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a€s aro

-::':::":** navqdiond
,..," ro odine
-... h6

::":"::Jru'*'' "''-n"

'*t "ut'"n'
t'u** (APPD P5)

-."."0+* " ",n"ii,j"iil'T"#":":1

1e co!.,lMuNrcArroNs
:";:$#;: "
H:l':::'ili *l*- r-:E:::*$
12).At 15:55:18 a .oL{.e reportwasmad6to th6op€arors
rionat Jan smL,ts(zuR),Ih€ cr6wwas asked
to r€po.l agah ar 18:oo
as ih€ selactv6 catJingsystBh (SELCAL)was !.s6rvEeabis,
commlnrcarlon withzu8 €.d6dat j5r56:55.Ihs zuR
.an unlllacolt 16:34(AFpa p17).As lnelbiiow-on
ly iater inadverteniyre-!s€d, lher6 is no iu.rh6r
com.nunrcation be,
twee-SA295d-o ZUFo. recr-o. Fe ZUR
ooeraro.connreo ttsdr
_Tl*icdr.on (aooE po_. _7).n]e zu8.oe
snowshatat 04 48on 28 \ovetroe. trqnrvK 057naoas^edrre zJF
€d o ofrrcerwhenhe ast hadconradwithiight
SA 295andwas infoF
med 1600uTc on 27.'(AppE p28). Fromt6:49:41
ro 21:43:OOpos|
ironrepols wse madeto Ba.gkok,Cotombo
a.d Cocos.(AppA pp
12.16). ThefirstHFcal to Maurir]ls o. 3476KHzwasmadeat abour
21i.16:00whsnthec.ewreported rheroe ar the MaunrjlsFtRbounda,
ry 21:43:C0. At abour22:30a reportoi c.ossingtongtude c7o .East
/ae A o 16).Ar23..327 a posi -epol^r_aie o- o. 065 . Easrar
to vaLaius .!oo A p.q.. froT 15a- 06 ur (,

mrssro.s.At 23:48:51 thepitotca/ted

rorowngco.nrunication was transcribed fromihe harsa.ceconuol
roweriapE€c.rdi.g (AopA pp30- 33). Freetra.slaions
cf Ahikaans
pi€ses arein b.ackes.whit$mos of rhe
a.d coul(ibe easilyfanscribed,some!.intentionat
transmEsrons ,.rom
SA295colld.orbe clea.yidentified asto wharwasbetrqsao.


OFF L J G H T S A 2 9 5




23:r8:41 2,o5 Eh Mauritius,

23:.19:c0 MRU Springbok TwoNi.e Five,eh, Mau.itius,
en good,eh,goahead


23.49:A7 295 Eh,goodmoming, w€ lrav6,6h, a smoks,shp,eh,

probtamandw6t€ doing6merg6ncydoscanrto e-
23:49:1A MRU Connrmyou wishto doscsndto fight l€v€iod. tour

23:492Q 295 Ya, ws hav€ al€ady commonced,shi dlE to a

smoksprcblem inhe aercplans
23:49:25 MFU Eh,roger,you arsclsarto descendimmediatety io
flight eve oneiour zero
23149:30 295 Foger,we willapprcciate if you can alert,eh, frra,
e h pe, h pe, h , 6 h
23:49:40 NIFU Doyouwishto,oh,doyourequest atultemerqency?
23:49:48 295 OkayJoe,kani ...vk ons(OkayJo€canyoLr...ror
23:49:41 MBU Springbok TwoNineFive,Plaisance
23:49:54 295 Sorry,go ahead
23:49ra6 MFU Do you,eh, rcquesla illl emercency
pieasea tutl
23:50:00 295 Afiimativ€,
23ta0:02 MRU Roger,ldeclareatullemercency,rcge.
23:aA:A4 2-o5 Thankyou

23:50:.10 r',lRU Sp ngbokTwoNineFive,Plaisance

23:50:!4 295 Eh,go ahead
23:50:46 MRU Feque$yolr actualpositionple46 andyolr OME

J 23:50:51 2-o5Eh,wehaven'tgoth€ OMEyet

23:50:55 LiFUEh,rogerandyouraclualposilion please.
23:51:00 2S5 Eh,sayagain
23t51:Q2 Youradlat position
23151 295 Noww€vs losta lot ol elecllics, we havenl got any-
thingon lhe onlhe ancraftnow
23:51:12 MRU Eh,rcEer,I deciarea fullemergency immediately
23:51ii5 295 Altirmative
23:51:18 MBU Roger
23:42:19 MFU Eh,Sp ngbokTwoNinaFivs,do youhav6an E.ho
23:52:3Q MRU SpangbokTwo Ni.aFiw, plaisa.c€
23:42:32 295 Ya,Paisanca
23:52:33 MRU DotoL-av6e EcnoTargoAfa D'a,sanc6
23:52:36 295 Ya,eh,:aro26rc,eheh€hthreezero
23:52:40 MAU Foger,rcroze.olrre€zero,
23:42:aA 295 HeyJoe,shutdownureoryge. tett
2a:42:42 MFU Sorrysayagainptease

00:C1:34 295 Unintelligibielranshission

C0:0i:36 295 Unr.ielligibetiansmission
C0:01:45 295 Unintelligbletransmission
.-J0:01:57 gbe transnisston
295 U.inteli
00r02:10 255 Unlnrelligbierransmissio.
00:02:11 295 Unintel
OA:42:24 295
00:02:39 2-o5 Eh Praisance,sp.ingbokTwo NineFive,do (did)

c0r02r41 Eh .egative,
TwoNineFive,say agat. piease,say

C0:02:!3 295 Wete nowsixty'ivem les

00:c2:,14 MFU Conim siiy,ive mies
C0:02i,i7 2-45 Ya,afiirnative
00:02r50 VFU E" coqer. Sorglo. e- Two \i.e Fve, € re
yolte feciearedfight levei tive zero. Aecteared

00:0258 295
00:03.00 A.d, Sp ngbokTwoNineFve copyacrd weaiher
Plaisa.ce Copyaclualweather Flaisance.Thewind
aboveonezerokrometres. AndwehaveaFrecipita-
llonin slghtto ltie nodh. clouds,fve odas onesx
2e.ozero,oneoctafNerhousand feet.Temperatu.e
is twe.tyt!vo,lvo rwo. Andthe oNH cne zEroo.e
e gnthectooascals, onezeroone€ilhtcver

00:03:31 MFU A,5ffialivo, sh and both ru.ways avaiiableil you wish
00rc3r43 MqU did two ninefve, I .equ€st p'lo$ intentio.
00:03:46 295 Ehw6d ik€to uackln€h, on eh one!'iB6
00:03:51 MRU Confi.rnrunwayo.€ tolr
00:03r54 295 ChaileCha.ii6
C0:C3:56 MBU Anmailvs and yolte cleared,eh dirs.l 10 Foxtrol
Foxlroi. You repon app.oachi.g five zero
00i04:02 295 Kay

00r08roo MRU TwoN.e FNe,Plaisancs

00r08:11 TwoNineFve,Plaisancs
MFU Sprnqbok
00:C8:35 Nin€FivePlaisance
MRU SprlnqbokTwo


A NTSBhlman periomanceexpedconhe.ted as lo lows on the Fi-

lcfs lestVHF comrnunietio.withthe approachconkoler:

The airt.ailicreco.ding is generalyof verygoodaldio quality.A,ter

scfeeni.git, I hada deiiniteimFression lhattherewerechanqes in the
)0ess elei o! r-e denrfedro fe as ne capr.i_
overrhecolrse of rheia!e. Fron 23i48:5rro 23:d9:30) th6 speaker
sou.dsreativelycam speakngslowiyandco!.teolsly(athoughthe
seriousness ol his commu.ication s cL€ariiom its conlent). At
23:49:30 he iailsro c.mpretethe sente.ce,andtherEis a deflnite im-
pression ihat someon€ or somelhingn the cockpitls disifacting him
duerolhegrowi.gemerge.cyFrom1hispoi.d!.t th€endhedei.ite-
ly solndsmoreagilatedls defniteiymoredisiracted, andappea.sto
betaklnAmo.equickly.Several oi thet.ansmissio.s,fo. example forn
00:01:34 to 00:02:14aFpear10 havethe highlevelsof tundamental
irequency, speaking rate,andamplitude wnicharegenerally characle.
risticoi greatpsychologicalsress (theslatementat 00101:45 seemsso
hlghit s closeto screamrng). lt shouldbe nored,howeverthatlhese
statenenrs aooearto be inadverte.t transmissio.s meantfor the on-
bo?rdcrewandthatlhe speake.nay be yellingpartlyto be heard

tnrclghhisoxygenrnaskanda.bov61h€ background .ois6 n rhEcock-
pir h thsfnal soctron,
fiom00:02:48 to tho€nd,lire speak€..rpp€ars
ro bo mor6composEd andr6spcnsiv. lha.l hs w65in ths prsc6di.9 s€emsFossiblalirat hs has calmsddownsomoktratand
lo6lsthattha om€rgencyis rnorgunderco.trol at this pointthan it Bss
al earierpoinE, Thesecommes ars b6ed on simplyrevigwing the
tap6 and do not rened scie.lfic mea.sureh6rt for psycholoqical
strcss. (appA pp34:3s).


Th€ setuicesat Plaisance

airpo.t coniormedto category8
slanddds4 laiddownin ICAOSAnnex14 (AppD p4)- Allnavigatio,
na, la.dingand communication aidswerstunctioninq nomally. At
was€ady to rcceivethe aircraitin distressand every,
bodyMs on alert(AppJ p2).lhe aerodronewa! not equlpped wth
radarandoniyrunway14wasequipped wll arl nstrument landingsy-


Thelollowinq wer€iltedi

(1) PennyaridClesquickaccessrecorder(OAR)lype 0s0761

t o ' l o 9 9 n 9 ' 9 i d a r a .T \ e O A Rs a s n o L - r e dn ^ e - . n
equpmentbayllst loruad of rie ower€rgo holdat sraticn

(2) Locrfeedrodel 209Fdgiai 191-rddrarecorder(DFOa)

Panno. 100774500- 803ilted witha o!k4e N15F2108
underwaer ocalorbeacon,TheDFDFwasmoun€don loo
oi a stowageiac riy in lhe leit hand r€ar side ol the mai.
deckcargocomparlhentat station2320-

(3) Colinstype 642 C-1cockpitvoicereco.der(CVF)Pad No,

522.4057 {02 fittedwitha Dlkane N15F2108undetuarer

2 A /. . .
ocatcrbeacon.Th8cvR wasnrountad nsxtto the oFDR
andwas the locoderiounda.d racoveredfrom lhe

Atterths CVBwasiolnd it waEhandledwti'i grcat cars and

all possibieprecar.nions
weretakento snsurerhatthe r6coc
dedi.formationwoud be .etained.To prev€ntth€ torrLation
oi an bubbles on thelap€andhencea depositoi seawaler
chemicals, thetransierironrrhelifungtackieto thekanspon
coniaherwasperlormed lndef the water. once on board
the shipthe seawEtsr was replacedwhhde-ionised warer
whilslensuri.gnon-entry oi air intothe recorde.unit. ce
Tade lor de-onisedware'was p'ogr€ssvley adoed_o
mantainthetempe.alure wlthntherangeol4 to 12'C. The
cvR, in thetfanspon co ainerwasthenflownto theope.a-
tofs suilablyequippedlaboratory ic. removalol
meialtoolslsed ior th s processwe€ de-maqietised. rhe
rapewasremov€dwiththe unltsubmeroed in de-onised
walera.a clea.ed. sLrch waterby G.dng it jromonere:
ro an.theralterwhchit wasdrieain avaculmchamberv/rh
peiocjc nlrcgen pu€ifg. Atqld4jrS llre lape !!?L ha.d
c"lea ro a N-SBlaSo.aror:n Weshi-ero- DC'cr co!.'_g

Examnatcn oi ihe recorderreveaedimpacldamageto the

cuer cas'_g r' fad bee-"^Fosecro lear as e;delceo :l
biisteingof the pa.t, The insulation of e eclical wning
folnd ar.ached to ure mounting rackplug was scorched.
Thesoder oi someelectrcai wlreiornishadmeted .dica-
ringthatthe lnit had beenexposedto heat.The merng
pont oi ltiesoderisbenveen 180and190'C.Theintenor ct
thelnit wascovered withanoilysoot,ingressol whichwas
probabiy throlghanaoenlfen 1hefrontcover.Thoplastic
b ankinspllg oi thisaoenlrehadmeted.The signala.d wasrouredarongrheroplefthandsde of rhe
fain deckcargoc.mpartment n racewayG a.d wesnextto

2 1 / .. . .
th€ DFORwdng.Th8powersuppycabi€wasrcLtrrsd along
th6toprlghthandsiden €c€wayH,{appFpp 1- 4).

ThEcvF ocatorbeaco. wassxamhedby th6 handactur€r

who conclud€diral f,]s unit had beensubjectedto ddernaj
heat in excessoi 190' C. This tomperatu.Ecaused the
sold€raroundthe waterswitchspring10refow and holdthe
switchin the ofip€ssed position. This high tenperature
alsodadagedthepotti.gcompound arolndthelransducer,
lhe tansdlcer ilsef,and I reflowed solderi. the hodule
calsingit to shon. Theeleclronics modlLewasalsotound
to be inte.nally
shortedacrosslhe baneryconneclion. (App

Th€ CVBwas powereddkecly lrom lhe essential115V Ac

andwaswkedto fecc.dlro.,rlt1eaudioseledo.panes
o'r-6 pior,co.pLor.'andlron r\e coctotrare€
hcrophone,ThecvR was.ot wi.ediof *'hot mic'recard-
iromthe abovementio.ed
iagblt allvetal commlnicatio.s
*ew -erbels va oqg€. -asls. rard helda-d boor rts wouldhavebeenreco.ced.

. HOTMIC' recordinEmearc lhat lhe microphonesare

connscl€dto a recoder in a mannerthat ensureslhe
recordingof all cockpitsoundregardlsssol audiocon-
kol panelselecllons.

rlu_o-g'fe raperas -or darrdged _-

44. nucf of lhe
lormaticnwhichwas recordedcn lhe area mlcrophone
cran.e. was unrre'gbe. only fe asl Tnlle a.d ra
secondsoi lhe 30 mi.u1erecordi.gcyce wB rc6onably
clear.Howe!e',suliicenrd.ta $as'ecov€red lo dererrire
thatthe cockphcon!€rsation priorlo the sou.di.g oi lhe
smokewarningbel hadbeenon ge.e.altoprcso.ry. Joe
relededto . dle loilowing
wd lhe se.ioriight

€n9in66r,F€€ tanslatjonsof AfrikaansPhras€sara in brac.


F F O MB E G I N =

Firearambei (stopped
28:36 Jos What'sgol.9 onnow?
28:37 ? Huh?
' Joe Cargo?
-,, 2A:4O
28:42 Joe ll cameon nowafteMards
28:45 Strongclicksound
28145 ? Andwhereis thaf
2a:49 Clicksound
28.48 Joe(?) lustlo theright
28:49 ? Sayagain(?)
2A:52 Joe Maindeckcargo
2a:aT Joe Tlre. lre otherone came on as well,
29:01 Joe Shail | {get/p!sh)the (botte/blnon)

? Ja Cr'es)
t 29aa Capr Leesvir ons die checklislcaar hoor
(Readth€ checklistlherefo. us hea4
?9:08 ? oie bulk(?)s€ lig js ar (?) arnebelly!
(?) isht is oit
? checklistmai. light
(Sou.dsol movsmentca. be h€4d
wdr clicls 3ndclunks)
29:33 Capl Fokdis di€tEitdat altw€samg€komnst
. dit *aur m6ns{Fuckit ls the iacl 11rat
bolircam€on - n disirubsons)
29:36 Intercomchjmo(whil6capialnls speaklng)
29:38 ? Aagsh
29:40 lll (800HzTESTTONE slgnalcommsnces)
29:41 Capt Wat de donner gaan .ou d? (lvhai
the thunders goi.g on now?)Thisis
saidin a sutPnsedtonsol voic6.
29:41 Slddenold sound
29:46 Larceand€pid cha.ges in amplitude01

29:51 End ot test,very nregr]larnear

-rhe.e s aboLt 1
29152 End oi recordinE.
se€ondoi old recording on thissideol

The8OO Hztesiionels intoducedonalllourCVR€hannelsAnerabolt 6 se-

conis rapidchangesi. arplitudecomrieice seco.dsthe

Theiaoeranforexaciiv29minLtes and52secondsaiterts beEinni.g t was

on withMRUat 2313:27nor the
notedthatneitherthe asi HF comrnunica
cationwith MAU approachcontrolai 23:4€:51was
lilst vHF cornmLrn