Over the last decade and a half, the falling of barriers to international trade and investment has led to a more integrated and interdependent framework of international business. Employers today, as a result, operate in an environment that demands new and constantly developing skills to retain global competitiveness. Although India's higher education system contributes about 350,000 engineers and 2.5 million university graduates annually to our workforce, yet at any given time about 5 million graduates remain unemployed. A survey done by McKinsey Global Institute shows multinationals find only 25 percent of Indian engineers employable, and a NASSCOM report foresees shortage of 500,000 knowledge workers by 2010. The U R Rao Committee has projected that India needs well over 10,000 PhDs and twice as many M Tech degree holders for meeting its huge research and development needs, but India produce barely 400 engineering PhDs a year. In response the government has been increasing investment in education and training as a proportion of national income. However, the effort has been inadequate to address the direct needs of the corporate sector. While many employers in both public and private sector invest significantly in the development of their own workforce, they also expect that publicly funded provisions and initiatives meet their requirements. There is a need for effective intervention to understand employer needs, variable sector specific skills, training requirements that improve business performance, articulation of business expectations in education institutions and engagement of industry leaders with higher education institutions. Flaws in existing system Lack of centralized educational policy Our present system as discussed above efficiently covers all kinds of people. But there is a loophole in it. Have you noticed? Access to education solely depends on an individual’s capacity and background i.e., if you are born with a silver spoon in mouth, you can afford top class education. But, what about the rest? They have to satisfy with middle and bottom levels. A poor person can only have access to a small illequipped municipal high school. He can only study until a particular level. There are no features in current system that enables everyone to pursue quality education. Therefore, lack of a common educational system is a major deficiency. Reservations In olden days, only higher caste people were eligible for education. Caste system was so deeply rooted that no progress was seen despite several reforms. Then came the concept of “Reservation”. According to this, backward classes were given a small percentage of priority over higher casts. Lower cut offs in various exams were laid. Some default seats were allotted to each category. This gradually increased the literacy rate among them. But today political parties are using reservations to their advantage. By offering more reservations, they are maximizing the vote count. At present, segregating on the basis of caste is a crime. If this system is

continued, one day, everyone will have reservations. If caste and not skill is used to measure one’s ability, then what is the need of conducting exams openly? Hence the entire concept of reservation needs to be redefined. Reservations should be implemented on economic grounds rather than caste. This ensures uniformity. Quality of teaching Here comes a famous saying-A candle only can lit other candles. If the teacher is experienced, then only she can distribute her knowledge among pupil. Today we have a great deficit in quality teachers. Even though prestigious institutes take only qualified staff, government schools and small private schools don’t have strict rules regarding qualification. This applies to private engineering colleges also. In general, for the post of assistant professor, AICTE recommends people with M.Tech as minimum qualification. But some private colleges appoint B.Tech candidates preferably immediate pass outs from their own college as assistant lecturers. Thus they can minimize salaries. In addition, high teacher-pupil ratio and teacher absenteeism makes the situation worse. Less practical exposure Classroom teaching is still the primary source of imparting education among children. Students learn by repetition and mugging things. Their knowledge is confined only to their prescribed textbooks. Even teachers encourage this habit. Notes will be given and students will reproduce exactly the same in exams. We see field works and practical assignments only in higher levels. They are not included in primary education. We often find difficulty in clearing exams like CAT, which will test the student’s fundamentals. If we get used to unhealthy ways of learning like mugging things, how can we acquire grip on basics? Even in case of exams, equal priority is not given to practical subjects. Our mind can grasp better by practical experience rather than mere reading. For example, to teach students about wild animals, they should be taken to a zoo. By showing real animals, students will get a clear impression about their behavior. Alternate way is taking the help of TV channels like Discovery, NGC, and Animal planet. Instead, if we teach them by showing pictures in textbooks, they cannot precisely differentiate one from the other. This kind of interactive teaching may not be possible every time. But here the intention is to give more priority to practical learning over traditional methods. Lack of variety in courses Lets suppose you are interested in management field. There are number of prestigious institutes like IIMs and Business schools in our country that offer courses in this area. There are also many specializations available. But, lets say you look forward to pursuing research in paleontology. Are there enough courses and institutes in India offering specialization in this subject? No. We have world-class institutes in the fields of engineering, medicine, management etc. But our education system doesn’t offer specialization in less preferred areas. This is not the case with other developed countries. From oceanography to DNA testing, ample facilities are provided in countries like

the US and Russia. All areas are given equal priority. This helps in the overall development of the nation. Inadequate equipment This is yet another important flaw in our educational system. Today over 30% of Indian population hasn’t got a primary school within one kilometer of their place of residence. This is mainly seen in rural areas. For a class size of 100 students, only 2 teachers are available. Many government schools even don’t have good infrastructure to conduct classes. Worn out buildings and undertree classrooms are not rare. There is also lack of basic teaching aid like black boards, chalk pieces, erasers, notebooks and textbooks. Many schools lack amenities like toilets, drinking water and proper sanitation. No safety measures are taken before hand to protect buildings from natural calamities like floods and land slides. Education as an income source Today, education is seen as a source of income. People are earning a fortune by establishing institutes. Colleges rob students in the name of management seats. If you are not sure how serious this problem is, just enquire the cost of admission for kindergarten in any of the well-established schools. It is over 30,000 rupees! Private institutes are growing like mushrooms. Corruption prevents higher officials to take proper action against them. A uniform admission fee through out the country is not under implementation. Other Reasons for poor Quality: Lack of training given to the teachers at the entry point • Inadequacy of faculty development programmes. • Academic Staff College- a mere linkage for satisfying promotion norms. • Lack of flexible salary structure e.g. The Indian academic system does not provide for paying differential salaries to different disciplines taking into account the market demand for professionals in sectors such as IT, Engineering etc. • Lack of student motivation • Outmoded pedagogical practices • Lack of Examination Reforms in tune with the global needs. • Divesting research from teaching at University level Non - Practicality of the subjects - Today, the practicality of the lessons that we learn is nothing. Of course, the students also need to have an attitude to learn the practicality of whatever they learn. I don’t think that simply reading the lines written in the book of a subject can help. Teachers must try to motivate the students. Of course, many of them do so. But the students don’t find it interesting. The reason to this is that they have become bored of the theory. It’s just that they want to pass the subjects. Irrelevant syllabi - Sometimes, I feel as if things which we study are completely ineffective and filled with boredom. Take an example of the subject Hindi. The most dramatic thing that I find in this is that right from class III to class X, students have to learn “Sangya” (Nouns), “Sarvanama” (Pronoun), “Visheshan” (Adjective) etc. What is this pattern actually trying to show? Does it mean that the students are really fools who cannot learn a small piece of topic even in 6 years or does it mean that a common sentence

which defines such a topic cannot be understood by the students and teachers are not capable to let the students get the concept? It simply increases the burden of syllabus and students find it really boring to study that subject and they tend to lose the interest. Unfit relation between students and teachers - Any system of education can be successful only if the relation between the teacher and the student is very good. Today, in India, right from the students of class IV to the students of Graduation, they (many of them) tend to pay disrespect to the teachers. They don’t want to pay any respect to the teachers. They even don’t wish them Good Morns. Why is this happening? We can’t hold responsible for this, any special person or thing. There are many factors, such as injustice or misbehavior of students to teachers or vice versa. This is mostly witnessed in Indian institutions. Irresponsibility and injustice of teachers towards students - The mentality of many teachers is such that they look irresponsible towards students. Just because they have the power to scold a student, they do many things which are not expected and lose respect. For example, there is a law that teachers who are professionally affiliated to an institution are not allowed to take tuitions, but many teachers do so, just in greed of more money. Isn’t that teacher responsible? I have also seen teachers who don’t accept their mistakes and instead of accepting their mistakes, they insult the students, who try to show them their mistakes. Of course, I would also say the same thing to students even , because students also are expected to be lenient with the teachers and cooperate with them which they don’t do many times.

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