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Master of IT Engineering

Royal University of Phnom Penh

Semester I

(RUPP)

Semester I

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Overview

Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Vectors

I

Vector Notations

Negating a Vector

(RUPP)

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2D Coordinate Spaces

Consist of a special location

called the origin

Exist two straight lines that pass

through the origin

Two axes are perpendicular to

each other

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(RUPP)

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(RUPP)

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3D Cartesian Space

Extend 2D into 3D by addin a

3rd axis

xy, xz, and yz planes

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(RUPP)

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(RUPP)

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(RUPP)

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Vector

Vectors are the formal mathematical entities we use to do 2D and 3D

math

Mathematically, a vector is nothing more than an array of numbers

The dimesion of a vector tells how many numbers the vector

contains

Vectors may be of any positive dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, 4D)

(RUPP)

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Vector

Vector Notations

There are two ways to write vector:

Column vector

x

y

z

Row vector

x y z

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Vector

Vector Notations

In math, integer indices are used to access the elements of vector

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Vector

The branch of mathematics that deals primarily with vectors and

matrices is called linear algebra

For 3D math, we are mostly concerned with the geometric

interpretations of vectors and vector operations

Geometrically speaking, a vector is a directed line segment that has

magnitude and direction

What is magnitude and direction?

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Vector

The magnitude of a vector is the length of the vector

A vector may have any nonnegative length

direction of a vector describes which way the vector is pointing in

space

Where is this vector?

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Vector

Vectors do not have position, only magnitude and direction

Sound Impossible?

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Vector

Many quantities we deal with on a daily basis have magnitude and

direction

Vector Quantities

Displacement Take three step forward

Velocity I am traveling northeast at 50 mph

Scalar Quantities

Distance

Speed

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Vector

(RUPP)

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Vector

There is a special vector, known as the zero vector for any given

vector dimension

0

0

0=

....

....

0

The Zero vector consist of a magnitude of zero

The Zero vector has no direction

The Zero vector of a given dimesion is the additive identity for the

set of vectors of that dimension

Lecturer: Kor Sokchea

(RUPP)

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Vector

(RUPP)

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Vector

Negating a Vector

The negation operation can be applied to vectors

Defintion

Every vector v has an additive inverse -v of the same dimension

such that:

v + (v) = 0

(RUPP)

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Vector

Negating a Vector

Official Linear Algebra Rules

To negate a vector of any dimension, we simply negate each

component of the vector as folows:

a1

a1

a2 a2

. .

. = .

an1 an1

an

(RUPP)

an

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Vector

Negating a vector results in a vector of the same magnitude but

opposite direction

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Vector

Official Linear Algebra Rules

a1

a2

k

. =

.

an1

an

(RUPP)

ka1

a1

ka2

a2

.

.

. k = .

.

.

kan1

an1

kan

an

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Vector

Example: Multiplying a 3D Vector by scalar

x

x

kx

k y = y k = ky

z

z

kz

vx /k

1

=

v = vy /k

k

k

vz /k

v

(RUPP)

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Vector

Geometrically, multiplying a vector by a scalar K has the effect of

scaling the length by a factor of k

(RUPP)

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Vector

Vector Addition

Two vectors can be added if they are of the same dimension

a1

b1

a1

a2

a2 b2

. .

. + . =

. .

an1

an1 bn1

an

an

bn

(RUPP)

+ b1

+ b2

+ bn2

+ bn

Semester I

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Vector

Vector Subtraction

Two vectors can be subtracted if they are of the same dimension

b1

a1

b1

a1

a2 b2

a2 b2

. .

. .

. . = . + . =

. .

. .

an1 bn1

an1 bn1

bn

an

an

bn

(RUPP)

a1 b1

a2 b2

an1 bn2

an bn

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Vector

(RUPP)

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Vector

Example

add the vectors a = (8,13) and b = (26,7)

c=a+b

c = (8,13) + (26,7) = (8+26,13+7) = (34,20)

(RUPP)

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Vector

Reversing the vector we want to subtract by adding negative value,

then add

example

Subtract k = (6, 5) from v = (8, 3)

a=v+k

a = (8, 3) + (6, 5) = (8, 3) + (6,5) = (86,35) = (2,2)

Lecturer: Kor Sokchea

(RUPP)

Semester I

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Vector

v

u n

q

uX

2

2

kvk = t

vi2 = v12 + v12 + ... + vn1

+ vn

i=1

Example

kvk =

kvk =

(RUPP)

q

vx2 + vy2

(f or2Dvectorv)

q

vx2 + vy2 + vz2

(f or3Dvectorv)

Semester I

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Vector

Unit Vector

A unit vectors or normalized vectors are a vector that has a

magnitude of one

Some vectors become shorter after normalization if their length was

greater than 1

Some vectors become longer after normalization if their length was

less than 1

v

v

=

kvk

(RUPP)

Semester I

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Vector

Official Linear Algebra Rules

b1

a1

a2 b2

... ...

an1 bn1

bn

an

a.b=

n

X

ai bi

i=1

(RUPP)

Semester I

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Vector

Official Linear Algebra Rules

x1

x2

y1 z2 z1 y2

y1 y2 = z1 x2 x1 z2

z1

z2

x1 y2 y1 x2

(RUPP)

Semester I

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Literature

Literature

1

Foley, J. D., Van Dam, A., Feiner, S.K., Hughes, J. F., &

Phillips R. L. (1996). Introduction to Computer Graphics.

Addison-Wesley

graphics. Addison-Wesley.

to real-time computer graphics. Academic Press, Morgan Kaufmann.

(2013). Computer graphics: principles and practice. Pearson

Education.

(RUPP)

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Literature

Literature

1

Dunn, F., & Parberry, I. (2011). 3D math primer for graphics and

game development. CRC Press.

I

(RUPP)

Semester I

36 / 36

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