# 4305/5401 Fluid Machinery/Turbomachinery

Problem Set #2
1. Further analysis of centrifugal pump
(b) Specific speed
By definition, specific speed is the value of Ω for the operating point where the machine achieves
its best efficiency, where

N⋅ Q

Ω=

3

(g⋅ ΔH) 4
From the lecture notes, we can also write
1

⎛ Q ⎞

3⎟
N⋅ D ⎠

Ω=

2

⎛ g⋅ ΔH ⎞
⎜ 2 2⎟
⎝ N ⋅D ⎠

4

From PS1 #2, best η occurs at

1

=

CQ

3

2
3

CH

4

CQ := 0.0013
CH := 0.12

and corresponding
1

then

Ω :=

CQ

2

Ω = 0.177

3

CH

4

For comparison with the pump correlations we can also write
Ns2 := 2730⋅ Ω

Ns2 = 482.8

Both values indicate that this is a very low specific speed centrifugal pump. This is probably one
of the reasons that its efficiency is somewhat poor.

1

4305/5401 PS#2/1

From the spreadsheet (original data and corresponding reduced values) the following results apply at the best efficiency point at 3000 RPM): then ΔH := 60.37 = 10. given the accuracy that we are able to read values from the plot.177 Cordier gives Δ := 18. 2 4305/5401 PS#2/1 .253 Dpump := 0. ( g⋅ ΔH) 4 The actual pump tip diameter is Although the pump diameter is a little smaller than the value given by the Cordier diagram.(b) Is it well-sized? Examine whether size is consistent with the Cordier diagram: For Ω = 0.229 m (8 in. the two values are in reasonably good agreement and the pump appears to be reasonably well-sized.0051 m3 /s D := Δ⋅ Q D = 0.0 From the definition of specific diameter 1 Δ= D⋅ ( g⋅ ΔH) 4 then D= Δ⋅ Q g := 9.5 m H2 O Q := 0.81 1 Q m/s2 (g⋅ ΔH) 4 where the quantities are to apply to the design point.26 m D⋅ 39.) 1 in.

005562 m3 /s Determining Net positive Suction Head.0015 0.5 High P in Medium P in Low P in Efficiency 0. NPSH Hsv = Pin ρ⋅g 2 + Vin 2⋅ g − Pvap ρ := 1000 kg/m3 ρ⋅g 3 4305/5401 PS#2/1 . the abrupt drops in efficiency are signs of the onset of cavitation: CENTRIFUGAL PUMP EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Efficiency versus Flow Coefficient at 3000 RPM 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.(C) Cavitation characteristics . cavitation onset occurred at low values of the flow coefficient.0005 0. the pump should have been operated at its design point (its point of best efficiency) while the inlet pressure was reduced until the onset of cavitation. For example.2 60 Pin := 48. Conceptually. implying operation well away from design.002 Flow Coefficient. Q/ND 3 The suction specific speed is intended to specify the NPSH at the inception of cavitation with the machine operating at its design point. Comparing the above plot with those obtained at lower values of RPM (where cavitation did not occur).1 0 0 0. Then using the data for high Pin to find the Si: N := 3000 ω := RPM Operating point for onset of cavitation: 2⋅ π ⋅ N ω = 314. on the efficiency plots.001 0.8 kPa rads/s Q := 0. Clearly the test was not conducted this way. it appears that at 3000 RPM cavitation occurred closest to the design point for the high Pin condition. For the other inlet pressures.Suction Specific Speed The three sets of data obtained at 3000 RPM and varying inlet pressure were intended to explore the pump's cavitation characteristics.

5 (with higher values being better). HL Δu HL = g Δu = Cv⋅ ΔT and for a pure substance Cv := 4180 For water at 15o C Nm/kg K The head loss has been shown to be related to the efficiency as follows η = ΔH ΔH + HL thus HL = ΔH⋅ 1− η η or ΔT = g⋅ ΔH 1 − η ⋅ Cv η For the point of best efficiency for 3000 RPM (design point) η := 0. the present pump appears to have somewhat poor resistance to cavitation. (d) Temperature rise across the pump Since this is an incompressible flow machine. C 4305/5401 PS#2/1 .23.027 × 10 Pa 2 ⎛⎜ P Vin Pvap ⎞⎟ in Hsv := ⎜ + − ⎟ ρ⋅g ⎠ ⎝ ρ ⋅ g 2⋅ g ω⋅ Q d = pipe diameter at inlet π 2 Ain := ⋅ d 4 d = 0.744 Pvap := 1700 For water at 15o C Then and Si := m2 m/s Hsv = 5.3. This resulting increase in internal energy was expressed in terms of a head loss.5 .23 3 (g⋅ Hsv) −3 Ain = 2.Pin := Pin⋅ 1000 50. the fluid temperature rises solely due to friction in the machine itself.24 deg.372 ΔH := 60.8 Q Vin := Ain thus Vin = 2. Properly designed pumps would be expected to have values of Si = 2.5 m H2 O and finally 4 ΔT := g⋅ ΔH 1 − η ⋅ Cv η ΔT = 0.0508 m 1000 Pa π 2 Ain = ⋅ d 4 Q Vin = Ain From flow rate d := Pin = 48800 4 Cavitation Resistance: The estimated value of Si was 1. Thus.185 m H2 O Si = 1.

for W = 0. indicates centrifugal pump (b) Estimating machine size: Δ := 4.8 m/s2 m N⋅ 2⋅ π 60 ω = 31.598 3 ( g⋅ ΔH) 4 Csanady chart suggests a centrifugal pump is appropriate for this W Confirming this using the "pumps" specific speed plot: For use with this figure need flow rate in USgpm and head in feet: QUSgpm := 39600 ΔHft := ΔH⋅ 3.42 rads/s (a) Selecting machine type: 1 From non-dimensional specific speed Ω := ω⋅ Q 2 Ω = 0.281 USgpm ΔHft = 121. Hydraulic pump-turbine (pump mode): Q := 2.397 ft of water 1 NS := N⋅ QUSgpm 2 NS = 1632 3 ΔHft 4 Alternatively.598 1 and Δ= D⋅ ( g⋅ ΔH) 4 or 1 Q 2 Δ D := 1 1 4 4 g ⋅ ΔH 1 ⋅ Q 4305/5401 PS#2/2 . could have used the conversion factor supplied in the notes: NS2 := 2730⋅ Ω NS2 = 1632 Again.7 From Cordier diagram.5 m3 /s N := 300 ΔH := 37 RPM ω := Then g := 9.4305/5401 Fluid Machinery/Turbomachinery Problem Set #2 2.

5 ρ⋅N ⋅D are a function of two independent parameters ("criteria of similarity") only.000) efficiency should be about 91%. Q/ND3 is the only criterion of similarity and when those are matched between the model and prototype (for example. Consider the design point for the full scale machine (as given in the problem). The efficiency in the pump mode may therefore be somewhat lower in practice. The full-scale power. if it is to operate at the same non-dimensional operating point as the full scale while being driven at 1800 RPM and not drawing more than 15 kW of shaft power. Consider the power coefficients: Wm 3 W = ρ ⋅ Nm ⋅ Dm 5 3 5 ρ⋅N ⋅D Since the model power and RPM are constrained. when the model is operated at the design point of the full scale machine) then all the dependent non-dimensional parameters will be the same for the two machines. can be estimated from the specification and the estimated efficiency from (c) W= ρ ⋅ Q⋅ g⋅ ΔH let η η := 0. with NS = 1630. Q = 39.88 (conservative value .7 m (c) Estimating efficiency: From the "pumps" specific speed plot. Thus. (d) Model testing in laboratory: For model Nm := 1800 Wm := 15000 RPM For hydraulic machines. it is likely that there will have been some compromises in the design in order to make it function reasonably well as both a pump and a turbine. since this is a pump-turbine. 88%. W. Neglect Reynolds number effects since they are often small and we do not know the Reynolds number range at this point.703 m Therefore the machine should have a diameter of about 1. we want to know what size of model machine can we have.Thus D = 1. However. matching of power coefficients is sufficient to obtain scale ratio if the full-scale power is known. eg.slightly higher value would be accepted) ρ := 1000 kg/m3 2 4305/5401 PS#2/2 .600 USgpm (> 10. all dependent performance parameters W (maximum value) η g⋅ ΔH W 2 2 3 N D etc. Q/ND3 and Re.

0437 m3/s From head coefficients g⋅ ΔHm 2 Nm ⋅ Dm = 2 g⋅ ΔH 2 2 N ⋅D 2 ⎛ Nm ⎞ 2 ΔHm := ΔH⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ DR ⎝ N⎠ ΔHm = 27.827 Dm = 0. from flow coefficients Q Qm = 3 N⋅ D Nm⋅ Dm Qm := Q⋅ Nm N 3 3 ⋅ DR Qm = 0.146 Dm := DR⋅ D Then maximum model diameter 1 or DR = 6.18 3 m 4305/5401 PS#2/2 .249 m (e) Flow rate and head for model pump: Dm Using DR := = DR D 1 7 Since all non-dimensional parameters are matched at the specified operating point.03 × 10 η 6 W and letting DR = Dm/D (scale ratio) Wm 3 ρ ⋅ Nm ⋅ Dm 5 3 5 Wm W = 5 ρ⋅N ⋅D ρ ⋅ Nm = 3 W⋅ DR 3 ρ⋅N 1 then Wm DR := 3 5 3 1 5 5 Nm ⋅ W ⋅N 5 DR = 0.ρ ⋅ Q⋅ g⋅ ΔH W := then W = 1.

5.3. Si = 2. 4 4305/5401 PS#2/2 . point 2) thus Hsv = P2 ρ⋅g 2 + V2 2⋅ g − Pvap ρ⋅g and Pvap := 3000 Pa (given) Cavitation will begin for a critical value of S = Si. a relatively conservative value of S should probably be used: say Si := 2.5 Now determine the absolute total head at the pump inlet. with the higher values corresponding to pumps with greater cavitation resistance. Since the design may be somewhat compromised by the fact that the machine must act as both a pump and a turbine. For pumps.(f) Cavitation assessment for pump/turbine operating in pump mode: Patm P/T y 2 h 1 Datum (NOT TO SCALE) 1 From suction specific speed S= ω⋅ Q 2 Hsv = net positive suction head 3 (g⋅ Hsv) 4 where Hsv = Habs − hv Habs = absolute total head at cavitation location (in this case at pump inlet.5 .

we can apply Bernoulli's equation along the streamline from 1 to 2: P1 ρ⋅g and 2 + V1 2⋅ g + y1 = P2 ρ⋅g y 1 := 0 P1 = Patm 2 + V2 2⋅ g + y2 (y1 is at datum for y) Patm := 101000 Pa y2 = h Assume also that the lower reservoir is large compared with the dimensions of the intake.51 3 m Thus. 5 4305/5401 PS#2/2 . Also. assuming the lower intake and piping system are well designed so that the total head losses are small. the pump turbine should not be located any higher than about 4. so that V1 := 0 P2 Then ρ⋅g 2 V2 + 2⋅ g and thus Now ρ⋅g 4 2 3 3 ω ⋅Q h := −h − h− Pvap ρ⋅g 4 3 g⋅ Si and thus ρ⋅g Patm Hsv = Hsv = Patm = Patm ρ⋅g − Pvap ρ⋅g − 4 2 3 3 ω ⋅Q 4 g⋅ Si h = 4.5 m above the lower free surface level when it is operating the pump mode.Assume that the pump inlet face is at a height h above the inlet reservoir. The cavitation characteristics should also be checked for the turbine mode.

809 0.174 ft.93 W = 308.5 4 94. Q := 65 cfs g := 32./s2 ρ := 1. This will need to be established by trial and error.83 12 47.237 2.56 32 20.6 68 54.4 poles gives too high a specific speed (see Fig.719 NS = i 271... 4 to 36 poles: i := 4 .158 1.079 0. 4) 4 npoles = i ωi = 188.42 24 26.12 16 37.3 38.7 20 31.25 8 62.93 28 23. 8 . 4) . Try.MECH 4305/5401 .94 36 rads/sec N = i 1800 900 600 450 360 300 257 225 200 Ωi = 6. say.4 45. guessing the number of poles.7 1 HP 4305/5401 PS#2/3 .925 0.619 1. 36 N := i npoles := i f := 60 i f⋅ 60 Hz N ⋅ 2⋅ π i ωi := RPM npoles rads/sec 60 i 2 Then from specific speed: Ω i := ωi⋅ Q NS := Ω i⋅ 42 i and 3 ( g⋅ H) (for comparison with Fig.Fluid Machinery/Turbomachinery Problem Set #2 3.94 slug/ft3 Rotational speed must be compatible with an electrical generator producing 60 Hz AC power.9 136 90. Q = 65 cfs: H := 45 ft.8 poles would give a propeller (Kaplan) turbine of good efficiency . Selecting hydraulic turbines: (a) For service with ΔH=45 ft.in either case.16 to 28 poles would give a Francis turbine of good efficiency .2 RPM . efficiency should be about thus W := η ⋅ ρ ⋅ g⋅ Q⋅ H 550 η := 0.295 1.8 34 30.475 3.

from Cordier diagram: npoles = i N = 4 1800 8 900 12 16 450 20 360 28 2.549 3.81 D = i 1 ( g⋅ H) 1. at 70o F.699 4 2. Also.2 3.529 3.7⋅ 144 ρ⋅g Patm = 2116.182 4.92 257 32 225 36 200 1.705 0.5 psia (eg.002 3 ( g⋅ Hsv) 4 . Tthen static pressure is Patm Hsv = Patm ρ⋅g 2 + V 2⋅ g − Pv Patm := 14. neglecting the dynamic head relative to the static head will give a low (conservative) value of Hsv.08 0.25 rads/s S = 4. we find that for typical water temperatures Pv < 0.7 3..4 2.62 1.2 ft. suction specific speed: S := ω⋅ Q 900⋅ 2⋅ π 60 ω = 94.this is in the reasonable range for a properly designed turbine Conclusion: A Kaplan turbine with following parameters should be satisfactory: N = 900 RPM (8 poles) D = 2.8 psf Looking up the value of Pv.222 2.24 300 D := Δ i⋅ Q i 6.Consider then the specific diameter.0 3. We therefore neglect Pv relative to lative to Patm .0 3. assuming it is satisfactory from the point of view of cavitation: Suppose the 900 RPM Kaplan turbine is mounted with its outlet at the level of the tailpond surface.16 1. examine cavitation using the approximation that Hsv := Patm Hsv = 33. Therefore.137 3.921 4. Pv = 0.91 ρ⋅g ft of water ω := Then.6 4.36 psia).47 600 24 Δ i := Ωi = i 0.29 1. and expected power output is about 300 HP 2 4305/5401 PS#2/3 .72 5.228 Since cost increases with size of machine.7 1. the Kaplan turbine is preferred.3 1.95 2.

25 900 62. For a single-jet wheel. Q = 18 cfs: H := 850 Q := 18 ft. 16 or 20 poles appears about right (middle of range of Ω's from Fig.075 0.26 1. 36 N := i npoles := i f := 60 i f⋅ 60 Hz N ⋅ 2⋅ π i ωi := RPM npoles rads/sec 60 i 2 Then from specific speed: Ω i := ωi⋅ Q NS := Ω i⋅ 42 and ( g⋅ H) (for comparison with Fig. A multi-jet wheel could be used with 8 poles (Ω around 0. try 4 to 36 poles: i := 4 .4 Efficiency should be about thus W := η ⋅ ρ ⋅ g⋅ Q⋅ H 550 η := 0.054 0.7 360 31. we would consider a Pelton wheel. 4) i 3 4 npoles = i 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 ωi = N = Ωi = i 188. Therefore. 3 4305/5401 PS#2/3 .188 0.(b) For service with ΔH = 850 ft.7 HP Again.95 3. we will need to examine the diameter and cavitation implications before making the final choice.83 600 47.see Fig.75 This is a very low specific speed machine (even the 1800 RPM machine is barely in the Francis turbine range .12 450 37.56 225 20.094 0. 4 suggests NS = 3 ..79 7.042 NS = i 15.047 0.376 0.9 5. 1) and Fig. 8 .063 0.97 1.94 200 0.93 257 23.5 1800 94.16 2. 4)..26 3.125 0. cfs Again.2).63 2.90 W = 1562.42 300 26.

094 1 ( g⋅ H) 4 D = i 2. It would be operating outside its ideal specific speed range.609 9. Therefore it was necessary to extrapolate for the 12 and 16 pole cases.846 The Cordier diagram only extends to Ω of about 0. 8 . Therefore..898 14. 4 4305/5401 PS#2/3 .Consider then the specific diameter. say. we would choose the multi-jet wheel unless it has serious cavitation problems. the cavitation analysis procedures we have available in this course are not really applicable to an open rotor like a Pelton wheel. from Cordier diagram: i := 4 . it appears that the needed diameter rises very rapidly as speed comes down.18. Unfortunately. diameter single-jet wheel. 15 ft.474 5. Thus. At this point.5 17 30 45 0.5 ft. 16 npoles = i N = i 4 1800 8 900 12 16 600 450 Δ i := Ωi = D := Δ i⋅ Q i 7. Assuming that the trend shown is correct.376 0.188 0. it would be reasonable to examine the possibility of using a very low specific speed Francis turbine. and therefore would give lower than normal efficiency. while the multi-jet wheel must be a good deal more expensive than a single-jet machine. but the efficiency might still be just as good as that of the Pelton wheel. it seems likely that a 5.125 0. diameter multi-jet machine would still be cheaper than a.

63 60 Q := 10 rad/s ft3/s g := 32.87. the present impeller is considerably undersized for the specified H and Q. Conclusion: The pump is unlikely to achieve the quoted efficiency.Fluid Machinery/Turbomachinery Problem Set #2 4. frictional losses will be high. velocities in the impeller will be high.88131 2 For Ω = 1. N := 980 6 D := D = 6 in. D = 0. the Cordier diagram indicates a specific diameter of about 2. ω = 102. As a matter of interest. Thus. will produce ΔH=30 ft. Axial-flow pump: Salesman's performance claims: 6 in Diam pump. the specific speed is lower than would normally be considered appropriate for an axial-flow machine (mixed-flow pump would be more suitable). Are these claims plausible? Assuming the quoted operating point is the "design point" check that the specified efficiency is consistent with Specific Speed charts and whether the diameter is suitable.87 3 NS := 2730⋅ Ω NS = 5116. and the efficiency should be reduced. it seems unlikely that this efficiency will be obtained. 12 ω := RPM N⋅ 2⋅ π H := 30 ft.2. 2).174 ft/s2 Then specific speed: Ω := ω⋅ Q Ω = 1. Thus. The 85% efficiency is about what an axial pump would achieve in a service where it was well-matched (see Fig.MECH 4305/5401 . with Q=10 cfs and 85%. check also the suitability of the diameter from the Cordier diagram: 1 Δ := D⋅ ( g⋅ H) 1 Q 4 Δ = 0.5 ft. As a result.2 4 ( g⋅ H) Based on both Ω and NS. with N=980 RPM. 1 4305/5401 PS#2/4 . according to Cordier.

Cavitation in hydraulic turbine: Model turbine: Hsvm := 2. the two turbines are geometrically similar. including the suction specific speeds. Since the machines are in a geometrically-similar family. 1 4305/5401 PS#2/5 .5 Full scale ("prototype"): ΔHp := 25 ΔHm := 7.81 m/s2 h := −Hsvp + h = 2. Because of the dynamic similarity. the full scale turbine can be located up to 2.1 1 ρ⋅g ⋅ Patm m.6 m. all non-dimensional parameters must be matched. and problem indicates that last two terms can be neglected P = Patm − ρ ⋅ g⋅ h where h is the height of the turbine outlet above the tailwater level g := 9.Fluid Machinery/Turbomachinery Problem Set #2 5. m Patm := 101300 Pa Obviously. Assume also that they are being compared at the same non-dimensional operating point (probably the design point).3289 σ p := σ m m.MECH 4305/5401 .1 m above the tailwater level without encountering cavitation. the onset of cavitation will also occur for the same value of the Thoma parameter for both machines: σ = Hsv and for the model ΔH Hsvm σ m := ΔHm Then the full-scale turbine will cavitate at the same σ Hsvp := σ p⋅ ΔHp Now then Hsv = Hsv = P ρ⋅g Hsvp = 8. Thus.224 2 + V 2⋅ g − P Pv ρ⋅g and ρ⋅g ρ := 1000 kg/m3 Finally Hsvp = Patm − ρ ⋅ g⋅ h ρ⋅g σ m = 0.