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# Strength: The ability of a material to resist the onset and continuation of plastic

deformation
Toughness: The ability of a material to absorb mechanical energy up to the point
of fracture (area under entire curve)
Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform
without fracturing. Material toughness is defined as the amount of energy per
volume that a material can absorb before rupturing. It is also defined as the
resistance to fracture of a material when stressed.
(gambar graph)
Fracture Toughness (kc): Material property that describes the ability of a material
to withstand the presence of a crack when under stress.
Stress Intensity (K): variable that defines the severity of stresses at the tip of a
crack
Fracture in the material occurs when the stress intensity exceeds the fracture
toughness of the material. Fracture will occur when a reaches the critical crack
size (ac) or q reaches the critical stress level.
Fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material
containing a crack to resist fracture and is one of the most important properties
of any material for many design applications. The linear-elastic fracture
toughness of a material is determined from the stress intensity factor at which a
thin crack in the material begins to grow. It is denoted Kc and has the unit of..
Plastic elastic toughness is denoted by with the unit and is a measurement
of the energy required to grow a thin crack. The subscript c denotes mode i crack
opening under a normal tensile stress perpendicular to the crack, since the
material can be made deep enough to stand shear or tear. Fracture toughness is
a quantitative way of expressing a materials resistance to brittle fracture when a
crack is present. If a material has much fracture toughness it will probably
undergo ductile fracture. Brittle fracture is very characteristic of materials with
less fracture toughness. Fracture mechanics which leads to the concept of
fracture toughness, was broadly based on the work of Griffith who among other
things, studied the behaviour of cracks in brittle material. A related concept is
the work of fracture which is directly proportional to where is the youngs
modulus of the material.
It may be noted that for a body loaded in constant displacement mode, The
displacement is applied and the force level is dictated by stiffness of the body. If
the crack grows in size, the stiffness decreases, so the force level will decrease.
This decrease in force level under the same displacement level indicates that the
elastic strain energy stored in the body is decreasing is being released. Hence
the term strain energy release rate which is usually denoted with symbol G.