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Whitecollarcrimegenerallyinvolvesfinanciallymotivatedoffensesperpetratedbybusinessandgovernmentemployees

orofficials.Thecrimesarenotviolent,andareusuallycommittedbypersonsinwhomsomeleveloftrustorautonomy
isplace.Theyfrequentlycausesignificantlossesforcompanies,investorsandemployees.

TheTypesofWhiteCollarCrimes
FraudFarandawaythemostcommontypeofwhitecollarcrime,fraudinvolvestheintentionalmisrepresentationor
omissionofamaterialfact.Thatmisrepresentationmustbereasonablyreliedon,andsomeonemustsufferamonetary
lossasaresult.Themostprevalenttypesoffraudinclude:
Computerfraud:Stealingbank,creditcardorproprietaryinformationfromacomputer.
Bankruptcyfraud:Concealingassets,misleadingcreditorsorillegallypressuringdebtors.
Healthcarefraud:Acceptingkickbacksorbillingforservicesnotperformed,unnecessaryequipmentand/or
servicesperformedbyalessqualifiedpersonappliestoallareasofhealthcare,includinghospitals,home
healthcare,ambulanceservices,doctors,chiropractors,psychiatrichospitals,laboratories,pharmaciesand
nursinghomes.
Telemarketingfraud:Usingthetelephoneastheprimarymeansofcommunicatingwithpotentialvictims.
Creditcardfraud:Usingsomeonescreditcardinformationtomakeunauthorizedpurchases.
Insurancefraud:Falsifying,inflatingorpaddingclaims.
Mailfraud:UsingtheU.S.mailtocommitacrime.
Governmentfraud:Engaginginfraudulentactivitiesinrelationtopublichousing,agriculturalprograms,
defenseprocurement,educationalprogramsorothergovernmentactivities,includingbriberyincontracts,
collusionamongcontractors,falseordoublebilling,falsecertificationofthequalityofpartsandsubstitution
ofbogusparts.
Financialfraud:Engaginginfraudulentactivitiesrelatingtocommercialloans,checkforgery,counterfeit
negotiableinstruments,mortgagefraud,checkkitingandfalseapplications.
Securitiesfraud:Manipulatingthemarketandstealingfromsecuritiesaccounts.
Counterfeiting:Printingcounterfeitmoneyormanufacturingcounterfeitdesignerappareloraccessories.

Theft
EmbezzlementorMisappropriationofProperty:Theftofmoney,goodsorservicesbyanemployee
Blackmail:Demandingmoneyinexchangefornotcausingphysicalharm,damagingproperty,accusing
someoneofacrimeorexposingsecrets.

ViolationofStatutoryLaw
Antitrustviolations:Fixingpricesandbuildingmonopolies.
Environmentallawviolations:Dischargingatoxicsubstanceintotheair,waterorsoilthatharmspeople,
propertyortheenvironment,includingairpollution,waterpollutionandillegaldumping.
Taxevasion:Filingfalsetaxreturnsornotfilingtaxreturnsatall.
Kickbacks:Compensatinganindividualorcompanyinordertoinfluenceandgainprofit.Kickbacksresultin
anunearnedadvantage,benefitoropportunity,evenifothersaremorequalifiedorofferbetterprices.
Kickbackshurtbusinessbyinterferingwithcompetitioninthemarketplace.
Insidertrading:Tradingstockorothersecuritieswithknowledgeofconfidentialinformationaboutimportant
eventsthatisunavailabletothegeneralpublic.
Bribery:Offeringmoney,goods,servicesorinformationwiththeintenttoinfluencetheactionsordecisions

oftherecipient.
Moneylaundering:Concealingincomeraisedthroughillegalactivityinordertoevadedetection.Illicit
proceedsarelaunderedtoappearasthoughthefundsweregeneratedthroughlegitimatemeans.
Publiccorruption:Breachingthepublictrustand/orabusingagovernmentposition,usuallyinconnection
withprivatesectoraccomplices.Agovernmentofficialviolatesthelawwhenheorsheasksfororagreesto
receivesomethingofvalueinreturnforbeinginfluencedintheperformanceofofficialduties.

TheDefensestoWhiteCollarCrimeCharges
Whitecollarcrimesaregovernedbythegeneralprinciplesofcriminalliability.Eachcrimerequiresabadact,criminal
intentandcausation.Manyofthedefensestowhitecollarcrimearethesameasthosethatapplytoothercrimes,suchas
insanity,intoxication,incapacity(defendantwasincapableofcommittingthecrime),andduress(someoneelsecausedthe
defendanttocommitthecrime)
Acommondefensetowhitecollarcrimesisentrapment,asituationinwhichgovernmentpersonnelpresentthe
opportunityforthedefendanttocommitacriminalactthatheorsheotherwisewouldnothavecommitted.The
defendantarguesthatheorshewouldhavehadnotendencytocommitthecrimewithoutgovernmententicement.A
judgewilllookatthesituationthroughthedefendantseyesindecidingwhetherthedefendantwasentrapped.To
succeedonanentrapmentdefense,thedefendantmustprovethatthegovernmentinducedhimorhertocommitthe
crimeandthatheorshehadnopredispositiontocommittingthecrime.
Theentrapmentdefensefailswhenapersoniswillingtobreakthelawandthegovernmentagentsmerelyprovidea
favorableopportunityforthepersontocommitthecrime.Forexample,itisnotentrapmentforagovernmentagentto
pretendtobesomeoneelseandoffer,eitherdirectlyorthroughadecoy,toengageinanunlawfultransactionwiththe
person.Ontheotherhand,iftheevidenceleavesareasonabledoubtastowhetherthedefendantwaspredisposedto
committhecrimeexceptforinducementbythegovernmentagent,thedefendantshouldbeacquitted.

SENTENCING
Bothindividualsandcorporationsmaybechargedwithwhitecollarcrimes.Thepenaltiesforwhitecollarcrimesare
fines,homedetention,costsofprosecution,forfeitures,restitution,supervisedreleaseandimprisonment.Sentencesmay
bereducedifthedefendanthelpsauthoritieswiththeirinvestigation.