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Mathematics

(algebra)
Special Products and Factoring
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Factoring Polynomials
1.
2.
3.
4.

From the given:


and

5.
6.
7.

Thus,

8.
Problem 10
Given that
, where
and are nonzero real numbers,find
the value of

Solution
answer

Direct Variation / Directly


Proportional
y is directly proportional to x, y x:

k = constant of proportionality

(Trigonometry)
k = constant of proportionality
y varies directly as x is another
statement equivalent to the above
statement.
Inverse Variation / Directly
Proportional
y is inversely proportional to x, y
1/x:

Spherical Triangle
Any section made by a cutting plane
that passes through a sphere is circle.
A great circle is formed when the
cutting plane passes through the
center of the sphere. Spherical
triangle is a triangle bounded by arc of
great circles of a sphere.

k = constant of proportionality
y varies inversely with x holds the
same meaning as the sentence
above.
Joint Variation / Jointly
Proportional
y is directly proportional to x and z:

y is directly proportional to x and


inversely proportional to z:

k = constant of proportionality
Variation to nth power of x and
mth power of z
y is directly proportional to the square
of x and varies inversely to the cube of
z:

Note that for spherical triangles, sides


a, b, and c are usually in angular units.
And like plane triangles, angles A, B,
and C are also in angular units.
Sum of interior angles of spherical
triangle
The sum of the interior angles of a
spherical triangle is greater than 180
and less than 540.

Area of spherical triangle


The area of a spherical triangle on
the surface of the sphere of radius
R is given by the formula

Where E is the spherical excess in


degrees.

order (not including the right angle),


and complimentary angles are taken
for quantities opposite the right angle.

Spherical excess

or

Where
Spherical defect

Note:
In spherical trigonometry, earth is
assumed to be a perfect sphere. One
minute (0 1') of arc from the center of
the earth has a distance equivalent to
one (1) nautical mile (6080 feet) on
the arc of great circle on the surface of
the earth.
1
1
1
1

minute of arc = 1 nautical mile


nautical mile = 6080 feet
statute mile = 5280 feet
knot = 1 nautical mile per hour

Solution of right spherical triangle


With any two quantities given (three
quantities if the right angle is
counted), any right spherical triangle
can be solved by following the
Napiers rules. The rules are aided
with the Napiers circle. In Napiers
circle, the sides and angle of the
triangle are written in consecutive

Napiers Rules
SIN-COOP Rule
In the Napiers circle, the sine of any
middle part is equal to product of the
cosines of its opposite parts.
If we take as the middle part, its
opposite parts are and , then by
sin-coop rule

SIN-TAAD Rule
In the Napiers circle, the sine of any
middle part is equal to the product of
the tangents of its adjacent parts.
If we take as the middle part, the
adjacent parts are and , then by
sin-taad rule

Spherical triangle can have one or two


or three 90 interior angle. Spherical
triangle is said to be right if only one
of its included angle is equal to 90.
Triangles with more than one 90
angle are oblique.
Definition of oblique spherical
triangle
Spherical triangles are said to be
oblique if none of its included angle is
90 or two or three of its included
angles are 90. Spherical triangle with
only one included angle equal to 90 is
a right triangle.
Sine law

Summary of Trigonometric
Identities
Basic Identities

1.
2.
3.
4.

Pythagorean Identities

Cosine law for sides

1.
2.
3.
Sum and Difference of Two Angles

Cosine law for angles

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Napier's analogies
Double Angle Formulas
1.
2.
3.

Half Angle Formulas

1.
2.
3.

Equation (1)
Equation (1) satisfies the Pythagorean
theorem for a right triangle whose
perpendicular sides are and and
hypotenuse . Thus, angle
.
answer

Problem 10
In a triangle ABC, if
,
find the value of angle

Solution
HideClick here to show or hide the
solution

(Geometry)
Definition of a Triangle
Triangle is a closed figure bounded by
three straight lines called sides. It can
also be defined as polygon of three
sides.

Given:

From Cosine law:

Area of triangle
The area of the triangle is given by the
following formulas:
Given the base and the altitude

Substitute to the given equation:

Given two sides and included angle

Given three sides (see the derivation


of Hero's formula)

Circumcenter
Circumcenter is the point of intersection
of perpendicular bisectors of the

where,
semi-perimeter.

called the

triangle. It is also the center of the


circumscribing circle (circumcircle).

Given one side and three angles (say


angles A, B, and C, and side b are
given)

Center of a triangle
This page will define the following:
incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter,
centroid, and Euler line.

As you can see in the figure above,


circumcenter can be inside or outside
the triangle. In the case of the right

Incenter
Incenter is the center of the inscribed
circle (incircle) of the triangle, it is the
point of intersection of the angle
bisectors of the triangle.

triangle, circumcenter is at the midpoint


of the hypotenuse. Given the area of the
triangle At, the radius of the
circumscribing circle is given by the
formula

You may want to take a look for


the derivation of formula for radius of
circumcircle.

Orthocenter
Orthocenter of the triangle is the point
The radius of incircle is given by the

of intersection of the altitudes. Like

formula

circumcenter, it can be inside or outside


the triangle as shown in the figure
below.

where At = area of the triangle and s =


(a + b + c). See the derivation of
formula for radius of incircle.

opposite to vertex B is side B, and


opposite to vertex C is side c.

Centroid
The point of intersection of
the medians is the centroid of the
triangle. Centroid is the geometric

Included Angle or Vertex Angle


Included angle is the angle subtended
by two sides at the vertex of the
triangle. It is also called vertex angle.
For convenience, each included angle
has the same notation to that of the
vertex, ie. angle A is the included
angle at vertex A, and so on. The sum
of the included angles of the triangle
is always equal to 180.

center of a plane figure.

Euler Line
The line that would pass through the
orthocenter, circumcenter, and centroid
of the triangle is called the Euler line.

Side
Side of a triangle is a line segment
that connects two vertices. Triangle
has three sides, it is denoted by a, b,
and c in the figure below.
Vertex
Vertex is the point of intersection of
two sides of triangle. The three
vertices of the triangle are denoted by
A, B, and C in the figure below. Notice
that the opposite of vertex A is side a,

Altitude, h
Altitude is a line from vertex
perpendicular to the opposite side.
The altitudes of the triangle will
intersect at a common point
called orthocenter.

If sides a, b, and c are known, solve


one of the angles using Cosine
Law then solve the altitude of the
triangle by functions of a right
triangle. If the area of the triangle At is
known, the following formulas are
useful in solving for the altitudes.

Base
The base of the triangle is relative to
which altitude is being considered.
Figure below shows the bases of the
triangle and its corresponding altitude.

2. Using triangle ADC, determine


the median through A by Cosine
Law.
The formulas below, though not
recommended, can be used to solve
for the length of the medians.

Where mA, mB, and mC are medians


through A, B, and C, respectively.

If hA is taken as altitude then


side a is the base

If hB is taken as altitude then


side b is the base

If hC is taken as altitude then


side c is the base

Median, m
Median of the triangle is a line from
vertex to the midpoint of the opposite
side. A triangle has three medians,
and these three will intersect at
the centroid. The figure below shows
the median through A denoted by mA.

Angle Bisector
Angle bisector of a triangle is a line
that divides one included angle into
two equal angles. It is drawn from
vertex to the opposite side of the
triangle. Since there are three
included angles of the triangle, there
are also three angle bisectors, and
these three will intersect at
the incenter. The figure shown below
is the bisector of angle A, its length
from vertex A to side a is denoted as
bA.

The length of angle bisectors is given


by the following formulas:
Given three sides of the triangle, the
median can be solved by two steps.
1. Solve for one included angle,
say angle C, using Cosine Law.
From the figure above, solve for
C in triangle ABC.

where
called the semiperimeter and bA, bB, and bC are
bisectors of angles A, B, and C,
respectively. The given formulas are
not worth memorizing for if you are
given three sides, you can easily solve
the length of angle bisectors by using
the Cosine and Sine Laws.
Perpendicular Bisector
Perpendicular bisector of the triangle
is a perpendicular line that crosses
through midpoint of the side of the
triangle. The three perpendicular
bisectors are worth noting for it
intersects at the center of the
circumscribing circle of the triangle.
The point of intersection is called
the circumcenter. The figure below
shows the perpendicular bisector
through side b.

x. The sides of simple


quadrilaterals do not cross each
other while two sides of complex
quadrilaterals cross each other.
Simple quadrilaterals are further
classified into
two: convex and concave. Convex
if none of the sides pass through
the quadrilateral when prolonged
while concave if the prolongation
of any one side will pass inside
the quadrilateral.

The following formulas are


applicable only to convex
quadrilaterals.
General Quadrilateral
Quadrilateral
Quadrilateral is a polygon of four
sides and four vertices. It is also
called tetragon and quadrangle.
In the triangle, the sum of the
interior angles is 180; for
quadrilaterals the sum of the
interior angles is always equal to
360

Classifications of Quadrilaterals
There are two broad
classifications of
quadrilaterals; simple and comple

Any convex quadrilateral can use


the following formulas:
Perimeter, P (applicable to all
quadrilaterals, simple and
complex)

Area, A

where
s = semi perimeter = P
= (A + C) or = (B + D)
The area can also be expressed in
terms of diagonals d1 and d2

the midline of AB and DC, thus H


is the midpoint of BC.
From the figure:

Length of one side for maximum


area of trapezoid (solution by
Geometry)
Problem
BC of trapezoid ABCD is tangent
at any point on circular arc DE
whose center is O. Find the length
of BC so that the area of ABCD is
maximum.

For the angle theta:

answer
The Cyclic Quadrilateral
A quadrilateral is said to be cyclic if its
vertices all lie on a circle. In cyclic
quadrilateral, the sum of two opposite
angles is 180 (or radian); in other
words, the two opposite angles are
supplementary.

Solution

As described by Alexander
Bogomolny of cut-the-knot.org,
for maximum area of trapezoid,
the point of tangency should be at

Where r = radius of inscribed circle


and s = semi-perimeter = (a + b + c
+ d)/2
Derivation for area
Let O and r be the center and radius of
the inscribed circle, respectively.

The area of cyclic quadrilateral is


given by

See the derivation of area of cyclic


quadrilateral for profound details.
Ptolemy's Theorem for Cyclic
Quadrilateral
For any cyclic quadrilateral, the
product of the diagonals is equal to
the sum of the products of nonadjacent sides. In other words

Quadrilateral Circumscribing a
Circle

Total area

Quadrilateral circumscribing a circle


(also called tangential quadrilateral) is
a quadrangle whose sides are tangent
to a circle inside it.
(okay!)
Some known properties

Area,

1. Opposite sides subtend


supplementary angles at the
center of inscribed circle. From
the figure above, AOB +
COD = 180 and AOD +
BOC = 180.

2. The area can be divided into


four kites. See figure below.

Area of the circle


3. If the opposite angles are equal
(A = C and B = D), it is a
rhombus.
Circumference of the circle
(The circle)
The following are
short descriptions of
the circle shown
below.
Tangent - is a line that
would pass through
one point on the circle.
Secant - is a line that would
pass through two points on
the circle.
Chord - is a secant that
would terminate on the
circle itself.
Diameter, d - is a chord that
passes through the center
of the circle.
Radius, r - is one-half of the
diameter.

Sector of a Circle
Length of arc:

Area of the sector:

Segment of a Circle

Central angle = Angle subtended by


an arc of the circle from the center of
the circle.
Inscribed angle = Angle subtended by
an arc of the circle from any point on
the circumference of the circle. Also
called circumferential
angle and peripheral angle.
Area of circular segment
with s

Figure below shows a central angle


and inscribed angle intercepting the
same arc AB. The relationship between
the two is given by

Area of circular segment


with s > c:

secant
Relationship Between Central
Angle and Inscribed Angle

if and only if both angles intercepted


the same arc. In the figure
below, and intercepted the same
arc AB.