Week5 Solutions

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Week5 Solutions

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Solutions

All questions are initially listed in black. After class, those that were covered in class using Top Hat

(as class activities) will be highlighted in blue. Questions remaining in black (after class) may be

used for additional review. Solutions are noted in italics.

Week 5, Q1

Find the Norton Equivalent with respect to the load resistance in the following circuit:

Solution:

Source transformations will work to reduce this circuit to the Thevenin Equivalent. Converting all the

voltage sources in series with resistors to current sources in parallel with those resistors gives:

Combining current sources in parallel and resistors in parallel gives the Norton Equivalent:

Week 5, Q2

Part A

Find the Thevenin Equivalent of the following circuit with respect to the terminals a and b.

Solution:

It is possible to do one source transformation in this circuit on the 20V source (converting it from a

20V source in series with a 100 ohm resistor to a 20/100 or 200 mA source in parallel with a 100 ohm

resistor). After the transformation the 100 ohm resistor is in parallel with another 100 ohm resistor

and can be combined into a 50 ohm resistor.

No more source transformations are productive for reducing the circuit to its Thevenin Equivalent.

Thus, we need to choose another method for finding the Thevenin Equivalent. Due to the number of

sources in the circuit, we choose the hybrid method (Method 3 from the Lecture Notes) where first all

the sources are de-activated and the Thevenin resistance found:

The Thevenin resistance with respect to the terminals a and b is:

(100 + 50) || 100 = 60 Ohms

Now, we can either find the open circuit voltage or the short circuit current associated with the

terminals a and b. We choose to find the open circuit voltage (equal to the Thevenin voltage):

There is one junction point voltage to be found in this circuit (that on top of the 50 ohm source). The

equation is:

(60 - Va)/200 + 20 mA = Va/50 + 200mA

Solving for Va gives:

Va = 4.8V

and the open circuit voltage is: (60 - Va) * 0.5 + Va = 32.4V

Thus, the Thevenin Equivalent circuit is:

Part B

What value of load resistance can we attach to this circuit to achieve maximum power delivered to

that load resistance?

Solution:

Maximum power transfer occurs when the load resistance = thevenin resistance

RL = 60 ohms

Part C

What is the maximum power that can be transferred to the load?

Solution:

Power = VLoad2/RL = (0.5*32.4)2/60 = 4.37 Watts

Part D

What are the values of load resistance that result in half the maximum power being delivered to this

circuit?

Solution:

1/2 Power = 2.185W = VLoad2/RL

2.185 = [32.4* (RL /(60+ RL) ]2 / RL

Week 5, Q3

Part A

What is the maximum power that can be provided by a 12.6V car battery?

The internal resistance of a lead acid car battery is .01 ohms.

Solution:

Maximum power is transferred to the load on the car battery when the load resistance is equal to the

internal resistance of the battery. In this case, the voltage across the load is 0.5*12.6 = 6.3V

Part B

What is the maximum power that can be provided by a 9V alkaline battery?

The internal resistance of an alkaline battery is .15 ohms.

Solution:

Maximum power provided by the alkaline battery = 4.52/0.15 = 135W

Week 5, Q4

Upon finding an unknown circuit on the lab bench, you measure its output voltage with your

multimeter (with no load attached) and find the voltage to be 20.5V. Concerned that you might

blow the circuit up, you then connect a 150 ohm resistor across the output of the circuit and

measure the voltage again. It reads 18V.

Part A

What is the Thevenin Voltage of this circuit with respect to the output terminals?

Solution:

Vthevenin = Voc = 20.5V

Part B

What is the Norton Current of this circuit with respect to the output terminals?

Solution

In your second measurement, you have created the following situation/circuit:

The measured voltage in this situation was 18V (measured across the 150 ohm resistor). By voltage

divider:

18 =20.5* (150/(150 + Rth))

Solving for Rth gives:

Rth = 20.8 Ohms

And the Norton Current is: 20.5/20.8 = 0.99A

Week 5, Q5

Find the Thevenin equivalent of the following circuit with respect to the 400 Ohm resistor

Solution:

Since this circuit contains dependent sources, we cannot use source transformations to find the

Thevenin Equivalent. We will use Method #2 (find the open circuit voltage and the short circuit

current).

The Open Circuit Voltage:

Nodal analysis on the right hand circuit gives:

(5-Va)/100 + 0.1v = Va/200

By observation: v = 5-Va

Substituting:

(5-Va)/100 + 0.1(5-Va) = Va/200

Solving:

Va = 4.78 V and v = 0.22V and ix = 4.78/200 = 0.024A

By observation:

Voc = 82.6 ix = 1.98V

The Short Circuit Current:

(5-Va)/100 + 0.1v = Va/200

By observation: v = 5-Va

Substituting:

(5-Va)/100 + 0.1(5-Va) = Va/200

Solving:

Va = 4.78 V and v = 0.22V and ix = 4.78/200 = 0.024A

On the left hand side of the circuit

82.6 ix = 100isc = 1.98V

isc = 19.8mA

And the Thevenin Resistance is:

Voc/isc = 100 Ohms

The Thevenin Equivalent is:

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