,

shining, partless, space-like,

by nature

from defects and pure, that alone I am This admits of no doubt/
Chdndogya (3.3.14); sarvam khalv idam brahma,
'AH this is indeed Brahman'
J&i (8). sa paryagdt £ukram akayam avranam asnaviram Suddliam


wisdom attained to Brahman which is devoid of all
impurities, miseries and short-comings, bodiless, unconditioned both
from the standpoint of time and from the standpoint of qualities,
m which there are no components of body, which is pure and holy,
and for the same reason free from all sins and defects


*He the



aharn evrtvya} onantah Suddha-vijnana-vigrahah


duhkham na janami katham kasyapi


'Myself alone


that which


indestructible, infinite


and of the form

pure consciousness I know neither pleasure nor pain
any manner occurring to anything/




yo sav asau purusah soham asmi.
'That which is, is this purttfa, the principle purely




character. It I




cvaham asmi.
'The same spirit
else I

ya esa vidyuti puruso drSyate soham asmi sa

seen in lightning.

That alone



That, nothing





spiritual in



satyam jnanam anantam brahma.
spiritual and infinite is Brahman


na manasam karma £ubhasubham me
na kayikarh karma gubha&ubham me
na vacikam karma &ubha£ubham me
jnanamftam Suddham atindnyoham.
To me there is no mental act characterised as auspicious or
auspicious There is no bodily activity which
is fair or fouL




' mano vai gaganakaram mano vai sarvato mukharh mana alitam manah sarvarh na manah paramarthatah. purified is apprehends it which is distinctionless. nor by speech.1. esa-nityo vardhate karmana no kaniyan. (I am) How can all I * this. that is. 'It is the mind of the mind. 'Not apprehended by eye. 9.18. the ambrosia mahima brahmanasya This is the unfailing greatness of Brahmana {Brahman) that not grow or fade away by means of activity. 'That which one knows by mind. nor by action.1): mano brahmety upasita. I of knowledge which wholly transcends the senses. transcends all.4. jnana-prasadcna viSuddha-satvah tatas tu tain pa£yate niskalaih dhyayamanah. I am devoid of supposed to have been perceived beyond perception? Kapia-Upanisad: katham nu tadvijaniyam kimu bhati na bhati va. It is the mind in the absolute sense.2). Mind is what it is because of It. but itself is made to have by which they say that mind function. Mind Mind is all.' Brhad-Iranyaka (4.23). 'Mind is indeed like space. In fact it is not what is commonly called mind. that which is meditated on as the object of mind. karma* Mwtdaka (3. following the process of meditation. yan manasa na manute yenahur mano matam tad eva brahma tvaih viddhi nedam yad idam upasatc. aham ekam idam 10. Mind is indeed in all directions. distinction. that is. manaso manah. see the I transcend space. tirohitarh.8): na caksusa grhyate napi vaca nanyaih it na does devaih tapasa karmanava. nor by other Gods. By the grace which is no other than know- one whose existence ledge. sarvarh vyomatitam nirantararh paSyami katham atmanam pratyaksam va 'I am one. understand thou that alone to be its Brahman) but not this which is meditated on. self. 'Mind ought to be meditated on as being Brahman. 'How indeed can I know it? It shines and it does not indeed or shine/ .' Kena (1. Mind in the real sense is Brahman itself.' Chdndogya (3. nor by austerity.Daitatrcya am speaking activity which is pleasing or unpleasing.' What is commonly called mind is therefore no mind.

understands it/ This is because the truth is pratibodhaudtta the very source of every case of knowledge. In every circumstance it is be introduced into you. You are inexhaustible. How can distinctions. is tvam evam ekam il* samam hi kathaih hi sarvesu vimrstarh na buddhyase avyayam tvam akhan<Jitah prabho diva ca naktam ca kathaih hi manyase. 'Understand self as aU-endunng one underlying many and un# interrupted. tarn eva bhantaih anubhati sarvarii tasya bKisa sarvam idaih vabhati.2. ca.15) says' na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam nerna vjdyuto bhanti kutoyam agnih. meditation and so on be introduced into it? i na jSto na mrtosi tvam na te dehah kadacana sarvaih bnihmcti vikhyatam braviti bahudha irutih.Datldlreya: The Philosopher samastasya khalu samna upasanarh. \ ou arc never born and you are never dead.12) says: pratibodha-viditatru 'It is revealed in every case of knowledge (as the very source of knowledge)/ Katha (2. Why do you not realise this? You sadoditosi state of equipoise in all.1.1): equipoise. but it is illumined by none/ 12. only one form of meditation on the complete {Brahman). expounded.10) says: yo nas tad veda tad veda yo na vedeti He who thinks he knows does not know it. at nun am satatam viddhi sarvatraikaih nirantaram aham dhjata param dhyeyam akhantfath khan^yate katham. am that which meditates and that which can the indivisible be divided 5 * How is meditated Kena (2. day and You are searched O you that Lord! is for. 'Thus you arc indeed one. By does not and the star does not: these lightnings do can the fire? All this shines following that ever shining its shining all this shines. I on.5. 'The sun does not shine there. it does not illumine it (the truth): the moon not. that is. Charidogya-Upanisad 'There It 157 is (2. You never have a bodv 13- . Where is are the No distinction can the distinction to you as night*' Kena (24. He who feels that he does not knov it. how truth. it illumines all. that is.

is is non-dual.5. It is not destroyed when the 'Neither body is is it destroyed/ Chdndogya (3. Having become something it does not become something else again. I am not myself. It is It is the state of equipoise/ sarhyoga£ ca viyogaS ca vartate na ca te na me na tvam nahaih jagan nedam sarvaih atmaiva kevalam. It is indeed the light that underlies the self* This is the exposition of this Truth. It is all knowledge/ Mdndtlkya (7): prapancopaSamam bantam Sivaih advaitaift.7): prsfhesu sarvatah atha yad atah paro divo jyotir dipyate viivatah prsfhesu anuttamesuttamesu lokesvidam va va tad yadidam asmmnantah puruse jyotih tasyaisa drsfih sarvaih khalv idam brahma. It has nothing prior.8): purnam ayarii apravarti.13. All this is indeed « . It is the same though it obtains bodies. all those entities that are called bases and the worlds higher and lower. . Brahman.2. nothing that is different from it. All is indeed is nothing but Self/ Chdndogya tad etat (3. It 15. This world is not itself. nothing that follows it. . nothing that this self that is Brahman. There neither relation nor separation to you nor to me.. You are not yourself. 'It is that in which the world has found its rest.18): na jayate mriyate va kad&cit nayam bhfitvS.19): tad etat anantaram abahyam atma brahma sarvanubhuh.Daltatreya 158 Katha {1.* sa bahyabhyantarosi 14. bhavita va na bhuyah ajo nityah £a£vatoyam puranah na hanyate hanyamane £arire* born nor does it die. is outside. It is peace. va va sa yoyam antar hfdaya aka&h . are auspicious Why in then are you and thither like a ghost?' brahma apurvam anaparaih hither Brhad-Aranyaka (2. 'Further the light that shines beyond the shining heavens is that which underlies the basis of all. 'That is this Brahman. It auspicious. that is..12. nothing that is inside it. It is beginningless and endless. You conditions. tatah katham bhrantah pradhavasi pi&Lcavat itas That which is outside and inside every circumstance and under deluded and tvam £ivah sarvatra sarvada is all why do you move yourself.

. 'It is this absolute illumination that and form/ is 1 it (Self) indeed the sustamer of name . that is. 'Birth and death. similarly the man of wisdom being absolutely freed from name and form attains to Self.' Hatha 'In it ncha nanasti kirh ca na. That is (all) this. taste and odour) you are not. bondage. absolutely devoid of touch. mmd.3. absolutely devoid of colour. 'Of this which consists of five subtle partake of your nature. Nor do they You arc the highest truth.11): there is punah Sabdadi pancakasyasya naivasi tvarh na te tvam eva paramaiii tattvam atah kim paritapyase.16. aitadatmyam of this Self. 'Even as the flowing rivers disappear in the sea having abandoned name and form. 'Meditation is greater than mind/ Katha {2. devoid of taste. touch.1): vimuktaS ca vimucyate 'He who is already liberated is liberated/ Brhad-Aranyaka {44.4.3). illumination.the indeed that which underlies the the highest and complete.8) yatha nadyah syandamanah samudre astam gacchanti nama-rupe vihaya tatha vidvan nama-rupad vimuktah paratparam purusam upaiti divyam. colour. tatharasam Hatha (1. 'That which is done and that which is not done do not affect Chandogya (2. the higher than the highest 17 ' - — spirit/ Chattdogya (7^*1): dhyanam va va cittad bhuyah. good and evil are irrelevant to you 0 Dear! Why do you gneve? Form and name apply neither to you nor to mc Mtm&aha Upa?tt$ad (3. It is tftafa. elements (sound.5.15): aiabdaih asparSam arupam avyayam nityam agandhavac ca yat absolutely "The truth is that which is absolutely devoid of sound. inexhaustible.1): ukaio ha vai nama-rupayoh nirvahita.2.14.22): nainam kftakrte tapatah. all idarii sarvarh. and absolutely devoid of odour/ Chaniogya ' All this is (6. release. Why then do you bother?' 16. no distinction in any sense/ (2. this has Self as its essence/ janma mrtyuh na te cittam bandha mok§a£ SubhaSubhau katham rodisi re vatsa nama riipam na te na me. It is i is shining It is effortless.Dattatreya: 'This ^59 The Philosopher inner heart.

2.3): vadanti £rutayal sarvah nirgunam 6uddharh avyayaih i ( aSariratn samam tattvaih tan mam viddhi na samsayah. Understand that to be myself. pure. .Da ftaircya 160 katham bh ran I all pradhavasi pifificaval abhinnath paAya calmanam raga-lyagilt suklu bhava. 'That thou art/ Brhad-Aranyaka 'The second is bhayam dvitiyad vai (j.2. evil action docs not stick/ You arc Brahman. tattvaih asi. Mundaha (2. formless and the truth of equipoise. sccondlcss. teach the attribulcless. Be Get yourself rid of happy.14. Why do you worry by giving room for desires?' Chandogya (6.1): sa alone viivaift.2. Mow can then attachment or detachment occur to you? Chandogya 20. advitiya. inexhaustible. do not doubt it/ Kafka (2.16. that is. 'You alone are indeed 1he reality devoid of change. 11): 'This Brahmaivcdaiii Brahman (3. yatha puskara palu&a apo na &H§yanla evath evamvicli papain karma na 61i$yate. 'Even as water docs not slick to the leaf of the lotus creeper. self attachment.1): ckam cvadvitlyarh. 'All Vcdas expound that Truth {Brahman). Oiks.' Chandogya (6. There is no 'All Srutis room for doubt. unaffected.4. and of the disposition of complete freedom. aho stand the citla to be the stale of equipoise. 'This Brahman alone is immortal/ r (2. 'It is one only and secondlcss/ tvam ova tattvaiii hi vikara-varjitaiii ni^kampam ckaih hi vimok§a-vigrahaih na tc ca rilgo hyatha va viragah katham hi santapyasi kama-kfumitah* 19.2. to one who knows the (Truth of Brahman) so far expounded.15): sarve veduh yat padath amananti. '0 Mindl Being deluded why do you run away like a ghost? Under18.2).2): the cause of fear/ lint it is bhavati. Attachment or nonattachment docs not indeed apply to you.2 jj): brahmaivedam amrtarh. is all/ vedaitat paramaih bhati iubhrariu brahmadhama yatra vftvam nihilaih . (4.

2i. It aCtJ °nS ^ 6 is ' lt 15 to all forms.' (3*2*5) . fully accomplished. na ca punar avartate na ca punar avartate. sarvaih karmabhih ' is the same Cht^ ° ^ k™ u *™* SSfSS khalu sudhu tat samety Scaksate yadasadhu ' * ' that inexhaustible/ samam. they. is possibility of rebirth. satisfied in wisdom. He is indeed never born again. 22 'Men of wisdom indeed say that equipoise is the reality underlying all. samprapyainam ysayo jnana-trptah krtatmanah vlta-ragah praSantah sarvagam sarvatah prapya dhirah yuktatminah te sarvam cvavi£anti. 'He indeed thus living. . Gods disappear in thc respective Gods who form their or^n tAcn all actions and self of thc nature of consciousness~aU these C nC Cn h Cy arC in thG hi hest the All ^W rupaih r° ^ samam kth^ /. understanding. It eveiy sense' uposanagm sUbu yat tadasameti . If attachment is removed there occurs no mind with its manifold expressions/ Mundaka (327): gatah kalah pancada£a pratisthah devas ca $arve prati-devatasu karmani vijnanamayaS ca atma parevyaye sarva ^ ekibhavanti. khalv evam vartayan yavad ayugam brahmalokarh abhisampadyate. but which shines pure and untainted. M/m ekam eva samam tattvam vadanti hi vipaicitalj raga-tyagat punah cittam ekanekam na vidyate. and assim- ilating 0/ (8. no Chdndogya there is That which is formless is By receiving the teaching that expounds this reality unreal. the wise have realised all and they have entered into *Brahman which is all/ sakaram anrtam viddhi nirakaram mrantaram ctat tatvopadeSena na punar-bhava-sariibhavah.' DaMireya: The Philosopher 161 'He understood the location of this highest Brahman in which the whole universe is given as having found its support. 'Having attained to Brahman they have become wise.15*1): sa and reaching to the limit of his existence attains the location He is never bam again. free from attachment and peaceful. ^^^^^ ° f thc fr*1 1 bod y) d ^PPear in their bases. Having attained to all-pervading Brahman in all. that is. 'Know that which has form distincttonless. *« . studying.

0 the Destroyer. happiness and joy. the very disposition of liberation?' £vo bhava martyasya yadantakaitat sarvendriyanaih (1.1. reflects and meditates is equipoise.— Daitdtreya i6z 'To him there is sama equipoise. Reality is equipoise.26): ]arayanti tejah.' Katha (1. how can that how can the the (individual) Self be the source of peace. vi£uddhosi samarh tattvam videhas tvarii ajovyayah janamlha najanamlty atmanam manyase katham. How then can you hold that you know the Self or do not know the Self?' . They say that which is good is equipoise t and that which 23.20): yeyarii prete vicikitsa manusye astlty eke nayam astiti caike. ko rameta. The power of all senses becomes exhausted.' tinues to exist 24. if one lives long how can one be happy? Tell me that Truth. This is (the second point) with regard to which I am to be instructed by you. theory 'is' or 'is not' be the source of peace. come to an end tomorrow. 0 God of Death! which leads us on to the highest liberation. the negation of equipoise/ anatma-rupam ca katham samadhih atma-svarupam ca katham samadhih astiti nastiti katham samadhih moksa-svarupam yadi sarvam ekam. asama.' Katha (1. is not good. You are un- born and imperishable. You have no body. yasmin idaih vicikitsanti mrtyo yat samparaye mahati . If one is etad vidyam anuSisfas tvayaham. that is. Veda.1.17): brahmajnam devami^yam viditva nicayyemam Santim atyantam eti. 'How can that which is non-self be the source of peace. 'Having understood Brahman which is to be attained through Veda and which is the knower in all and reflected on this shining one. api sarvam jivit am alpam eva* Na vittena tarpanyio abhidhyayan varna-rati-pramodan ati dirghe jivite manusyah. bruhi nas tat.1. • . dead there is the doubt in —Some say that one man con- and some that one does not. All life lived is nothing. *AU those that belong to man's existence. Katha equipoise and it is all-identity. 'Pure you are. What he studies. Man is incapable of being satisfied by wealth Contemplating on birth. the goal of all praise and having meditated on this truth one attains to liberation which is no other than absolute peace. if the truth is which that is is.

Onc who knows it knows it. From Self mind/ . It is the highest reality t that is.h 5. 'In the Self by the Self which is yourself all is pervaded without giving room for duality. Self alone is what is on the right alone is *hat is on the left side. all creatures the Upamsadtc "The real of the real". is asi. neti neti.2): athata atmadeia eva atmaiva adhastat atmopan § that atma pakat atma purastat atma daksinatah atma uttaratah atmaivedam sarvam. Self alone is indeed afthi^f £S2SJ?JM 'From Self ' knowledge. Of them is real. One who knows it docs not understand it. bhutani vyuccaranti. The Srtiti "neither this nor that" ' proves that Chandogya all that is of the five-fold elements tattvam (6.15. 'From this Self. atml '° From viin5" a. thrown out. 'It is are not this. To those who claim to know it. Self alone is *hat is below. tasyopanisat satyasya satyam satyam. It is not this (which is commonly presented). Self alone is what is behind. [Further therefore the exposition of Self (follows). 11): f tattvamasyadi vakyena svatma hi pratipaditah net] neb Srutir bruyat anrtam panca-bhautikam 25. 1 'By means of the scriptural statements such as "That thou art the truth of the Self is expounded. asmad atmanah.Dattdtrcya* The Philosopher 163 yasyamatam tasya matam matam yasya na veda sah avynatazh vjjanataih vijnataih avijanatam tad eva brahma tvam viddhi nedam yad idam upasate. In conclusion it nor that. elements. 13) 1 unreal. it is not known and to those who seem not to know It it is known. Know that to be Brahman. Kcna (2 3. Self alone is what is above. sarv&m prana vai .15. The thought of meditator and meditation 26. 'That thou art/ Brhad-Aranyaka (2120). your mmd How can that which unashamedly be meditated on?' is irrelevant to is never an exception Chmdosya-Upamftti (7. alone is nhat is in front. Vital principles are real.mat ° Self meditation. this regard the . all Upam?ad iti. that is. . is (the Self) ' atmany cvatmana sarvam tvaya purnam nirantaram dhyata dhyanam na te attam nirlajjah dhyayate katham. tesarh esa satyam.

' The thought of meditator. I am I expound I am it? I do not know myself the auspicious.1 1. yad vava kam tad eva kham yad eva kharh tadeva kam iti. But Self can never be excepted. being an apprehender is The It is devoid of the distinction of being apprehended and irrelevant to it. they say.. for the same indeed. . Auspiciousness is Brahman. 'That alone which is here is that which is there. do not know the auspicious. This is the Truth. How can I worship it? 'I the highest Reality. 1-2): naham tattvam samam tattvam kalpana-hetu-varjitam grahya-grahaka-nirmuktam svasamvedyam katham bhavet. One who sees distinction in this all-absorbing meets with destruction. That which is auspicious Space is Brahman. One who knows this Truth thus and meditates having his evil deeds destroyed becomes one of position. That which is there is just that which is here. The vital principle (in me) is Brahman. leads the life of illumination and his descendents never perish/ Chandogya 28. of the essence of equipoise even as space/ Chandogya (4. sa ya etam evarh vidvan upaste apahate papakrtyam loki bhavati sarvam ayur eti jyogjivati nasyavara-purusah ksiyante. How can the auspicious. .10): yad eveha tad amutra yad amutra tad anviha mrtyos sa mrtyum apnoti ya iha naneva paiyati. For this reason.4. 27. . Sivam na janami katham vadami Sivaih na janami katharh bhajami ahaih SivaS cet paramartha-tattvam sama-svarupam gaganopamam ca. 'I (individual) am not reality.. How can it be the object of itself?' Katha (2. the same. Equipoise is Reality.5): prano brahma kam brahma kharh brahmeti. . There is no duality in this reality. Daitdtreya 164 The idea is that excepting Self there is nothing. . the vital principle as well as space/ ya esa aditye puruso dr§yate soharh asmi sa evaham asmiti. manasaivedamaptavyam neha nanasti kim ca na. indeed that alone is space. that is. 'That this Self which is seen in the sun. It ought to be attained by insight. . basis of superimposition. This is the Truth. That which alone is space is indeed auspicious.10. pranam cahasmai tadakaiam cocuh. He I am: He alone I am. (4. are in the usual sense the expressions of duality. obtains full life. reality meditation etc.

It has no body. but it is no absolute Reality. It is neither one that causes injury to any injury caused with reference to attributed to It is of the essence it. Equipoise is Reality.' hatha (2 4 2): atha dhirah amrtatvam viditva dhruvam adhruvesu ma na prarthayante.14): mahantarh vibhum atmanarh matva dhiro na socati hanta cet manyate hanturii hantai cet manyate hatarh ubhau tau na vrjanlto nayarh hanti na hanyate. 30 visuddhosi samarh tattvam videham ajarh avyayarh vibhramarh katham atmarthe vibhrantoham katham punah. nor it. . 'Pure you are. . It does not perish. It has no birth. both of them are deluded It {the Truth) is neither the killer nor is it killed The idea is that attributes are as a rule relative and the Absolute becomes the man of wisdom. The is it done and the thing that is past. It is Self is is not done are it. the future are irrelevant to Brahman. It is only of the form of Self. How can there be illusion with reference to Self? How indeed can I be deluded?' Kalha (1. Non-attributes are irrelevant Truth which you have realised is . Tell me that imperishable. This alone is . ill^n ° SC 3i2?3 i? : m havin S ™<Jerstood that all enduring nt realities are never aflcr thh *s tha * Wi5?° * .Datidlreya: The Philosopher ananta-ruparh na hi vastu kirn 29 kim cit 165 tattva-svariipam na hi vastu cat atmaika-ruparh paramartha-t attvarh na himsako vapi nacapy ahirhsa. It greatest. That alone imperishable. 'The Reality is of infinite forms. There is there it is no entity. nor is non-injury is it.2. Kalha (t. It That is the Having understood it one one misery does not occur He who thinks that he kills it or that he is capable of killing it. To this ' therefore transcends all attnbutes. 'Attnbutes are irrelevant to to H This thing that irrelevant to it. . anyatra bhiitac ca havyac ca yat tat pasyasi tad vada ctaddhy cvaksararh brahma etaddhy evaksaram param. the highest.22): asarirarh sariresu anavasthesv avasthitarh in the bodies it is bodiless It is enduring in those that do not endure. . but of Truth itself.' anyatra dharmat anyatradharmat anyatrasmat krtakrtat. entity. he who thinks that it is killed and that it can be killed. (Truth). It is all pervading.2.

ekas tatha sarva-bhutantaratma na lipyate lokt duhkhena bahyah manasai-vedam aptavyarii neha nanasti kirn ca m 'In the persons who are asleep that person who is awake creatin . . 0 he.10): tad acchayam a£ariram alohitam Subhram aksaram vedayate yas ti somya sa sarvajnah saTVO bhavati. He is transcendent.3.2. tad eva Sukrarh tad brahma tad evamrtarh ucyatf etad vai tal tasmin lokah Sritah sarva tad u natyeti ka£ cana. th< anc broken the space contained in it merges (in th larger space). 'He indeed attains to the most imperishable* The same person \vh( understands the shadowless. . . * . In Him a pure. There * just a He is not tainted by the He is attained to only by misery < means ( no distinction within Himself/ na ghato na ghatakaSo na jivo jiva-vigrahah kevalam brahma sarhviddhi vedya-vedaka-varjitaih. vayur yathaikah. knowledge. suryo yatha sarvs lokasya caksuh. eko va£I sarvi bhutantaratma ekam rupam bahudha yah karoti tarn atmastha' yenu paSyanti dhirah tesam sukharh Saivatam netaresam. It is devoid of subjective an self. His wish is He alone that is said to (things) according to Brahman. . . becomes Dear! pure and colourless.10): yada pancavatisthante jnanani manasa saha buddh ca na vicestati tarn ahuh paramam gatim. . There appear 'If a jar is no distinction to me/ Hatha (2. . . is. Just as air which the eye of the whole world. This one person similarly the Self in all creatures. Is (which you want to know?) the sun which is . indeed all-knowing becomes all/ 31.. .! Dattdlreya i66 Praim pararh evaksaram pratipadyate sa yo ha vai (4.. He that He that be immortal. 'There is neither a jar. is objective aspects/ Hatha (2. ghate bhinne ghatakaSam sulmarii bheda-varjitam £ivena manasa £uddho na bhedah pratibhati me.5). ( is is this not the one. nor the space contained in the individual all is . bodiless. . It is worlds are located. that jar. nor a nor the body of an individual self. . . . inexhaustible. Understand ths nothing but Brahman. It is then devoid of the distinction from the larger one I am pure by means of a mind auspicious in character. . . agnir yathaikah. 32. ya y e ? u suptesu jagarti kamam kamam purus nirmamanah. the world. It is . Nothing goes beyond Him.

but * not the happiness of others/ The last statement of Srutx forms an earlier passage of the same Srtttt sarvatra sarvada sarvam 33 atmanam satatam dhruvam sarvam Sunyaih aSunyam ca tan 'Everywhere. . In it are sustained all the worlds.i). in Know me the abiding. . neither is the smoke nor the path of flame. things Nothing else existed then/ vedah na lokah na sura na yajnah vamaSramo naiva kulam na jatili na dhuma-margo na ca dipti-margo brahmaika-rupam paramartha-tattvam. 'Non-bcmg uas there in the beginning and from that onginated asit tato vai being/ Chandogya {6. always. and which those that see as residing within (individual) self are those uhose happiness is enduring. atma va idam agra asit na-nyat * Atman alone existed prior to all * kim ca na misat. 34* 'There neither scripture. and whatever exists m the world/ Taiihriya (2-7): asad va idam agra sad ajayata. There is no doubt about this Hatha {2. . . Atman to be the enduring or void and the non-void.2 i). nor worlds.' The Philosopher Daitcilrcya 167 'When the five kinds of know ledge (caused by the five sensory organs) become quiescent and with mind intellect as such ceases to operate. which is in itself one but ^hich 15 the author of multiplicity. tfasscs nor stages of bfc. . One.8). . which is the inner principle of all creatures. te . avartih T. tasrmn lokah Sntah sarva .^ ? is way no . that is the highest state they say. nor Gods nor sacrifices. . . te arcirabhi puruso brahma-lokan gainayati. which controls all. the mam viddhi na sarhSayah. yad idam kim ca jagat sarvam. . neither race nor caste. of the Highest Reality/ ^Z T £2 t^ohq. Ultimate Reality which w alone manifest It a ka is ^S^S): tc ya evam etad viduh. sad eva somyedam agra asit. tesu para. . '0 Somyal Only Being was there in the beginning Axiarcya {r. paravato vasanti tC55rh na punar • . all as know all. ?f sambhavanti Brahman .5. evam evanuparivartante.

. . . He is pure. circumstances. .. . . austerity They in the same way realise locations go to the world of smoke.. superior rg-veda. 'Further of (of) Brahman) even a single who know those these five fires (expounding the truth manner. holy and in this auspicious/ Vedas as dealing with worlds. . sacrifice. back. . . . . even though by them acts are done. . .Daltdtrcya i68 know 'Those that . . . . yajur-veda 35* (1. . . rotate/ tc arcisam abhi Chdndogya (5.10. good actions are born Those of evil actions are born in evil good circumstances. varna. . Brahman alone is real There is nothing against Brahman.. sthanaiii. . chaiity. They arc therefore not real. . . .5) says: tatrapara rgvedo yajurvedah.1): tad ye ittham viduh sa enan brahma gamayati esa devayanah panthii sambhavanti iti atha ya ime grama istapurte dattam ity upasatc le dhiimam abhi sambhavanti . . jayasva bhavanli bhulani avartini mriyasveti ctat tftiyam . .. . .1. they go to the world of illumination lakes to the world of Brahman. Them . . and inferior. . . This is the third position/ Chdndogya (5-10-10): in . . atha ha ya evarii pancagnin veda na sa ha tair apy acaran papmana lipyate Suddhah putah punya-loko bhavati. . Those that know Spirit) takes them those who believe . In worlds of Brahman they live endlessly. charity go to the world of smoke. the inferior one's arc and so on/ vyapya-vyapaka-nirmuktam tvam ekah saphalam yadi pratyak-jaih caparok§arii ca atmanaih manyasc katham. All these are transcended by a man of wisdom. . to Brahman. . . individual is not tainted by sin. charity and in that which is given in this . Further of these two paths if neither is followed they become low born creatures having repeated birth and death. . . (tirama and the diffcicnt paths smoke and fire are inferior! apardh. . in sacrifice. . * . . tad ya iha ramaniya-caranah ramamyam kapuyam yonim apadyeran kapuya-caranah yonim apadyeran athaitayoh pathoh na katarena ca na tannnani ksudrani asakrd . Gods. this truth the spirit . He (the Further. . Those of . For them there no is the coining Further those by means of sacrifice. — Therefore 'Of the Mundaka two sciences. They come into being and go out of it. This is the path of Gods. go to the world of illumination.

It desired the notes further. that is. dabhra* advaitarh kecid icchanti dvaitam icchanti capare 36. understand the Truth which Others select is duality. etc) and it is devoid of the qualities sound etc How can they (those that think wrongly) expound it which is beyond mind and speech?' Katha (x. In this concept the opposition of dvatta and advaita is annulled. Call it advatta. It is therefore an evil.19) says: yadi Brahman. It in this sense. duality is the source of fear'. Dviixya is taken to is mean something that bnng independent of Brahman. They do not the state of equipoise. second/ The meaning Ehakl^ is Advaita of ekaki taken to is evil mean and dviiiya must be carefully understood. incomplete. Call not mean dualism. It does not out the character of peace in Brahman Dvaita is evil in this is But the Truth is evil sense. that is. singleness without authorship.— tasmad ekaki na ramate sa dvitiyam aicchat 'Therefore that which is single does not feel happy. In recognition of all these ideas the Truth is. It rather signifies the it But advatia does not dvaita But dvdtta does richness of the Truth. after Brhad-Aranyaka characterised as sarna. how can you know the Self to be itself or the other?* manyase suvedeti dabhram evapi nunarii tvarii vettha brahmano rupam* 'If you hold that you have clear knowledge (of Brahman) indeed you understand Brahman very little. devoid of colours (white. non-duality.3} having observed—dvitiyad vai bhayam bhavatL insist 'The second causes fear. 3 X5) : a£ abdam aspar5aTh arQpaih avy tatharasaA 'Reality is nujam agandhavac ca yat.4*2. equipoise. equipoise. 37- £vetr\di*vama-rahitam &bdadi-guna-varjitam kathayanti katharii tattvam manoVdcam agocaram. . samam tattvam na 'Some select vindanti dvaitadvaita-vivarjitaih. mean singleness without authorship.Dattdtreya* 'If of The Philosopher 169 one is successful in attaining you who is devoid of the distinction the pervaded and the pervading. sarna. being neither duality nor non-duality/ To on either duality or non-duality is irrelevant to Truth* Brhad-Aranyaka {1. you have indeed made Ketta (2.

me vyomakaram tathaivaikam dhyata dhyanam katham bhavct.15): austerity as well as celibacy. diminution and and odour/ yadanrtam idarh sarvam dehadi gaganopamam lada hi brahma samvctti na te dvaita-parampanL 38* 'If all this consisting of recognises all this that is is body and so on is unreal.1): yoyarii antar hj-daya akaSah tad etat purnarii. what I eat. Pure I am. then alone one undei^tands Brahman similar to space. Brhad-Aranyaka anyoham That which this is complete/ yonyam devatam-upasatc atha (1. touch. that devotion only to Brahman. whom truthfulness. this alone is the location of Brahman. that is. It is absolute illumination.15-16): mahat punyam karma yadi ha va apy anevarh-vid karoti tad hasyantatah ksiyata eva.Daltaireya lyo That which is similarly taste ever devoid of sound.4. (If you attain the state then) there occurs no continuity of duality/ tesam cvaisa brahma-loko yesarh lapo brahmacaryarii yesu satyam pratis|hitam. atmanarh . nothing of imperishable/ Brhad-Arayyaka (14. nor deceit/ parena sahajatmapi hyabhinnah pratihhati 39. Brahman. yat karomi yad ainami yaj juhomi dadami yat sarvam na etat 'What I me kirn cit vi&uddhoham ajovyayah. what I sacrifice and what I give away. tesam asau virajo Brahma-loko na ye§u jirhharh anrtam na maya ceti* 'For those. them belongs to me. It is space-like. 'Even though Self appears rightly to belong to some other being to me it one* appears to be indeed an identity. 'That this which is expounded so far dwells in the heart (of a person). that is.10): is asau asmiti na sa veda. those in whom there Praina is (2. if one unreal. and those in speech well established* For those this is Brahman. who meditates on a different God with the conviction different from me and I am different from Him" does not 'Further. colour. those in whom there is is being the end of all the faultless location of neither crookedness nor falsehood. he "He is know Truth/ 40. is. I am unborn and do. likewise How can there be a meditator and meditation with reference to it?' Chdndogya (4. It is also.11.

sa ya atmanam eva lokarh upasate na hasya karma ksiyate. atma tattvarh asi. is nescience. It is . Whichever It desires is It creates it. know that Brahman is Bliss tattvam tvam na hi sandhah kirn janamy athava punah asarhvedyam svasarhvedyarh atmanam manyase katharh 'Reality you There is no doubt. sarvarh jagad viddhi vikara-hinam sarvarh jagad viddhi visuddha-deham sarvarh jagad viddhi sivaikarupam. Is there anything that I can understand* That which cannot be known and that which is selfevident is Self.16. (in the manner 'If indeed a person who does not know the Truth thus explained in the Upamsad) does a highly meritorious deed. nescience' teiLs ° nC * 11 k^ ^ 0 Dear! Shadow is not shadow (unreal) 11 ' " a31 -Perv adin 5- !t is space-like. Understand that nothing but auspicious the ^orld the world that is all ' is Chtindogya (6. 'This Self is indeed the basis. 'You understand that understand that that that all is that is all that all is the world is (really) the world is changeless is formless. maya.' Katka (2. 'How can I understand If (6). How can you understand It' Chandogya are. is Aiman. it indeed melts away within himself. navidyate tattvarh ekarh idarh sarvarh vyomakaram niranjanarh.' sarvarh jagad viddhi mrakrtidam 41.14): katharh nu tad wjaniyam.3). (All deeds are) indeed from this Self. He who sees (of all deeds). katharh tata chaya chaya.sarvarh khalv idarh brahma. anando brahmeti vyajanat. that is. the origin of all creatures. You You understand pure in its content.' In conclusion it is said: ayarh va atma sarvesarh bhutanam lokah. sa 'That 43- *H<ro maya. 'All this is Tatitmya Brahman. That thou art. the deed found in him does not come to an end.' (3 6): 'One ought to 42.5. One ought to see that Self is the location Self as the location (origin) (of all deeds) he whose activity.' 171 Dattatreya: The Philosopher eva lokarh upasita. asnfid hi evatmano yadyat kamayate tat tat srjate.

18): ajo nityah £a£vatoyam. that is. 45. is incomplete. nanyad bhuma. free from decay.3.Ddttdtreya ij2 Hatha (2. Brahman. Further that state in which one sees something else. sa bhagavah kasmin pratisthita iti sve mahimni yad va na mahimnith vijanati. defectless by nature. knows something else.1.2.19): of his it indro thinkers consider to be nescience or shadow is real even as nescience or shadow. 0 Revered! On what greatness or on no (other) greatness. Uftanisads may call it mdyd or anrfa But it must not be taken to mean unreality. sa which one sees nothing else. This Self is untouched by sins. Further that which That is state in incomplete is mortal. is the complete. 'I am devoid of beginning. 'Nothing of the world supposed to consist of mahat and so on appear* to me. I am pure. It is . 'Corresponding to each form of Brhad-Aranyaka by means So what other 'Indra there appeared another form/ mayabhih puru-rupa iyate.24. That which is complete is immortal. hears nothing else.1): creed?' yatra nanyat paSyati: nanyat 6rnoti. I my is I am realisation with conviction/ Chdndogya (8.5. free mahad-adi jagat sarvam na kirn cit pratibhati me brahmaiva kevalam sarvam katham varnaSrama-sthitih. powers assumed many forms/ (2. 44. atha yad alpam tan martyam. It is the source stable/ On of mahat. free from from misery. It rather illustrates the rich and complete character of the divine power.15): mahatah param dhruvam* It is beyond mahat.5. knows nothing else.5): esa atma apahata-papma vijaro vimrtyuh viSoko avijighatso apipasah. This has no beginning and no end/ death. nothing but Brahman is all. middle and end. This am never bound. tad aipam yo vai bhuma tad amrtam. that is. atha yatra anyat pa£yati: anyat Srnoti: anyad vijanati. hears something else. How can there be tk existence of caste Chdndogya and (7.9): rupam rupam pratirupo babhuva. adi-madhyanta-muktoham na baddhoham kadacana svabhava-nirmala£ &uddhah iti me ni^cita matih. is it on based? its own itself/ Hatha (1. not in need of food and is devoid of thirst/ Hatha (1.

How then can you understand Self?' Hatha (2 5. of yoga with its Sl x hmbs. 'It is is is it katharh nu tad vijanlyam kimubhati na bhati va. I am am one.5.' The idea is that even the so called bliss.' Kaiha (2. How can I understand it? It shines. It was one alone.Daltatreya: The Philosopher 173 Brhad-Aranyaha (1 4. I am in non-void. niranandarh atmanam manyase katharh 47. but it is not devoid of peace.1. understand 'I all in all aspects. It is not mind Nor an imagination It has no peace. This one is likewise the underlying Self of all creatures. It is not woman. 'Prior to the creation of this world Brahman alone existed. all elements the Ufaniiadic conclusion na sando na puman na stri na bodho naiva kalpana. sanando va.' janami sarvatha sarvarh eko nirantararh niralambarh aSunyarh ca sunyarh vyomadi-pancakam. space and so on.' is gods. it Brahman. but at the same time it does not shine. It not man. I need of no support. With reference to this Truth "It is the Real of the Real". dnanda is related short of the truth. It does not therefore characterise sadanga yogon na tu naiva suddham mano-vina&n na tu naiva Suddham guriipadesan na tu naiva suddham svayarh ca tattvarh svayarh eva 48- buddham. 'They (the seers) know that it is this indefinable one and is of the nature of highest bliss. all worlds. 46. It is transcendent.11): brahma va idarh agra asit ekarh eva. It is not attained to by the . void and the five-fold elements. It is not tainted by and falls the misery of the world.' asmad atmanah sarve pranah sarve lokah devah sarvani bhutam vyuccaranti tasyopanisad satyasya 'Brhad-Aranyaka sarve satyam iti. not neutral. 'From this (2.20): Self. I am distinctless. all emanate. all vital principles.11): ekas tatha sarva-bhutantaratma nalipyate lokaduhkhena bShyah.14)* tad ctad iti manyantc anirdesyarh paramarh sukham.

To him this Self reveals Its person. nor by austerity. that is Brahman becomes revealed to that man. yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyah tasyaisa atma vivrnute tanum svam. astityevopalabdhasya tattva-bhavah yada sarve pramucyante kama yesya hrdi sthitah.Dattdtreya 174 destruction of mind. rupam asya na caksusa patyati kadcanainam. j-untecitarthah sanyasa-yogad yatayah iuddha-satvah.6): nay am atma pravacanena labhyah na medhaya na bahuna £rutena. those who have brought themselves under control by means of detachment and those whose being without limitation in the location of completely liberated/ Katha (2. By the inner vision purified by prasidati. . So that this Self. astityevopalabdhavyah tattva-bhavena cobhayoh. which is immortal and which shines of its own accord/ Mttndaka (3. The form of this truth does not occupy a place in a clear light. When the five aspects . This truth. nayam atma balahmena labyah na ca pramadat tapasa vapy alingat etair upayaih vartatc yas tu vidvan tasyaisa atma viSate brahma-dhama. naiva vaca na manasa praptum Sakyo na caksusa. te brahmalokesu paranta-kale paramrtah parimucyanti sarve. It it is is it by the instruction shines by itself. This Self is not attained by a weak person. the Brahman and they are all is pure. Verily self-established. hrda mamsl manasabhiklipto ya etadvidur amrtas te bhavanti. 'This Self is not attained by discourse nor by intellect.' attained to of a Mvndaka (2. atha martyo amrto bhavati atra brahma samaSnute. nor by much of learning. reflection those who realise it become immortal. It is attained only by him whom It elects.3. . Only in the case of the man of wisdom who makes efforts by these means (expounded so far in the Upam?ad) this Self enters into the location of Brahman.7): tad vijnanena paripaSyanti dhirah ananda-rupam amrtam yad vibhati. Nor preceptor.2. nor by not following any religion. the men of wisdom see— the truth which is peace itself. yada pancavati$thante jnanani manasa saha. nor by chance or by illusion. buddhiS ca na vicestati tarn ahuh paramam gatim* tarn yogarh iti manyante sthiram indriya-dharanarh.9): na sandrSe tisthati become immortal. vedanta-vijnana . by means of knowledge. astiti bruvatonyatra katharh tad upalabhyate. No body sees it by means of the eyes.6. Those to whom the meaning of Veda has become definite by means of the knowledge obtained by Veddnta. apramattas tada bhavati yogo hi prab- havapyayau.

that . all this is nothing but aum. is . understood it One who has from the mouth transcendent and stable. There does not exist that which has no body. How can the other three states exist?' Mandukya (1): aum ity etad aksararh idam sarvarh tasyopavyakhyanam bhiitarh bhavat bhavisyad iti sarvarh omkara eva. How can it be understood be recognised to be existent in both It is outside one's self. If there is anything else that transcends these three aspects of time. they say. It is all this. When (for the same reason) all the desires that exist in mind become removed. sarvarh hy etad as expounded by To restate it in detail—the past. that also » notlung but aum. brahma. hidden and it is not apparent It is realised by means of the best intellect. . "This imperishable Truth the whole Veda. higher than mahat. to be the discipline of yoga is the highest state. Pure Self and nothing else is all. that is. vac canyat tnkalatltam tad apy aurhkara eva. It is beginnmgless and 'In all these elements or creatures Self is endless. (the aspirant) attains to Brahman here in the present life alone ' bhutesu gudhotma na prakaiate drsyatetv agryaya buddhya suksmaya suksma-dar£ibhih an§. the same truth All this is indeed Brahman ' is.3 12)* yesa sarvesu pramucyate. It is transcendent. nor by eyes.' Dntt&trtya: The Philosopher 175 five organs along with mind stand knowledge produced by the and the principle of intellect (that causes distraction) does of effectless not operate. then afterwards the man becomes organs. and is signified as aum. present future. by means of enquiry becomes liberated of death 49 na hi pancatmako bhedo vjdeho vartate na hi atmaiva kevalam sarvarh turiyam ca trayam katharh 'The body consisting of five elements is not real. which is They understand that the same as the steady control of becomes free from delusion. Yoga the coming good) and destruction (of the past). sharp and subtle by those that are capable of perceiving the subtlest. that. Then he He immortal. is thus the origin (of of being attained to neither by speech nor by It (the Truth) is capable by one who holds that mind. that this truth.dy anantam mahatah param dhruvam nicayya tarn mrtyu-mukhat Kaiha (1. It must illusion) by means of insight into (the man of wisdom and the man of Truth. To one who recognises it to be existent (m this manner) there occurs insight into Truth.

'He who 53. 'Even as pure water which is added on to pure water becomes similar to the latter. 'Even as water being mixed with water is devoid of distinction.' BrJtad-Aranyaka (3. na baddho naiva muktoham na caharh brahmanah prthak na karta na ca bhoktaham vyapya-vyapaka-varjitah.5. It is space-like.14): yathodakam Suddhe suddham asiktam tadrg eva bhavati evam muner vijanata atma bhavati gautama. It does not undergo destruction/ Brhad-Araiiyaka (2.Datldtreya T y6 50. similarly.1 am not myself. It is undivided.' yatha jalam jale nyastam salilam bheda-varjitam prakrtim purusarh tadvad abhinnam pratibhati me. It is unrelated. I am devoid of 'I the distinction of being included and being inclusive.4. This spiritual principle (so far expounded in the Upanisad) is devoid It of relation. you are never bound. am not bound.3.1 am not other than Brahman. cannot indeed be made painful. 0 Gautama! Self becomes the same in the case of the sage who has attained wisdom/ In this verse the word dbhinna is used in the sense of the Upani$adic tddrh 52. It is not indeed subject to relation. This is what conies to my mind/ Kalha (2. It is not apprehended.16): asango hy ayaih purusah. 51. It is never bound. That which appears to be other than this is indeed like the water of a mirage/ 'I . I am not a doer. I am not an enjoyer.1): vimuktai ca vimucyate. (I see) matter and spirit are devoid of distinction. understand that your real essence is immediately presented.9. It cannot hi £iryate 'That this self indeed be grasped. It cannot indeed be cut into parts. Nor am I liberated. How then can you understand Self which is of form and no form?' Kafha (2. is already liberated is liberated/ janami te param rupam pratyaksam gaganopamam yatha param hi rupam yan marici-jala-sannibhaih.27): sa esa neti nety atma agrhyo a&ryo na na hi grhyate asango na hi sajjate asito na vyathate na risyatl is neither this nor that. nama na muktosi na baddhosi kadacana sakaram ca nirakaram atmanam manyase katham? yadi 'Supposing you are not liberated.

.2-4): atha yccasya iha jivah. There is nothing to conThere is no duty for me. kdsr dtpldu.4. Do not hesitate to Self. that is.12): ' The Philosopher atmanam cet 177 ayaih asmiti vijanlyat kasya kamaya sarirarh anusancaret..' visuddhosya £ariro 55- on is say. vimrtyuh. I is Self. then desiring what and for what satisfaction one ought to follow body. That which lies within it ought to be sought for. 'If na guruh nopadeias ca na copadhir na 54. "I lajjase. Unly the absolute illumination is indeed the highest.' Chdndogya atha yad idarh brahma-pure pundarikarh vesma daharcsmin antare akasah tasmin yad antah tad anvestavyam tad va va vi)ijnusitavyam iti. no teacher. It aham catma pararh si na am is free te cittarh parat pararh tattvarh iti vaktum na 'You arc the pure body of this reality. The absolute illumination is the final goal. . one realises Self as 'I am. . For this reason he has not to follow bodily conditions. It is free from from death. anrtapidhanah aksctrajnah upary upari eva iniah sarvah ^dcyuh cvam c am brahma-lokarii na -tm< hri. change and death do not exist there. . hiranj-a -mdhith nmitam .Datldtrcya Bfhad-Aranyaha purusah kirh iccban (4.' The idea is this: In the case of this one there is no necessity to desire anything or to hanker after any satisfaction. It indeed ought to be reflected All sins are destroyed in it. . . ZxZth 'nV d^SS^ pmtyfldhK^ pra^hVr vindanli. 'Further in the location of place there is Brahman in this lotus abode. There is no teaching.3 2): . esa atma apahata-papma vijaro (7. Your mind mgher than the highest. Therefore I am the Spirit'. me kriya videharh gaganarh viddhi visuddhoharh svabhlvatah 'There dition. The root kdsr meanss illumination. in this subtle within a point of space. Understand me to be bodiless space is I itself am by nature pure.' 1). ' Chdndogya (8 3. The uori Mcafa means absolute illumination. . This change. not yours It am is the hyrhest the supreme reality"/ CMniogya (19 akaso ha vai jyayan akaiah parayanam. This is a compound of a and A means samantat. anrtena hi atha ya esa sarhprasado asmat sarirlt sarTuUhf . absolute.

DaUdtrcya 178 parariijyotir upasaihpadya svena rilpcija hov&ca. ctad amrtarii etat brahmeti. these creatures though they go every day to this abode That the following 0 (that there Brahman do not understand (what they falsehood. 'Mind ought to be meditated on as Brahman/ Manduhya (12): evaih aurhkarah utmaiva samvteati atmanatmanarii. knowledge occurs without break. It is (the seer) said that this is Self. neither the consciousness grasping the entities inside the body the consciousness grasping the external things. They are obscured in this Self is within the heart (of the aspirant). nor the consciousness having both the capacities. 'There If . Why 'O Mindt do you weep? Be Dear! the nectar. the one seer. 'Further what jivas are there here .3. Drink kind which is of the nature of Self itself its distinctions/ Chdndogya (3.' nantah prajnarii na bahih prajnarh nobhayatah this aikatmya-pratyaya-sararh. all . It is the highest.' the essence of consciousness. Brahman/ naiva bodho na cabodho na bodhabodha eva ca yasyedrsah sada bodhali sa bodho nanyatha bhavct. It He is fearless. it is never fruitless. the best of equipoise.. 'It is It is (7): . . nor non-knowledge nor half-knowledge.18. transcending all by means of Self. immortal.32): cko dra$(a advaito bhavati e?a brahmalokah. This the abode of is. 'Thus Self is expounded by the whole Veda. that is. It is It is of Self complete. . do). 57. gone out of is the treasure). It 'It is is identity.1): mano brahmety upasita. obscured . that equipoise. .. that the aspirant having this body and having attained to the highest illumination is obtains his real essence. know and of gold hidden and yet do not understand tread over of in falsehood. * . 56. It is Brahman J katharh rodi?i re citta hy atrnaivatmatmana bhava piba vatsa kalatitam advaitam paramamrtam. that is never defied. . Further what is called divine grace. some one knowledge. (One who knows this truth) becomes Self by means of Self/ Brhad~Ara\iyaka (4. Mdndilkya prajnam . the disposition of the place though they over again that place in which there is the treasure Those that do not Similarly abhini$padyatc e?a Stmeti to is neither knowledge.

apahata.i-io): yadeva vidyaya karoti £raddhayopanisada tad eva v&yavattaraih bhavatL accomplished by Vidyd (Brahvta^Vtdyd) so far defined. 'This knou ledge is not of the character of human reasoning.1): na jara na mrtyuh na Sokah na sukrtam na dufkrtam sarvc papano ato mvartante. Pure and attributed is Brahman.papm5 hv esa 59. that Katha is. nor is it the meditation prescribed by yoga.It is by means of the instruction from a its essence. How can there be bondage or liberation to me v ChSndogya (84. The PhtJosopktr 179 jnJnam na tarko na samndlu yogo na de£a-kalau na gurupadeiah 5S.S ^fl <*>• " D ° ™ Jf n° f"*'In no mise^ 00 ment annuUed ld - TZtlT thIS il 311 n hi B demerit. not something that can be produced empirical reasoning. complete. 'I am not born I am not dead. S . It consciousness in is not obtained space. It is spontaneity.3)* naisa tarkena matir apaneya 'This knowledge reasoning. It is Reality.' is by human $s$y tamevabhantam anubhati sarvam (2 'All this shines after Brhad-Aranyaka 'Self itself is its Taitimya that shining truth/ 3 6): atmaivasya jyotih (Self's) illumination/ (4 vijnlnam brahma. and . All 5ins are - vadt sarva-gato devah stbrah antaram di J *>• pumah ™ s is the iraantarah na paSySnu sabahvSntarah katham' tmcLnW ?^ T! iS stable. I have no duty. orahma-Iokah. srabhava-samvittir aham ca tattvarh akaia-kalpam sahajaiii dhruvam ca. It is like stable as uell/ Chattdogya (i. by means of devotion and the study of the Upanisads alone is efficient/ 'Whichever Katha is (1.' {3 5): 'Specialised na jatoham mrto vapi na me karma £ubha£ubharii v&iddham nirgunam bnihma bandho muktih katham mama. No action of mine is good or evil.2." Dattdtreya. It does not presuppose particular space and time. It is preceptor. knowledge is Brahman.

no father.6): asya srirbhavati ya evaih veda. It is single of is. athata adeSo neti neti nahy etasmad iti nety anyat param asti.5. It has nothing that follows. There is 63. etaih vai tarn atmanam viditva brahmanah 1 putrai sanayai ca vittaisanayas ca lokaisanayas ca vyutthaya atha bhiksa-caryam caranti.Dattdtreya 180 Brhad-Amnyaka {2. sakararii ca nirakararii neti netiti 62. sphuraty eva jagat krtsnam akhandita-nirantaram 61. + The form dist notion is r such as that which is ever existent. That which identity. That this Brahman is neither etat brahma apurvaih anaparaifa nor posterior.5.18): tion of duality yam purus^h sarvasu pursu purisayah nainena kim ca nanavrtarh nainena kimcanasamvrtam. katamo yajnavalkya sarvantarah yoSanaya pipase Sokam mobam jaraih mrtyum atyeti.3. an imagina- 'The whole world is and non-duality. prosperity occurs. There is nothing that not is filled up by this/ sarvada bhedabheda-vinirmukto vartate kevalah Sivah. nescience is a great delusion. aho maya maha-moho dvaitadvaita-vikalpana. no party. tasmat . ubhe hy ete esane eva bhavatah.19): tad anantaraih abahyam. esa te atma sarvantarah. presented as equipoise without break or interval or distinction* Verily maya. It has nothing outside/ prior. not even non-party. this: nothing exists. Then how indeed are you justified in entertaining this anxiety in mind? Brhad-Amnyaka (3. Further therefore the statement of the truth is apart from this truth. • form and that which is of no is devoid of distinction and and auspicious/ Brhad-Amnyaka {2.5. Ya hyaiva putraisana sa vittaisana ya vittaisana sa lokaisana. It has nothing other. This spirit underlies all bodies. nothing exists nothing higher than this truth/ na te ca mata ca pita ca bandhuh na te ca patni na suta§ ca mitram na paksapato na vipaksapatah katham hi santaptir iyam hi citte? 'You have no mother. no wife. no son. To one who knows this truth. no relative. no friend.' Brhsd-Ardnyaka-Upanisad {2.1): yad eva saksad aparoksad brahma ya atma sarvantarah tarn me vyacaksva iti. There is nothing that is not covered by this.

' (3.' desire for position. he is satisfied with whatever comes to him. they (the aspirants) become Brdhmanas. Just that which is desire for sons is the desire for wealth.7). bccotnc onc in «»e abode of this highest and inexhaustible. sa brahmanah kena syad yena syat tenedrsa eva atonyad artam. 'In that out of which the sun rises and into which it sets. Having obtained knowledge and the life of a youth he is then a sage. That which is other than this is imperfect. How can the wise super-impose body on that which is bodiless?' Katha (2. That is Self which is all-pervadmg. 'You have no day.Daltatreya: 181 The Philosopher brahmanah pandityam nirvidya balycna tisthaset. delusion. 65.' Mundaka pare sarv5 eKbhavanti. which is all-permeating? It is that which transcends desire for food and dnnk. yata§ codeti suryo astam yatra ca gacchati tam devah sarve arpitah tadu natyeti kascana. What is that. neither universal nor particular.4. . Yajnavalkya. balyam ca pandityam ca nirvidya atha munm amaunam ca maunam ca nirvidya atha brahmanah. all Gods disappear (because they have their origin there). It is all-permeating. Having thus obtained both non-silence and silence^e is then a Brahmana. nor pain nor anything else. misery. Therefore one who is a Brahmana ought to obtain the knowledge of Brahman and having obtained knowledge he leads the life of a youth. The sun does not rise and it does not set (for you). Thus this is Self in you. Teach me that.5). 'It is cither non-separated. that is. old age and death. they then follow diva naktam na te cittam udayastamayau na hi videhasya sariratvam kalpayanti katham budhah? 64. neither pleasure. That which is the desire for wealth is the desire for positions.' na vibhaktam vibhaktam ca nahi duhkha-sukhadi ca na hi sarvam asarvam ca viddhi catmanam avyayam. no night. nor separated. This Brahmana leads the life of the nature which may be in this way or in that way. no mind. Thus indeed having understood self. Both these are nothing but desires. Understand Self to be inexhaustible. Having rendered themselves free from desire for sons. Nothing goes b beyond it. "That alone is direct and immediate consciousness It is therefore Brahman.2. misery. desire for wealth and and practise non-possession.

10. yad eva bhagavan veda tad eva me vibriihi iti. supposing this is filled up with wealth. Understand me to be Self which is 'In one. neti neti ho vaca. extended and similar to space/ Chdndogya (4.34) sa hovaca maitreyi ma iyaih bhagoh sarva prthivi vittena purna syat sanv ahaih tena amrta aho. There is no duty for me before or after. Tt is Atman. never. na me ragadiko doso duhkhaih dehadikam na me atmanaih viddhi mam ekam visalam gaganopamam. sa hovaca maitreyi yenaharfi namrta ayam kim aham tena kuryam. with that by which I do not become immortal what shall I do? Whichever the most revered knows that alone In this passage expressions vitta tell me/ and upakarana cover all the items that are irrelevant to immortality. nor no-body. Yajnavalkyo yathopakaranavatam jivitam tathaiva te jivitam syat.1): sohaift asmi sa evahaih asmi. the author of . all does not become liked.11. amrtasya tu naiasti vitteneti. There is no body to me. Revered' can Never. by following 0 it. '0 dear! Because of the desire of all. Because of the desire of Self all become liked/ The fact of liking something does not prove the truth of individuality. 'He realised this Self (purusa) alone as Brahman and allpermeating/ Brhad-Aranyaka (2.4. He alone I am/ Chdndogya (6.13): sa etaih eva purusaih brahma tatamaih apa£yat. She. na : 'The same Maitreyi said.5): na va are sarvasya kamaya sarvam priyarh bhavati. 67.3. With the several accessories. all. me there is no defect such as attachment. It rather proves the truth of Self. 'He I am.Dattdtreya l82 66* n&ham karta na bhokta ca na me karma pur&dhuna me deho videho va nirmameti mameti kirn. by means of wealth. said Yajnavalkya.3): sa atma tattvam asi. atmanas tu kamaya sarvam priyaih bhavati. You are that/ Aitareya (2. Where is the necessity for me to see that something is not mine or mine/ Brhad-Aranyaka (4. 1 am not a doer nor an enjoyer. Maitreyi said. There is absolutely no hope of immortality. your life also I life My all this earth become immortal? of those who have becomes one. There is no pain such as body and so on in me.

if Aiman Self is and appreciated. 'In the presence of sacred water or in the house of an outcasts even though memory fails to him if an aspirant leaves his body after apprehending the truth of -bhavanti • • 0i tIUS perSOn • —a « «** tota» m6om (° f " kurvanti yadica whethe ^ *ey observe go to the world of ) funeral ceremonies or not. they disappear it (Reality). friend' All this is to true is 0 Mind. those persons (like hun) 7r- dharmartha. .. understood ' yena kenapi bhdvena yatra kutra mrta apt yoginah tatra liyante ghatakaSam lvambare 'In whatever circumstance and wheresoever the yogms. 4 5}. my friend* What is the good of much be suspected That which is expounded by me to you You are the Reality.15 6) ££sr W^f m atha yadu caiva asmm Savyam cra abi. }at sara-bhutam kathitam rnaya te tvam eva tattvam gaganopamosi my '0 Mind. may end their life. Chaiuhgya (4. he becomes the attainer of aloofness 69 and 70. atmavare drastavyah Srotavyo mantavyo m maitreyl atmani khalv are drste 5mte vijnate t idam sarvam viditam '0 Dear! Aiman alone ought to be realised. as they 69 m are like the space conditioned by the jar disappearing in the larger space tirthe Cdntyaja-gehe 70 va nasfa-smrtir api tyajan sama-kile tanum muktah kaivalya-vyapako bhavet. reflected on and meditated on 0 Mattreyi. then all this becomes known t realised. fundamentally speaking^ You are like space.' The Philosopher Dattaireya 183 manah kirn bahu jalpitena sakhe manah sarvam idam vitarkyam sakhe 6S. spintual aspirants.' Bfhad-Atanyaka [2 nididhyasitavyah. understood.k5ma-mok«SinS ca dvipaddd^caracaram mam ante joginah sarvam mariQ-jala-sannibharfi .

'Further (when all desires are extinguished) the mortal man becomes immortal. and the creatures such as those that have two legs as well as non-moving entities.Dattatreya 184 'Duty.8): na tad a£nati kaScana. The other {Brahman) without enjoyment illumines 'Of the (entities) in all/ Brhad-Aranyaha na tad aSnati kimcana. Mtmdaka (3. with no companion the philosopher moves on being nude. Sunyagare samarasa-putah tisthan ekah sukham avadhutah 73.1. carati hi abode of spiritual bliss. He Brahman).7): atha martyo amrto bhavati. He is active. all this the yogim see to be similar to a mirage/ Brhad-Aranyaka (1. atitanagatam karma vartamanam tathaiva ca 72.1): abhicaka^iti of its two one (the individual self) suffers from the result action. future me ni£cala matih. In this state he understands Brahman' . the aspirant becomes wise. that is. wealth. His amusement is in the highest of those that know Brahman. He is is. purified by the essence of equipoise. present. atra brahma samainuta iti. 'Understanding Self (that He does not speak much. He sees Self to be 'In the all-complete/ The Vedic word iunya means spiritual bliss. (3. No body enjoys there is no body apart from It/ It. depending on nothing. living happily. Bjhad-Aranyaka (44. This Mnndaka and iti is (3. without egoism. I am not the doer nor am I what I see and this gives no room for doubt/ tayor anyah pippalam svadv atti anainan anyo the en j oyer.8): asato ma sadgamaya. desire and release. is engaged in Self. i. 'Take me from the unreal to the real/ What is called 'the unreal' in this passage is compared to a mirage in the Avadhiita-Gita.14): vijanan vidvan bhavate nativadi atma-kri<Jah atma-ratih kriyavan. Self.3. It (Brahman) does not enjoy anything. esa brahma-vidarh varisthah. na karomi na bhunjami 'Of the action past.8.e. nagnah tyaktva garvam vindati kevalam atmani sarvam.

3 6): athata adesah neti neti. He is the philosopher. . the The Real of the Real. There sarva-sQnyam asunyarh ca satyasatyarh na vidyate svabhava-bhavatah proktarh is sastra-samvitti-purvakarh.u ' • • a matir T durdar ^ ^ P"^nyenaiva gudharh anupravistam . This highest truth n well expounded (by him). there is never duty nor no-duty. Further. .. . . of the bliss of the 76. kas tarn arhati. atha namadheyam satyasya satyarh. not".. is not something else that the definition (of this truth). 'He docs not know any hymn any hymn Nor does he know any indeed called Veda. . is signified as equipoise. How can there be the one who is bound or the one who is liberated'* Brhad-Arariyaka (2. na hy etasmad iti nety anyat param asti. .15): sarve vedSh yat padarh amananti. 'Further. He does not indeed know called Veda. in the circumstance in Thus there that is. How can any one other than myself be able to know tins shining one which is of the nature briefly . . . neither all-void nor Swh 2): " ai? mtv^S mtx * 1 V ark m PUranam ^y^a-yogadbgamena + tasv atma vivpiute tanurh svam. for you the instruction is "not. He practice. which the self is seen to be all-complete. neither real nor non-real 5trength of in — ^533^* ^X^V. Vtdas reveal the nature of this Truth. tepadam madamadarh devam . This nature I tell you aum is this. madanyo jnatum 'All aum ity etat. . know any practice.' Hatha (1. is higher. Thus. dlura.2. tat sangrahena bravimi. chando-laksanarh nahi nahi tantram samarasa-magno bhavita-putah pralapitarh etat param avadhutah. iti.— Datlatreya: The Philosopher 185 tritaya turiyam nahi nahi yatra 74. Not indeed from this. .' mantram vindati vindati nahi nahi 75« name. vindati kevalarn Stmani tatra dharmadharmo nahi nahi yatra baddho muktah katham iha tatra? 'Where there is never the three-fold state as well as the fourth one. Nor does he absorbed in the absolute truth He is purified by meditation.

Those that are different from men. '0 satyakama! Thus he addressed. 0 Dear! 'This knowledge is can produce that knowledge which is defectless. bhagava iti ha prati-^rava. The revered master himself must kindly . Who did instruct you? Thus he asked. whether he be a slave or a householder. The instruction given by a proper preceptor alone. My good student! Indeed. murkhasya sevaka-janasya grha-sthitasya etad-guroh kim api naiva vicintaniyam ratnaift katham tyajati kopy aiucau prati^ham? 'There need be no concern whether the Guru happens to be a boy or man who found gratified with pleasures of sense or seems obstinate.10): of the Self/ Chdndogya (4. It is beloved. 'Therefore one who aspires after his well-being must adore the knower (3. It is . . viyayeti.Daltdtreya j 86 not something that can be produced by human reasoning.1. . dattatrcya-viracitayam avadhuta-gitayarh atma-sarhvitti- upade£o nama prathamodhyayah. you shine as though you know Brahman. ko nu tva anu£a£asa? iti. brahma-vidiva vai somya bhasi. Tims indeed he replied. Thus ends the First Chapter entitled "The Instruction of Knowledge in the Avadhuta-GUa composed by Sri Dattatreya'7 CHAPTER J J Avadhuta teaches: balasya va visaya-bhoga-ratasya vapi I. anye manusyebhyah iti ha pratijagne. cends perception. a person becomes a man of wisdom to him it reveals its form/ iti 6ri . bhagavarh stv eva me kainaift hy eva me bhagavad-dj*6ebhyah—acaryaddhy eva sadhistam prapayatiti—tasmai hyaitad evovaca—atra bruyat.1-3): satyakama iti. having understood this shining one. For who will reject a gem for the mere reason that it is found in an impure place?' a or one Mundaka is tasmad atmajnam by arcayet bbuti-kamalji. innermost region of the heart.9. Revered Sir! Tims he answered. whom this Self chooses to be its own. It is all pervading. It is hidden. It of practising discipline pertaining to the truth of Self. . £rutarii vidya vidita na kim ca na viyayeti. . It (Self) trans- It is located in the beyond reach. pervades all By means bodies.

Does not a boat even though it lacks beauty and is unpainted m colours carry through those that want to cross (a river) to the other bank?' Mundaka (1. 0 Upakosala* This is.14*1): te hoculj upakosala. 'They (the Gods) said.Dailatrtya* The Philosopher 187 have heard that knowledge imparted by preceptors like you becomes rooted. grahyah param gunavata khalu sara eva sindura citra rahita bhuvi rupa.' that the preceptor is justified merely because he is the preceptor.. is the highest .ioncd by teirc ' HcnK « . There is nothing lost—nothing teach me as he hbes. 1 lost/ Chdttdogya (4.5): atha para yaya tad aksaraih adhigamyate. Your preceptor The xs idea the person to is tell you the correct path. naivatra kavya-guna eva tu cintamyo 2. anandali. 3* prayatnena vina yena m§calena calacalam grastarh svabhavatah iantam caitanyam gaganopamam 'Without a steady effort. itotnyasya ca akamahatasya. esa somya te asrnad-vidya utma-vidya ca acaryas tu te gatim vakta iti.s »* » «. *hich is of the character of peace *hich is identical with the entities moving and non-moving and is similar to space is grasped of its onto accord/ Tmthrtya (2 8). 0 Dear! for you the science dealing with us as well as the science dealing with Self. By one who is indeed after truth. Thus he said. . esonur atma cetasa veditavyah 'That exposition by which that imperishable Truth is understood the Truth cannot be apprehended by eye or by speech. in character. the Self.£unya param na kirn nayati naur lha gantu-kaman? 'His (the preceptor's) teaching ought not to be judged from the accepted standpoint of literary excellence. The subtle Self can be appreciated only by mind/ Tins appreciation is not governed by the merits merely linguistic . He (the preceptor) told him indeed only the following. only the essence ought to be apprehended. na caksu?a grhyate napi vaca. . u„& f ?»r u t d.

'In this circumstance indeed in the case of this aspirant everything became Self Itself. which is both moving and non-moving entities. . . Tt (the Truth) ought to be meditated on as Self.7-10). . he indeed becomes all-complete/ Brhad-Aranyaka (24. (because) It is devoid of distinction/ aham eva 5. In this case by what means what can one see?' . aham brahmasmiti sa idagm sarvaih bhavati. 'Spontaneously that is if equipoise/ Katha (24. which is all-pervading.2. It is that which is worshipped by Gods. 'Sitting it goes farther. . knows this (the Truth so far expounded) as "I am Brahman *.2. then how can it be different? To me there is only one Truth. . all-pervading Self. In this Truth all I became Manu and also Siirya. I am the substantial and the insubstantial. one understands this Truth which is only one. .. / sarvavayava-nirmuktarii tathahaih trida£arcitaih 6. . sampurnatvan na grnhami vibhagam trida£adikam. 4. 'Truth ought to be appreciated within the mind. yatra va asya sarvaih atmaivabhut tat kena kaih. and neither moving to and fro. If a person indeed become one. paraih yasmat sarasarataraih sivam gamagama-vinirmuktaih nirvikalpam nirakularh. identity. 1 .11): manasaivedarh aptavyam neha nanasti kimcana. goes everywhere. 'I alone am the Highest. . Because it is complete I do not see the division is such as Gods and so on (in it)/ Brhad-Aranyaka (1. it .23) Truth (Self) by means of this wisdom/ ayatnac calayed yas tu ekaih eva caracaram sarvagam tat kathaih bhinnam advaitaih vartate mania. . . . Dattdtreya i88 :na§anta-manaso vapi prajnanenainam apnuyat.4. the holy. 'That which devoid of all limbs is myself. The highest. that is. atra hy ete sarva ekarh bhavanti. he indeed becomes all this.20): duraih vrajati Sayano yati sarvatah mahantam vibhum atmanam. . an indeterminate and unperplexed/ Katha asino (1. pasyet. Lying . . . . atmety evopasiia. . etarhi ya evaih aham manur abhavam surya^ceti tadidaih apy veda.14). 'The person whose mind is distracted does never indeed attain to Katha (1.

. The entities mahat and so on end indeed always in the same manner in things— soft.Datlaircya: The Philosopher 189 va ayam atma sarvesam bhutSnarh asmin atmam sarvani bhutani sarvc devah sarve adhipatih* lotah sarve pranih sarva eta atmanah samarpitah. it seems to me. 'That this Self is the Lord of all creatures all Gods. (In the presence of illusion) what is the use of being a good or a wicked man? Things come into being and go out of it even as bubbles on the surface of water/ Hatha (2. hi mrdudravyesu tiksnesu gutfesu katukesu ca. hard. 'Hardness. 'Owing to illusion there is That enduring one cannot indeed be attained by means of non- enduring means/ mahadddmi bhutani samapyaivam sadaiva 8. smell. all (individual) selves became dedicated. 'Colour. all vital principles.5 13): nityo nityanatii. all worlds. taste. their individuality was lost there Bfhtid-Aranyakfl (2*5*15): sa . '(The Truth is) the eternal of the eternals/ Hatha (1.3): yena rupam rasam gandham Sabdaift sparSarhS ca maithunan. no doubt or suspicion caused (with regard to the Reality). Tlus troth is Stated by S „ch ™ is pa2g« absolute ™ nctKms . tasteful and non-tasteful/ Hatha (24.10): nahyadhruvaih prapyate hi dhmvaift tat. 7.2. touch and contact are due to this All knowmg is on account of this. In this Self all creatures. coexist 9- in inseparability/ sa ku${ha sa para gatih. etcnaiva vijanati kirn atra par&syate. Then what remains for one to say?' katutvam caiva Saityatvam mrdutvarfi ca yatha jale prakytih purusah tadvat abhinnam pratibhati me. that is. i iiai is tne summit and the stimmum bonum ' This passage leads to the conclusion that there tapfW. coldness and softness are found to co-exist in water Similar y matter and spirit. — ' pramadena na sandehah kirh karisyami vrttivan utpadyante viliyante budbudaS ca yatha jale. sound.

. being the self of all which is selfless. all lives.i sa Brhad-Aranyaka (2.' sarvfikhya-rahitaift 10. It is very subtle. All this is of this self/ Raffia (1. 'In this which is beyond perception. 'It is eternal.3): sa ya e$onimaitadatmyam idam sarvam. . As from a flaming fire sparks are scintillated thousands. 'That which 11. not expounded by means of speech/ idrSam sahajam yatra aham tatra katham bhave tvam evahi katham the Truth tatra katham tatra caracaram.1): yalha sudiptat pavakat vi?phulingah sahasraiah prabhavantc sarupah tathaksarat vividhah somya bhavfdi 'This is prajfiyantc tattra caivapi yanti.Dattatrcya igo yathoriianabhil. omnipresent and subtlemost/ Taittirlya (2. all-pervading. . 'That which is so far expounded is this Truth. so from the Imperishable Reality.1*20): tantunoccaret yathagnch k$udra vi§phuling&h vyuccaranti evarh evasmad-atmanalj sarvc pranah sarve lokah sarvc devah sarvani bhutani vyuccaranti.1. iti.6): nityath vibhuth sarvagatam susuk§mam. tadetat (2. 'Devoid of all names.7): etasmin adptye anatmye anilayane anirukte.. . the truth. being the abode of all which is abodeless and being the source of speech as such which is beyond speech/ . . by the all spider. . all things arc uttered by the Self/ Mundaka salyam. a&rutam amatam avijnatam 'It is . not known and not understood thus/ Kcna (14) yad vacanabhyuditarii. the taintless and the Lord of the Universe/ Chdndogya (6. . spontaneously appreciated in this manner. . intellect and the senses.5): etaddhasma vai tadvidvagmsah ahuh. . so all uttered is worlds. in circumstance how can I (individual) exist? How can you 'If is individual) exist? How can the moving and the non-moving that (the entities exist there?' Chdndogya (6. the subtlest of the subtle. is . 'As the vvcb fire. the highest conceivable transcending mind. as sparks scintillate from gods. in yad yat suk^mat suk§mataraih param manobuddhindriyfititam akalaftkarh jagatpatim. .10. not heard.. indeed this and this alone that the wise said .1. multifarious emanate and return to entities it.4.

tu yat expounded to be similar to space. tad u natyeti kascana. Mttndaka (2*2-7): yassarvajnah sarvavit 'It knems all and obtains all/ Chdndogya (8 4a): sarva papmano ato nivartante apahata-papma 'The Truth 'All is are removed from sins this. It is that m which all sins are annulled. Nothing pervades It.5. 'Space It. It exists both and outside simultaneously It is unlimited.5. (3 8.6).13). cantam naiva marutena ca vahitam varina pihitarh naiva tejo-madhye vyavasthitam. . But nothing pervades It.s j^. defectless. 13. omniscient and complete/ Katha (2.. that uhich is.' it « (the ( .' suksmatvat tad adrsyatvat nirgunatvac ca yogibhih alarobaiwdi yat proktam kramad alambanam bhavet 'Because it is subtle. tad airciyiA ' h beyond thought. 'It is the spirit of the spirits/ For it is the source of all that is spiritual. from within. beyond contemplate.' 'It is Brhad-Aranyaka Militant 'It is . not indeed something that takes place on earth (that belongs to earth) It is not carried away by air It is not obscured by water. That «h. 'Nothing goes beyond 15 It. by the aspirants taken to be th object of meditation) becomes basis veritably (.8).' pnthivyam. sarvani which controls all creatures antaro yamayati which is m all creatures . that is. It is undivided inside hatha is pervaded by ' (2. It is not found in the midst of fire. The same truth which is similar to space is spiritual.' 14. akasam tena samvyaptarh na tad vyaptam ca kenacit sa bdhyabhyantaram tisftaty avacchmnaih nirantaram. that . because it is unseen and also because quail tyless. cetanah cetananarii. .15): yas sarvesu bhutesu tistfian .Daltdtrcya* The Philosopher igi proktam tad eva gaganopmam caitanyam do^a-hinaih ca sarvajnam purnarh eva ca gaganopamam 12. .ch .

deluding and dementing and that is poison. The innermost Self is said to be indescribable 'Being formless it is as being or non-being. then the mortal becomes the immortal/ Katha (1.3. It is to be understood as the innermost 'In its of the inner like the sweet water within the cocoanut/ . 'The safest bank for those 18.15) yada sarvc prabhidyanlc hrdayasyeha granthayah. It is the highest/ satalabhyasa-yuktas tu nirfilambo yada bliavct tal-layat-liyatc nantargunado?a-vivarjitah. 12): adhyalma-yogadhigamena devath malva.Datldircya X()2 Kafka (r. as basis. : 'When all the knots of the heart arc cut asunder. / What is discipline presented presented as dlambana.2. only one precious remedy to get rid of the world is terrible. he get rid of the merits is lost. This is something that can be realised only by insight/ 19. The same 1 expounded in the following verses: Kafka (24. in the previous passages/ 17.11): manasaivedam aptavyarh. who want to cross (the ocean of bondage)/ bhava-gamyarii nirakararh sakararh drsti-gocaram bhavabhava-vinirmuktam antaralam tad ucyate.6. 'To depend upon this object of meditation is the best. as having form it is perceivable by the eye.17): clad-filariibanath Sresjham ctad-alambanatii parath. the ambrosia of equipoise/ Kafka (1. "divine" in this passage is what is > .' Kafka (2. 'When a person engaged anchor for Ills in ceaseless spiritual meditation. apprehended by insight. 16. visa-viivasya raudrasya moha-murcha-pradasya ca ekam cva 'There which is vina&fiya hy amogham sahajamftarh. atha marlyo amrto bhavati.2. 'Having understood the Divine by means of spiritual pertaining to the truth of the Self.2): abhayam titirsatam pararii. and demerits and endeavour it is have no will impossible for him to in him. is bahya-bhavarii bhaved viivam antah prakftir ucyale antaradantaram jneyarii narikcla-phalambuvat outward aspect it becomes the cosmos and in its inner aspect comes to be known as Nature.

freedom/ t0 d° CVl1 In his 311 ThC Self 5ndeed of euru-prnjn^prasddcna murkho va yadi panditah yastu santadhyate tattvam them he vitakto bhava-sagarat. . immortal/ samyag jnanam ca madhyagarh madhyan madhyatararn jneyam nankela-phalaihbuvat 'Outermost knowledge knowledge of appearance. anyad cva tat viditat atho aviditad adhi. That this is moon. 'That this is mind. It is like the sweet water inside the cocoanut/ Kcna (1.' Brhad-Aranyaka (37*15): yah sarve?u bhutesu tisftian bhutanyantaro yamayati csa ta atma antaryamy amrtah. . One ought to understand the Truth to be similar to it The thought of an illusion/ Brhad-Aranyaka (3. being within 'It (Self) your This is 20. It controls .2.6): tad yad idam manah so sau candrah sa difference brahma is sa muktih. tcna tat-sadr£am paiyet bheda-drstih viparyayah r Thc moon on the full moon day is one only and is very clear.The Philosopher Dattdtrcya: Hatha (2. 'The secret. Correct knowledge is in the middle and within the middle lies concealed the highest thing to be known. the most ancient is . all sarvani creatures.10): ya evaih veda 23.6): 193 guhyam brahma sanatanam* Brahman. controls within from within. difference in umvcrsal One lie is who apprehension gives knowledge (of the truth) to be applauded crores of names/ m S^Ti T th taSya hv it> c^&gm sa bhavatn o'c c!^?r 7 Some? ^ not ^ aham brahmasmiti sa ha na dcv5s ca n5bhGt atma ^ am hc indccd becomes Unabk is becomes a hero. Further it is beyond all that is is not known/ paumamasyam yatha candra eka evatimrmalah 21. bhranti-jnanam all creatures Self.3). It is anenaiva prakarena buddhi-bhedo na sarvagah data ca dhlrataih eti giyate nama-kotibhih. (M. . It is bahyam sthitarft . 'It is other than all that is known. It is Brahman. 22. 'In vieu of the previous ideas.1. .

' drdha-bodhas ca dhiras ca sa gacchet paramam padam.Dattdtreya ig4 'By means of the knowledge which is purely the gift of the preceptor.2): vedaih anucyacaryontevasinam anu-£asti . understands Truth then he is detached from the ocean of bondage/ Taiitirtya (1. 25.9): vijnana-sarathir yas tu manah-pragrahavan narah sodhvanah pararh apnoti tad visnoh paramaih padam. the spiritual aspirant in the absence of body merges in his own essence which is no other than the highest Self. He is He alone is in the sun. That is the highest abode of Visnu. God. . ya evam veda. . sa ya£cayarh puruse.11. sa ya evam vit. one. ityupanisad.3. 'After the destruction of a jar. who is intent creatures. sa ekah. . He who knows this truth in the manner expounded here. acarya devo bhava. if a person. whether he is (said to be) a fool or a learned man.' { ghate bhinne ghatakaSa akaSe liyate yatha dehabhave tatha yogi svarupe paramatmani. .' Kaiha (1. ya£ casavadityc. . One who knows the truth in this manner after death (going out) from this world—moving on taking the form according to his desire (becomes) illumination which is the same as spiritual bliss. asmallokat pretya— kamarupyanu-sancaran— suvarna jyotih. 'The knowledge which is prescribed for those who have duties and which is said to be their protection to the very end is not prescribed . % acaryaya priyam dhanam 'After having taught the Veda the preceptor instructs the pupil become Having paid the preceptor that money which pleases him ahrtya . even as the space contained in it merges in the larger space. ukteyam kanna-yuktanam matir yantepi sa gatih na cokta yoga-yuktanaih matir yantepi sa gatih. the man whose mind is under perfect control: It is he who reaches the end of the path of spiritual discipline). 'He is the same who is in the individual Self. 'He who is directed by specialised knowledge. whose knowledge is stable and who free to all undefied attains to the highest Truth.10. This is the conclusion arrived at by the Upanhad' 26.' Taiitirtya (3. one to whom 24* ragadvesa-vinirmuktah sarvabhuta-hite ratah the preceptor is . The person who upon doing good is is from attachment and hatred.4-5).

nXvartantc na\ artante. avaram-karma. karmam tasmm 'The knot of the heart is drste paravare cut asunder. etat Sreyo ye abhinandanti mutfhah Mundaka (1. Again they surely have old age and death.for those ig5 The Philosopher Datlatreya: who practise spiritual discipline and it is not their protection to the very end/ . Thinking that saenfice and chanty are the best of disciplines.10) manyamana vanstham nanyat Sreyo samvidantc pramu^ah.' ya gatih karma-yuktanam sa ca vagindnyad yadet yogmam yS gatih kvapi hy akathya bhavatorjita 27. 2$. all doubts are answered and the actions of the aspirant are exhausted when the highest Truth all is realised/ 29 va antyaja gehe va yatra kutra mjtopi va na yogi paSyatc garbham pare brahmani llyate. those fools never understand that the real discipline is something else ' cvam jnatva tvamum margam yoginam naiva kalpitam vikalpa-marjanam tesam svayam siddhih pravartate.2. .1/ unAaka (2 8) kstyante casj a bhidyate hrdaya-granthih chidyante sarva-samSayah. the highest/ Chani^yn (4-25-6): atha yad u caivasmtn Savyam karma kurvanti yach ca na arefctm c\abhi sambhavati imam manavam avartam in . 'It is possible to say of speech the direction of those that by means have duty But the direction that the spiritual aspirants have cannot be stated by you It is the direction which is full of promise (beyond speech)/ 27) plava hy ete adnjha yajna-riipah.2. tirthe 'In the presence of the in holy water or in the house of an outcastc or whichever place he meets his end. .7): jaru mrtvum te punar evapiyanti* 'Inferiors action Those who hold that this is good are fools. the state of being by imagination does not occur To them own accord affected realisation occurs ' of its . . These disciplines called sacrifices are boats weak and unsafe Mundaka (1 m their construction/ Mundaka lsfapurtam (1. the spiritual aspirant does not fee rebirth and he merges Brahman. 'For the spiritual aspirants who know this path.

whether they conduct the funeral ceremony or not he goes to the world of illumination. that which not similar to anything. ever enduring. This is his highest bliss. ununderstandable If one realises it and to one's is the essence entire satisfaction enjoys it. with regard to the of . that is the Lord Self.2. that the power of which is never modified. 'This {Brahman) is the highest goal of the spiritual aspirant.32): paramo e§asya parama lokah.2): sa kamabhih jayate tatra tatra. that which needs no food. that which makes illusion impossible. who has understood Self. one ought not to follow the path of action. esosya (4. then one is never tainted by defects.. 'Spontaneous. in this very life all desires come to an end/ 31 nirmayam nispratimam nirakrtim * niraSrayarh nirvapusam niraSisam nirdvandva nirmoham alupta-Saktikam tarn i£am atmanamupaiti Sasvataih. Dattdtreya 196 man wisdom. that which is formless. unborn. All other creatures live indeed on the speck of this bliss/ . Merely because this realisation has not occurred even once. esasya parama parama anandah. Him he attains/ Brhad-Aranyaka saiiipat. . that which is not conditioned by is anything. 'That which is defectless. that which needs no body. They (such persons) again do not go through the whirl of human cycle. paryapta-kamasya krtatmanastu ihaiva praviliyanti sarve kamah. They do not indeed go through the whirl of human cycle/ 'Further. But in the case of one in whom desires come to an end and who has made one's self accomplished. that which needs no support. am acintyam yas tu pa£yet svarupaih ghatati yadi yathestam lipyate naiva dosaih sakrd api tadabhavat karma kim cin na kuryat sahajam 30. that is. This is how a mendicant or a person who practises austerity is not bound (by action)/ Mundaka kaman yah kamayate manyamanah (3. This is his highest position. a] tad api na ca vibaddah samyami va tapasvi. (Truth). esosya etasyaivanandasya anyani bhutani matram upajivanti. 'He who desires things even though he knows (the truth) becomes born here and there owing to desires.3. gatih. This is the highest wealth.

34- yasya svariipat sacaracaram jagad utpadyate ttejhati liyatepi va payo-vikarad iva phena-budbudas tarn Ham atmanam upaiti £a£vatam.Daildtreya: 197 The Philosopher na dlk$a na ca muntfana-kriya gurur na £i£yo na ca yatra sampadah mudradikaih capi na yatra bhasate tarn l&ih atmanam upaiti £a£vatam veclo 32. sacrifice connected with removing hair. These thu (m the direction of knowledge). * .2.22). those that have self- those that have allegiance to one seer. no father. there is no content. . adhitc. . that is. all 1 miseries. That is the Lord Self ever enduring. discipline. the seer of Vcda t only to these this science of Brahman ought to be taught. those that are devoted to &trfi. 'No manifest need is here of Veda. no limbs feet and so on. no entity such as a jar which is produced and furnished. na Sambhavam Saktika-manavam na va pmtfam ca ruparh ca padadikam na va arambha-nispatti ghafadikam ca no 33 tarn i£am atmanam upaiti £a5vaiam. teacher. atra pita apita bhavati mata amata tirno hi tada sarvan loka aloka deva adeva veda avedah * . £okan. This science. naitad acirna vrato . pupil. no greatness attributed to Sflktt. no form. He attains thus the eternal supreme Self/ Brhad-Aranyaka (4*3. kriyavantah Srotriyah brahmanisthah svayam juhuta ekarsi iraddhavantah tesam evaisath brahma vidyam vadeta tadetat satyam . gods are no gods. What is stated so far is true. no greatness attributed to Mann. those that are devoted to Brahman.10-11): tadetad rcabhyuktam. mother is no mother. . 'This that is so far arc active expounded is established by the hymn. one who has not taken a vow shall not study/ sacrifice. no greatness attributed to Saritbhu. . Vedas are no Vedas 'In tins (truth o£ Self) father is • (the spiritual aspirant) in this circumstance has transcended . wealth of different kinds and religious marks. worlds are no worlds. Him 'There is he attains/ Muitdaka (3.

'He (Yahnavalkya) said Indeed similarly as those brdhntanas teach. One merely attains the Supreme and Eternal Self/ hrdayasya na<. It is devoid of the state of being proved by something else. not (3. not long. is produced. 0 Gargi! this imperishable Truth is that which is not gross. iSarii the truth) the absence of manifoldness. the This is Its essence Him he attains/ Taiitifiya (3. This the conclusion/ nasa-nirodho na ca drstir asanarii 35. maintained and destroyed even as the bubbles on the foam owing to the change in water.Daitdtrcya 1^8 from which the whole world. at the top of transcends. moving and nonmoving. It is devoid of the state of being compared to other things. and largeness. not short. oneness. length attains/ Brhad-Aranyaka hovaca etaddhaitad aksaram gargi brahmana abhivadanti asthulam ananu ahrasvarh adirgharii. Nothing here to be learned or unlearned. yena jatani jivantL yat prayanti abhi sariiviSanti.lyah tasarh murdhanam abhinissrtaika. — infinitesimal. 'From which all these creatures are born. tayordhvam ayan amrtatvam eti.8. . That is the Lord Self. r . is extended one goes above both these nerve. in which they are destroyed. It is devoid of the state of being an object. by which those that are born are maintained. into which they enter. the all-enduring. Above them. infinitesimalncss. nor need we is the regulation of nerves.6.1): yato va imani bhutani jayante. that The person who is. enquire into It. That is Brahman. Katha The all of (2.8): sa . tad vijijnasasva tad brahmeti. That is the Lord Self. nor the steady stare nor the postures of the body. bodhopy abodhopi na yatra bhasate natfi-pracaropi na yatra kimcit tarn i£arii atmanarii upaiti £a£vatarh. that them there is. / . anutva-dlrghatva-mahatva-£unyata manatva-meyatva-samatva-varjitam tarn There is (in atmanarii upaiti SaSvatarii. all-enduring.16): £atarh caika ca nerves that belong to the heart arc one hundred and one. duality. 'No breath-control need we here. . (nerves) attains to immortality/ nanatvarh ekatvam ubhatvam anyata 36. Him he otherness.

whether he has not done his ritualistic duty or has done his ritualistic duty. -n j ? b nd n0n " dut ?< be >0Ild th * *Wch is done > n«?2! S'° and beyond this which is not done. 0 Gargii having understood out of this world is Brahmana Jokat praiti sa this imperishable Truth goes * mano na buddhih na 38 Sariraih lndnyath tanmatra-bhutani na bhuta-pancakam ahamkrtis capi viyat-svariipakam tarn ISam atmanam upaiti §aivatam. then in the case of that aspirant there is neither purity nor impurity. no intellect no body. no subtle elements. Having understood He mahantam vibhum atmanam omnian aspirant becomes a It is the highest. ' ^ . It is this. attains/ Hatha {1. . no mind. (the truth) is of the nature of space. if the mind is free from dualistic ideas. no sense organ.2. Him he 'There is . the all-cndunng.' Brhad'/lranyaka (3. 'He who. if everything is realised highest Self. 'Whether he is a mendicant or a non-mendicant. and 'If all the the to be if talk of luck the and so on arc abandoned. does not suffer misery. whether he has amassed wealth or has not amassed wealth. of . bodiless in the bodies potent It is Self. that *hich you see tell me that. nor the distinction of sex M/. man wisdom. tarn I£am utmanam upaiti £a£vatam.rt (1.2.Dattalreya.8 10)' ya ctad aksaram gargi viditva asmal brahmanah.' vidhau nirodhe paramatmatam gate 39 na yogmas cetasi bhedavarjite £aucam na vaSaucam alingabhavana sarvam vidheyam yadiva m?idhyate- commandment is negated.21) maha dhiro na Socatj '(The Self) is aSariram £ariresu . no 'T'ness.14)' anyatra dharmat anyatradharmat anyatrasmat L nyatni bh5t5c bh «T*c ca yat tat paiyasi tadvada.That is the Lord Self. the all-endunng. beyond what is past and beyond what i< to come. no five-fold element. The Philosopher 199 susamyaml va yadi va na samyami susangralri va yadi va na sangrahi ni^karmako va sakarmakah 37. he attains the Lord Self.

pleasure and pain does not apply to It which like 2. is the person that tells you the right direction. lias realised 1 itself vijnanartham sa gurum evabhigacchet samit-panih Srotriyam brahma nistharh. the union with that shines indeed.2. omnipresent and ornnimorphous itself.' III Avadhula says: guna-viguna-vibhago vartate naiva kimcit rati-virati-vihinam nirmalarh nisprapancarh 1* guna-viguna-vihinam vyapakarii viSva-rupam katham aharh iha vande vyoma-rupam £ivam vai.3): acaryad hi eva vidya vidita sadhistham prapayati.9. the Truth of equipoise Mundaka tad (1.' dattatreya.12).git ay am atma-sarhvittyupadeSo nama dvitiyodhyayah. 'Having disowned who (teacher) egohood the student ought to go to a guru all follows the tradition of Sruti and who is devoted to expounded by Sruii)' Chdndogya (4.— 200 Dattatreya 40. where then is received this discourse and who Truth. mano vaco yatra na&iktarh Iriturh nunam katham tatra gurupadcSata imam katham uktavato guroh tad tad yuktasya tattvam hi samam prakaiate. The distinction of virtue and vice.viracitayam avadhuta.' (4. 'Thus ends the second chapter entitled "The Instruction of Knowledge" in the Avadhuta-Gitd composed CHAPTER by Sri Dattatreya.1): 'Only acarya (guru) £ri acaryas tu te gafim vakta.14. is space unsoiled and unworldy. 'Only that learning which is obtained from a (proper) preceptor leads Brahman (as one to the Chdndogya goal. 'If that what (which) mind and speech are not capable is of the possibility of having instruction from a preceptor with reference to it? From the (real) preceptor who has expounding. How shall I pay homage to this Holy Being? £vetadi-varna-rahito niyatarh £iva£ ca karyam hi karanaih idam hi param £iva£ ca evam vikalparahitoham alarii sivaka svatmanam atmani sumitra katham namami? 1 .

It as distinctionless 0 good the Holy Being.) 4- ni$kfima-kamaih iha nama katham vadami mssanga-sangam iha nama katham vadami nissara^sSra^raliitarh ca katham vadami jninamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. . 'It name aham: This . Further. one of these names. no light can make me shme for I am ever risen* I am the nectar of knowledge. All names it abhavat. DaMireya. no cloud can conceal me I am ever risen.' (The word ahath is used in this verse in two circumstances. In keeping with these ideas aham coming at the end of the verse taken to be a separate attitude of the Truth and it is translated as 'That is I'. Unhghted.4. As it is already noted under the first verse of the Jwanmukla-Gtia what is commonly called not the presented as Truth.In this expression the attributes of aham are both m neuter gender and in masculine gender* So the circumstance in which this aham is used is different from the circumstance in which aham is used in the former case. {2) jndndmrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. The Philosopher 'It is devoid of colours hke white and the holy. is The idea contained in this translation is that the knowledge of the truth is the knowledge of T. The same is the construction with reference to similar passages. imbued with harmony. The word is primarily the name of the Ultimate Truth.Unclouded. Further the same Upanisad (1. It is both the cause and stainless It is Self with the 201 like. . It is self-possessed effect of itself. . bears/ is Aham . friend' How shall I salute and and the Self?' nirmula-mula-rahito hi sadoditoham 3.1) says with reference to Aiman 'I radically unoriginated the ground of all aham ndmd became the bearer of the gives the idea that the Truth is Aiman and that is T.. Bfhad-Amnyaha (1. (1) sadodttah aham: In this expression the word ahath is in the masculine gender. Understood * T T T thus the truth taught by the last line becomes the reason for the previous statements in the verse. . • .6. . and am like the vault of heaven. nirdhuma-dhuma-rahito hi sadoditoham nirdipa-dlpa-rahito hi sadoditoham ] nan amr tarn samarasam gaganopamoham* am and ever risen.1) says samam brahma sandni namani bibhartu 'Equipoise is Brahman.

It It is the nectar of knowledge. the harmony things and like unto the vault of heaven/ neither durbodha bodha-gahano na bhavami tata durlaksya laksya-gahano na bhavami tata asanna-rupa-gahano na bhavami tata jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. has no beginning. attachment. I am the nectar of knowledge. the like unto the vault of heaven/ harmony of things and . How shall How shall I propound it? What shall I say of knowledge. is evanescent again. Know the one stainless being who 'Know is of all bound nor free. I am and am not the object of sight. no middle and no end. 'It is neither thick nor thin. It is neither the high nor the low. of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ of a core.Dattaireya 202 'It is the desireless desire. jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. It neither moves nor remains unmoved. Know all objects of sense to be like the sky. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ samviddhi sarva-karanam nabho-nibhani samviddhi sarva-visayaS ca nabho-nibhas ca samviddhi caikam amalam na hi bandha-muktarh 7. also divided. I am indeed speaking the truth about Ultimate Reality. I have no form which is accessible. the harmony of things. I am the nectar of knowledge. 'All this is All this the form of the non-dual reality. 'I am beyond invisible knowledge and cannot be reached by knowledge. and like it? All this I am I is descnbe eternal and the nectar unto the vault it' of of heaven/ asthulam hi no nahi kr£am na gatagatam hi adyanta-madhya-rahitam na paraparam hi satyam vadami khalu vai paramartha-tattvam 6. harmony shall I say of it? I the advaita-rupam akhCaih katharh vadami dvaita-svarupaih akhilam hi katharh vadami 5. 8. organs of sense to be (intangible) like the sky. nityam tv anityam akhilam hi kathaih vadami jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. How What How shall name I shall I describe it? It is it? It is the unattached insubstantial and devoid am the nectar of knowledge. jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham.

My Dear Child! Though mindless. nirbhava-bhavarahito na bhavami vatsa niiyoga-yoga-rahito na bhavami vatsa na bhavami vatsa jnanamrtarii samarasam gaganopamoham. . am not without affection. My Dear Child* Though unjoked. I I am the am the fire that consumes that consumes all all action. am the sacrificial fire that scorches all bondage I am the nectar of knowledge. I \ of things and like unto the vault of heaven. I am the nectar of knowledge. and like unto the vault of heaven/ the fire that harmony of nispapa-papa-dahano hi huta£anohaih 10. sorrow. sorxowloss. I am not without mind. Un- am the sacrificial fire that consumes all prescriptions. Though Though thirstless. the narmony of things and hke unto the vault of '1 heaven/ *3- samsura*santati-lat5 na ca me kadacit sarhtosa-santati-sukhe na ca me kadacit ajnana-bandhanam tdarh na ca me kadacit jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. My Dear Child' I am the nectar of S 12. 'Sinless as I presenbed I Unbound. jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham* I am the fire 'Though inactive.' Dattdtrcya: The Philosopher 203 niskarma-karma-dahano jvalano bhavami nirduhkha-duhkha-dahano ]valano bhavami nirdeha-deha-dahano jvalano bhavami 9. things. ni^citta-citta-rahito "Though unaffected.' me vikalpah ni&oka-Soka-padavIti na me vikalpah niriobha-lobha-padaviti na me vikalpali nirmoha-moha-padavita na jnanamrtam samarsam gaganopamoham. I am not without a yoke. nirdharma-dharma-dahano hi huta£anoham mfbandha-bandha-dahano hi huta£anoham jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. consumes all thirst. I am. I am the that consumes all sin. nc\er fancy dupes as hopes I never fancy griefs as joys I never tancy greed as grcedlcssness I am the nectar of knowledge. the of sacrificial fire harmony of things and like unto the vault heaven n.

I am for me mc the that which the nectar of knowledge. it is beyond the ken of speech. Not for mind tormented by tortuous meditation. Nothing that is propitious or unpropitious.Datiatrcya 204 The creeper of worldliness has not entwined concatenation of pleasures does not give by me round me. The itself happiness. I na ca me vikarah santapa-santati-tamo na ca me vikarah satvam svadharma-janakam na ca me vikarah jnanamrtam samarasarh gaganopamoham. 'It is neither the . Nothing moves nor remains unmoved for it. santapa-yoga-janitam na manah kadacit yasmad ahankrtir iyam na ca me kadacit jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. nectar of knowledge. sarhsara-santatir ajo 14. I stand unaffected perpetual stream of anguish leaves again by a virtue causing one to do his prescribed duties. knower nor the known. It is the nectar of knowledge. insubstantial. mind and intellect. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ niskarhpa-kampa-nidhanarh na vikalpa-kalpam svapna-prabodha-nidhanarh na hitahitam hi nissara-sara-nidhanam na caracaram hi 16. The gloom of a me unaffected. The stained train of worldliness leaves me unaffected. it melts away all substance. jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. I am not am the nectar of knowledge. the harmony of things and I am unto the like the vault of heaven. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ enslaved ignorance. of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ no vedya-vedakam idarh na ca hetu-tarkyam vacamagocararii idam na mano na buddhih evam katharh hi bhavatah kathayami iattvam jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. It is not cause to be investigated by logic. the harmony 17. There is neither slumber nor wakefulness for it. Not induces egotism. f It is untrembling and makes all trembling cease. The fate that ordains anguish and pain is not for me.' santapa-duhkha-janako na vidhih kadacit 15.

It has the past neither an inner nor an outer for it. unto the vault like I the harmony heaven/ Sthana-trayam yadi ca neti katham turlyam* kala-trayam yadi ca neti katham diiafi ca ? 20. bantam padam hi paramam paramartha-tattvam jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. antar bahir na hi impartite and remains partless. I am the nectar of knowledge. dirgho laghuh punar itlha na me vibhagah sankafam itlha na me vibhagah konam hi vartularh itlha na me vibhagah vistara jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. aham eva tattvarh daivadi-dosa-rahitam tv aham eva tattvam samsara-£oka-ralutarh tv aham eva tattvam ragadi-dosa-rahitam tv 19 jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. f am 'The Ultimate Reality is m harmony the nectar of knowledge. 'How can there be a fourth state when there are not the three? How can there be a direction without the three-fold division of time? The Ultimate Reality is the state of the Highest Repose. free from the flaw gnef of a groaning world. katham paramartha-tattvam prak sambhavaih na ca rataih na hi vastu kimcit jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. Distinctions of long or short. the harmony of things and hke unto the vault of heaven/ . the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ 21. broad or narrow are not for me. the of things. rt is not a thing among things. distinctions of angle and circle have no relevance for me. like I of fate. It is neither produced nor does it delight in producing. 'I am the Reality free from the blemish of passion the Reality. and like unto the vault of heaven.Dattaircya: How shall I you? relate this reality to harmony the ol things. like ttnto the vault of heaven/ nirbhinna-bhinna-rahitam paramartha-tattvam 18. of things. and 205 The Philosopher I am the nectar of knowledge. I am the nectar ol knowledge. I am and the of am the Reality free from the am the nectar of knowledge.

'It is the purest of pure things. having forms. niskhan^a-ldiantjlarh avicaram ananta-rupam jnanamrtam samarasarii gaganopamoham. 'How do Brahma and the hosts of gods exist there? be heaven and the The Ultimate Reality undefective. pitadi tanayadi na me kadacit rnrtam na ca mano na ca me kadacit nirvyakulam sthiram idarh paramartha-tattvam jfitarii jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham.Dattdtrcya 206 mata 22. It beyond is the unadhering but that to which everything adheres. atra santi svargadayo vasatayah katharh atra santi yady ekaruparh amalam paramartha-tattvam jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. principle of division itself. the harmony of things. have neither mother nor father nor offspring. I and am like? of there a piece and harmony of things heaven/ katham vadami ni££e§a 6esa vimalohi katham vadami nirlinga linga vimalohi katham vadami jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham.' brahmadayah sura-ganah katharh 24. beyond reflection. nor a mind. the harmony it is all of the nectar of knowledge. 1 can I it not this nor is the residue aver of this spotless one that am the nectar of things and like unto the vault of the sexless one? of is I .' 'I Suddharh viSuddharh avicaram ananta-ruparh nirlepa-lepam avicaram ananta-ruparh 23. and like unto the vault of heaven. This Ultimate Reality is unagitated and firm. forms. there is neither birth nor death for me. nirneti neti vimalohi 25. and like unto the vault of heaven. the undivided but It is harmony the infinite of things. the unto the vault like Whence can is of a sex heaven. having infinite forms. I am infinite beyond and having reflection the nectar of knowledge. reflection. 'How can that? How aver of this spotless one that it can I aver of this spotless one that I of a residueless entity? How when it is knowledge. I am the nectar of knowledge.

the unto the vault of heaven it. nirdeha-deha-rahitam satatam vinodarii jnanamrtam samarasarii gaganopamoharii. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ free 30. I harmony of * njmatha-natha-rahitaih hi nirakularii vai 29. Though free from all attachment I drive away all tedium. I am like the nectar of knowledge. niicitta*citta-\igataih hi nirakularii vai sariividdhi sarva-vigatam hi nirakularii jnanamrtarii 'It is vai samarasam gaganopamohaih. am the nectar of wisdom. there dumb nor is for no awakening from withm to it. I am the nectar of knowledge. . the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ lying produce sandhyadi-kala-rahitaih na ca 28. me viyogah(o) hy antah-prabodha-rahitaih badhiro na mukah vikalpa-rahitam na ca bhava-Suddharh ovarii jnanamrtam samarasarii gaganopamoharii To that there is no eventide or anything like it. 'Though inactive. 'The wonderful structure of the world does not cause any change in mc. no parting from anything.Datidtreya ' The Philosopher 207 mskarma-karma paramam satatam karomi mssafiga-sanga-rahitarh paramam vinodam 26. It has no mind and is from perplexity. Its crookedness and deceit have no effect on me Truth and no disturbance m me. I am the nectar of wisdom. the unto the vault of heaven maya-prapanca-racana na ca 27. I am ever things and m delight. kantara-mandiram idaih hi katham vadami sariisiddha-samSayarii idam hi katharii vadami evam JHrantara^amam hi nirakularii vai jnSnamrtarh samarasam gaganopamoham. understand it to be unfettered by anything it is free irom perplexity. has no master and is free from perplexity. destruction from things and like there is there neither deaf neither purity of disposition nor its it. though bodiless. me kautilya-tfambha-racana na ca satyanrteti-racana na ca me harmony of r vikarah me vikarah vikarah jnanamrtam samarasarii gaganopamoharii. I am ever engaged 111 the highest activity.

te the na ca nama-rupam nirbhinna-bhinnarh api te na hi vastu kimcit katham visadam jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. there is no travail of birth for you? Why moanest thou. the of heaven/ harmony of things and like unto the vault . harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ destruction ullekhamatram api 33. of things and like nama rodisi sakhe na kirn nama rodisi sakhe na kim nama rodisi sakhe na kirn 34.Dattatreya 208 aver this to be a mansion in the wilderness? How aver that it is all a substantiated uncertainty? It is ever 'How indeed can indeed can I I and remains undisturbed. 0 unabashed mind! Why dost thou get wearied? I am the nectar of wisdom the harmony .' It is lifeless sambhuti-varjitam idarh satatam vibhati 32. It is seedless and though seedless it flourishes ever and anon. wisdom. there is neither decrepitude nor death you? Why moanest thou. friend. friend. I am the nectar of wisdom. nirlajja-manasa karosi 'You can only be mentioned but you have neither name nor form. friend. satatam vibhati nirbija-bija-rahitam satatarh vibhati nirvana-bandha-rahitarh satatam vibhati jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. Your are unseparated and there is nothing that can exist apart from you. I am the nectar of the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ in equilibrium nirjlva-jlva-rahitarh 31. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven. f and though devoid of life it shines ever and anon. f from origination and shines ever and anon. 'Why moanest thou. It is liberated and though unfettered it shines ever and anon* I am the nectar of wisdom. It is free It is free from from and shines ever and anon. unto the vault of heaven/ na mrtyuh ca janma-duhkham jara ca te vikarah jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. samsara-varjitarh idarn satatam vibhati sarhhara-varjitam idarh satatarh vibhati jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. It is free mundane existence and shines ever and anon. there is no perversion in you? I am for the nectar of wisdom.

jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. friend. the harmony of things and hke into the vault of heaven afflict ' aiSvaryam lechasi katharh na ca te dhanani a&varyarh icchasi katham na ca te hi patnl aiSvaryam icchasi kathaih na ca te mameti 38. friend. so is I hami0ny of h 39 ° f thingS am and hkC Unt0 the vault ' Linga. growing age is not for you? Why moanest thou. 'Why moanest thou. the harmony of things and hke unto the vault 'Why meanest is of heaven. there no figurement not ftsfigmemfcnt for yo\P Wliy meanest thou. 'Why meanest thou. the harmony of things and hke unto the vault of heaven/ kim noma rodisi sakhe na ca te sti kamah kim nama rodisi sakhe na ca te pralobhah kim nama rodisi sakhe na ca te vimohah jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. greed does not you. . so how can you hanker after wealth? Thou hast nothing that you wush to own as thine.Dattdtreya: Urn nama kim nama 35 kirii nama The Philosopher 2og sakhe na ca te svarupam rodisi sakhe na ca te virupam* rodisi sakhe na ca te vayamsi rodisi jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham* thou. 'Wealth how can you hanker after it? Thou hast no wife. mind and the senses are not for you? I am the nectar of wisdom. growing age is not for you? I am the nectar of wisdom. 36. lusts do not of you. So how can you hanker after w ealth? not for you. friend. 37. friend. I am the nectar assail you? Infatuation does not move wisdom. Inend.prapanca-janust na ca te na nirlaj ja-manasath idam ca vibhati me ca bhinnarii mrbheda^heda^rahitam na ca te na me ca jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoharh.' kim mima rodisi sakhe na ca te vayamsi kim nama rodisi sakhe na ca te manamsi kim nama rodisi sakhe na tavendriyani jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham.

the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ There 42. 'Thou hast not even a moiety of contradictory qualities or identical qualities. I am the nectar of wisdom. the harmony of things and like fancies itself as different or for me. there is no object of meditation in the heart and nothing that transpires in time. nor have you any form born of desire. I am the nectar of wisdom. the immodest mind from it. katham iha paramartharh tattvam ananda-rupam katharh iha paramartharh naivam ananda-rupam katham iha paramartharh jnana-vijnana-rupam yadi paraih aharh ekam vartate vyoma-ruparh.' dhyata na te hi hrdaye na ca te samadhih dhyanam na te hi hrdaye na bahih prade£ah dhyayam na ceti hrdaye na hi vastu-kalo 41. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven.Dattdlreya 210 'The false world is neither for you nor for me. 40. I am unto the vault of heaven. the undifferentiated is not for you the nectar of wisdom.' novanumatram api te hi viraga-ruparii novanumatram api te hi saraga-rupam novanumatram api te hi sakama-ruparh jnanamrtam samarasaih gaganopamoham. I am the nectar of wisdom. the harmony of things and like unto the vault of heaven/ 43. 'How can Ultimate Reality be of the nature of bliss? How can Ultimate Reality be of the nature of knowledge or transcendental knowledge whilst the highest 'Me' exists extended like space? . neither teacher nor the taught. nothing there is which is big. no object to be meditated upon in your heart nor perfect absorption in it. 'You have been told by me all that constitutes the core of truth. there is no inner meditation in your heart nor any external space that lies outside it. jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. is yat sarabhutam akhilaih kathitam na tvam na me na mahato na maya te guruh na £isyah svacchanda-rupa-sahajam paramartha-tattvarh jnanamrtam samarasam gaganopamoham. The Ultimate Reality is inherently spontaneous.

renouncing or non-renouncing is irrelevant to truth which is immortal. avani-jala-vihlnam viddbi vijnana-rupam sama-gamana-vjhmam viddhi vijnanam ekam gaganam iva vi&larh viddhi vijnanam ekam. inherent and hi sariisaram certain. neither burns like fire nor blous like air—know that to be the one 44 1 'It transcendental knowledge. rupam virupam na bhavami kimcit svarupa-rupam paramartha tattvam.o ' The Philosopher Dattatreya^ 211 dahana-pavana^hlnam viddhi vijnanam ekam. neither beautiful nor ugly.llC b * invocatlon or laying down? or worship ^yj th fimlTn? flowcis or Jleaves? Wherefore the relevance of meditation V«S ™ttenng of hymns> Whereby can there be worship the same. abandon ye renunciation. know Know it Know that be does not proceed with anything that to be transcendental knowledge* It that to be transcendental is to like space. It is not land or the sea the one transcendental knowledge. Ultimate Reality is only like itself munca munca 46 it is tyagam munca hi sarvatha tyagatyaga-visam Suddham amrtaih sahajam dhruvam. else. the « orship 5 of an external deity?' ^ l . . it is neither pure nor impure. 'Abandon ye worldliness. iti "Thus is in dattatreya-viracitayarh avadhuta-gitayarh Ztmz-samvhty-upaddo nama trtiyodhydyah the third chapter entitled "The Instruction pertaining to the Truth of Self" in the Avadhftta-Gita Sri Dattatreya ' CHAPTER Sri Wisdom composed bv J of IV Dattatreya says:— navahanarh naiva visarjanarh va puspani patram katharh bhavanti dhyanani mantram katham bhavanti samasamam caiva Sivarcanam ca. knowledge* na Sunya-rupam na viSunya-rupam na £uddha-rupam na vi^uddha-rupam 45. 'It is neither a void nor a plenum.

The knowledge that presupposes non-knowledge is never produced in me. neither (that which has) interval nor that which has no interval. It is space-like. 1 "This is born. It is not only free from the pure and the impure.1 expound knowledge in its relation to non-knowledge? I am of the nature of bliss and am defectless/ na dharma-yukto na ca papa-yukto na bandha yukto na ca moksa-yuktah yuktam tv ayuktam na ca me vibhati 6. nor that which has no defects. this is am na sanjanam caiva niranjanam va na cantaram vapi nirantaram va antarvibhinnam na hi me vibhati 4. I born and hence is unreal". bliss and am defectless/ neither I am bound nor free. Such ideas of the nature of bliss and am defectless/ real. svarupa-nirvanam anamayoharh. not only free from bondage and release.Daitaireya 212 na kevalam bandha-vibandha-mukto na kevalam iuddha-viiuddha-muktah na kevalam yoga-viyoga-muktah sa vai vimukto gaganopamoham. How can. hence are foreign to me. It is not only free from discipline and non- It is discipline. 3 But it is freedom itself. The disposition of being knowledge is never produced in me. nirbodha-bodham ca katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. That is 'TV sanjayate sarvam idam hi tathyaih # sanjayate sarvam idam vitathyarh evam vikalpo mama naiva jatah svarupa-nirvanam anajnayoharh. of the nature of the . I am of the nature defectless/ mama naiva jato bodha-svaruparh mama naiva jatam abodha-bodho 5. 'I am neither meritorious nor sinful. nor that which of bliss is and in itself am broken presents itself to me. I am There is nothing proper or improper for me. 2. 'Neither that which has defects. svarupa-nirvanam anamayoharh.

bliss am and How can I expound It> I am of the nature of defectless/ no vyapakam vyapyam ihasti kimcit no calayam vapi mralayam va 9 katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. is relevant to me. I am of the nature of bliss and am defectless/ « 'How can is na bhcdakam vapi na caiva bhedyara na vedakam mama naiva vedyam gatagataift tata katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. The Truth is of the nature of knowledge. To me there neither the apprehender nor the apprehendedneither cause nor effect.Daitalrcya: The Philosopher 213 paraparam va na ca mc kadacit madhyastha-bhavo hi na cari-mitram 7. There place. nothing pervading. samvit-svarfipam ca 'Neither the worshipper nor that which is worshipped. have no sense of superior or inferior or middling. I have no enemies or friends. neither thinkable nor unthinkable can be asserted of me. How can I speak of good and eviP I am of the nature of 'I Miss and am defectless/ upasyarupam noprisako naivarh 8. not even the absence of is such something as well as nothing. nothing less is no place of rest. . me na copade£o na ca kriya ca katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. It ? I The Truth am circumstance. of the nature of bhss I0 * and am How can I expound defectless/ na grahako grahyakam eva kimcit na karanam va mama naiva karyam acintya^intyaih ca katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. neither instruction nor any ritual. I assert of this that it is the divider or the divided th. aSunya-sfinyaih ca 'There is in this pervading. hitahitam capi katham vadami svarupa^mrvanam anamayoham.

I nature of bliss and cannot be said to have intellect. me there is neither death nor immortality. How can I speak of that. 0 Friend! which is the same in all things and yet not the same? I am of the nature of bliss and am defectless. Friend! How can I speak of victory or failure? I am of the nature of bliss and am defectless/ 'I I amurta-murtih na ca 15. poison or nectar. 14. have and have not subdued the senses. I defectless/ ullekha-matram na hi bhinnarh uccaih ullekha-matram na tirohitam vai samasamam mitra katham vadami 13. Beginning. It can just be mentioned and yet is not concealed. 1 have no body nor am mind or the senses. me kadacit ady-anta-madhyam na ca me kadacit balabalam mitra katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham.' jitendnyoham tv ajitendriyo va na samyamo me niyamo na jatah jayajayam mitra katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. sanjayate tata na me kadacit a£uddha-£uddham ca katham vadami svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. middle and end are not for me. I havs no restraint and no discipline. It can just be mentioned and not different from what is supreme. I am of the am I bodiless. have neither passion nor dispassion.' mrtamrtam vapi visavisam ca 16. 0 Friend! as strong or weak? I am of the nature of bliss and am defectless. How can I speak of that as pure or impure even? I am of the nature of 'To bliss and am defectless/ .Dattdtreya 214 na casti deho na ca me videho buddhir mano me na hi cendriy&ni rago viraga£ ca katham vadami 12. svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham. How can I speak of that. 'Form and formlessness are not for me.




The Philosopher

hvapnah-prabodho na ca yoga-mudra


nakiam diva vapi na me kadacit
aturya-turyam ca katham vadami
svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham.

neither sleep nor awakening, nor the pose of yoga;
there is neither night nor day. How can I speak of that in terms of
the fourth state or the non-fourth state? I am of the nature of bliss



and am






mam sarva-visarva-muktam

maya-vimaya na ca me kadacit
sandhyadikam karma katham vadami
svarupa-nirvanam anamayohaih,

'Know me as





from everything and nothing,
speak of it in terms of twilight


nature of bliss and

rite? I

or non-


of the


mam sarva-samadhi-yuktam
samviddhi mam laksya-vilaksya-muktam



yogam viyogam

katham vadami
svarupa-nirvanarh anamayoham.




imbued with the highest state of absorption, as

incapable of being defined or undefined.
that which unifies or divides? I



can I speak of that as
of the nature of bhss and am


murkhopi naham na ca pan^itoham
maunam vimaunaih na ca me kadacit
tarkaih vitarkam ca katham vadami


svarQpa-nirvanam anamayoham.


neither ignorant nor learned





nature of bhss and
2I -

To me there is

speak of that as logical or


neither silence nor

illogical? I


of the


pJta ca

mata ca kulam na

janmadi mrtjmr na ca




vimoham ca katham vadami
svarupa-ntrvanam anamayoham*

To mc


neither father nor mother, neither family
nor caste
neither birth nor death. How can I
speak of that as attached






of the nature of bliss and





astam gato naiva sadoditoham
tejo-vitejo na ca me kadacit
sandhyadikam karma katham vadami


svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham.








rising or setting, neither light

speak of that in terms of twilight



nor darkness. How


rite? I

of the nature of


asam£ayam viddhi nirantaram mam
asarh£ayam viddhi niranjanaih mam
asaihSayaih viddhi nirakulam


svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham*

'Know me without






of the nature of bliss






dhyanani sarvani parityajanti


£ubha£ubham karma parityajanti
tyagamrtarh tata pibanti dhirah

svarupa-nirvanam anamayoham.


strong-minded ones eschew

swear themselves of


all religious

contemplation and


auspicious and unauspicious acts. They quaff

the nectar of renunciation.



of the nature of bliss

and am


na hi na hi yatra
chando laksanarh na hi nahi tatra
samarasa-magno bhavita-putah
pralapati tattvam param avadhutah.
vindati vindati







is also of





avail, there rhetorical assertion

great avadhuta immersed in bliss and


with inspiration proclaims the truth.'
iti sri

dattatreya-viracitayam avadhuta-gitayam

svami-kartika-samvade svatma-saihvittyupade£e
svarupa-nirnayo nama caturthodhyayah.
'Thus is the fourth chapter entitled "Definition of the Essence" in
the "Instruction of Wisdom connected with one's own self" in the
course of the discussion between Svami and Kartika in the Avadhuta-

GUd composed by

Sri Dattatreya.


Datlaircya: The Philosopher

£ri Dattatreya-

Thus spake




gaditam gagana-samarii

tanna parapara-sara-vicara iti
katharii aksara-bindu-samuccaranam
'It is



*M«wV and is like

the void of space. The Beyond and

the After, Substance or Reflection have no meaning here. The
unmamfest and the manifest are eschewable terms. While it is so,




be expressed in a syllable or a dot?'




pratipaditam atmani tattvam asi

tvam upadhi-vivarjita-sarva-samam
kirn u rodisi man asi sarva-samam,
'The scriptures proclaim 'That art Thou".


are free from all limiting conditions

m all Why lamentest

You are

and the

thou then when All


that in your


principle of Identity


atha urdhva-vivarjita-sarva-samam

bah ran tara- varj it a-sarva-samam
yadjcaikavivarjita sarva-samam,
kirh u rodisi manasi sarva-samam.

the self-same identity than which there is nothing higher, nor is
there anything outer or inner for it, nor can it be spoken of as

'It is

numerically one. It is the self-same identity.
then when All is One?'


nahi kalpita-kalpa-vicara
nahi karana-kurya-vicSra


lamentest thou



kim u


manasi sarva-samam.

docs not admit of a discussion of conceivabihty or concept,
cause or effect of term and copula. It is the self-same identity.

lamentest thou then







nahi bodha-vibodha-samadhir
nahi de£a-vide§a*samudhir iti

nahi kala-vikala-samadhir

kim u




mlnasi sarva-samam.






nothing here of meditation which is taught or not taught,
in this or the other place, at this or some other time. Why

lamentest thou then





nahi kumbha-nabho nahi kurhbha
na hi jiva-vapuh na hi jiva iti



hi karana-karya-vibhaga

'It is



embodying the soul nor even the soul

Why lamentest


manasi sarva-samarh.

the space within the jar or the jar



itself, it is not.

itself. It is

thou then when All

the body

not the cause nor the



lha sarva-nirantara-moksa-padam




hi vartula-kona-vibhaga

kim u

is all




manasi sarva-samaih.

the eternal state of release. It does not lend

itself to

short or long discussion. Distinctions of circularity and triangularity

do not apply to



iha 6unya-vi£unya-vihlna


iha sarva-visarva-vihina

'Void or








manasi sarva-samarh.

are meaningless here; so are pure and impure,

lamentest thou then








nahi bhinna-vibhmna-vicara




iha £uddha-vi£uddha-vihina

kim u


lamentest thou then



ari-mitra- vivarj ita-sarva-samam

kim u


manasi sarva-samam.

discussion of difference or non-difference of the outer, the inner,

and the between,


of foe or friend

Why lamentest


eschewed here.

thou then when All




the self-same


na hi £isya-vi£isya-svarupa iti
na caracara-bheda-vicara iti
iha sarva-nirantara-moksa-padam

kim u


manasi sarva-samarh.

'No discussion is here of who is the disciple and who the non-disciple;
which is the moving and which the non-moving. Here is the state of



DaUdtreya: The Philosopher
liberation entire
All is



lamentest thou then


one v

nanu rupa-virupa-vihina iti
nanu bhinna-vibhinna-vihlna iti
nanu sarga-visarga-vihina iti
kirn u rodisi manasi sarva-samam.



and ever


not that free from form or formlessness? Is not that free from the

divided and the undivided 5 Is not that free from evolution or involution*

Why lamentest

thou then when All

na gunaguna-pa£a-mbandha







kirn u rodisi manasi sarva-samam.



no bondage here to the rope of the Gtttjas. When earthly life
has ceased whence is the question of the doer and the deed? It is the

self-same identity pure


and simple.


lamentest thou then



iha bhava-vibhava-vihina


iha kama-vikama-vihina



bodhatamam khalu moksa-samam


kirn u rodisi mansasi


'Existence or non-existence, desire or desirelessness, have no
here. This indeed is the highest teachable truth
like unto liberation

Why lamentest

x 4-

thou then when All



iha tattva-mrantara-tattvam





yadi sarva-vi varj i t a-sarva-sam am




manasi sarva-samam.

the truth and the eternal truth.
It has neither conjunction
and disjunction. It is the self-same Identity




Why lamentest thou then when All is one?

iha sanga-visanga-vihina-param
iha bodha-vibodha-vihina-param



manasi sarva-samaih.



Why lamentest thou then when All is one?' iha sarva 17. the ever-lasting Self Why of all lamentest thou then one?' aviveka-vivekam abodha iti avikalpa-vikalpam abodha iti 18. It privation. To speak of it as formless or out of proper form is to speak an untruth. nor house to live in. All iti avilaksya-vilaksyam asatyam iti yadi kevalam atmani satyam iti kim u rodisi one?' is manasi sarva-samam. nor retinue. Why lamentest thou then when All is one?' It is discrimination which na hi moksa-padam nahi bandha-padarh na hi punya-padam nahi papa-padam na hi purna-padam nahi rikta-padam kim u rodisi manasi sarva-samam. It is beyond knowledge. For this reason. 'It is is neither the state of freedom nor of bondage. is all. yadi caikanirantara-bodha kim u rodisi iti manasi sarva-samam. it is an idea which is beyond imagination. It is beyond knowledge. beyond specification. Why lamentest is thou then when All is one?' yadi karana-karya-vihina-samam yadi bheda-vibheda-vihina-samam rodisi neither the neither the state of fullness nor of yadi varna-vivama-vihma-samarfi kim u is manasi sarva-samam. The truth is that it is the sole reality. 19.Dattdtreya 220 has no particular locus. 20. Why lamentest thou then when avikara-vikaram asatyam 16. To say of it as purposeless or purposeful is to utter an untruth. It state of merit nor of demerit. the Absolute Self of Here 'Herein is Here is the only unchanging Self of when All is jiva all. It is neither taught nor 'It untaught. . tamam khalu iha sarva-nirantara-jiva iha kevala-ni£cala~jlva kirii u rodisi iti iti iti manasi sarva-samam. It is neither related nor unrelated. It is all itself.

in All. to it there is of night. the sake of this spirit which is all and partless. iha kevala-niicala-sarva-cite dvipadadi-vivaqita-sarva-cite kith u rodisi manasi sarva-samaift. iha deha-vidoha-vihlna iti nanu svapna-susuptt-vihlna-param . hi 'Bondage and freedom can never be reconciled.Discipline and no discipline can never be reconciled Reason and no reason can never be reconciled* Why lamentest thou then when All is one?' 24. Tor why lamentest thou then ati 22. when Ail is one?' sarva-nirantara-sarva-gatam ati-mrmala-ni£cala-sarva-gataih dina^atri-vivarpta-sarva-gatam kim u 'It is fall it moves na na na All. But pure Truth is indeed nc\cr inconsistent with it. Imperfect illumination is irrelevant to It. of cause and of difference and indifference. that lamentest thou then 23. for the sake of this spirit which is by itself and absolutely all-enduring. iha kdla-vikala-nirakaranam anu-matra krfianu-nirakaranam na hi kevala-satya-nirakaranam kim u rodisi manasi sarva-samariu 'The question of proper and improper times is irrelevant to It. beyond All and yet the seamless and unmoved nor rodisi pervades untainted neither the break of day which has entered into when All is all. for the sake of (this) spirit which is beyond the reach of the bipeds and the like. manasi sarva-samam.Daltatreya: 'If devoid of distinctions of colour. Why one?' bandha-vibandha-samagamanaih hi yoga-viyoga-samagamanam hi tarka-vitarka-samagamanam kim u rodisi manasi sarva-samam. All is 221 The Philosopher is one?* lha san'a-nirantara-sarva-cite 21. all things. why lamentest thou then when the Identical effect. Why lamentest thou then when AH is one?* 25.

It is all and identical in its pervasion in the essential. non-duty and detachment. untainted and extended like space albeit distinct from identical with All rodisi all. iha vastu-vivastu-viraga tararii iha kama-vikama-viraga taram kim u rodisi manasi sarva-samam. incapable of being fixed 'It in a name. the selfsame identity untouched misery. Why lamentest thou then when All is one?' . master and by differences of happiness or disciple.Dattdtreya 222 abhidhana vidhana-vihina-param kirn u rodisi manasi sarva-samam. na kilankura-sara-visara iti na calacala samya-visamyam is rodisi truth. It is the highest. iha 6oka-vi£oka-vihina-pararh guru^isy a-vivarj ita-tattva-param kim u 'It is rodisi manasi sarva-samarh. and the deformed. or transcendent of dream or dreamless sleep. grief or joy. For this reason It is not subject to enquiry and non-enquiry. api sarva-vivarjita-sarva-samam gata-sara-visara-vikara-samam kim u 'It is unessential is manasi sarva-samarh. For this reason It has not similarity or dissimilarity to that which moves and that 'It is which does not move. non-entity and non-attachment. essence or non-essence. 'Herein are transcended duty. not indeed a growth. Why lamentest thou then when one?' iha dharma-vidharma-viraga tararh 27. one?' avicara-vicara-vihinam kim u supreme iti iti manasi sarva-samam. non-desire and non-attachment. Herein transcended desire. 28. Herein are transcended entity. cannot be said to be embodied or disembodied. It is the Why lamentest thou then when All 29. Why lamentest thou then when All is one? 1 gaganopama-6uddha-vi£ala-samam 26. thou then when All is one?' Why are lamentest sukha-duhkha-vivarjita-sarva-samam.

Thus is the fifth chapter entitled "The Exposition of the Insight into the course of Instruction of the Illumination of Self in the course of the discourse between Svdmi and Kdrhka the AvadhutaGtte composed by Sri Dattatreya/ Peace m m CHAPTER Tims spake z' VI Sri Dattatreya* bahudha Srutayah pravadanti vayam viyadadir idam mfga-toya samarfi yadi caika-nirantara-sarca^ivam upamcyam atho hy upama ca katham* . 32 'Where there is nothing to be apprehended by logical intellect. there nothing to be asserted in rhetorical speech. why lamentest thou then when All is one?' vmdati vmdati na hi na hi yatra chando-laksanam na hi na hi tatra samafasa-magno bhavita-putah pralapati tattvam param avadhutah.Datldtreya iha sara-samuccaya-saram jo. It has no object out of itself for lamentest thou then when All is one^ a distinct nature of apprehend. yadi caikanirantara-sarva-samaih kirn u rodi§i manasi sarva-samam. If the Truth is the self-same seamless reality. 'The scriptures proclaim in diverse fashion that the spread-out world is like a mirage. 223 iti kathitam nijabhava-vibheda kirn 'Here The Philosopher its it to bahudha irutayah pravadanti yato viyadadir idam mrga-toya-samaih 31. Immersed the ecstasy of union and inwardly inspired the Avadhtlla proclaims the highest b truth/ m is 33 Hi dattatreya-viracitayam avadhuta-gltayam svami-kartika-samvade atma-samvittiyupade£e iti sama-dfsti-kathanam nama pancamodhyayah. Yet it cannot be said to have own. iti visaye karanatvam asatyarh iti is u rodisi the quintessence of Why manasi sarva-samam all essences.

How the highest narrow or wide. what avails the distinction of the outer or the inner and their related 'It attitudes?' . where then the sense of worshipping it and undergoing austerity for is its sake?' mana eva 3. all-holy shines?' If what does day and Reality it is night. is good. If Reality be one. 'It rejects distinctions of rising and nor setting. activity or inactivity. 'It is the highest that transcends the distinction of the divided and the undivided.Dattdtreya 224 'The scriptures proclaim in diverse manner that we the individual selves and the spread out world are like a mirage. with and what comparison would be 2 what can it be compared apt?' avibhakti-vibhakti-vihina-pararh . If Reality is the one. 'Mind alone is capable of penetrating everywhere. and the holy. hy nirantara-sarva-gatam aviSala-visala-vihina-paraih mana eva nirantara-sarva-Sivam manasapi katham vacasa ca katham. all-pervading and all-holy. of what can be done and what should not be done. If Reality be one. all-pervading. Mind alone is capable by mind and how by speech can it be reached?' nothing that there To is of all dina-ratri-vibheda-nirakaranam 4. continuous. one. the All. uditanuditasya-nirakaranam yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-6ivam ravi-candram asau jvalanaS ca katham. and all-holy. is neither all-pervading the sun shines or the moon ' 5. seamless. gata-kama-vikama-vibheda gata-cesta-vicesta-vibheda iti iti yadi caika-mrantara-sarva-§ivam bahir-antara-bhinna-matiS ca katham* transcends desire or desirelessness. continuous. avail to it if To it there continuous. nanu karya-vikarya vihina-param yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivam yajanam ca katham tapanam ca katham.

sarva-Sivam jahdai ca katham 'If space and air are unreal. the Ail and 1 the holy. the All and the holy. the void or the full. the All and the holy. fire one. 225 iti yadi £unya-vi£unya-vihlna iti yadi caika-nirantara-sarva--£ivani prathamarii ca katham caramaih ca katham. devoid of the distinction of the essential or the inessential. known but Reality is one. if Reality is one.Daitaireya: The Philosopher yadi sara-visara-vihlim 6. if sahhm earth and ca katham. the All and the holy. the intellect gaganaift pavano nahi satyaih and the mind?' iti dharani-dahano na hi satyaih iti yadi caika-nirantara. if Reality becomes of the rain- yadi kalpita-loka-nirakaranam yadi kalpita-deva-nirakaranam yadi caika*mrantara-san%v$ivaih guna-do^a-vicara-matiS ca katham ^J^^^ wc reliance of good and evil. 'Truth yet not what 9 1 is not that which known avail is If spoken of but ununderstood. of is the object. rCicCtcd if ' ratiocination thc ima Sincd gods are and prayer?' . of the knower and the known. 'If it is what and the last?' avails to it as the distinction of the first yadi bheda-vibheda-mrakaranaift 7* yadi vedaka-vedya-mrakaranam yadi caika-mrantara-sarva-Sivam tritayam ca katham turiyarft ca katham? devoid of the distinction of difference and non-difference. what bearing clouds and of rater that poun>>* I0 * are unreal. if it is the one. seamless. of what avail is the third state or the fourth state 'If it is to it> & gaditaviditam 11a hi satyaift iti viditaviditam na hi satyaih iti yadi caikanirantara-sarva^ivam vlsayendriya-buddhi-manamsi katham. the senses. seamless. seamless. seamless reality.

the All division of dotage. seamless. If how can the supreme good. one. the All of terms like life. nor spirit is Reality one. seamless. seamless. the All and and what is ca vitathyaih grasitagrasitarii life janitajanitarh ca vitathyaih that which is gained?' iti iti yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivaih avinaSi vina£i katharii hi bhavet. and the holy. If Reality is one. youth by sorrow. and the holy. the All . of cause the holy. what 15- is and distinctions of stages of agent. that the All and "personal" and "impersonal" be ascribed it?' na hi duhkha-samagamanaih na gunad dvitiyasya samagamanaih trtiyaih 13. and infancy. whence is the youth or infancy?' nanu aSrama-varna-vihina-pararii nanu karana-kartr-vihina-paraih 14. seamless. the last is second. where is the relevance motion or motionlessness?' prakrtih puruso 12. If Reality that which is lost is and classes one. yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivaih sthaviras ca 'Of old age.Daitdtreya 226 maranamaranaih 11. the If Reality is yuva ca £i£u£ ca katharii. The of distinction of cause and effect. eschews distinctions of death or Reality is one. na na hi bheda hi karana-karya-vibheda iti iti yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivarii purusapnrusaih ca katharii vadati. is seamless. that of youth. The distinction of the eaten unproduced are irrelevant to and the uneaten. is said to be a state untouched said to be careless of virtue. the produced and it. yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-£ivarii avinasta-vinasta-matiS ca katharii. The highest being transcends of society. to matter or not of any avail here. the done and the undone. hi nirakaranarii karanakaranaih hi nirakaranam yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivarh gamanagamanaih 'If it if hi katharii vadati.

seamless. seamless. doubt or despair do not have relevance to it. the AH and the holy. yadi sam§aya-soka~vihIna parah yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-£ivam aham eti mameti katham ca punah If states of mind like intoxication and depression. seamless. of woman or no woman are irrelevant one. ' iti iti yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivam vada karma-phalani bhavanti katham. To it the distinction of the sacrificer and the sacrifice does not apply. the All and the holy. seamless. what becomes of the rewards of rituals performed? 1 30 * nanu £oka-vi4oka*vimukta iti nanu darpa-vidarpa-vimukta iti yadi caika^nirantara-sarva-Sivarii nanu niga-viniga»m<iti£ ca katham. If Reality is one. the All no relevance of pain or no pain na 19 dement hi yajnika-yajna-vibhaga na hutaiana-vastu-vibhaga and the holy. yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivam katham lha duhklia-viduhkha-matiS ca 'Distinctions of merit or or freedom. If man Reality is or no man. vanitavanitasya vmastam iti iti yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-Sivam avmoda-vinoda-matiS ca katham. there can be If Reality then is are anulled in it. where is the distinction of pleasure or displeasure* yadi moha-visada-vihina paro 17. . the All and the holy. so also of bondage one. nor that of the sacrificial fire and the thing offered to it. nothing that endures and nothing that is destroyed/ puru§apurusasya vmastam 16. 'Distinctions of to it. there is 227 The Philosopher Datialreya. if Reality is one.' and the holy. where is again the relevance of "I" and the "mine"?' nanu dharma-vidharma-vinaSa iti nanu bandha-vibandha-vina£a iti 18.

highest. loss or gain does not apply to is it. I am the absolute auspicious truth. nothing like To whom am I to is prostrate?' na na 24.Dattdtrcya 228 and no grief. of what avail is the distinction of passion and dispassion?' ' It is free from the distinction na na 21. I alone am the Holy one and the Whom then can I salute with reciting my genealogy?' gura-£isya-vicara-visirna 23. The enquiries about family and caste are meaningless. There is nothing like guru and disciple and there instruction. hi kalpita-deha-vibhaga hi kalpita-loka-vibhaga aham eva iti iti Sivah paramartha iti abhivadanam atra karomi kathaih. 'No distinctions relevant to then can 2 5- it. with reciting sarajo virajo my genealogy?' na kadacid api nanu nirmala-ni£cala-£uddha iti aham eva Sivah paramartha iti abhivadanam atra karomi kathaih. hi hanta kadacid api kula-jati-vicaram asatyam aham eva iti £ivah paramartha iti abhivadanam atra karomi kathaih. of grief moha-vimoha-vikara iti hi lobha-vilobha-vikara iti hi yadi caika-nirantara-sarva-£ivaih hy aviveka-viveka-matte ca kathaih. the All is and the holy. If Reality is one. of imagined diverse bodies nor I alone I salute am of diverse abodes are the Holy one. what meaning there in the distinction of discrimination or lack of discrimination?' tvam aham na 22. iti upadeSa vicara-visirna iti aham eva £ivah paramartha iti abhivadanam atra karomi kathaih. The distinction of infatuation and apathy. seamless. pride and no pride. If Reality one. the Highest Goal. seamless. Whom . 'Verily you and I are indeed never there. the All and the holy.

the Avadhiita proclaims the highest truth/ Hi dattatreya-wracitayam avadhutagitayam svamUkartika-samvade svatma-samvittyupadeSe £ri nama mokSa-nirnayo sasjo dhyayah. Immersed the ecstasy is m of communion and inwardly inspired. truth or untruth. I alone am the Holy one. 'Thus the sixth chapter entitled "The Determination of Liberation in the course of the instruction of the Wisdom pertaining to Self the discourse that too> place between svdmi and harttka in the Avaihuta-Gita of Sri Dattatreya'V m CHAPTER VII Thus spake DattStreya. of K . restfulness and punty. 26* 'The distinctions of having a body. the Highest Goal. then can I salute with reciting Whom my genealogy*' vindati vindati nahi nahi yatra 27* chando-laksanam nahi nahi tatra samarasa-magno bhavita-putah pralapati tattvam param avadhutah* 'Ulicre there nothing to be logically apprehended. the Highest Goal. he barC ab0de purc Md ^adulterated. there is nothing that could be Mated in rhetorical language. I am alone the Holy one. x * rathya-karpata-viracita-kanthah punyapunya-vivarjita-panthah SunyagSre tistfiati nagno Suddha-niranjana-samarasa-magnah. 'To it Whom then can I stdtxtc with reciting my genealogy?' na hi deha-videha-vikalpa iti anrtam ca rtaih na hi satyam iti aham eva Sivah paramartha Hi abhivadanam atra karomi kathaih.' Daitaircya: The Philosopher 229 docs not apply distinctions of the sinful nor of cleanliness. T Cmptyrearing a garland nigs picked «P ^ the roaU and treading a path which h beyond good L in Xo^!Tn^ absorbs in th c essence ' of things. have no relevance to it.

'How does one know the formless here? It is like reality here? Whence is the formed and the the spread out space and how can there be objectification here?' gaganakara-nirantara-hamsah 6.Dattdtreya 230 lak§y3. the pure spotless swan of truth. Those who know this truth become pure and free from dross/ 'He is free katham iha deha-videha-vicarah katham iha raga-viraga-vicarah mrm al a-ni£cala-gagan akaram svayam iha tattvam sahajakaram. His skill He is appropriate or inappropriate. spotless truth of self-sufficiency. 4. 5. and is spacelike. 'It is the eternal celestial swan. un- and innate truth. from the fetters of desire. • 'His aim clear of is neither to aim or not what is « aim at an object. 'Wherefore here is the debate of body or bodylessness? Wherefore the discussion of passion and passionlessness? moved. himself the truth He is is taintless.' katham iha tattvam vindati yatra rupam arupam katham iha tatra gaganakarah paramo yatra visaylkaranam katham iha tatra.' It is distinct from the . Whence is this division modifications of and multiplication? bound or free. Whence then any is to steer sanctified by dispute about the this self-sufficient sage?' a6a-pa£a-vibandhana-muktah £ aucacara-vi varj it a-yukt ah 3. yuktayukta-vivarjita daksah kevala-tattva-niranjana-putah vadavivadah katharh avadhutah.1aksya-vivarjita-laksyo 2. He is tranquil though deprived of all. He fares well though freed from ritual purity and ceremonial conduct. evam sarva-vivarjita-Santah tattvam Suddha-niranjanavantah. tattva-viSuddha-niranj ana-haihsah evarh katham iha bhinna-vibhinnam bandha-vibandha-vikara-vibhinnaih.

dvaitadvaitaih sahajo virajah katham iha muktah katham iha yogi iuddha-niranjana-samarasa-bhogi. He clings to the nullification of the distinction between is . bhoga-vjbhogaih rahito bhogi evam carati hi mandam mandam manasa kalpita-sahajanandam* from being yoked or unyoked. Where then the relevance of attachment or detachment? Where is the 'All is js relevance of truth having here a field or no 1 field? yoga-viyogaih rahito yogi 9. 'He the breaker of the distinction between the broken and the unbroken. He lJ is How is thisyogi free from defects innately so' the pure. Where is the sense of egoity the highest as distinguished or undistinguished from it? Thus is or eternal truth of all Where is here the question of essential 'AH is unessential?' kcvala-tatt va-niranj ana-sarvarn 8. aesthetically balanced bhogl (enjoyer) of life/ bhagnabhagna-vivarjita-bbagno - lagnalagna-vivarjita-lagnah evam katham iha sara-visarah samarasa-tattvath gaganakarah. sinless.Dattatreya y * 231 The Philosopher kevala-tattva-nirantara-sarvam ( yoga-viyogau katham iha garvam evam parama-nirantara-sarvam evam katham iha sara-visaram. gaganakara-nirantara-iuddharii evam katham iha sanga-visangam satyam katham iha ranga-virangam ever the one pure reality Spacelike it is always pure. He is the bhogl (the enjoyer) of the enjoyable and the unenjoyable The native bliss that springs from the mind spreads itself gently and ghdingly/ 'The yogi is free bodha-vibodhaiah satatam yukto 10. ever the one and only reality. 'He who what is always pre-occupicd with what is correct teaching and incorrect teaching can never be freed from the dispute of is duality and non-duality.

it is the reality that clinging evenly balances all/ 12 satat am-sarva-vivarj ita-yukt ah . chando-liksanarh na hi na hi tatra samarasa-magno bhavita-putah pralapati tattvarh pararh avadhutah.' in the . 'Where there is nothing to be known there.' dharmadau moksa-paryantarh 14. nirlhah sarvatha katham vayam raga-viragaii ca kalpayanti vipaicitah. formless and desert. desire for anything ranging How from righteousness to up attachment or therefore can the wise confuse detachment? vindati vindati na hi na hi yatra 15. metrical words and measured lines are of no avail. Thus the seventh chapter in "The Instruction of one's in the course of the discourse own Aitnan" between Svami and Kdrtika Avadhuta-Gitd composed by Sri Dattatreya. pure in conception and steeped in the bliss of "harmony.Dattdtreya 232 and non-clinging. cries this truth out.' iti £ri dattatreya-viracitayam avadhutagitayarh saptamo adhyayah. death? He is ever free can we speak of its ever distinguished from things* And what will Whence then from all birth or meditation or no meditation avail here? 1 indrajalam idam sarvam yatha maru-maricika 13. Siva self-sufficient. 'We have no liberation. the highest sage. Whence has arisen here the distinction of the essential and the non-essential? Spacelike. akharujlitam anakaro vartate kevalah Sivah. sarvam tattv^-vivarjita-muktah katham iha jivita-maranam dhyanadhyanaih katham iha karanam. 'AH is this is bewitching and lures like a mirage in the impartite. evarh 'He is intellectual principles.

va dhu and ta) by those who t are the most sacred. the philosopher. things. uncovetous. 'The character of avadhuta. and me is steady and unassailed by desires. is gentle. must be understood by means ot these letters. 'And one who compassionate. 4. the cancelled.* apramatto gabhiratma dhrtiman jita-sa<J~gunah amanl manadah kalpo maitrah karunikah kavih. tranquil firm. of the essence of truth. of a sinless disposition. 3. 2. avadhuta): 5< is avadhuta-Iaksanam varnaih jnatavyam bhagavattamaih veda-varnartha-tattvajnaiah veda-vedanta-vadibhih. a spare eater. and expressive/ kipUurakfta-drohah titiksuh sarva-dehinam satya-slro anavadyatma samas sarvopakarakah. By my meditation. (a. the truth of your all-pervadingness annihilated. who know the truth contained in the meaning of the Vedtc letters and who expound and Vt&Snkt* . the most enduring of all beings. harmless. doing good to all (is the Philosopher.Dattdlrcya: 233 The Philosopher CHAPTER VIII Tims spake Dattatteya: tvad-yatraya vyapakata hata te dhyanena cetah-parata hata te I# maya vakparata hata te ksamasva mtyam trividhaparadharh. unaffected. 0 Forgive me for anulled. stutya is my going on a pilgrimage. helpful. is is truth of your trans- these three daily sins mine/ kamair ahatadhir danto mrduh £ucir akimcanah antho mitabhuk fiantah sthiro maccharano munih. who has resorted 'The sage clean. the truth of your pure 'By consciousness cending speech of By my praise. *Hc unowning to h unintoxicated and a profound soul* conqueror of the six foes within. friendly He is He is courageous and the humble. respectful.

'All traces of previous deeds are abandoned by him.Dattdtreya 234 aia-pasa-vinirmuktah adi-madhyanta-nirmalah anande vartate nityam akararh tasya laksanam. He lives always in spiritual bliss. tamohankara-nirmuktah takaras tasya laksanam. letter ' only He meaning is all this in his mark. are besmeared with ashes. The letter "dhu" meaning this is his mark/ tattva-cinta dhrta yena cmta-cesta-vivarjitah 9. He is He is absolutely free from meditation with interval and med- itation with no interval. atmanam camrtarh hitva abhinnam gatohi kutsitah kakah vartate 'Forsaking the nectar of moksam narakam avyayaih prati. middle V meaning his definition/ vasana varjita yena vaktavyam ca niramayarh vartamanesu varteta vakaraih tasya laksanam. The letter "ta" meaning all this is his mark/ 10. 'He and from the bondage of desire. 7.' dhuli-dhusara-gatrani dhuta-citto niramayah 8. dharana-dhyana-nirmukto dhukaras tasya laksanam. The letter is free all this is start. I know not how the deereyed woman was created/ to . manasa karmana vaca tyajatam mrga-locana na te svargo apavargo va sanandam hrdayam yadi. The is W is the taintless. Atman and the non-dual imperishable one. na j an ami katham tena nirmita mrga-locana vtevasa-ghataklm viddhi svarga-moksa-sukhargalam. He is pure at the finish. His mind is controlled. He is untouched by dullness and egoism. Tf you give up the desire for deer-eyed women in mind. a contemptible crow towards hell/ he goes like 11. 6. There one thing to be expounded by him and that fixed to those things that are present. He is free from anxiety and activity. speech and conduct and if your heart is full of joy you have neither heaven nor hell/ 12. 'Know her be the betrayer of your affections and an obstacle to the attainment of heaven or final release. 'By him meditation on Truth is taken up. 'His hmbs tingeless.

vi$}adi^narakaift kirn 'Excretory organ of the same run attcr 1 9 Jf is stuff. One who hen In turn he runs into is herself/ bhagadi-kuca-paiyantaih samviddhi narakarnavam ye ramante punah tatra taranti narakath katham. born in her becomes attached to bandhanam is indeed bondage. demons and men go to pieces ' made . 17* 'Beginning with the secret organ the ocean of hell. Foul 0 mind' Do you is the genital passage not see this* Why then do you it?' bhagena carma-kund ena durgandhena vranena ca klianditarh hi jagat sarvarh sadevdsura-manusam. 235 hy amedhya-dvara-du§ite canna-kunsle ye ramante te lipyante na samSayalj. kenapi nirmif a nari bandhanarh sarvadehinam 'Someone has created punty. a that creatures are devoted to that through which they have painfully emerged. vain. up to the breast understand that it is How can those that are attached to it get themselves rid of hell?' iS* ghoram bhagam ca pannirmitam u paSyasi re citta katham tatraiva dhavasi. 'Without doubt they arc sinners smell of blood who delight in skin holes with foul and urine and contact with excretory opening/ kautilya-tfaiftbha-samyukta satya&mca-vivarjita 14. Hence the bondage. 1 ha' ha! janami narakaift narim dhruvam janami 16 yasyam *l know that a jato ratas tatra woman is a punah tatraiva dhavati She hell. the foulest hell. wicked and the bondage of and beings/ all trailoka-janani dhatri sa bhagi 15. Alas. strange it is the sustainer of them all things are born. devoid of truth narako dhruvam tasyaih jato ratas tatra ha ha samsara-samsthitih. she is woman.The Philosopher Dattdtrcya* mutra-sonita-durgandhe 13. C Ct 0 ° l a * 0man whlch 15 nothin S but a hole IF? d£ made T worra 01 Gods. 'She the mother of the three worlds is and is She has the genital passage through which veritable hell.

aho jato ratas tatra aho bhava-vi<Jaihbana. another from honey and the third from flour. take pleasure (in woman). kenapi nirmita nari 'The most fearful ocean woman created is is bhagam caiva the body. ca sadevasura-manavah narakam ghoram satyam eva na samSayah. is filled up with secret organ blood. taken to be Lahta (the friend of supreme truth) but she really the enemy of is supreme truth/ ajnatva jivitam labdham bhavas tatraiva dehinarh. These fools. . 'Wine quaffing is woman. They indeed without doubt get into fearful hell/ 24.Dattdtreya 236 deharnave maha ghore puritam caiva £onitam 20. hell inside. Deceit is the external ornament. lalitam iha pa§yanti 'Understand that there She is is maha-mantra virodhinim. One is from jaggery. It by some Her one. All the world goes mad with it/ 26. The the passage is downwards/ antare narakam viddhi kautilyarh bahya-manditam 21. The wise man to truth/ So is association with one who gives up both and stands devoted looked upon as a deadly is sin. obtained A woman madya-panaih maha-papam narl-sangas tathaiva ca tasmad dvayarh parityajya tattva-nistho bhaven munih. 22. that there are three kinds of intoxicating wine.' origin in a This is 23. hy adhomukham. is the fourth of these. 'Without knowing the life that woman. Alas' One who the game of bondage. is tatra mugdha ramante te yanti given the creatures have is born there is attached to her. men as well as Gods and demons. gau#I madhvi tatha paisti vijneya tri-vidha sura caturthi stri sura jneya 'Know yadedam mohitam jagat. their there agni-kunda-sama nari ghrta-kumbha samo narah samsargena viliyeta tasmat tarn parivarjayet 'Woman is disappears like a furnace and by contact with the man is like a jar of ghee which former. Therefore it has to be given up/ 25.

reason thrives/ dattatreyavadhutena nirmitananda-rupina 28. 'Thus is the eighth chapter "The Instruction of Self-knowledge' in lti m the discourse of by Sri * Svami and Kartxka in the Avadhuta-Gxtd composed Dattatreya/ . is bound by its elementary constitutents and pensive with In the absence of consciousness the elements begin to dis- integrate. the Philosopher. of beatific bliss re-birth the form of Those that read this and study this are those to whom never occurs/ in dattdtreya-krtayam avadhuta-gftayam svami-kartika-samvade svatma-samvitty-upade4e astamodhyayah. So consciousness must be preserved at all costs* With consciousness intact. 'The body care.DattSlrtya: The Philosopher 237 cinta-krantam dhatu-baddharh Sarirarh nastc cittc dhatavo yanti tasmac cittaxii na£am sarvato raksanlyam svasthe citte buddhayah sambhavanti. ye pathanti ca £mvanti tesam naiva punarbhavah. 'This is the exposition of Dattatreya.

I began the exposition of this philosophy with a study of myself. Every birth presupposes much more than what the born man may experience throughout his and enduring life. obligations come to be cast on him the discharging of which is demanded of him. It is all aspiration of the soul and attunement of the spirit to the lofty subject embarked upon. the guardians of order. To them man owes certain duties. invisible spiritual beings Man through is men born whom of to the wisdom in a world the Divine These are the gods. Critical estimate of a philosophy lends a personal study of philosophy is touch to the philosophy. Besides. adhydtma. environment into which obligation.CHAPTER V A CRITICAL ESTIMATE OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF DATTATREYA its background): DATTATREYA: THE TRUTH OF EQUIPOISE I. The birth of a man is never his origin de novo. NO (with complete without a critical estimate. This is the philosophy of the three-fold obligations. This explains the sanctity and worthwhileness to the individual of philosophical literature. Such are the fathers to whom we owe an manifests itself. in character* A philosophy which is not personal lacks sincerity in it. obligation to the fathers and obligation to the (seers). Further. a touch of personal character makes philosophy indispensable. rsis —deva rna imbued with } pitr rna and rsi rna. He is born in a family which has had its progenitor who gives man his physical being and leaves him a spiritual legacy. ritual and moral. Besides the material and man non-material spiritual environment is born. he is ensconced in a social . In India from the very outset philosophy has become necessarily personal. Prayer here is no petitionary prayer of a conventional religion. With the residual impressions life. In this work prayer has preceded philosophical exposition. rnatraya —obligation Gods. birth of a granting that he has a long man and tendencies which is heralded deep rooted for many lifetimes had been forming in the individual (samskdras and vdsands) which set the course of his present life. His mind is never a tabula rasa. Truth without sincerity is inconceivable.

is solution for the riddles of ments of life.> V. then U mus 0* » 5 it is Simdarly if advaital^ t0SCih£T to Pr°P*r recaption of opposing mere confusion. With the idea of separatism man is thrown into an exclusivistic and static condition. I began to conceive and understand the urge that was responsible for this attitude I was not helpless There was already the response that came from my debt to men of wisdom. These words in tins connection must be taken only in the senses relevant to the present discussion. Hence the debt to men of wisdom may be considered to be the credited by men of spiritual birth — Rw governing principle of life became consciously aware of my station in life it was the debt to the men of wisdom that attracted me most. and if this attitude governs m ^ V™? *™^c We dZTT^ f^ ml K elements. But with the idea of of wholeness oneness of things.A Critical Estimate of the Philosophy of Dattdlreya wisdom who give us a 239 and make us the twice-born. Without wisdom the former the two arc infructuous With wisdom they lead one to great happiness. Relatively speaking the former two debts debt to Gods and debt to fathers become enlivened only in the measure with which the obligations to or men of wisdom are fulfilled. . negates life vision. We thus become their spiritual heirs and come toowe many an obligation to them. partiality life and passion that is often found to be the cause of misery. The only remedy for this circumstance is the attitude or outlook of identity. I began to question the truth of my life. advatta-bhavava. dvaiia right Duality is The Sanskrit equivalents of duality and non-duality used in philosophical parlance are respectively dvaiia and advaita. merc analysis without synthesis. Soon after I advaita-drsli. Hence ivatta must be such thi uJ^Ta^^ transcend itself and make room for such that it must be all-inclusive rivine at be *>>. Hence wrong and integral unity. Problems and solutions of these men came to my mind resulting in a sudden flash that after all the attitude of identity. with the birth of wisdom. If dvatfa were to mean mere breaking without the hope of j unifying. is attains to a duality. advaita and unity enriches it. It is the attitude of prejudice. Enough is already mdicated this direction. Men suffer not so much from the real the ail- as from the lack of a right attitude or proper outlook towards what life has to offer. and of perfection. or the outlook of identity. man comprehensive and all-inclusive separation. oneness through the Absolute.

marked philosophic on a lower plane that has given scientific research. Some may see only multiplicity. the vision of seeing unity The difference thinking.Datidirtya 240 and advaita are not opposed to each other. harmonised there is more propriety in calling the resultant product than dvaita. In Bliagavad-Gitd. The greatness of philosophy consists in the successful When these two are thus brought together and expression of this art. Each gives a meaning and purpose to the other. There are now apparently two possibilities of looking at the world. But the inclusiveness of science is relative . Vdsistha-Rdmdyana. Implicitly or explicitly both are present in the same idea whatever its character may be. for multiplicity is an appearance and It unity is reality. To see unity in multiplicity requires vision* Men of vision are called philosophers. multiplicity that has it is vision. At the same time they gave me a proper perspective to embark on the study of the subject. The relation of the two is just the relation that between appearance and reality. To bring these two together is therefore an art by itself. advaita. Ever since the dawn of subsists philosophy in the world. It in is this vision rise to certain fruitful fields of between science and philosophy would reduce itself to this. it soon vanishes and gives way to the concept of unity. What we actually expenence is the world of multiplicity. Tripurd-Rahasya. AU-inclusiveness is the characteristic of any systematic thinking. identity rather my reflections. becomes ultimate. Judged from this point of view the world of multiplicity loses its reality and finally the world of unity. It is therefore the characteristic of both science and philosophy. I saw in the light of my study richer and richer advaita. This comparison the denial of the world as the evaluation of often compared is not so much it. and so on. By way my mind passages from meanings emerging in of illustration of this truth I recalled to the Brhad-Aranyaka Upanisad. duality. I began to reflect on the works I studied so far. Vtsmi-Ptirdna. These reflections of mine were the combined result of all that moulded my life. may however be noted that there are two orders of the world— the world of multiplicity and the world of unity. Consequently the individuality of multiplicity comes to be more of the character of imagination. If the reflection on the truth of this world takes place. recognition of this idea the experience of this world is to illusion in philosophical works. They therefore do not rise above the commonsense view of things. They do not exist separately.

A Critical Estimate of the lo the subject Phrlosophy of Dattatrcya matter of the study. Its English is the philosophical expression 'ruler of the universe' or It is eZX prrhnce God. To illustrate this view point with a view to show the importance of the outlook of unity I recalled particular passages from some modern philosophers such as William James. For 241 this reason it is restricted to Hence science suffers from artificiality. 'prdlibhdd va sarvath'. The vision must be of the character of illumination. However great its result be in the empirical field it science docs not take the individual life to the integral vision of reality v inch alone is the source of lasting happiness. anddu Its source is the ultimate reality itself. prahbhd. Similar is the case with regard to It is the philosophers outside India. owing to this philosophic vision in different degrees that both in India and outside men of science have finally become philosophers In India a thinker who lias given rise to a philosophic tradition is necessarily a man of a serene scientific outlook This is amply illustrated by a reference to the philosophers of the Darfanas. while it is the same interest that has made men scientists Hence mere which pauses at the stage of analysis does not help Rumination. Every case of restriction is artificial. How docs the philosophic vision. Whitehead. It The spiritual illumination. The study of the several trends of thought left me with the notion that the only way by which philosophical perplexity may be laid to rest make a bold bid for the rcassevcration of the philosophic vision of Advaita. Even as h« reality . Isvara. If in any sense it is narrow. a case of diversity. Ilhirmnation is therefore the gift of God. it . » agau. unborn. then it ceases to be philosophy and becomes a dogma. restriction and artificiality. To 2S S i what makes us see umtv in Unity is liberation To sep them transcend this difficulty nT Liy 0U g£ .s the source of iUuminatto Ultimate reality is called in Sanskrit. come? It is not acquired. Diversity is bondage. is to It is therefore the vision and declare that bound its 'all is to be spiritual in character synthetic character has by made The wholeness of the Yoga Sdstra intuition'. Nyuya-Vatiepka. Bergson and Jung who represent important modern philosophical thinking. the latter. happy thought or wellfounded presumption. Yoga and so on. prahbhd is diversity.s the source of life as such. Prahbhd has made men philosophers. But the all-inclusiveness of philosophy is beyond all relativity. The term used K prahbhd which literally means brilliant idea.

But with this determination I was confronted with a serious difficulty. This be an expression of unity. Liberation the ultimate truth. It this is to is is is to see diversity or multiplicity to in fact the language of unity. is identity. By studying the concept of Dattatreya I came to understand more clearly than before that in the two stages of an individual life bondage. This is the lesson I learnt from the Vedic and the Upanisadic liberation expressions of the ultimate reality. Dattalreya and so on. Hence unity is spontaneity. Atman. dvaita ancl philosophic vision effected. Soon after I began to interprrt I had to make myself sure that the attributes ascribed lo Dattatreya are not accidental or conventional properties but are fraught with tremendous significance for spiritual endeavour and understanding of ultimate truth. They are different aspects of the same truth presented as unity. Brahman. to my mind the concept of Dattatreya appealed most only because I could illustrate the truth of identity or unity more easily and readily to myself without making the experience of multiplicity meaningless and the concept of unity an abstraction. To realise know how diversity or multiplicity is transcended and unity established* There is nothing that governs unity. that of bringing together the .Dattatreya 242 to be inclusive of diversity. liberated though alive. Vi^tu. Brahman. Consistently with this bondage liberation is accomplished while this life lasts. is is unity with the stage where and completeness of These two are respectively called jivanmukti and avadhutaiva. With the realisation of unity diversity disappears. $iva hvara. bandha and liberation. the philosopher and the truth ultimate. Before embarking on the actual study of the philosophy of Dattatreya what happened within me to the study of this truth as recorded here indicates a gradual growth of the need of philosophy for me. of the t — moksa. there is threaded a common truth. avadhiita. Hence diversity and unity form unity. In making a serious study of Dattatreya it was inevitable that I should resort to meditation on a particular verse of meditations presented this verse by the Sdndilya-Upanisad. but diversity is governed by unity. This is how in the unity characterised as Dattatreya there is the recognition of both duality. Mahehara. In my search for a clear exposition same truth differently expressed as Ndrdyana. advaita. In other words with the realisation of bondage disappears. Dattatreya as the unity of all is jivanmukta. each My devotion making the other significant and meaningful brought with it more problems and the necessity for their solution.

So I attempted the present meditation of Vedtc passages in terms of Veda My study may have not done Confining : my ssss not have been exhaustivTl full justice to Badarayana's principle attention to the interest of presenting to mav TZalvZl mS c ha t txi Ved% ° exprcssions ***** ** «™ . little But when difficulties and feel that everything is all serious reflection took place. Why should one who is auspicious be peaceful? as peaceful. Soon Badarayana's principle of Vedtc interpretation and that light the interpretation of the whole field of experience came to my mind. idnta needed Dattatreya gem If is further characterised as having the splendour of the This means that Dattatreya must be a person. Ordinarily when we have some religious interest v e do not see this difficulty seriously. In this case this attribute essence by which Dattatreya is may not necessarily Dattatreya. Samanvaya is the expression of the outJook of unity of thought in the Vedas. But this attribute does not bring out the essence of Dattatreya.A Critical Estimate of the Philosophy of Dattatreya 243 various concepts that defined Dattatreya. a person. He is next described as master or Lord. This is m essence the outlook that results in the practice of interpreting a Vedtc word in terms of the *hoIe Veda. and in this circumstance no meditation became possible. This state of mind did not last long. he is owning a body. We have a tendency to slur over right. prabhu. then he must necessarily have all the merits and called tndranila. For this word as applied to a person who is dependent on a body cannot yield a complete and satisfactory meaning. Siva may also mean auspicious. idnia. justification. This is defects of how each attribute of Dattatreya gave way and no attribute could be maintained along with other attributes. He is mean the further described How the auspicious Siva is the peaceful. these seemingly discrepancies obstructed the thinking process. In this circumstance could only think of the usual meaning of the Sanskrit terms Stva I and so on Usually Siva means a deity or God. The test of the soundness of this method of mtcrprctalion * the fact that there arises no discrepancy either between two expressions of Veda or between t«o ideas of truth arising from the expressions of Veda. In calling Dattatreya Stva the identity of the two needed justification. This principle is m called samanvaya by Badarayana.

Nor is it running away from bondage. The dualism is overcome and misery is transcended only if the same truth is seen to liberation.Dattdtreya 244 study was perfectly justified by the way in which the Dattatreya-Upanisad prescribes the process of meditation on the Truth in the muldniantra. It has a history behind and a growth after. It is cogitation. It is therefore a continuity. In no two moments is it the same. It cannot be otherwise. run concurrently in both these phases. the It is the presence of real essence of bondage? transcendence in the so called bondage. The truth of identity is not achieved merely by attaining to the unity of god-head. It is active. It is the nonrecognition of the binding character of bondage. This devotion of the character of knowledge. If this identity is considered to stand outside the world of experience the dualism is not transcended and in this case the concept of unity becomes a mere verbal enunciation. that is. But to sacrifice life in the interest of transcendence is to revel in imagination. This is the environment in which the truth of identity is readily so-called appreciated. To sacrifice transcendence m the interest of life is materialism. What knowledge? It is not a mere idea. It is the state of transcendence. Life bondage. Appreciation of truth is devotion to it. in view of this truth. Both are impossible. It recognition that is is this properly called detachment. The recognition of this presence expresses itself in —detachment two forms and devotion to Truth. Detachment is not to negate bondage. In either case life is a misery and in spite of the negation of either. In order to avoid this difficulty. Without knowledge these two are contentless and with knowledge they are superfluous and therefore they do not take place. It is a way from the is . to hold that the world is unreal is to negate the problem itself instead of solvmg it. To suppose that knowledge gives room for them is to overlook the immortal character of knowledge and this is to negate the life of transcendence. It is m fact the recognition of the freeing character of the so called bondage. What is then. Beyond is life is Beyond life is not the negation of life. mok$a. There is thus no opposition between the two states. Otherwise it is no truth. dualism is not overcome. This meditation is evidently a method that this of powerful expression of the absolute omnipotence of Dattatreya. The Truth of unity must cover both. the so-called bondage ceases to exist and the its state of the bondage becomes purely a stage of life preliminary to liberation. vatrdgya* In presence. is it cannot be of the character of emotion or of volition.

It ledge is liberation Punty all m pvanmuklt. It involving in order. It is the state of being avadhitta It is avadhiitatva. reflection the whole of life having nothing outside. life. Who is competent to say anything about the state of being liberated in life? The answer is Dattatreya himself. With all its ments the term ly SdCnt Wth regard t0 ttc *. It is 245 a process and meditation. To make the text of Jivanmukta-Gita more readily intelligible I have presented an English rendering of each verse of the text. In working out the truth of advaita this philosophy arrives at a finer conception of the ultimate truth. This devotion being life. Dattatreya as the yivanmukta. It is philosophy. Hence the sketch of by Dattatreya. because truth is no other than knowledge The nature of this knowledge is such that it presupposes itself and is followed by itself It is immortal. r° i ' nder R<*% bongs doe. Similarly the It is m necessity for the incarnation of Dattatreya as the son of Anasuya having Atn and m the attributes mentioned the Ufanisadic verse of meditation needed to be explained. This accounts for a study of the Jivanmukta-Gita after the sketch of Dattatreya. is in this It is sense devotion to truth. It notes the misleading character of advaita as applied to Truth. Identity is thus identity of detachment and devotion on the one hand and transcendence on the He the is detached liberation in is the liberated in is Dattatreya of detachment. jhwimttkh. thus a necessary aspect of the truth of identity that we must attempt to explain the value of liberation life. This accounts for the appearance of a section on these aspects after the exposition of the Jivanmukta-Gita. liberated in life. This accounts for the philosophy of avadhuta. Dattatreya is this identity. ^notional side of the rl Z bn °Ut he nchncss 0{ and T™* ' W^toZ u\ Shn^h? g "f and presents the truth l^age of equipoise. devotion to truth is devotion to knowledge. that explains purity of knowof knowledge is purity of devotion. understanding.A Critical Estimate of the Philosophy of Dattatreya simple to the complex and from the complex to unity. life. life of devotion life Detachment is other. the followed and transcendence. not mmaya m the PM°sophcr and this ' m the name of sama It it or samarasa This out the character of is the SSSSute « . defined as Dattatreya coming after the Jivanmukta-Gita.

come across three important texts in the course relation of these how it We exposition interinter- explain of the —the verse of meditation. Yoga marked is (ii) Ideas pertaining to the taken to mean Brahman. (iii) The absence of reference to any DarSana including Uttara-Mxwtdmsa. In illustration of these ideas a study of the Avadhuta-GUd is given at the end with its translation. Of an Upanisadio passage. There is no doubt the use of the of reasoning. Its origin is Sruti.and as such it is the language of ineffable joy. avadhuta composed the Avadhuta-GUd. the composition of the later Upanisads.Dattdtreya 246 being equal to all consisting of bondage and liberation. This is how unity of thought and unity of purpose are sought to be implemented throughout the exposition. In the state of this wonderment the philosopher. dnanda. Jivanmukta-GUd and Avadhuta- GUd. It is therefore the language of Identity manifesting itself in a more expressive manner and it readily kindles the feeling of wonder in the philosopher. Speaking in terms of modern ideas it may be the period when the later Upanisads and early Smrtis came about 1200 things: — (i) into existence and this period is generally In support of this conclusion we may refer to three The nature of the composition. Tarka is used in the sense Circumstances like these indicate the pxe-Dariana character of the composition. word Veddnta. This work is the expression of the philosophy of avadhuta. Applying the two to the present exposition we shall first is governed by unity of thought. But passages as it is as old as Veda itself. In the light is the period when Para^urama and Kartavlryarjuna were in the making. recognised to have only six limbs. The most important thing that must result from our study of this work is the unity of thought running through these texts. Sruti as a whole is the exposition of the truth of sama. These unities are related. veddnta-vijndna'SunUciidrthdh The composition of these as it is evident in such (Mundaka Upani§ad). So the dates of these works must be those that belong to these three texts the verse of meditation the period of time when of the Puranic version it is Dattatreya flourished. We may now see how these two unities. the unity of thought and unity of purpose operate on our minds.C. The Avadhuta-Gltd is its shadow. Each is impossible without the other. The other two are on the basis of tradition taken to be the works of Dattatreya. two works indicates that they are prior to . It is almost identical with —the word nanus •pre-DarSana period is as B.

there these propriety in understanding the verse of meditation in the light of the latter two works. Gradually there is the complete disappearance of distraction. and insight. How this understanding come? It does not a case of revelation. Consistently with the idea that the subject matter of the meditation prescribed by the Sandilya-Upamsad is the same Dattatreya who appeared as liberated though alive. °^ ng t0 ° nC S conv<*ience. iraddha. Nor is it a case of realisation. s udy readily fruitful. ' mtu*°*. Avadlmla-GUd insists on samarasam and the Bhagavad-GUa insists on the truth as mrdo$am ht samam Brahma.) dm S aCC c t intuition is or made is by nature all comprehensive. The aspirant consequently bound is by nothing and he is liberated though alive. non-spiritual. Both insist on the importance of knowledge. It is to understand the content of self Hence the knowledge of Self is to understand Self. S T ^ ZS ™f (. that is. It man who knows such and such an attribute of Self is the knower of Self. fivan-muhta and the philosopher avadhuta and who taught Jtvantnukta-Gttd and Avadhuta-Gttd. because no preparation on the part of the aspirant. patibhd. AvadhVa-GUd insists on jnanamrtam. To know the content of knowledge as being such does not mean the at best means only that the verse says that the knowledge of self. This point requires elucidation. Both these works emphasise the truth of sama. This means that the interpretation of each word is m terms of the passages from Bruit. Two points must however be noted s these ideas. must also be grasped in the same light. UnaHoycd devotion. Knowledge of Self means seeing the content of Self. because apart from understanding realisation has no meaning. This is how meditation in each round becomes more and more pronounced and effective and consequently aU faculties of man get more and more of the meditation united. consistently characterised as the is The content m of knowledge is also given each verse. In the Jivanmttkta-Gitd he Knower of Self. realisation and such other faculties not partake of the nature of understanding what you will. But there is Philosophy of Dattaireya 247 a striking similarity in the theme of two sets of works. Tins is what is called detachment in the real sense. Understanding therefore comes is revelation presupposes udy.A Critical Estimate of the Bhagavad-GUa. and the Bhagavad-GUa insists on knowledge as nah jndncna sadrSam. becomes non^piritual and with! . atma-juani. (uM^ytlnng that does the truth make the m following Understanding U call from One Understood thus. Upan\$ads.

Avadhuta-Gtid He receives some even glimpsed though he interest of these readers light may is marked by casual reading becomes greatly which he cannot otherwise have eventually fail some commonsense may be considered. They must therefore be avoided. is is the life here in which beautifully brought out. To call this the state of realisation negates its spiritual character. With all its Even a novice by a simplicity. Men attract women. this philosophy is called Avadhuta-Gitd. In the so-called condemnation the indispensability of the fair sex in alone spiritual discipline is possible. the philosopher. a warning to men against and to women against men as objects of lust. They must therefore be avoided. Hence to study Avadhiita-Gitd presupposes a definite philosophic evolution. What avadhuia. that the teaching But the is anti-social as condemns the fair fact is different. breathes is a philosophy. Some may feel that the extraordinary to define In the it. Women attract men. The detached one is fixed in Self. the state of being avadhuta. This is result the state of philosophy. to comprehend it. Further the so-called condemnation women it ideas. The philosophy coming from him requires an avadhuta. Being the song of Avadhuta. benefited. This state being of the character of in knowledge must knowledge more definite and more comprehensive.Daitdtreya 248 outcome of study and understanding. Understanding involves reflection and assimilation. This difficulty resolves itself when the aspirant visualises the spiritual truth and ceases to attach undue importance to empirical Some may feel sex as such. It rather the state of preparation for further is progress. holding good for all times and in all circumstances. Philosophy makes one detached. Meditation is thus study. the philosopher. every discipline and every institution worth having. greatness. difficulties that they may conceive teaching barren is as it negates every science. Study Knowledge is of Self therefore the is that of philosophy. This one is the liberated though alive. expounded by Veda in the process of this interpretation there is involved a conscious recognition of the uselessness of empirical sciences. In the present context philosophy To study Veda in terms of is to interpret the truth of Self as Veda and is Veda. The condemnation of the fair as objects of lust sex in this connection refers to excess of licentiousness. Study is philosophy. all kinds usually termed .

it is inoham. Dattatreya I am'. the auspicious and tranquil'. Merely asserting the affirmation does not establish identity. appreciate it correctly is a spiritual joy m immortal knowledge. Samarasath or the result of such austerity or . Dattatreya I am'. Datldtreyam Hvam ianiam. From That is this great ^ "I". It js the grace of the Lord. They commence the meditation with the freshness of spring. inoksa* The aspirants of a lower order. soham. dattoLam. the most auspicious truth— mahS&tva.. "This self is Brahman'. * space-like. in fact it is the only form of meditation. the sadriipa. DATTOHAM. a person can perform. Dattatreya*. Meditation has been denned as tad hi Identity. by stating 'I am Datta. and I Veda as 'That thou art'. which means 'Datta. 'That is the affirmation What does 'that' mean?—'that' refers to the understanding and exposition of the all highest. of the essence of equipoise. ndi-ndi. Brahman. 'Dattatreya. because that is the sole end towards which the philosophy of the Avadhiita-Gtld moves. that is. Identity is estabI lished. and *He 1 am'. *I am auspicious'. not this*. thus. which is no other than liberation. dattohath. Avadhuta sings and atlirms. ayamdlma brahma. The truth is knowledge immortal. meditation when a person affirms his identity with the dhinc. . Therefore is meditation'. . identity is Datta. $ama. jnditamrtam.A On Critical Estimate of the Philosophy of Daitdireya positive side Avadlfda-Glia its is 249 a beautiful extension of the philosophy of equipoise. sadasira. 'I am Brahman'. Dattatreya am in known am I. after a study of this philosophy see resulting greater significance in the verse of the meditation on Dattatreya. ahath brahmasmi. meditation. t&ardmigraha which gives it. that is. becomes established in Identity. viz. and of 'not this. samarasam. softam This affirmation is the greatest tapas. That is all and nothing more. of the essence of equipoise. With the grace of the Lord. aham asmi. this tapah. that is Dattatreya. equality towards all.DATTATREYA IS 1 have entitled this concluding section as Dailoham. the meditation of affirmation of 'Datta. tat tram asi. as the elucidation of the former expounded in the Brhad-AranyakaUpamfad and discussed elaborately in all its details in the whole of To understand and the Veda. d-vttatreya: the all complete 2. As the philosopher.* meditation equipoise. . is is bom samarasam. 'He I am'. 'I am'. that is Dattatreya I am'.

satya.. tapas and all there is of the in kaivalya. Purified thus by the Holy and Pure Being may we overcome the gravest sin and the greatest misery/ AUM NAMAH SlVAYA AUM AUM SANTIH SANTIH SANTIH • . following the royal path indicated by Smti and Yukti. not and yet to be. By this the spiritual aspirant. It is 'He I am' soham\ 'Dattatreya I am'. iiva. satyath jndnath anantam brahma that is samarasa. what the Marxist dialectician explains with gusto as his sole right but does not adopt.Datidtreya 250 our economists dream and preach about but fail to achieve. is to attain have passed over the planes and the non-relative. equipoise. This is the highest achievement. It is the Highest. It is to become submerged equipoise* relative 'Datta To be in equipoise is to Equipoise expressed as dattoham jndna. What ment if at all it can be called so. expounded advaita. is it. dattoham. is. dattoham. and so on. AUM DATTOHAM AUM evam Sri jayacamaraja-nrpatih tattvarh ca dattadvayam gitam tan-mukha-nissrtam ca paramam soharh Sivopasaya vyacasfe Srutiyukti-dar£ita-maha-margam param bhavayan tat sarvam ca sadaiivarpitam asau devah sada syan mude. adhikdrin becomes holy and transcends all sins. after following the quest for 'Know the self atmanam viddhi this is indeed the end of the Sruti-firamdna. The Divine is holy. as he was in meditation on Siva as "He I am". It is the establishment of oneself as the supreme T. dnanda. It is all permeating. achieve- meditation. eternal. For this is something greater than all. Thus Sri Jaya-Chamaraja nrfiati. and reason. the truth of Lord Datta (Dattatreya) and the teaching that emanated from mouth. this equipoise is a gift of the divine to one who becomes divine.' scripture the his caranam pavitram vitatam puranam yena putah tarati duskrtani tena pavitrena Suddhena putah ati papmanaih aratim tarema. samarasa. It is all. It is the most Ancient. May this God be the source of happiness. — To — affirm (Dattatreya) I am*. being the source of all.

DJiySna-Bindu-Upajii^ad Enneads Puranas Puru$a Sukta Guru-Cantam Purva-Mlmamsa Guru-Stotra GopSh-Purva-Tdpiny-Upani5ad Raghuvam£a by Kalidasa Hnmsa-Upanijad Rg Veda Haya-Grava-Upani$ad Rama-Purva-Tapiny-Upani^ad Rama-Rahasya-Upamsad Indian Philosophy Radhakrishnan Klvasj-a-Upani^ad by Dr.BIBLIOGRAPHY Kaivalya-Upani§ad Adhyitma-'UpanHad Advay^Taraka-Upanisad Aitartya-Upam$ad Annapurna-Upani^nd Kalagni-Rudra-Upani§ad Kena-Upanisad Avadhflta-Glti Avadhfita-Upanisad Lwga-M aha-Purana Katha-Upam?ad Atma-Upamsad Bergsotr IV o Sources of Morality and Rchpton. also called Maha-Upanisad MaitreyMJpanisad Mandala-Brahmana-Upam^ad Mantnka-Upanisad Manasollasa (by Sureivaracarya) Mandukya-Upanisad Mandukya-Kanka (by Gaudapada) Mudgala-Upam§ad Muktika-Upanisad Vedinta-Sutra Brahma-Sutra-Biu$ya by Sarikara Mundaka-Upanisad Narada-Parivrajaka-Upani^ad Narayana-Upanisad Niralanjba-Upanisad Nrsimha-Uttara-Tapiny-Upaiu§ad Nyaya-Vai$e?ika Sutras Brahma-Vidyd-Upanisad Chan<logya-VpaTii§a<l Dak$irumurti Stotra Daksinrimurti-Upani^ad Dattdtrcya Stotram Paingala-Upam?ad D att St reya-Upan t?ad Parama-Haifrsa-Upanisad Bcvi^Bhagavata Plotinus. S. Bhagavad-GIta Bhasma-Jabdla-Upanisad Bhagavata-Purana Bradley* Appearance and Reality Brhad-Aranyaka-Upani?ad Brhad-Jabah-Upam?ad Brahmaputra. Jlvanmukta-Gitli Jtanmukttolvcka by VtdySntnya Rama-Uttara-Tapiny Upanisad Sanyasa-Upantjad §arabha-Upani§ad Sarva-Sara-Upani$ad Sa{-Praina-Upani$ad .

Siva-Rahas}^ William James Visnu Purana Visnu-Sahasranama Suta-Saihhita Spinoza's Ethics Sveta§vatara-Upanisad Taittirlya-Upanisad Tejo-Bindu-Upanisad Tripad .252 Bxbl raphy Sandilya-Upanisad Sathyayanlya-Upanisad Tripura-Rahasya Tripura-Tapiny-Upanisad Sayana-Bhasya Siva-Kavaca Varaha-Upanisad fSiva-Mahima-Stotra Varieties of Religious Experience.Vibhuti -Maha -NarayanaTJpanisad Yajurveda (Krsna) Yaj navalkya-Upanisad Yoga-Sutra Yoga-Tattva-Upanisad Yoga-V asistha-Ramayana .

8 '••aha wys nn paiyaati ku«att api panfliUh ttnintarfryfa^ tcna mohttth saitnarantt ca .APPENDIX Sanskrit Texts with References (Conwporidins to the foot-notes from I to 262 marked in the body of the book). 11 > ajivamrfi paramarh tattvath adtmadhyanta varjitam SdhSratft sarva-lokarum anftdlurarft aviknyaih anantananda-bodhdThbu nidhim adbhuta-vikramam ariibikS-patirii I&narh aniSarti pranamamyaharh Suta-Samktta Vol* 1-2 ^saha n^vavatu saba nau bbunaktu saha ^ryarh karavftvahai tejasvi n&v-adhltaih astu ma \idvi<&\abat a«ih <5ntih iantih iantih me manasi pratisthiU me vaci prab^thitarh fLwSur macdlu ^Sr\ rnano \edas/a ftmsthah Snttatti me m£ pralusih ahoratrlt sandadhimi rtam vadijjami *atyaih vadisj *\rru tan mruh avatu tad \akUraih a\atu a\atu miiTti a\ atu \ aktararh Aoih Untih ttntih ttntih iSvaftnugrahSd c\a purhs&m advaita-\osatM malnd-bhiya pantrartfd upraniih upaj&jatc Atadhuta GUa t 1 ^^nataja sv^ami-satfibandhatah I??* ^a^nataja tathana te m!u pitt-putradyitmanl bhedatah PUn3S0 m:i ^-paribhr5 rat tah ^ nama w?F^murtaje %i 4rl ><a jdarti 4ri dak ? iruTnurta >e {Dahftnamrttli Sfotra.

atmanas tu kamaya ksatram priyam bhavati. 92^94 (8 sa hovaca > are patyuh kamaya patih pnyo bhavati. atmanas tu kamaya patih priyo bhavati na va are jayayai kamaya jaya pnya bhavati. XV. atmanas tu kamaya devah priya bhavanti na va are bhutanam kamaya bhutani priyani bhavanti. na va are sarvasya kamaya sarvam priyaih bhavati. atmanas tu kamaya putrah pnya bhavanti na va are cittasya kamaya cittam priyarii bhavati. na va are ksatrasya kamaya ksatram pnyarii bhavati. atmanas tu kamaya cittam priyam bhavati. na va are lokanarii kamaya lokah priya bhavanti. atmanas tu kamaya lokah priya bhavanti.5 . atmanas tu kamaya jaya priya bhavati na va are putranarii kamaya putrah pnya bhavanti. atmanastu kamaya brahma priyaih bhavati. pp. pp. atmanas tu kamaya bhutani priyani bhavanti. Tripura Rahasya: Ch.Appendix 254 yavaddrstih pravrttiih tu na parityajya tisthati tavadantardrstitapi na syadeva katharh ca na yavannantardrstim eti tavat taih na pra-pa£yati antardrstir nirlha syat sehayasyah katham bhavet parihrtya tu tarn saifryak svabhavam upa-sam£raya ksanaih svabhavam airitya nirvimar£as tatah parara vimrSya smarana-dvara tato vetsi samastakaih asariivedya suvedyam ca tadevam tattvarh ucyate viditvaivam avedyarii ca prapnuyat amrtam sthitirii. 19 > tasyatma-para-dehesu satopyekamayarh hi tat vijnanarii paramarthosau dvaitino atathya-darSinah venurandhra-vibhedena bhedah sadjadi samjnitah abedha-vyapino v§yoh tatha tasya mahatmanah 2. na va Brhad-Aranyaka-Upanisad. atma va are drastavyah Srotavyo mantavyo nididhyasitavyah. VII. 92-98 adarianagaraprakhyam jagadetaccaracaram tadrupaikatvatastatra nottamadhama-bhavana apare tu svarupe hi kalpita mukhyata na hi tasmat prajna upasita param rupaxn hi niskalam asamatthah sthularupaiii yadbuddhau sangataifr drdhaih tadupasya hetutastu Sreyah prapnotyanuttamarii nanyathasya gatih kvapi bhaved-vai koti-janmabhih Tripura Rahasya: Ch. atmanas tu kamaya sarvam priyam bhavati. na va are devanam kamaya devah priya bhavanti. na va are brahmanah kamaya brahma priyam bhavati.4.

35 sarva-bhutany abhcdcna dadajia sa tadatmanah tathl brahmaparo muktuh avapa paramam dvijah tathS tvaih api dbannajna tulyatma-npu-bandhavah bhava sarvagataifr jSnann&tmSnamavanlpate sitanitedibhcdena yathaifcarh drSyate nabhah bhranta-dretjbhiratmitpi tathaikassan prthak krtah ekas samastaih yadihSsti kiiiicit tadacyuto nilsti paraiii tatonyat sa ca sarvarh etat Stinasvariipaib tyaja bhedamohaiii. soharti sa ca tvarfi Vtsnupurana.u > sarvathS bhcda-kalanaih dvattfd\aitaiii na vid>ate ciiyi-ltixyarh idaih bhedarti asti ccd b£hya-bh£vanarft d*hr>harh du^kharh ccd brahmAhara 1U niteavah hrdaya-pranthir ashtvc chidyatc brahma-cakrakarfi . dc* Sdibhede pradhvastc t Vunupurana Part 2-xiv 31-33 na nuganta natkade£a-nik.etanah naham apy tvaih canyc ca na ca tvaih ca tvam nanye *"» sobaift fiante aharii rtytiti/wrffwa. =cv 25 ckarh cvatfi idam viddhi na bhedi sakalam jagat \ lsudt\ Jbludheyasya svariipam paramatmanah Vtsnupurana* 11.255 Appendix prayjtbjah ciatvMih rupabhedas tu bahya-karma nistyevS% aranehi sah. xvi 20-23 atmanaivatmajiatmani mj&kanufc kathaih vande hy abhmnara £ivam avyayam AtadhuSa-Gtia yeardatfi pSntaiti sarvaifr x 2 <»» saceha sazfcbhavatycva tadartharh idarb Statarn iMraihakamajasi c^t tattvaih paiyasi nfoiyatha tadutpanna par& mrvana-nirvftih anyathi &5tra-garte$ii lu^hatAm bhavatarii lha bhavaty akrtnmajnSnarh kalpajrapi na mrvj-tth a^na pantyago ^SsanSniih ya uttamah saifcpannaift cet mok?a ity ucyatc brahman sa era vimalakramah k^nSyirh vasan53*arfc tu ceto galah satvararh h^nAylrfi iltasantaty&ii brahman himakano yathl ayaih i£sanay& deho dhnyate bhutapanjarah dvmdh* prokti iubha ca malmS tath£ mahna jaamano hetuh 5ubh£ janmavmSitnl % A5anil punarjanm^nkurarfi tyaktvl sthita sartibh^ta bijavat dchinharn dhnyate jnStajney^ Suddhcti-cocyate Ycga V&stftha VaxrSgya Prakaratta* 3 4 13 . Part 2. xv. ii.

Bhagavad-Glta Ch VI-8 (19) suhrnmitraryudasina madhyastha-dvesyabandhusu sadhusvapi ca papesu sama-buddhir-viSisyate. * * • Yajur-Veda-Sathhtta: 3 3 121 > dattatreyaih Sivam Santam indranaa-nibham prabhum atma-maya-ratam devaih avadhutaih digambaram bhasmoddhulita-sarvangam jata-juta-dharam vibhum catur-bahum udarangam praphulla-kamaleksanam jnana-yoga-nidhim vi6va-gurum yogi-jana-pnyam bhaktanukampinam sarva-saksinam siddha-sevitam evam yah satatam dhyayed devadevarii sanatanam sa muktah sarva-papebhyo ni££reyasam avapnuyat ity aum satyam ity upanisad.1 4 . Tejobindu-Upamsad.Appendix 256 samSaye saih anu prapte brahma niScayam aSrayet anatma-rupa-coraicet atma-ratnasya raksanam nityanandamayam brahma kevalam sarvada svayam. Sanhara (17) < 18 > jitatmanah praiantasya paramatma samahitah SItosna-sukhaduhkhesu tatha manapamanayoh. Sandilya Upanisad: 3. Bhagavad-Glta Ch VI-9 (20) madhu manisye madhu janisye madhu vaksyami madhu vadisyami madhu matlm devebhyo vacam udyasam SuSrusenyam manusyebhyah tarn ma deva avantu 6obhayai pit^ronumadantu aum santih Santih Santih. Bhagavad-Glta: Ch VI~7 jnana-vijnana-trptatma kutastho vajitendnyah yukta lty ucyate yogi sama-losthaStna-kancanah. 98-102 tic) vayasi gate kah kamavikarah Suske nire kah kasarah kah parivaro ksine vitte jnate tattve kah samsarah.

MJm *aai garbhadi tarS DattZtrcya-Upanifad "•'Mntatfc padaits-umihiift fafiidhara-muUtath.1 1 mihc£\arah jnanamajena tapasa clyanrtno ak&mavata bnhu s>aih prajJLjcya lti athaitasraattapj aman&t satyakamat trTn>aknram ajajanta tisto v>ahftayah tnpada gavatri tra>o \cdih trajo dcvS^ trajo \arnah trayo agnayaSca ]5yantp jo *^au dc\o blngavan sanais%arya sampannah sarva v>Api *an a bhutamm hrdayc sanm-visfah niaja^I mlya>.Appendix kvunld ucjate dattatrcyadi tti? jasmat sudu£ caram tnph tapyamlniva Atraj c putraklmaya atitaram tustena tonga vaU j}otir majcna fttmana datto yasmad \a ArmSwrf) atieh fanayah abha\at tasmad ucyatc atlia Ditiatrcja ib $andttya+Upam?ad 411 3 2 alhSsn dcvas)i ktTtn £akU kn<$asyn bhaUanukimpino Dittiitrcja rupl su rupa tarnir a\asi mdivara dala- * prafchyl catur baliuh aghor5papa kaiinl tad idaru isva sakah niikahih riipaih $&ndilya~Upani$ad 3 11.i kriijati sa brahmS sa vjsnuh sa rudrafr sa indrah *zi *anc de\£h ^arvlni bhutam sa c\a purastat sa c\a pakat <a c\ottaratah sa eva daksmatah sa cv&dhastat c\ opanstl j3t sa c\ a sarvaft athasya de\ asya m datt5tre}arupa handily a-Vpamsad < 3 1 M Usmad > ucyatc dattatrQa iti atha yo asya mmktarfi eda wvaih % cda atha yo ha \ ai \ idya\ a <inam pararii uplste *ohaih iU sa brahmav id bha\ ati lti \ Ssndtlya-Upantpad 3: audi naino bhigavatc dattatreySja DaUatreya-Upantfad <"» nurfi natmh 4i###BOT_TEXT###amp; ja ity upam?ad Dattstrcya+Upamsad 22 tUi Titr^aniUrarti dattatrejam Datt&treya-Upatofad <»> hrahmi nW } anam kuh tarakarfi b^Biw lU uktah sat) Luanda ad bi total* dhSma upiteva itjtti sada Wmiti ttde^tavyath tanno brtihi fittnakarii saUtkaifa dattobS aSt. 1 .

Mukhka-Upanisad: concluding < 38) statement. . esa maya sva-vyatiriktani . - . avidya ca svayam eva bhavati dar§ayitva . 131 Visnn-sahasra-ndma: Dhydna-iloka (32 J sah purusah . . maya ca saisa citra sudrdha . Sarvasdra~Upamsad: < 40) tevarasya mahamaya 1 tadajna-va£a-vartini tatsamkalpanu sarin! Tripadvibhiiti-Maha-ndrdyam-Upanisad * 41) auih ISanah sarva-vidyanam tevarah sarva-bhutanaih brahmadhipatih brahmanbdhipatih brahma £ivo mestu sadaiivorii. Nrsimhottaratdpany-Upanisad: 9 < 3D > maya nama anadirantavati. < * 31 ) 35 > 3 prakrtya sahitah §yamah Rdmapurvatdpint'Upanisad' 4. atmaiva siddah advitiyah matata hi anyad iva . tasxnat brahmanah purusariipam paraih brahmaiva aham iti bhavayet. . . . . (36 Sarabha-Upanisad: 2 < 37J tad visnoh paramam padam sada paiyanti surayah. caitanya-dipta. pramanapramana sadharana na satl nasati na sadasatl svayamadhika vikararahata mrupyamanZ satitaralaksana£unya sa mayetyucyate. .. . . Yajttr-Veda* . 4 5 prabhurii varenyaiii pitaram maheSarii yo brahmanam vidadhati tasmai vedam£ ca sarvan prahmoti cagryam tarn vai prabhum pitaraih devatanam. tadrupo bhavati Mudgala-Upanisad. .— 11 Appendix 258 £antakaram bhujaga^ayanam padmanabham suresam. Mudgala-Upanisad: 2 t33j rQpam iti gandharvah tarn yatha yathopasate tathaiva bhavati. .. . . drstimatrena moksadarii vesam adadhe. . .7 Syamaih Suddha-sphatika samkaSam kevalam moksa-kanksaya cintayan paramatmanam kalambhodhara kanti-kantam am£am raghavam ujjvalangam bhaja Rdmarahasya-Upamsad'. .

Appendix <«' ma\a 5a trmdha proUu satva 259 rajasa tarnasl Yajraialfya Upamsad ca prag atmano mava tathante ca tiraslcrta maveti \ 1% ekatah rn3} a brahrm adibhir udgita Utk^rj-mlaicn^-arat^mnajn-ata tatah j 3. sa\ogi sa paramaharh^ah jatifi brahmanah 1U Ntralamba Upan$ad m > art satnSdhi jimta brahmarnrta pana paravanosau WituM p-iimi hirfiuh avadhfito Miwrti tad dar£anena <akahih pgit paMtraib bhivati tatscxi paro ainopi multo bhavnti tatkuhm ckottara salam Uravati tostiat pity jSUpitva vargarh ca muktarh bhavatitv evtett . *uddha adc\ahaih Vara! a uu aurh sam-caitanvi ruparh tarh buddhirtx j a ad\am Mdyani Upamsad 251-52 ca dhimahi nab pracodaj at DaT+Bhfigaiata vasrmn bMh praltsante Im&Scavvalrtatajn 1 1 yajuh paSvantj waktatfuh bhu\o jiuante budbuda iva ksetrajnadlmtbitarh can a karanair Yid\atc punah bhigavan de\arli pa^anh anj d punahpunah brahma brahmet} atlnyanti je \ idur brahmanas tatba c\arfi *a atmna tc Iiyarh \anti lun£ cavjakta- Cilmah hn^cavyaktaiahnah Ofartrtka-Upamwd 11 11 18) yah sarvo piramc kale *arvan atmam upa^amhrtya s\atmanandc sukhc modate praka£atc \a sa de\ah DakfinSmurtt-Upamsad 1 '•"tattvam asi afnm brahmasrm ^r\am kbalv ldnm brahma neha nlnHsti kirh ca na itvadi maha\akyartbanubhara jnan^t brahman a ahaih asmiti niscttya mnikalpaka tattrtdhtrd sntantrah ^nuktah sapujvah *a aiadhutah «a carah sa <*ansi.Uaiiafc flra* wfl na t7/*«i <rf Concluding paragraph ? ™ bhaw * te * awdhfitam DitUtrevim bM^O ditntr^ah^rn-i kVumkah dh la aksatatxSt ^*<^ndhinai tatv™^ JS iu*r\tut av-idhGta itlmti Aiadhuta Vpant fad j .

. . . avadhutas tu deha-matrava4i§tah dig-aiftbarah aniyamah. Appendix 26o ( co > . bhasma bhasmano bhavanti panca namani.. tasyah kj-sna-varna bhadra tad-gomayena bhasxtarh jatarfi. . tasmat pratislha. aghorat vahnih tasmad vidya tasya rakta-varna surabhilu tad-gomayena bhasma jataifi. bhasma sarvagha-bhaksaiiat. su&la. NaYada-pavivYajaka~Upani§ad: 5 after 38 f 61 > bhasmoddhulana-parah sarva-tyagi. tasyai> kuru?veti. mukti-irutirfi mamopade&arfi pjihvL tasyali syat nivrttih. . tasyah svcta-varna. . vamadevat udakarft. . Sanya$a-Upani$ad: <* a > 13 sa ctaih Bhusuncjah Kalagni-rudraih agamat. Brhad-jabala-Upanifcid: m) ye marh 1 rudraih ca rudranlih gayatrirh veda-mataraih vetsyanti. sadyojatat gomayena k^ararh tasmad £antygomayena raksa jatarh. . tatpurusat vayulj. . tasyali kapila-varna nanda tad-gomayena vibhutir jata. tad jata. iSanad akaSatfi atlta. auift tatheti. . . tasyah citra-varna sumanah. tesaift £iva£ Linga-Mahu-Piiraya: PSrva-Bhaga: 23. pancabhih namabhih bhriarh ai§varya-karanatbhutilj. aSa-nivrtto bhutva a£arhbara-dharo bhutva sarvada rnano-vak-kaya-karmabhili sarva-sarfisararh utsrjya prapancavanmukhah svarupamisandhanena bhramara-klf:anyaycna mukto bhavati ity upanisad. . cinmyarii paramananda brahmaiva aharh iti smaran. ca saumyaS ca bhavisyami sadaiva hi. . parama-harfisah . bhuta-pretapiSaca-brahmaraksasa-apasmara bhavabhitibhyo abhiraksanat rakseti. . agatya bho vibhutelj mahatmyarfi bruhi . vibhutir bhasitatfi ksarath rakseti bhasanat bhasitarfi k§aranad apadarfi k§araift. . .17-24 tt4) agnir yathaiko bhuvanarh pravl^hafy rupaih rupaift prati-rupo babhuva ekaih bhasma sarva-bhutantaratma ruparh rupaih prati-rupo bahisca agni-somatmakaifi viivaih ity agniracaksate roudri ghora ya taijasl tanufr somah fiaktyamrta-mayah iaktikarl tanuh amrtaih yat-pratistha sa tcjo-vidya-kala-svayarh sthula-siiksmcsu bhutesu sa eva rasa tcjasl dvi-vidha tcjaso vrttifr sury&tma-ca analatmika tathaiva-rasa-£akti£ ca somatma ca analatmika vaidyud-adi-mayarh tejo madhuradi-mayo rasah. . t&sn&t 4antih.

tranarmk&n&ih sarve^iih grhasth&n&ih Sudranaih . 2 «"* vidyS-iakbh samastanatti feaktir ity abhidhlyate guna-tnLy£jray& vidyS sa vidyS ca tad-5iraya guna'trayarft idarh dhcnub vidyabhud gomayaifa Subham rm*ltrancopani$at proktath kuryad bhasma tatah paraift. » . . * tenldhitarit £nifatfi tcna tcna sarvaib anu?thitaih >cna vjprena iintsi tnpuncjrath bhasmani dhftaih tyakta^atn&ranita&ro lupta-sarvakn>opi yah *ak# tirj^ak-pun^Mnka-dharanat sopi pQjyate yc bhasma^dh&ranarh tyakt\a karma kurvanti manavJUj tc?lrii nuwr-j»oLfih mdnlqnch >at panidi 5arf?*5r. brahma-canni . . B/had*j(ibaIa~Upam$ad. . yatln&ih .It \ir>T ath tad janma-kofibhih . anyc§&ih api sarvcsfoh .da prahub tad-viryaih * bbasmana yaSccttharh bhasma sadbbavam jnatiabhisnab agmr lty adibhih mantraih dagdha^papas sa ucyate punah agncr virjaih ca tad bhasma somcn&pl&vitam ayoga*yuktya prakrter adhiUraya kalpate yaga-yukt)5 tu tad bhasma plavyamanaift samantatah iaktcna amfta-var^ena hy adhikaran mvartate ato mrtyunjaylyctthaih amrta-plavanaih satath 4iva*4akty-amrta*parSe labdha c\a kuto mrtih yo \cda gabnnath gubyarii pavanarfica tathoditaiii ngni-soma-putarti kit* 5 na sa bhfiyobhi-jayate Su&pwiSL tanum dagdhva Sakti-somamrtena yah pl&vaycd yogam&rgena somrtatvaya kalpate somftatvayakalpata ito Bfhad-jSbSta-Upamsad. bhasma . . *ox\ cfajh . bhasma pan klrhtaih . . . .. • . Appendix carScaraih tcio-rasaAitticdab tu vrttath ctat agmr cdhatc agncr amfta nijpalt* amrtena somatmakarfi jagat ata eva havih klptaifc agm adho*Sakti-mayc> ualah flrdhva takti-inayadl soma SaSvad viivarfi idarh jagat ttohyaih samputitah tasmSt ttmaty esa yavat sawnya* paramrtath amftaih visrjaty adhah vlvad agny-atmatem saumyam arner flrihvaJh urdbvaga Sakfar ate c\ a hi Ulagnfli adhastat pSvanaih bhavet adhastat y&vad idahanaScotdhvaih Mhira4aU)wadhrtah kalignir ayaih urdhvagah £iva-§akti-padl$padah tathajva xumnagas somah Sivah iivaiconihvaniayai iaktih urihva-Sakti-maya* ca na kirh iha tad itthath iiva Saktibhyiiih nftvySptam tad-bhasmasat krtaiii asakrc ca agmn& dagdhath jagat bhasma yat tatah agncr virjaih ..ati*vamairam5n£ih » . 3 411 mSnastokcna mantrena mantntatfi bhasma dharayct br&hmaruiJt ksatnjah tathu.

kiih bhasma no advaitarii . . . Ovarii . dravyaih? Bkasma*jubala-Upani?ad'. . Ruma-pUyva-iapinl Upani§ad: 1 3. Mantrifta-Upantfad: 16 (05) atasl-puspa-sariika£ath nabhi-sthane pratisthitaih caturbhujaih maha-visnurft purakcna vicmtayct.Appendix 262 bhasma -saihyutah bhasma-msthasya dahyanic dosa bhasmagni sangamat bhasma-snana-visuddhatma bhasma-mstha iti sqirtah tasmfit sarvc?u kalesu vlryavan bhasma-sandigdha-sarvangah bhasma-dipta-lripun^Irakah bhasma iayi ca purusah bhasma-mstha iti smrtah. . 1 sah sakala-bhogan bhunktc. . Dak$tnamuYth%-Upani§ad\ 5 .7 aslnah candra-khan<Jah prati-ghatita-jata-kslragauras trinctrah. . . pranamya papraccha. dcharii tyaklva Siva-sayujyaiii cti. 3 . mahadcvam . . . na sa punar avartate na sa punar avartate ltyaha bliagavan kalagnirudrah. Brhad-jabfila-Upanifadi < fi7 > 5 atha Jabalah Bhusun<Jah kailasa-Sikharavasam auihkarabhasmoddhulita-vigraham svarupinam mahadevaiii . tiryak-tnpunqlra-rcldia-virajamana-phala-pradciarii niskalam nir-gunam iantarh advaitarii iivaift pranamya papraccha bliagavan vedasirarfi udhrtya tripun<Jra-vidhirii yasmad anyanapeksam cva moksopalabdhih. bhasmoddhuhta-vigraharh .B4 » jnanacak^usah tarn ekath cva paiyanii pariiubhrarh vibhutti dvijah. Dhyana-Bittdu-Upanifad: 30 . < < fl3) 03 » prakrtya salutah Syamah pita-vfisa ja^a-dharah. kirh bhasmano dravyarii? Bhasmajabala-Upani§ad: 6& < > cvaift tripmicjra-vidhirii bhasmana karoti yah . . .Upani$ad < w » tryaksarh varadarh Suddharft taruniiditya-sannibharfi bhasmoddhuhla-sarvangarii suprasannarh anusmaran na tu vayoi ca bhayaiii bhavati yoginah Yoga-Tatlva-Upam$ad: < fl0) aurii 92. 97 namo bhagavatc bhasmanga-ragayogra-tcjase Tripuratapiny-Upani§tid: < 01 > Bhusun<Jah . Kalagnirudra. adhihi bhagavan vedasararri udhrtya tripun<Jra*-vidhim yasmad anyanapeksarfi cva moksopalabdhih.

GopCiiapunntaptm-Upnm$(id S?iur-n. mcghabharh vatdyutdtftbaram ]rtdna-mudr^hyarft \ —dvi-bhiyarti ana-rnalinatii-I4\ aram .ima mah£-yogi mahd-bhuto maha-tapah lattva-margc yatha dipo dpfyate pumsottamah aradh>a jagan-natham pranipatya pitamahah pipraccha yoga*tattvath nae bruin castanga samyutam tarti taih maca hrsikcsah \aksyarm £rnu tattvatah sar\c jtvAh sukhaih duhkhaih nuya-jdlena vestitah lesaih mtikti-kararti margaih maya-jala-nikrntanam janma mrtyu^ara^yadhi^naianath mrtyu-tarakam nana-niargais tu dus-prapam kai\ alyam paramam padam pitttfh <lstra-jfilcsu prajnaya tena mohitah antrvicyarii padarh \aktum na £akyam taih surair api siatma^prakaia-rupiim tit kirn £&strcna prakMyate nukalaih mrmalarii &ntarii sarvatUaih mrimayaih tadeva jlva-rupcna punjwpapa-phalair vrtaih piramrumapadaih mtyarh tat-kathath jivataih gataiii ana-bluva-pad&tttaih jnina-rupath mranjanarti \anvat sphuntarh tasmin tatrahankrtir utthita pincatmaUih abhut pinflaih dhltu-baddhaih gunatmakam Mikha-duhkaih samayuktam jlva-bhavanaya kuru tena )Kabhuiha prokta viiuddhaih paramatmam Uma-krodha-bhayarii capi mohalobhamado-rajah puma m^tyui ca karpanyam lohw tandra tpna ™*t*h yow.Appendix *"» iankha-cakra-tnahatnudra pustakrujhyam catur-bhujam saibpurnvcandra-samka4arh hayagrlvaih upasmahe Hayagriva. .Upanx sad p£pa-karanah go-bhumi veda-vedtto goptyana*Mdy&*ka!apa-prenikah tanmlyi ccti sakalam pnratft brahman a tat yo dhy&yati rasati bhajati sa amrlo bhavatt lti kirti tad-rftpam? sat-pundarikakalt kr?rtafi D **** nayanarfi .a-r<i//va-U> 2-15 «' qninid cva vimsaro jidnU cva vimueyate jnjna-s%arxipa I h-cvadau u ^ clad jntaam jnaiiarh jncyaika-«idhanaih ^c^dana^vrupaka^ m proktarti .hrnaih kathaih Wo trsa bhayaih duhkhaih visado har?a eva ca h Xm sa jnah kcvala mateh doja^maarlharti upSyatfi kathay&im te J°™ tasmM f ksudhl hH S jnSnaifi hi jnana-htnas tu moksadarh bhavati dhruvam na ksamo moksa-karmam i^nut jn&iath ca yogam ca mi muksuh drtfham abhyasct Vo.

. ity upanisad.Appendix 264 < 70 > jnanam nama utpatti-vinaia-rahitarh nairantaryaifr caitanyarfi jnanarft ity ucyate. . ( . sarva-purusartha-siddhir bhavati ya evarfi veda. guru-bhakti-samayuktalj purusa-jno viSesatah evam laksana-sarfipannah gurur-ity-abhidhlyate gu-5abdas tv andhakaras syat ru-5abdah tan-nirodhakah andhakara-nirodhitvat gurur ity abhidhiyate gurur eva paraih brahma gurur eva para gatilt gurur eva para vidya gurur eva parayanarh gurur eva para kastha gurur eva paraih dhanaih yasmat tad-upadestasau tasmad gurutaro guruh iti yah sakrd uccarayati tasya sariisara-mocanaih bb a vati sarva-janma-krtaih paparfx tat-ksanad eva na£yati s^rvakaman avapnoti. 131. Yoga-TaUva-Upankad: 2-24. < 72 > parama-gurupadeSena buddhi-guhanihita-jyotirva turlya-caitanyaih va antar-laksyaift bhavati.0 atha yogarii bravlmi te yogo hi bahudha brahman bhidyate vyavaharatah mantrayogo layaScaiva hathosau rajayogatah arambhai ca ghata£ caiva tatha paricayah smrtah mspatti£cetyavastha ca sarvatra parikirtita etesarfi laksanaih brahman vaksye Srumi samasatab matrkadi-yutaih mantram dvadaSabdam tu yo japet kramena labhate jnanam animadi-gunanvitarfi alpabuddhir-imarfi yogam sevate sadhakadhamah layayogas citta-layah kotiSah parikirtitah gacchan tisthan svapan bhunjan dhyayan niskalaih iSvararii sa eva layayogas syat hatha-yogam £rnu yamaS ca niyamaS caiva aSanaib prana-sarhyamah pratyahare dharana ca dhyanam bhru-madhyame haxnh samadhih samatavastha Sasthango yoga ucyate tato bhaved raja-yogo nantara bhavatx dhruvaih yada tu raja-yogena nispanna yogibhih knya tadi viveka^vairiLgyaTri ylyate yogiao dhniv&tfci visnur-nama maha-yogi maha-bhuto maha-tapah tattva-marge yatha dipo drSyate purusottamah tena sarvam idaiii protam tat satyarii tat paraih padaih labhate yoga-yuktatma purusah tat paraih padarh. Sarva~Sara-Upani$ad: (71 > 0. 136 . Advaya-taYaha-Upani$ad: Concluding paragraph < 73 > atha khalu somyemaih sanatanaih atma-dharmaih vaignavirfi nistharh nasamapya prabruyat nanucanamnaya nan Stma vide . tad darSanam sadacarya-mulam acaryo veda-saihpanno visnu-bhakto vimatsarah yoga-jno yoga-nisthaSca sada yogatmakah Sucih .

va yathaiva parOtsya dad} at vaisnavlrfi guraift nMnyanto vipra tcna na guruh bhojanlyah tathaiva cannarfi na bhunakti tat gurar eva paro dharmo gurar eva para yo gururh nabhinandati tasya Smtaifa tatha panam sravaty amaghatarfibuvat yasya dc\c para bhaktih yatha deve tatha gutau sa brahroa-vit paraift prcyadib vedSnuSasanaifr \ty npantsad.Appendix ruwtaragiiya nSviSuddhaya nanupasannaya naprayatamanasa ya ttj ha mahuh tad etat rcabhyuktaih vidya ha vai brihmanath ajagima gcrpaya mJifa icvadhistehaiii asnn asuyakSySnrjave Sathiya ma bruyah vuyavatf tatha syfoh yatfi cva vidyS. MaitreyUUpari.adtfrobluva ratutah mysU b j }-otih 1. deha devfflayah proktah ^ ju^h kevalah fcvah tyajtd ajnJinavnirmalyarf! sohaih bhSvena pujayct 5arva-!oka ^rui cSsmi sarva-Iokosmi sosmy-aharfi Jiaj uai sada sostm mtyosmi vimalosmy "j^ttau dim ^iScfosmi so-nosini sakalosaty ahaife ruiuvam^a-Mnosrm nirgunosmi fivosmy ahaih. Snitetn gatih cl^ksaTa*pradSt£rarfi Satkyayantya-Upamsad: 33^37 ru dlpSkSraifc m. 2 .&adevaiii jvalantam nabhi-madhyamc abhKicya amrtcnaiva 'harfxsa' 'hamsa' ity yo japet jara-mafana-rogadj na tasya bhim vidyate l£varatvaih avapnoti sadabhjasa-ratah puman haih3a-\idy£rfi fte loke nasti ajtyatva-sadbanarfi >0 dadSti maba-wdy&m haxhsakhyath parameSvaritfi tasya d&syaxh sadi kuryat prajnaya paraya saha iubham \a aiubharfi anyad yaduk&ih gunana bhuvi tatkury5d awcirena iisyah samto^a-samyutah math labdtua guni-£u$riisaya narah gunir cva bans saksat nanyah ity abravlt imhh haihsa-vidySib Brahma-Vidya-Upani$ad. 23-31 bhagavan iartraih idaifi matthuBadevodbhutatii samvid^petam malaih bahubhih paripumaih ctadrfe Sarins vartamfciasya bhagax athstvath no gatinh sa ho\ aca inaMdevaia mraya eva _ . sateltyu^ate Sma-SSra-Vpanifad: 1 . I. £rutarh apramattam medhavinam brahmacarj"op3pannarfi-asn3S imaiii upasannaya samyak atmnistham adhyapita ye vaca manasa karmanS.3.

ity upanisad. maraya maraya namah iti saitipannaya namah sathpannaya svaha posaya posaya. bhava-bandha-mocanayeti hrim lti 8S > aurii lti vyaharet. sarva-manah-ksobhanayeti mahom iti Srirri iti vyaharet. vyaharet. staihbhaya stambhaya khakheti vyaharet. sakala-vibhuti dayeti kroih iti vyaharet sadhyakarsanayeti saur vyaharet. Daksinamurii-Stolra' < t 81 82 ) > iSvaranugrahad eva purhsaih advaita-vasana. vidvesaya vidvesaya pha<J iti vyaharet uccatayoccataya thatheti vyaharet. DaUdireya-JJpannad: 2 .Appendix 266 < 77) yada pasyati catmanarii kevalam paramarthatah mayamatraih jagatkrtsnarii tada bhavati nirvrtih Jabala-Dartana-Upanisad: 10-12 < 7fl > tripurananta-Saktyaika-rupini sarva-saksini sa citih sarvatah purna pariccheda-vivarjanat.60-61 (80) viSvam darpana-drSyamana-nagarl-tulyarii nijantargataih paSyann-atmam mayaya bahinvodbhutam yatha nidraya yah saksat-kurute prabodha samaye svatmanam evadvayam tasmai Sri guramurtaye nama idaih Sri daksmamurtaye. Adhyaima-Upanisad: 21 < vyaharet aum namo bhagavate dattatreyaya smarana-matra-samtustaya maha-bhaya-mvaranaya maha-jnana-pradaya cidanandatmane balonmatta-pi£acavesayeti maha-yogine avadhutayeti anasuyanandavardhanaya atri-putrayeti sarvakama-phala-pradaya auih iti vyaharet. Avadhuta-Gtta* pararh brahma purnarii 2 I advayam. para-mantra para-yantra para-tantrams" chmdhi chindhi grahan nivaraya nivaraya daridryam vidravaya vidravaya vyadhith nivaraya nivaraya duhkham haraya haraya deharii posaya posaya cittaih tosaya tosayeti sarva-mantrasarva-yantra-sarva-tantra-sarva-pallava-svarupayeti auth namah sivaya. Triptira-Rahasya: Jn&nakanda: 11-45 < 70 > pratibirftba-svarupajnah pratibimbam pracaksate jagat etadrSarii sarvaih samabhilaksitam svato na bhasate kvapi bhasate ca cidairayat ato jagat syad adarSa-pratibimba-su-sammitarii. Tnpiifd-Rahasya' Jnanakanda: 11. ciramjivine vasad iti vyaharet vaSikuru vausad iti vyaharet. akarsaya vaSIkura akarsaya hum iti vyaharet.

Appendix 267 sar\opet5 ca tad-dartaint Brahma-Sutra 2 "sarva tokti 1 30 yukta ca para dc\ata xt>abh>upagantavyam kutah? tad-dar£anat tatha hi darSayati Snitih ssn-a £akti jogam parasjah devatayah Sankara-Bhasya 2 1 30 gunir brahma gurur \ isnuh gurur cva maheSvarah gurus saks&t paraih brahma tasmai in gunne namah \anddm jana mandaram svanandambudhim advayarfi t»» \ande datta prabhuih devarh samsara-bhrama-varakatft Guru Cantam auih sana-caitanya-riipaift buddhirh j Uih adyaiii vidyath ca dlumatu a nah pracodayat Devt-Bhagavafa 1 1 pumsasya kart^a-bhoktrtva sukha duhkhadilaksanai citta dharmah kfc£a-rupatvat bandho bhavati f*< jftatafr tasja imaranarti jlvan-muktih Vtdydranya's Jhanvtuhtt-Vtieka Ch 1 p 9 natatra sorjo bhati na candra-tarakaih neirta \*idyuto bhttnti ktitojarh agnih e^a bhantaih anubhati sarvaift vjbhab Katha Upa?ttfad 2 5 15 tarfi tasyz bh£$j sxnaih jdarfi f *l tad visnoh paramarii padaih sada pa£janti surayah > Patngaln-Upantfad m > bhargo dc\asya dhlmahi ckarh cvadutiyarti ( Yajurve&a-Samhita Sankara interprets this as sa)"itfya vijatlya s\agata bhcda*\ar)itaih ^rnath khah I 5) brahma [Chfatdogya-Upamsad 621) idarfi brahma brahnn ^'•rcha ninasb kiihcana Katha Upamsad 7 4 11 mi mma«tan5nu dni^avyarh Brhad-Aranyaha-Upamsad rtt > nana Uci na mma<& praptuiii iakjo 4 4 19 na caksu<i Katha Upamsad* 2 6 12 .

2 19 . Kaihopamsad: (U0) cit-svarupoham iti sada bhavayan antar-drstya param brahma avalokayan tad-rupo bhavati. < 1.1 (109) nayarh hanti na hanyate. . . . Hamsa-Upanisad: 2.6-10 ko mohah. . . . . . Kaiha-Upanisad: a0D} tatra 2. kas Sokah ekatvarh anupa£yatah.a-yatrapi ca te 2 57 na prasidhyet akarmanah Bhagavad-Glid: 3 8 a04 pratibodha viditarh. lu harhsatmanam dhyayet . A dvayaidraka-Upanisad: .Appendix 268 (97 > idam adya maya labdham idam prapsye manoratham lty ajnana-vimohitah Bhagavad-Giia: 16 13-15 m * yada samharate cayarh kurmonganiva sarvasah indnyanmdriyarthebhyah tasya prajna pratisthita. lidvdsyopamsad: (101) Sariram kevalam karma kurvan napnoti kilbisam Bhagavad-Gita: (io2j > 4. param brahma bhavet sadaiivah prakaSate. > Kena-Upanisad: 12 11051 U06) tad eva brahma tvarh viddhi nedam yad idam upasate. . . .0 tasmin . . Mattreyi-Upanisad: 2. Bhagavad-Gttdh 7. . Kena-Upanisad: y0 mam paSyati 1. .21 sarvatranabhisnehah tat tat prapya £ubha£ubham nabhinandati na dvesti tasya prajna pratisthita Bhagavad-Glid: a03 7 £arir.8 mayi paSyati ca me na pranaiyati sarvatra sarvarh ca tasyaham na pranaSyami sa Bhagavad-Gita: 6 3a 1107 > sadhibhiitadhidaivam mam . 0. > .30 (108) d e ^ 0 devalayah proktah. Bhagavad-Gita: 09) 2 58 yada pancavatisthante jnanam manasa saha buddhis ca navicestate tam ahuh paramaih gatim. ye viduh yukta-cetasah.

. Sariraih asthaya karoti stry annapanadi ucitra-bhogaih sa cva jagrat pantrptirfi ctt s\ apne sa j lv ah suIJia* duhkha bhokta s\a-mayaya kalpita jlva-lole susuptiIlk sakate valine tamobhibhGtah sukha-ruparfi eti * idhSraift anandaib akhantfa-bodhaih yasmin layaih y&ti . Katha-Upam$ad* haihsah fsih . . Kaivalya~Upam$ad 1 12..12 .xi mo yogi niyata-manasah niat-sariisthaift Santim nirvana-paramarii . puratrayarti ca . Appendix t» f 1 m sandr^c 269 asya na caksusa pa£yati manasa ja e\am \iduh hrdisthaih hrda kaicanamarfi amrtas te bhavanti $vetuhatara-Upant$ad 4 20 trsthati riiparfi ^"'inaiiasancdam Sptavyatti neha nanasti kirftcana Katha-Upamsad* 2 $. # parama haihsah devata z 5.m >ogah citta-vrtti-mrodbah ' Patanjah-Siitra* 1 2 uiu DattMreyo mahonmattah D*tt8treya*Stoira »™% *nah sxa-matwpannamlhadhi gpiaih stotro torn mrapaUdah parilaS. liaghuvamsa: i~i im ' sa cva maya panmohitatma sanarh . adhigaccbati Bhagavad+GUu 6 15 brahman cda brahrnaiva bhavati [Mundaka-Upam$ad 329) " l< > tcsarfi sukhati* Saivatarh netaresath tesarh iantih &a$YatI netare$aih.19 fm dxisupama sayuja sakhaya samanaih v ksam pari?asvajdte T tajomnjah pippalath svadu atti anainan anyo > abhicakaSIti Mundaka-Upam§ad* 311 . tad brabm&dvayarfi asmy aham. Stva-Mahtmnah Stotra: 1 . . . Hnmsa-Upamsad* 2 mil vag-arthav jva saihpj-ktau vag-artha pratipattaye jagata^i pitarau vande parvati-parame£varau.

. . Avadhufa-Giia: 1131 34* 3 6 ' 37) lianas sarva-vidyanam iSvaras sarva-bhutanam brahmadhipatih brahmanodhipatih brahma £ivo mestu sadaiivorh. punareva varunam pitaram upasasara adhihi bhagavo brahmeti. yatprayantyabhisamviSanti tad vijijnasasva. tapasa brahma vijijnasasva tapo brahmeti. (130) igvaranugrahad eva pumsarh advaita-vasana mahadbhaya-paritranad vipranarh upajayate. Kena-Upanisad: 2. . Yajur-Veda 1. annarh prayantya bhisamviSanti tadvijnaya. Taittiriya-Upani$ad: 3 1-2 am sivaS cordhvamaya6-£aktih urdhva£aktimaya£ Sivah tad ittham £iva-£aktibhyarh navyaptam iha kirhcana asakrc cagnma dagdharh jagat tat-bhasmasat krtam agner viryam idam prahuh tad viryam bhasma yattatah.1 } Appendix 270 Dattatreya hare krsna unmattananda-dayaka digarfibara muner-bala pi£aca~jnana-sagara. (Brhayjabala-Upamsad: (i27i yasyamatarh tasya mat am. yenajatani jfvanti. annena jatani jlvanti. tad brahmeti. tasmat sarvajna gadito hyagamah sarvadarianah tatrokto deva evadau £rsteh jagata asthitah nirupadana evadau srstavanakhilarh jagat yasmanmaheSvarari pflrnah svaccha-svatantrya-samyutah. sa tapastaptva. tarh hovaca. sa tapo tapyata. annarh pranam caksuh Srotram manovacam iti tarn hovaca.2 (i2B> krpalurakrtadrohah titiksuh sarva-dehinarh satya-saro 'navadyatma samassarvopakarakah. a24) Dattatreya-Upantsad: i bhrgurvai varunih varunam pitararh upasasara. adhihi bhagavo brahmeti tasrha etat provaca. 11-23. 2 9-10) Avadhuta-Gila: VIL4 ( 129 > agamat pramanaih sarvatodhikarh adrstarthesu samvadat pramanarh hyagamo bhavet .1 . (Tnpura-Rahasya: Jnanakanda: Ch. (125) annarh brahmeti vyajanat annadhyeva khalv-imani bhutani jayante. yato va imam bhutani jayante. . .

Avadhuta-Gxid: 1..7 > 12 1 2 panca-bhutatmakaih vi&vaih marici-jala-sannibhaifa kas>5py aho namaskuryam ahaift eko mranjanah. 5 3 mi mano vaco yatra naSalrtaiMritath » ndnarti kathath tatra gurfipadrfata? Avadkuta-GUa: 2 40 m. pariksya lokan karmatitan il) at .111 mana cva itianu$y&n&rh karanaift bandha-moksayoh Tnpuratapint-Upam$ad.Appendix fl»> 271 icchamatram prabhosspfih.2 7* mi ibraiyavat paiyah kaScid enath Bhagavad'Gtfa 2 29 . Bhagavad-Gtla* 18 58 mahSntarfi vibhurft atwanaih matva-dhlro na iocati* Kafkn-Upantfad. 34caryosya vakta. ' m. Mandukya-Upam$ad u»» niatprasadat tarisyasi.u. rt. . brahmano nirvedam gunim evabhigacchet tad vijnatiSrthaiii sa samit-pamh Srotnyarti brahma-msthaih Mundaka-Upantfad 'W^encdam 1 2 sarvam attnanaivatmanatmana kathaih vande hy abhinnam £ivam avyayaift puntarfi nirSk^raih Avadk&ta-Gita.| Hfci?yaih idagih saivaft lirti ca jagatySiii jagattyaktena bhunjfth^ mi fTdhah lKttj-a svid dhanarfn Udvasya-Upam$ad: 1 . Katha-Upam^ad: < j. £5nto dantah uparatah titikstih 1 2 21 Brhad-Aranyaka Upantfad: 4 4 23 samahito bhutva 5tman>c\Stmanaih paiyet.3 .l "> tatft c\ath \idvan amrta lha tiinyah pantha bhavah ayanaya vidyatc Ptmtfa-sukta 1.

Bfhad-Aranyaha-Upanifad.1. 150 ' < < 1B2 Brahma-Sutra 1 Brahma-Sutw: 1. . > Brahma~5fitra: 1. tad brahma. aharh atma brahma.2.14 * J40 < athato brahma.M tuc » auih ity brahma. 3. sarvarfi hy etad brahmayaih atma brahma soyaih atma catuspat amatrai caturtho avyavaharyah prapancopa£amah Sivo advaita cvaih orhkara atmatva sarhv&anty atmanatmanarh .3. tasyopavyakhyanaih bhutaih bhavad bhavijyad iti sarvarh orhkara eva. Taiiiirlya-Upani§ad.1 yato va imani bhutani u °) < .5 (l54) aurh ity ctad aksararh idaih sarvarh. * ya cvarh veda ya evarh veda. auih ity cvaih dhyayata atmanaih svasti vah paraya tamasah parastat. Taittiriya~Upani§ad.5 u«) sarvarfi (W8) y 0 brahmanaih vidadhati purvaih vcdaihs ca sarvan prahmoti tasmai Veda khalv idarh brahma. i iti Chandogya*Upani§ad: i. 1.Appendix 272 144 < atmana akaiah sathbhutah.1*4 < 1B3 iksater naSabdarh.1.3 x>2 Sastra-yonitvat > tattu samanvayat.jijnasa.1. > Brahma-Silira: 1. aurh itidarh sarvarfi. yac canyat trikalatltarfi tad apy orhkara eva. Ckdndogya-Upani§zd: 3.4.6 . Mundaka-Upanifad: 2.8 < m > sa esontafi caratc bahudha jayamanah. > Bfahma-S-Ttira: 1. > Taitliriya-Upanifad: 2. MdndUhya-Upantpd: ll6& > auih ity etad aksararh fidglthaih upasltorh hy udgayati tasyopavyakhyanaih. .1 m < janmady asya yatah.1 . 4.

1 25 Avadhuia-GUa: 1 75 panca-bhautikam cbando laksanam nah pitc\a sGnavegne supayano bhava sa ca s\a s\astaye Rg-Veda ia 2 6 This is translated with the following commentary he agnc haift asmadartharh 5obhana-prapti-yuktah bhava tatha asmakarti vinaia-r&hityartham samaveto bhava tatra ubhayatra drstantah yatha sunave putrartham pita samaveto bhavati tad\at Sayana-Bkasya ait| atarkyath anupramanat [Katha+Upam$ad 128) iUl » naisl tarkcna previa mate 3pane>a proktanyenaiva suinanava J J Katha-Upantsad: tUI ' Jiyaih &tm£ pravacanena labhyah irutcna >aifi c\aisa vrnute 129 na raedhaya na bahuna tena labhyah tasyaJsa 5tmi\n\piutetanuiiisv^± tranoso ^3p.1 rt >ncti neti Srutir briijat anrtarh ^nahi natu 111. 4 7 hmath pawfa^y anasQyavc Bhagavad-Gita: 9 1 . 1*5 «»' san-ash brahmeti vakhyStaih braviti bahudha irutih Avadkfita-Gtt&: 1 13 <i«f\adanti Srutyah sarvSh mrgunaih Suddbaifa avyayaih Avadhftta GttU: * l.1 sa mantrarti 1 20 Avadhm-GitQ. prajnancnamajfi Kafka-Upant$ad * 1 2 22 Katha-Upamsad: i 2 23 apnuyat SSS^^^ rtfcyutthlni* 1 1( I- g%n g!5nir bhavat* batata adhamasja tadatmanaa sn amy aha* Bhagavad-Gtia.— Appendix ***** 273 \ed3nta sara sarvasvam jnanaih vijnanatii eva ca ahiiii Stm£ mr5karah sar\a-vyapi svabhavatah Avadhuta-Gitd.

4 aw) maya prasanncna lavavjimcdaih ruparfi paraiii dar&itaih atma- yogat.48 (no) sarva-guhya-tamaih bhuyah Spiu mc paramaih vacah islosi mo dr<lharh iti tato vaksyami to hitath. < m Bhagavad-Glta: 11. tc Bhagavad-GUu: 1C23 17fl < > mac-cittah sarva-durgani mat-prasadat tarLsyasi* Bhagavad+Gm: 170 < > 18.32 < m) krpalul. (Avadhftta-Gitu: 2. Bhagavad-Glta: 18.64 m < > m5. 11. AvadhCita-Gttti: 5.a .4 . . . Bkagavad-Gttti: 11.Appendix 274 170 < > tesarh niiyabhiyuktauaih yoga-ksemarh vahamy ahaih.58 man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yajl math namaskuru maih cvaisyasi satyarh le pratijanc priyosi me.G l77 < » lasmat Sastrath pramfmaih karyakarya-vyavasthilau jnatva iaslra-vidhanoktarh karma-karlurh iharhasi.22 < 171 > mad-anugrahaya paramaih guhyaih adhyatma-sathjnitaih yat tvayoktath vacas tcna mohoyaih vigato mama* Bhagavad-Gttd: < 172 > manyasc yadi tac chakyarii maya drafi^nh yogcivara tatho me iti 11. Bhagavad-Gffi: 9. Bhagavad-Gita: 18-O5 11801 imfuh katharh uktavato guroh tad-yuktasya tatlvath hi samarii prakaAalc. sarvopakarakah.1 prabho tvaih dar£ayatmanaih avyayaiii.40) 1181 » vindati vindati nalu nahi yalra chando-laksanaih nalii nahi tatra. £ucah saihpadaih daivliii abhijatosi pancjava Bhagavad-Gttd: iG.47 > na vcda yajnudhyayanail\ na danaih na ca kriyabhih na tapobhir ugraih evaih rupah £akyah aharfi nr-loke drastum tvad-anyena kuru-pravira Bhagavad-Gtta. Avadhftta-Gm: 8.

«. tJiudhpte tatha* ***** ^ pan^Wh a eKo uianjaitth Vasyapy aho nanus Kur3S. CM .1 k 1 58 1 76 «5\abluva*bM\atah proktani SJLstra-sath\itti*pur\ akath Atadhilta-GUd. p^cn-WiutatmaWth uivaih marici-jaja-sanmbham « s * \cnedarfi puntarii sanarti 1 Atadhuia-Om 2 i vidyatc ""'sarva^ilnyaib aJQnjaih ca satylsatyaih na s\abh&va*bha\afah proktarh Aiadhfita-Gita. 5 21 . x 3 . it**' nopH^ko naivaih na copadelo na ca upasya-rupatii me kny a ca sathut-svarupaih ca katbaiii vadium ^arupvninftnarfi anSmayobarti Atadhiita-GU& 4 8 < I.-7$ Appendix ««• rani-niainS-piasMcna wfirkha %5 ^ j-adi 5. 1 76 na tarko na sam&dhi-yogo na dcAa-ka!au na gtirflpadciah (n&narti svabhSva-saifovittir ahajh ca tattvarh ZLU<a kalpartt sahajnrfi dhruvaih ca Aiadhlta Gita 111. ^w . ? . 6 8 M(fWM ^ W| .* «.( ' iha-san a-nimntara-san a-atc iha kc\akvmicala-<iarva-citc dwpad&di kimu vivarjit«i-sarva-citc rodtii tn&nasi sarva-samaiii Aiadhuta-Gitd. 23 .i1 ah.mi mina cva mrantara^ar\a-gatsih by a\ iVila-\ i*ala-\ ihlna-parartt mam cva nirantara^ar###BOT_TEXT###amp;-£ivaih mamsAp* kathatU vacant ca Vathaift AvadhfitaGUa*6i < m> RidiUndttaih nahr fcityarh MdiUAtditaih vilyaih iti iti yadi caika-mrantnra^rra-Sivarti % rajendnp-buddht-manrimsi kathaih? AtadhtVa-Gm.

25 1. > Avadhuta-GUa: 5. bhinna.58 (202 ) fti tattvamasi prabhrti-Srutibhih pratipaditarh atmani tattvamasi tvarii upadhi vivarjita-sarva-samatfi. < 205 > 1. panca-bhautikaih. 1207 ' neti neti Srutir bruyat anrtarh. > Avadhuta-GUa: 5.22 (2oo) rnanyante yoginah sarvam.71 caon gurupadeSata.35 < lw laghu-dlrgha-vicara. Avadhuta-GUa. cara-cara-bheda-vicara.2 (20a) imarii katharii imarii katharh uktavato guros tad-yuktasya uktavato guros tad-yuktasya tattvarii hi samarii prakaiate. Avadhuta-GUa: 1.. Avadhuta-GUa: 1.15 (106 avikalpa-vikalparh. Appendix 276 104 < kathaih iha tattvaifa vindati yatra rupam-aruparii katharfi-iha tatra gaganakarah paramo yatra > visayikaranarii katharfi iha tatra.4-7-9-10 t 101*' ekaiii eva samarii tattvarii vadanti hi vipaScital?. Avadhula-GUa: 1.18 <io7) pratyaksaih caparoksarh ca Avadhuta-GUa: 1. Avadhuta-GUa: 240 (204 j S arvam brahmeti vikhyataih braviti bahudha 6rutih. Avadhuta-GUa: 7.5 U8s bodha-vibodha-vihina-pararii. Avadhuta-Gtta: 5. Avadhuta-GUa. 5. Avadhuta-GUa.5 1208 } tattvarii asyadi-vakyena svatmahi pratipaditah.3 vadanti firutayah sarvah nirgunarti Suddhamavyayarfh Avadhtila-Gita: 1. Avadhuta-GUa.25 .vibhmna-vicara bahir-antara-sandtn-vicara. 1.

11 sarvarft 85 jagad viddhr Atadhma-Glffi: 1-4 < m * sphuraty cva jagat krtsnarft Aiadhuta-Glta i~6i m " pmca bhuUtmakarh viSvarii Aiadhuia-Gm: t*»i III.nta*\ adibhth Aiadhuta-Gim: II. vwdati -wndati nahi nahi yatra chandofak<smarfi nahi nahi tatra Atadkuta-GUa* 4 25 avadhuta-lak*ianaih \amaih jnatavyarh bhagavattamaih vcda^rn&rtha-tnttvajnaih % eda-ved5.1 1l<. 1 .m na iti 1 padrtarft na vi£unya~rupam na friddha-ruparfi na viiuddha rupam rupnifi-vmlparii na blmarm kimczt Aunya-rupaiti svarupa-ruparii paramSrtha-tattvarh Aiadbuta-Gttu ttin 345 vca0 na dikia na ca muntjanalcnya gurar na £Isyah* /ttai/wfa-GiM 2 32 * I. 5 31 i* 5 * l>ahudh5 iratayah pravadanti 1 Aiadku!a-GUa* 6 ' J301 < aurfi .rat 1 3 vyon&dt pancakatfi Avadhuia Gtta. I 16 fctbdSdi panoikasj Isj-a mahadSdi jagnt sarvarh Aut&h&ta-Gm mn nuhvUldi p$at sarvaih na Urn at t 45 pratibhfiti me Aiadhftta-Gxia* 2 45 r " n mahadadtai bhuUni . 1 46 Aiadhuta-GUJ.1 Appendix bahudha irutayah pravadanti ynio it«i Atadhuta-Gita. < 1.

Avadhuia-Gttd: 2 32 <234) what is stated is implied in the passages likeyoga-viyogaih rahito yogi bhoga-vibhogaih rahito bhogi. Avadhuta-Gitd: 7-9 <23s > atmanam camrtarh hitva abhinnarh moksam avyayaih gato hi kutsitah kakah vartate narakam prati Avadhuta-Gtta: 8-10 (236i vistadi-narakaih ghorarii bhagaih ca parinirmitam re citta katham tatraiva dhavasi* kimu paSyasi Avadhuta-Gitd: 8 . (230J t231 > is stated is Avadhuta-Gitd: 1 16 Avadhuta-Gitd: 1 72 atitanagatam karma vartamanam tathaiva ca na karomi na bhunjami iti me m£cala matih aho citta katham bhrantah pradhavasi piSacavat.—— Appendix 278 < 223 bahyabhavath bhavedvi^vaih antah prakrtir ucyate.19 1224 (enedath puritam sarvaih) atmanaivatmanatmani 1 Avaduta-Gttd: 1 2 yaS ya svarupat sacaracaram jagat utpadyate. (£25) tisthati Hyatepiva Avadhuta-Gtta: 2. sampadah. . J Avadhuta-Gitd: 2.18 (232 ) (233 ) gurur w m ^syo . Avadhuta-Gitd: 1. 3 20 < 227 veda na lokah na surah na yajnah varna£ramo naiva kulam na ]atih na dhuma-margo na ca dipti-margo brahmaika-rupam paramartha- > tattvam Avadhuta-Gtta: 1 34 bhranti-jnanam sthitarii bahyaih samyak jnanarh ca madhyagarii madhyan madhyataraih jneyam nankela-phalambuvat (228) Avadhuta-Gitd: 2 20 What <229) implied in the passages such as: £abdadi pancakasyasya naivasi tvam na te punah. .36 (226 kalatrayam yadi ca neti katbarii di£a£ca. > Avadhuta-Gtta.

14 na hi rnoksa-padarii na hi bandha-padarii na hi punya-padarfi na hi papa-padam na ht puma-padarfi na hi rtkta-padath kimu rodisi nunasi sarva-samatft Atadkuta-Gtta 5 19 tI!>1 bodha*\ibodhaiah satatarfi yukto dvaitldvaitaih kathaih iha muktah ? Avadh\ita-G\ia* 7 10 iW% sarvarti brahmeti vikhyatarh bra\Iti bahudtu Srutih Atadhiila-Glta: . Lnabm wvatb c . saihptimat\at na 1 i r2 gmami Atadhuta-Gitci. samarf] in sancsu akhanglitah AiadkufQ-Gm.Appendix '» n 279 dhanrttchu moksa-paryantarfi z»rihab sarvathavayaih katharh raga-viragaiS ca kalpayanti vipaicrtah? Aiaihula-GUd: 7.t na tc x 15 punah prahbhlt. 7 13 At! that is stated is supported by passages such Wmanjwaitnani smnadi tvaya pfimaift as— mrantanuh AtadhSta-GUu* 1 26 na haih niham jaganncdarii sarvam Stmaiva kcvalarh Atadhiiia-GUu' Jabctodt pancalasj-isya tvaifi tuuto tva. mc AiadhZta'GUa: i 45 .4 aharti ekaiti ldaih sarvarfi Atadhfita-GUti. StmSnarh sarvatraikaih 10 in akhantfaih • Atadhutct-Gita.fc cva paramam tatUaih mrihaduclt j^rat lirahruiva swvaih na kirf. 2 6 akhamjitaih anikaro vartate ktvalah iivah Axadhuta-GUZ.tu 1 All that n stated Stmaua kcvalam is supported by the passages such as 1 13 — sarvarh bbedabhedo na \idyate„ Atadhuta-Gtia: 1.

12 ( 2aS) sahajaih ajam acintyarh . Avadhuta-Gita. Avadhuia-Gila: 1.28 . . 3. 1.5 t 24C gaganopamam * tu.32 (251 > guru^isya^vivarjita-tattva-paraih.Appendix 280 (243 dvaitadvaita-vivarjitam > Avadhuta-Gita. 2.24 (252) sahajarti ajam acintyaih yas tu paSyet svarupaiii ghatati yadi yathestam lipyate naiva dosaili sakrdapi tad-abhavat karma kiriicin na kuryat tad api na ca vibaddhah sariiyaml va tapasvi. 2. Avadhuta-Gita.12 (2" > nirmula-mula-rahito. Avadhuta-Gita: 1. 1.30 <2&3) ve do na diksa na ca mun<Jana-knya gurur na Si^yo na ca yatra sarhpadalt mudradikaiii capi na tatra bhasate taih l^aifa. atmanarfi upaiti Saivatarii.30 < 219 yogan na tu naiva suddhaift mano-vinaian na tu naiva Suddharfi gurupadesan na tu naiva Suddham svayaih ca tattvam svayatft eva buddhaih. Avadhuta-Gita. 2. Avadhuta-Gita. 2. . Avadhuta-Gita.48 t250 jnanam na tarko na samadhi-yogo na deia-kalau na guriipade&ah ) svabhava-sariivittir ahaift ca tattvam akaSa-kalpam sahajam dhruvarfi ca. 5. Avadhuta-Gita.61 advaitarupam akhilam katharii vadami.36 mii aho maya mahamoho dvaitadvaita-vikalpana. 2. dvaitasvarupaiii akhilatii. 2. Avadhuta-Gita. . svarupaih.58 (2Di) raga-dvesa-vinirmuktah sarva-bhuta-hite Tatah dr^ha-bodhaS ca dhiraS ca sa gacchet paramaift padaiii. . Avadhuta-Gita. sacjanga- > Avadhuta-Gita.

281 Appendix h* 11 caihsthitatft d\aitatfr advattaih bljako^a lva jtigat drumah at-paramanvantah yah paiyati sa pa£yati na dvattarti ^wa cSdvaitarh na ca bijarii na c^nkura^ suk$marii na sthularn na ca ca. atm^urc dra<s{avyati Srotavyo mantavyo mdidhyasitavyah. jltath era na j&tath Ycgatastfjha * Utpathprakarana Sarga 21. 245 . Aiadhuia-GUS' 7 15 * m * im&rti katlurii hi samarti ukta\ato guros tad-yuktasya tattvarix prakMate Avadhuta-Gtia 1 40 svabh&va-bhavatah proktath &5tra-sathvitti-purvakarii Aiadhiila-GUa: 1119 > tasmS san ato raksaniyaih buddhayah sartibhavanti ccittaih svo*»thc citto r 76 v Avadhuta+Gitii* 8 27 »" ' dattStrej av adhutena ntrmitinandarupina jc pafhanti ca ipnanti tej&ih naiva punarbhatah Avadhuta-Gihl: 8 28 «* 3. 97-98 *atna*rasa-magno bh£Uita-puta^i pralapati tatt\arii paraiti avadhuta^. Brhad-Aranyaka.

112*3. 241 Jma. 3. 39 M° Dattidvaita. 90. 30. xu. 541. 7. 245 Jung. 107. 123 Ajntoksn. ISvaranugraha. grace Atma-jnam. *4°< 243* 2 45 ArHaita^bhuva. 112 €t seq Avndhutn. 94. 126. 20. 245 JKanmukti. 33 1 Ananda. 94. 100-10. 66. 116 Aitauna* 133 God. 63*4. 230 K&lid&sa. philosophy 247-9. 104.04 Language. sources of. 1 14 Atnrhkara-tattva. 110. Dvaita. 249 243 -no I^rgson. theory of. 62. 119 Equipoise. 249 f Adhxittna. 240. 133 Intuition. 140-1. 137. in Huddle ttuddht. in m}*thology.1. 4. 15 r tt 66 ttq . 116 f 90-1. 58-9. 14. 1 23~4 Autn. no. 80. not mere idea. 146. 6. 91/104 t Detachment. 17. 125 Apaurwcya. William. 247. 241 4. xin. 8. xj. mi. 1*7*^ 125. 239 t ( Advaita-\ Tirana.i5. in essence. 57 Dhanna-saihsthapana. 239. "5. the. 77' ^39 Advaita-dprti. 6 69. James. 127. izo. 110 truth of. 86 Bhac^vnta-Purajia. 34 Ltnga*£arfra. 4. 249 Kpna. xiu Absolutism. 107 Avidyft. 95* *3<^ MS 142. 70 Knowledge. relative value of. 127 Guriipade&a. 92. 703 Ad\aitn xm 5. 246 Bf5hmam. Guru. 48. 14 5( C41 Bhagavad*G!ta. 132 JIvanmukta. 14 scq ct A\asth. I43. 239-40 245* 2 5° Anyathl-Uiy&ti. 16 WnAka 238. 102 BMar&vana's Vcdanta Sutra. xin u8 DattStreya. 90*1. io2 *pta. 127 Hegel. 6 Illusion. 245*6. 51 Bradley. 114. 14 Brahman. 42-3. 115. 244 Brahmaputra. 18. 242. of. 241 ISvara. 132.- INDEX Absolute. 46 Kaivalya. 127. of. 99 JWa. 102-3 ^i^nlmiirti-Stotra. in Brahma\id. the All complete. idea of. 143 Atma-samutti. U6. 14S. Damans. 105. 123. 17. 93 seq Epistemology. 63 . 16. 247 Attnan. ^6 52 Lmga-mahiVpurana. in Sandilya-Upanisad 21. 129. 248 AvndhGta-Gfta. 241. 66. 247 Dcvi-Bhagavata. 96 Empirical philosophies. compared* \uth Aiadhuta-Gita. philosophy of. m. 15. Arjuna.

128. 117. dipti. 13 1-2 # Manas. 182 Avadhiita. 98 Philosophy. 14 Sraddha. 9. 130. 134. et seq 112. " I 7& 2 -3' i7 163. 249 Samanvaya. 44. of. 90. 15 . 15 Purusarthas. 94 Siva-Rahasya. 244. 27-29. 39 Patanjah-Siitra. 113 Mahat-tattva. 138 Plato. 9. 14 Plotinus. 37 Brahma Vidya.Index 284 Sabda. 6 80. 99 • f Mysticism. 12. 110 Samskara. 75. 135. 90 Moksa. 114. 32. conception 87. 142 Religion. 7 Marga. 152-6. 121 Svabhava-samvitti. 134 Maya. 249-50 Samarasa-magna. 25 Spinoza. 131 Tarka. 119. 73 Perception. Tanmatrab. 125 Tnpura-Rahasya Pessimism. 7 Nyaya-vaiiesika. 170-2. 80 Nyaya. 13. 113 Rationalisation. Brhadaranyaka 47 xiii. 105. 240 Turiya. 54. Svabhava-bhava. 245. 135 Relativity. 186-7. 62. 53 Advayataraka. 247 Pratyaksa. 99. 151 SurcSvaracarya. 81 Chandogya. 68 Aitareya. 15 Rbhu. 79 Sabdapramana. 143 et $eq. 115 Narayana. 238 Sankhya. 10 Reality. 94 'Numinous' experience. *3° Otto. 125-6. 99 Rnatraya. 243 Samarasa. 154. 167. 246 Manasollasa. 18 76. 238 l^is* 239 120. 126. 138 16. Naciketas. 6. dhuma. and philosophy.3* . 10 Nous. 169-70. 158-61. 80 et scq. 120 Parmenides. 109. 38 Dattatreya. 8. 29. 182-5. 18. 75 n Suddhavaita. 113 Sastra-samvitti. 241. 90. 15. 51. Rudolf. 105. paramarthika yaugika. 167-8. 241 Ontology. 188-91. 91 UpadeSa. 135 Sampradaya. 112. J 9 *9' Radhakrishnan. Sankaracarya. 133 and Upamsads* Adhyatma. 95 44. 195* 200 Daksinamurti. 5. 107 Turiyavastha. and philosophy. 84. Bhasmajabala. 13 1-2 100. 25 Sohambhava. 190-1. 16 Pramana. 97. 105 Pratibha. 123 Sat-karya-vada. 99 Psycho-analysis. 240. 131 Science. 140. 24. 94 Patanjah. 246 Theism. 93. 247 Sucindram. xii. 119. 8. 31 Purva-mlmamsa. 6. 126 Madhva.61 ' 177-9. ioo-i 104 Sabdabrahma. 53* 2 44 ' ^3-4' l82. xii. 16 Ramanuja. 114. 249 Brhajjabala. 167. 14 Prakrti. 90 Samadhi. 240. 13. 5. 241 201. 146-8. 24 Nidagha. 193. 6. 105. 98 MImamsa. 121.

110-2. 90.285 Index Upam^ads Dhyana-bmdu. 194. 43-4. 100 Verbal testimony. 90*1. 195-7. ii2. 129-30. 238 Veda. 28 Paramahamsa. 70 Hayagriva. 246 Vairagya. 38 Varaha. 240 Yogi-pratyaksa. 246 VedavySsa. 115. 198 Tejo-bindu. 171. 163. 242. essence of. 169. 6. 179. —cont TnpuratApiny. 154-5 l&bdto-Dariana. 29. 152-4. 66. 4° I&v5sya. 88. * 6 7. 31 Nrstmhottara t£pan>. 246. 88-9. 21-2. 138-40. i8i f 185. 105 Marticyi. 13 Yoga-Vsisista-R5mayana. 147. 156-7. 138-40. 156 60. 78. 38 R&namhasya 26 &ndilya. 3. 43 49 S&^hy&nayanlya 45 §vetS$\atara. 8-io # 240 Vitarka. 190. 46. 133 Vasana. 69 Tiuturip. 104. 37. 2oo. 88. 56 Yajnavalkya. 112. 188-9. 31 Praina. 40 Gopalapuna taptny. f Yoga-tattva. 162. 28 Yoga. 47 159*61. 39 Mumjaka. 13. 153-5. 241. 12 168. loS. 244 Vai&stka. 178 Mantnka. 41 Hamsa. 152-3. 246 Nlrada*panvr&jaka. 46. 125 5. 59. 179 187. 109. 191-4. 247 Sarabba 27 Sarvaslra 28. 1741 181. 190 Mantfala Br&hmana. 8 Yoga. 158* 175. 153-6. 63. i66 t 170 Rfimapurvatfpiny. 131 Varna. 51 Ka^ha. 245 Visnupurana. i 8 4. 5. 126 Vidyaranya. 248 Yajnavalkya. 114. 4 79. 64. 190-1. xu 17. 126 Whitehead. 7. 42-3 Uttara-mlmamsa. 4. 72. 125. et stq t 117. 64. 69. 56 Tnpldvibhati maba n&rayana. 73. 71 Kena. . 241 Women. 169. lot. 152. 112. 198-9 Kaivalya. 62. 30 M&ntfukya. 60. 59 Vipra. 143. 26. ir. 87-8 Vismaya. 246 Yoga-Sutra. 29. 66. 164*7. 28 . 126 Vjcara. 129-30. 248 Vedanta. 90.