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-Special Products and Factoring
-Factoring Polynomials
-Direct Variation / Directly Proportional
-(Trigonometry)
Spherical Triangle
-triangles

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You are on page 1of 13

(algebra)

Special Products and Factoring

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Factoring Polynomials

1.

2.

3.

4.

and

5.

6.

7.

Thus,

8.

Problem 10

Given that

, where

and are nonzero real numbers,find

the value of

Solution

answer

Proportional

y is directly proportional to x, y x:

k = constant of proportionality

(Trigonometry)

k = constant of proportionality

y varies directly as x is another

statement equivalent to the above

statement.

Inverse Variation / Directly

Proportional

y is inversely proportional to x, y

1/x:

Spherical Triangle

Any section made by a cutting plane

that passes through a sphere is circle.

A great circle is formed when the

cutting plane passes through the

center of the sphere. Spherical

triangle is a triangle bounded by arc of

great circles of a sphere.

k = constant of proportionality

y varies inversely with x holds the

same meaning as the sentence

above.

Joint Variation / Jointly

Proportional

y is directly proportional to x and z:

inversely proportional to z:

k = constant of proportionality

Variation to nth power of x and

mth power of z

y is directly proportional to the square

of x and varies inversely to the cube of

z:

a, b, and c are usually in angular units.

And like plane triangles, angles A, B,

and C are also in angular units.

Sum of interior angles of spherical

triangle

The sum of the interior angles of a

spherical triangle is greater than 180

and less than 540.

The area of a spherical triangle on

the surface of the sphere of radius

R is given by the formula

degrees.

and complimentary angles are taken

for quantities opposite the right angle.

Spherical excess

or

Where

Spherical defect

Note:

In spherical trigonometry, earth is

assumed to be a perfect sphere. One

minute (0 1') of arc from the center of

the earth has a distance equivalent to

one (1) nautical mile (6080 feet) on

the arc of great circle on the surface of

the earth.

1

1

1

1

nautical mile = 6080 feet

statute mile = 5280 feet

knot = 1 nautical mile per hour

With any two quantities given (three

quantities if the right angle is

counted), any right spherical triangle

can be solved by following the

Napiers rules. The rules are aided

with the Napiers circle. In Napiers

circle, the sides and angle of the

triangle are written in consecutive

Napiers Rules

SIN-COOP Rule

In the Napiers circle, the sine of any

middle part is equal to product of the

cosines of its opposite parts.

If we take as the middle part, its

opposite parts are and , then by

sin-coop rule

SIN-TAAD Rule

In the Napiers circle, the sine of any

middle part is equal to the product of

the tangents of its adjacent parts.

If we take as the middle part, the

adjacent parts are and , then by

sin-taad rule

or three 90 interior angle. Spherical

triangle is said to be right if only one

of its included angle is equal to 90.

Triangles with more than one 90

angle are oblique.

Definition of oblique spherical

triangle

Spherical triangles are said to be

oblique if none of its included angle is

90 or two or three of its included

angles are 90. Spherical triangle with

only one included angle equal to 90 is

a right triangle.

Sine law

Summary of Trigonometric

Identities

Basic Identities

1.

2.

3.

4.

Pythagorean Identities

1.

2.

3.

Sum and Difference of Two Angles

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Napier's analogies

Double Angle Formulas

1.

2.

3.

1.

2.

3.

Equation (1)

Equation (1) satisfies the Pythagorean

theorem for a right triangle whose

perpendicular sides are and and

hypotenuse . Thus, angle

.

answer

Problem 10

In a triangle ABC, if

,

find the value of angle

Solution

HideClick here to show or hide the

solution

(Geometry)

Definition of a Triangle

Triangle is a closed figure bounded by

three straight lines called sides. It can

also be defined as polygon of three

sides.

Given:

Area of triangle

The area of the triangle is given by the

following formulas:

Given the base and the altitude

of Hero's formula)

Circumcenter

Circumcenter is the point of intersection

of perpendicular bisectors of the

where,

semi-perimeter.

called the

circumscribing circle (circumcircle).

angles A, B, and C, and side b are

given)

Center of a triangle

This page will define the following:

incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter,

centroid, and Euler line.

circumcenter can be inside or outside

the triangle. In the case of the right

Incenter

Incenter is the center of the inscribed

circle (incircle) of the triangle, it is the

point of intersection of the angle

bisectors of the triangle.

of the hypotenuse. Given the area of the

triangle At, the radius of the

circumscribing circle is given by the

formula

the derivation of formula for radius of

circumcircle.

Orthocenter

Orthocenter of the triangle is the point

The radius of incircle is given by the

formula

the triangle as shown in the figure

below.

(a + b + c). See the derivation of

formula for radius of incircle.

opposite to vertex C is side c.

Centroid

The point of intersection of

the medians is the centroid of the

triangle. Centroid is the geometric

Included angle is the angle subtended

by two sides at the vertex of the

triangle. It is also called vertex angle.

For convenience, each included angle

has the same notation to that of the

vertex, ie. angle A is the included

angle at vertex A, and so on. The sum

of the included angles of the triangle

is always equal to 180.

Euler Line

The line that would pass through the

orthocenter, circumcenter, and centroid

of the triangle is called the Euler line.

Side

Side of a triangle is a line segment

that connects two vertices. Triangle

has three sides, it is denoted by a, b,

and c in the figure below.

Vertex

Vertex is the point of intersection of

two sides of triangle. The three

vertices of the triangle are denoted by

A, B, and C in the figure below. Notice

that the opposite of vertex A is side a,

Altitude, h

Altitude is a line from vertex

perpendicular to the opposite side.

The altitudes of the triangle will

intersect at a common point

called orthocenter.

one of the angles using Cosine

Law then solve the altitude of the

triangle by functions of a right

triangle. If the area of the triangle At is

known, the following formulas are

useful in solving for the altitudes.

Base

The base of the triangle is relative to

which altitude is being considered.

Figure below shows the bases of the

triangle and its corresponding altitude.

the median through A by Cosine

Law.

The formulas below, though not

recommended, can be used to solve

for the length of the medians.

through A, B, and C, respectively.

side a is the base

side b is the base

side c is the base

Median, m

Median of the triangle is a line from

vertex to the midpoint of the opposite

side. A triangle has three medians,

and these three will intersect at

the centroid. The figure below shows

the median through A denoted by mA.

Angle Bisector

Angle bisector of a triangle is a line

that divides one included angle into

two equal angles. It is drawn from

vertex to the opposite side of the

triangle. Since there are three

included angles of the triangle, there

are also three angle bisectors, and

these three will intersect at

the incenter. The figure shown below

is the bisector of angle A, its length

from vertex A to side a is denoted as

bA.

by the following formulas:

Given three sides of the triangle, the

median can be solved by two steps.

1. Solve for one included angle,

say angle C, using Cosine Law.

From the figure above, solve for

C in triangle ABC.

where

called the semiperimeter and bA, bB, and bC are

bisectors of angles A, B, and C,

respectively. The given formulas are

not worth memorizing for if you are

given three sides, you can easily solve

the length of angle bisectors by using

the Cosine and Sine Laws.

Perpendicular Bisector

Perpendicular bisector of the triangle

is a perpendicular line that crosses

through midpoint of the side of the

triangle. The three perpendicular

bisectors are worth noting for it

intersects at the center of the

circumscribing circle of the triangle.

The point of intersection is called

the circumcenter. The figure below

shows the perpendicular bisector

through side b.

quadrilaterals do not cross each

other while two sides of complex

quadrilaterals cross each other.

Simple quadrilaterals are further

classified into

two: convex and concave. Convex

if none of the sides pass through

the quadrilateral when prolonged

while concave if the prolongation

of any one side will pass inside

the quadrilateral.

applicable only to convex

quadrilaterals.

General Quadrilateral

Quadrilateral

Quadrilateral is a polygon of four

sides and four vertices. It is also

called tetragon and quadrangle.

In the triangle, the sum of the

interior angles is 180; for

quadrilaterals the sum of the

interior angles is always equal to

360

Classifications of Quadrilaterals

There are two broad

classifications of

quadrilaterals; simple and comple

the following formulas:

Perimeter, P (applicable to all

quadrilaterals, simple and

complex)

Area, A

where

s = semi perimeter = P

= (A + C) or = (B + D)

The area can also be expressed in

terms of diagonals d1 and d2

is the midpoint of BC.

From the figure:

area of trapezoid (solution by

Geometry)

Problem

BC of trapezoid ABCD is tangent

at any point on circular arc DE

whose center is O. Find the length

of BC so that the area of ABCD is

maximum.

answer

The Cyclic Quadrilateral

A quadrilateral is said to be cyclic if its

vertices all lie on a circle. In cyclic

quadrilateral, the sum of two opposite

angles is 180 (or radian); in other

words, the two opposite angles are

supplementary.

Solution

As described by Alexander

Bogomolny of cut-the-knot.org,

for maximum area of trapezoid,

the point of tangency should be at

and s = semi-perimeter = (a + b + c

+ d)/2

Derivation for area

Let O and r be the center and radius of

the inscribed circle, respectively.

given by

quadrilateral for profound details.

Ptolemy's Theorem for Cyclic

Quadrilateral

For any cyclic quadrilateral, the

product of the diagonals is equal to

the sum of the products of nonadjacent sides. In other words

Quadrilateral Circumscribing a

Circle

Total area

(also called tangential quadrilateral) is

a quadrangle whose sides are tangent

to a circle inside it.

(okay!)

Some known properties

Area,

supplementary angles at the

center of inscribed circle. From

the figure above, AOB +

COD = 180 and AOD +

BOC = 180.

four kites. See figure below.

3. If the opposite angles are equal

(A = C and B = D), it is a

rhombus.

Circumference of the circle

(The circle)

The following are

short descriptions of

the circle shown

below.

Tangent - is a line that

would pass through

one point on the circle.

Secant - is a line that would

pass through two points on

the circle.

Chord - is a secant that

would terminate on the

circle itself.

Diameter, d - is a chord that

passes through the center

of the circle.

Radius, r - is one-half of the

diameter.

Sector of a Circle

Length of arc:

Segment of a Circle

an arc of the circle from the center of

the circle.

Inscribed angle = Angle subtended by

an arc of the circle from any point on

the circumference of the circle. Also

called circumferential

angle and peripheral angle.

Area of circular segment

with s

and inscribed angle intercepting the

same arc AB. The relationship between

the two is given by

with s > c:

secant

Relationship Between Central

Angle and Inscribed Angle

the same arc. In the figure

below, and intercepted the same

arc AB.

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