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Designing and
Managing Services

Chapter Questions

How do we define and classify services and


how do they differ from goods?
What are the new services realities?
How can we achieve excellence in services
marketing?
How can we improve service quality?
How can goods marketers improve customer
support services?

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What is a Service?
A service is any act of performance that one
party can offer another that is essentially
intangible and does not result in the
ownership of anything; its production may or
may not be tied to a physical product.

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Services are Everywhere

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Categories of Service Mix

Pure tangible good


Good with accompanying services
Hybrid
Service with accompany goods
Pure service

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Figure 13.1 Continuum of


Evaluation for Different Types of
Products

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Skala Unsur Dominan


Mengajar
Perawat
Bioskop
Agen iklan
Maskapai penerbangan
Stasiun televisi

Dominasi
elemen
Barang tak
berwujud

Dominasi
elemen
barang berwujud
Restoran siap saji
Penjahit pakaian
Kendaraan/mobil
Rumah/properti
Makanan binatang piaran
Dasi/pakaian
Garam

Entitas Keseimbangan

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Distinctive Characteristics
of Services
Intangibility
Inseparability
Variability
Perishability

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Physical Evidence and


Presentation

Place
People
Equipment
Communication material
Symbols
Price

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Table 13.1 Dimensions of Brand


Experience

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Inseparability

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Variability

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Increasing Quality Control

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Perishability

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Matching Demand and Supply


Demand side
Supply side
Differential pricing
Part-time employees
Nonpeak demand
Peak-time efficiency
Complementary
Increased consumer
services
participation
Reservation systems Shared services
Facilities for future
expansion

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New Service Realities

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Figure 13.3 Root Causes of


Customer Failure

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Solutions to Customer Failures

Redesign processes and redefine customer


roles to simplify service encounters
Incorporate the right technology to aid
employees and customers
Create high-performance customers by
enhancing their role clarity, motivation, and
ability
Encourage customer citizenship where
customers help customers

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Figure 13.4 Types of Marketing in


Service Industries

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Best Practices

Strategic Concept
Top-Management Commitment
High Standards
Self-Service Technologies
Monitoring Systems
Satisfying Customer Complaints
Satisfying Employees

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Figure 13.5 ImportancePerformance Analysis

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Table 13.3 Factors Leading to


Customer Switching Behavior

Pricing
Inconvenience
Core Service Failure
Service Encounter Failures
Response to Service Failure
Competition
Ethical Problems
Involuntary Switching

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Figure 13.6 Service-Quality Model

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Determinants of Service Quality

Reliability
Responsiveness
Assurance
Empathy
Tangibles

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For Review

How do we define and classify services and


how do they differ from goods?
What are the new services realities?
How can we achieve excellence in services
marketing?
How can we improve service quality?
How can goods marketers improve customer
support services?

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education

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