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Medherb Green Pages - 2010

India and Nepal

14 Foreword -
15 Editorial
16 Acknowledgment with Thanks

SECTION-1 INDIA
19 18 Major herbal trading centers in India
19 Exports of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) & their allied products Chapter-1
20 Revised list of Harmonised System (HS) codes of exports
22 Country wise exports of MAPs and their allied products (2007-08)
23 Exports of MAPs, parts and their allied products (2007-08)
24 Commodity wise split up of exports (2007-08)
25 India's MAPs exports to top 15 countries (2007-08)
25 India's exports trend of MAPs, parts and their allied products (2002-08)
26 Exports trend and information of individual commodity
65 49 Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for medicinal plants Chapter-2
55 An overview on adulterants and substitutes of commercial herbal drugs Chapter-3
with reference to their quality standards
65 Dynamics of chain of custody in herbal raw material sector Chapter-4
69 Medherb Information Chapter-5
69 Info 1, 2 & 3 Government notifications and circulars
72 Info 4 International standard for sustainable wild collection (ISSC-MAP)
77 Info 5 Few important herbal drugs testing laboratories
79 Info 6 Indian flora species in the appendices of CITES
83 80 Info 7 Prohibited/negative list of medicinal plants for exports from India
81 Info 8 Protection of specified plants (The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Special Features Chapter-6
83 - Gulab (Rosa damascena Miller.)
87 - Henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.)
91 - Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)
95 - Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.)
98 Stakeholders of Gulab, Henna, Isabgol and Senna
111 Stakeholder directory Chapter-7
111 112 Cultivation crops mentioned in cultivators' data
112 Words and their abbreviations used in stakeholders' directory
113 Cultivators
125 Dealers, Exporters, Importers
197 Exporters, Extractors, Manufacturers
293 Organisations

SECTION-2 CRUDE MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS' PART


302 Photographs of crude plants' part Chapter-1
301 326 Index of photographs
Medherb Green Pages - 2010
India and Nepal

- SECTION-3 NEPAL -
332 Editor's (Janak Raj Rawal) Nepal visit
334 Major herbal trading centers in Nepal
335 Herbal drugs - The green gold of Nepal Chapter-1
339 Indo-Nepal treaty of trade (Revised in 2009) Chapter-2
335 347 Commercially important medicinal and aromatic plants of Nepal Chapter-3
347 Most tradable medicinal and aromatic plants in Nepal
350 Exports of medicinal and aromatic plants of Nepal to India
352 Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources (ANSAB) Chapter-4
353 Medherb information on Nepal Chapter-5
353 Info 1 Regulatory (Export negative list and CITES)
354 Info 2 Nepal gazette on MAPs royalty
357 Info 3 Website on MAPs by ethnobotanical society of Nepal
358 Info 4 Procedure of drug registration
347 (Ayurvedic, Unani and Homoeopathic products)
359 Info 5 News on medicinal and aromatic plants
361 Info 6 Major organizations involved in MAPs sector
Special Features Chapter-6
363 - Alaichi, Amomum subulatum Roxb. - An important cash crop
369 - Yarsagumba, Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. - A wonder drug
from the Himalayas
373 Stakeholders' directory Chapter-7
Dealers, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Organisations
369
INDEX
384 English, Indian and Nepali names
389 Botanical names

391 Advertisers' Index


FOREWORD
The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is well known as the repository of valuable medicinal, aromatic and dye (MADP)
plants, the majority of which are used in their crude forms in various codified and non-codified systems of traditional medicine
worldwide. The great majority of medicinal plants used locally or entering into trade and industries come from wild sources.
Comparatively very few plant-derived pure constituents, including active principles and secondary metabolites, are used as drugs
in modern medicine or allopathic system. However, during the last few decades, demand for drugs of plant origin is increasing,
especially in developed countries, which is mainly due to the widespread belief that 'nature-based medicine' is safer, efficacious,
and more dependable than the synthetic drugs, many of which have adverse side effects as well as are costly.

Published literature on the trade of medicinal plants in the region is scanty, especially traders' modus operand; for sourcing
medicinal plants raw materials, and various other trade and management aspects including policy and legal issues. The present
volume of popular series of Medherb, divided into 3 sections and 15 chapters covers in a unique way, all aspects of medicinal
plants including trade, processing, policy, rules and regulations, name of stakeholders, and status of the products in the two
countries of Nepal and India. The monograph - second revised edition - will hopefully be found useful by the resource managers,
traders, industrialists, planners, policy makers, legal authorities, and educational and research organizations and institutions
engaged in the field of MADPs and other non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The orientation of the book is practical rather than
theoretical, explanatory rather than scholarly. Regarding the practical utility of the book, the publishers have strived to provide
more answers than questions. The systematic methods and information presented in this book are certainly indispensable, well-
organized, and easy to use by a diverse range of users, especially by producers, processors, marketers and enterprising
community in the region.

Given the huge importance of cross-border trade in medicinal plant between Nepal and India, there is always a demand for
more up to date information on products and prices of marketable MADP. This is therefore a timely and informative manual for
various types of medicinal plants stakeholders who otherwise cannot afford to get all the information under one cover. In other
words, this is indeed an interesting book which gives practical and updated information on MADP related prices, players, products
and places. It is visualized that the book will provide the readers an in-depth knowledge on the trade and other related topics on
the MADPs to promote sustainable management of medicinal plants and other NTFPs in the two countries. The book is likely to
create a strong momentum for the sustainable management of the sub-sector not only in Nepal and India but also beyond.

Mr. Janak Raj Rawal, having decades of experience in medicinal plant trade and management studies, with extensive field
works in the marketing of an array of MAP stakeholders is, undoubtedly, a well qualified person to compile a book of this standard.
Mr. Rawal has brought out an impressive array of topics covering various aspects of medicinal plants that I have had the pleasure
of reading in similar publications for many other countries.

Finally, I would like to conclude with these words - The use of this manual will certainly help raise the standard of future
works in medicinal plants trade and sustainable management. I do hope that this book will be especially useful to the
organizations and individuals who are working for the betterment of the life and livelihoods of mountain people in Nepal and
India.

Sincerely,

Madhav B. Karki, Ph.D. 20th March, 2010


Deputy Director General - Programmes

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Direct Lines


Directorate: 5003318. Environmental Change and Ecosystem Services (ECES): 5003013.
Mountain Forum: 5003139. Integrated Water and Hazard Management (IWHM): 5003177
Knowledge Management Support and Development (KMSD IT+C): 5003246.
Mountain Environmental Natural Resources Information Systems (MENRIS): 5003242
Sustainable Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction (SLPR): 5003040/5003141.

14
Starting with its 2003 edition, Medherb Green Pages (MGP) has established itself as the single largest information source
related to trade and commerce of herbals. With the current edition MGP moves into the eighth year of its publication. Apart from
the useful information on medicinal and aromatic plants species (MAPs) trade, that Medherb Green Pages is recognized for, this
issue puts a special focus on Nepal. Like all our country specific sections in previous editions, I personally devoted time and energy
in visiting Nepal to collect, collate and compile the information about the production and trade scenario of Nepalese MAPs. It was
also an important opportunity for me to discuss issues related to MAPs production and trade with various MAPs stakeholders
there. I hope the insights generated during the endeavor are adequately reflected in the volume at hand and will be considered
helpful by our patrons.

Nepal consists of one-third (800km) of entire length of the Himalayas (2500km) and is a transitional zone of
interpenetration between two differing environments of eastern Himalayas and the western Himalayas. Nepal lies on the
subtropical zone of the globe, most of its terrain being mountainous with bioclimatic variation from tropical to the Alpine and
Arctic zone. It makes a country with rich flora and biodiversity. Out of approx. 7000 species of higher plants found in that around
700 are medicinal, 250 being endemic to Nepal. There are 1624 species of ethnobotanical importance and about 100 of these
plants are commercially important for trade. Nepal is an important country from the perspective of MAPs trade. This had
prompted us to devote considerably towards it. Due to recent political changes, more opportunities may have opened up for
Indo-Nepal herbal trade.

Earlier surveys have indicated that 90% of the Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) of Nepal are consumed by India.
However, recent studies indicate that it is around 70% and rest is being exported to China. Major items of commerce between
India and Nepal are: Atis, Chiraiyta, Tejpat, Jatamansi (with & without oil), Chadilla, Kutki, Ritha, Pippali, Sughandhabala,
Sughandh Kokila, Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis) and Timur.

Major plants under cultivation in Nepal are: Mentha, Citronella, Lemon grass, Palmarosa, Basil, Chamomile, Chirayita,
Eucalyptus, Stevia, Wintergreen, Juniper berry, Asparagus, Aloe vera, Taxus baccata, Jatamansi, Acorus calamus etc. Rauvolfia
serpentina is nearly extinct in Nepal and Kutki is also heading towards it. Development of nurseries for medicinal and aromatic
plants is being taken up in Nepal on a commercial basis with Dabur Nepal Ltd. and also Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC)
playing a major role in this context.

Some of the features of MAPs trade in Nepal are that the market is closed on every Saturday and follow the Bikram Samvat
calendar (starts with Baisakh i.e. 14th April) as financial year. There are about 10 retail shops exclusively devoted to Jari buti in
Killagarh near Inder Chowk in Kathmandu.

There is a trade misconception that Indian imports of Jatamansi oil from Nepal is of indigenous Nepalese origin (SAARC Treaty),
whereas actual trade volume of Nepal constitutes only 10% and the remaining 90% is being imported from China and exported to
India. This trend is observed for the last two-three years. Herbs Production and Processing Company Limited (HPPLC), the Nepal
Government undertaking, which extracts essential oil onsite in the fields has a small distillation unit with 100% 'buy back' from the
producers. Organic is another buzz word in herbal trade and Nepal has also entered into organic cultivation of essential oil crops
and soapnut.

JABAN and ANSAB are two organizations engaged actively in the development of herbal trade in Nepal. I very much
thankful to both esteemed organizations for their kind help and cooperation during my visit to Nepal. I had the chance to visit the
Dabur Nepal; I personally appreciate the wonderful work being carried out by the organization. I also thankful to Dr. Madhav Karki
(ICIMOD) to bringing out this issue; incidentally it was also Dr. Karki (then with IDRC) who was instrumental in bringing out earlier
issue on Nepal in 2004.

I am pleased to inform you that the next edition will cover yet another SAARC country i.e., Bangladesh, with updates from
India. Bangladesh is also one of the most important countries to consume herbs and their allied products from India. The
Ayurveda and Unani are recognized systems of medicine in Bangladesh. Lastly, I assure the readers of MGP of our best efforts to
serve them with authentic and updated information from the MAPs domain. I hope we continue to enjoy your faith,
encouragement and patronage in the years to come.

31st March, 2010 Janak Raj Rawal

15
17
Kullu

Varanasi
Allahabad

Salem
Erode

18
Source: Directorate General of Foreign Trade, Department of Commerce,
Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India

Worldwide recognition of natural products and process


in supporting human and ecological health, the
economic plus environmental significance of the medicinal
plant resources have enlarged terrifically in recent years.

Exports of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 19


www.medherb.in Medherb Green Pages 2010
INDIA AND NEPAL

REVISED LIST OF HARMONISED SYSTEM (HS) CODES OF EXPORTS


Chapter 06 Live trees and other Plants; Bulb, Roots and the HS Code Commodity
like; Cut flowers and Ornamental Foliage 12119094 ..................................Basil, hyssop, rosemary, sage and savory
HS Code Commodity 12119095........................................................................................Lovage
06041000....................................................................Mosses and lichens 12119096......................................................................................Garcinia
06041000 .........................................................................................Other 12119099 .................................................................Other parts of plants
12122010...................................................................................Seaweeds
Chapter 12 Oil Seeds & Oleaginous Fruits; Misc. Grains, Seeds 12122090 ................................................................................Other algae
& Fruit; Indl. or Medicinal Plants; Straw & Fodder 12123000 .........................................Apricot, peach (including nectarine)
12123010...........................................................................Apricot kernels
HS Code Commodity 12129100..................................................................................Sugar beet
12030000 .........................................................................................Copra
12129910 .............................................................Kokam (cocum) flowers
12040010 ......................................................................................Linseed
12129920 ..........................................................................Mohua flowers
12060010 ..........................................................................Sunflower seed
12130000 .........................................Cereal straw and husks, unprepared
12072010 ...............................................................................Cotton seed
12141000 .............................................Lucerne (alfalfa) meal and pellets
12073010..........................................................................Castor oil seeds
12149000 .........................................................................................Other
12074010...........................................................................Sesamum seed
12075010............................................................................Mustard seed
12079100...............................................................................Poppy seeds
Chapter 13 Lac; Gums, Resins and other Vegetable Saps and
12079910.........................................................................................Ajams Extracts
12079920.............................................................................Mango kernel HS Code Commodity
12079930..................................................................................Niger seed 13011020 .....................................................................................Seed lac
12079940........................................................................................Kokam 13011030......................................................................................Stick lac
12079990..................................................Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits 13011040 ..................................................Dewaxed and decolourised lac
12081000.................................................................................Soya beans 13011050...............................................................................Bleached lac
12111000...........................................................................Liquorice roots 13011060 ..................................................................................Gasket lac
12112000 ............................................................................Ginseng roots 13011070 ..................................................................................Button lac
12113000 ....................................................................................Coca leaf 13011080 ..................................................................................Garnet lac
12114000 ...............................................................................Poppy straw 13012000 ................................................................................Gum arabic
12119011 .........................................................................Ambrette seeds 13019011 ..................................................................................Asian gum
12119012.................................................................................Nuxvomica 13019012 ...............................................................................African gum
12119013 .............................................................................Psyllium seed 13019013..................................................................................Asafoetida
12119014.................................................................................Neem seed 13019014 ...................................................................................Benjamin
12119015................................................................................Jujube seed 13019015........................................................................Benjamin cowrie
12119021........................................................................Belladona leaves 13019016 .....................................Karaya gum (Indian tragacanth) hastab
12119022 ..............................................................Senna leaves and pods 13019017..............................................................Tragacanth (adraganth)
12119023 ..........................................................Neem leaves and powder 13019018.........................................................................................Storax
12119024 .....................................................................Gymnema powder 13019019 ...................................................................Other natural gums
12119025 ...........................................................................Cubeb powder 13019021..........................................................................................Copal
12119026..................................................................................Pyrethrum 13019022.............................................................................Dammar batu
12119029.........................................................Other leaves and powders 13019029 ...................................................................Other gums / resins
12119031 .................................................................Cascara sagrada bark 13019031.........................................................................................Myrrh
12119032......................................................Psyllium husk (Isobgul husk) 13019032 .........................................................Oilbanum or frankincense
12119033 .............................................................Garcinia cambogia fruit 13019033 ................................................................................Mastic gum
12119039..........................................................Other roots and rhizomes 13019034 ...........................................................................Xanthium gum
12119041 .........................................................................Belladona roots 13019039...............................................................Other gums and resins
12119042 .....................................................Galangal rhizomes and roots 13019041....................................................................Oleoresins of seeds
12119043 .................................................Ipecac dried rhizome and roots 13019042 ....................................................................Oleoresins of fruits
12119044 ..............................................Serpentina roots (Rouvolfia spp.) 13019043...................................................................Oleoresins of leaves
12119045...........................................................................Zedovary roots 13019044...................................................................Oleoresins of spices
12119046 ...................................................................................Kuth root 13019045.................................................................Oleoresins of flowers
12119047 .....................................................................Sarasaparilla roots 13019046 ....................................................................Oleoresins of roots
12119048...................................................................Sweet flag rhizomes 13019049 ........................................................................Other oleoresins
12119049..........................................................Other roots and rhizomes 13021100 .......................................................Saps and extracts of opium
12119050 .......................................................Sandalwood chips and dust 13021200...................................................................Extracts of liquorice
12119060 ......................................................................Vinca rosea herbs 13021911 .................................................................Extracts of belladona
12119070 .............................................Mint including leaves (all species) 13021912........................................................Extracts of cascara sagrada
12119080 ..................................................................................Agarwood 13021913...............................................................Extracts of nux vomica
12119080..........................................................Other roots and rhizomes 13021914 .....................................Extracts of ginseng (including powder)
12119091 ......................................................................................Chiraita 13021915 ....................................................................Extracts of agarose
12119092....................................................................................Tukmaria 13021916........................................................................Extracts of neem
12119093 ....................................Unnab (Indian jujuba or Chinese dates) 13021917 .................................................................Extracts of gymnema

20 Exports of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants


www.medherb.in Medherb Green Pages 2010
INDIA AND NEPAL

COUNTRY WISE EXPORTS OF MAPs AND THEIR ALLIED PRODUCTS (2007-08) see fig. 03

Country Value (INR ’00000) Country Value (INR ’00000) Country Value (INR ’00000)
U S A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88094.98 Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176.63 Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.09
China P Rp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16706.97 Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166.99 Liberia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.90
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13583.57 Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.68 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.35
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7176.79 Uzbekistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155.86 Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.94
Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7064.87 Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144.03 Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.18
U Arab Emts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6358.31 Qatar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124.50 Brunei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.18
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4549.73 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.25 Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.08
Pakistan IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4245.69 Baharain Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.23 Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.96
U K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3890.52 Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.06 Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.64
Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3667.80 Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110.69 Fiji Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.34
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3665.23 Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109.54 Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.20
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3615.07 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106.30 Suriname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.49
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3568.80 Yemen Republc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.31 Gambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.42
Netherland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3430.00 Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.99 Lithuania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.31
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2554.27 Azerbaijan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.05 Chad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.18
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2213.95 Tanzania Rep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.55 Libya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.70
Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2213.14 Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.27 Cote D' Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.31
Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2020.10 Mauritius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90.55 Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.21
Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997.82 Afghanistan Tis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89.87 Turkmenistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.92
Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997.57 Korea Dp Rp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.96 Macedonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.80
Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84.65
Korea Rp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1971.00 Zambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.85
Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.84
Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1681.10 Reunion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.82
Congo P Rep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.19
Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1610.25 Myanmar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.43
Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67.47
Saudi Arab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520.56 Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.89
Moldova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.50
Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441.09 Bahamas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.59
Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.12
Egypt A Rp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206.88 Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.14
Belarus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.59
Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174.08 Puerto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.80
Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.55
Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1130.99 Macao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.70
Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.46
Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057.50 Mauritania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.45
Tajikistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.42
Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039.23 Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.39
Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.37
Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027.46 Somalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.39
Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.32
Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 954.28 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.69 Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.23
Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880.66 Kyrghyzstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.17 Papua N Gna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.22
Bangladesh PR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808.55 Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.36 Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05
Vietnam Soc Rep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718.15 Costa Rica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.12 Estonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.02
Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709.58 Swaziland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.45 Rwanda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.97
Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609.24 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.49 Sierra Leone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.88
Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521.63 El Salvador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.15 Lao Pd Rp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.87
Sri Lanka DSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.97 Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.51 Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.67
Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.88 Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.73 Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64
Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480.59 Union Of Serbia & Montenegro . . . . . . . . 31.70 Seychelles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.64
Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461.97 Senegal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.56 Albania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.58
Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306.80 Uruguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.27 Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.45
Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.98 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.29 Netherlandantil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.43
New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295.00 Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.02 Burundi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.39
Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277.91 Panama Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.44 Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.34
Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277.44 Dominic Rep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.98 New Caledonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.22
Guatemala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275.90 Djibouti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.94 Dominica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.17
Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.75 Br Virgn Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.05 Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.12
Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.52 Trinidad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.99 Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.07
Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217.34 Honduras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.73 St Vincent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.07
Benin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.14 Honduras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.72 Barbados . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179.31 Niger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.71 Unspecified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.61

22 Exports of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants


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INDIA AND NEPAL

EXPORTS TREND AND INFORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL COMMODITY


Castor Oil Seeds fig. 05 Country Quantity (Kg ’000) . . . . . . . . . . . Value (INR ’00000)
Export Trend (2003-08) Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.17
Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02
Quantity in Kg ‘000 Value in INR ‘00000 Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.17
2000
Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.14
1800 Macao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.71
1600 Mauritius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20
1400 Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05
1200 Netherland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.06
1000 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.54
800 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.01
600 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.18
Reunion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.19
400
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.71
200
Sri Lanka DSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.11
0 Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.07
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 U K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Quantity 1820.380 464.000 0.370 20.660 68.000 U S A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249.15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138.15
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324.53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167.73
Value 449.773 45.148 0.150 7.870 36.120

Export Data (2007-08) Niger Seeds fig. 07


Export Trend (2003-08)
Country Quantity (Kg ’000) Value (INR ’00000)
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.24 Quantity in Kg ‘000 Value in INR ‘00000
Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.22 35000
Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.67 30000
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.12
25000
Poppy Seeds fig. 06 20000
Export Trend (2003-08)
15000
Quantity in Kg ‘000 Value in INR ‘00000
400 10000
350 5000
300
0
250 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
200 Quantity 17894.366 26138.247 28424.670 30017.180 21682.850
150 Value 4541.390 6474.480 6024.980 6687.310 9002.990
100
Export Data (2007-08)
50
Country Quantity (Kg ’000) Value (INR ’00000)
0
2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.79
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587.60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.94
Quantity 104.916 146.736 240.780 351.030 324.530 Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.35
Value 55.685 80.271 135.980 114.420 167.730 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48.96
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185.74
Export Data (2007-08) Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.36
Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.65
Country Quantity (Kg ’000) Value (INR ’00000)
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.48 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.41
Benin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02 Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.26
Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.57 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186.02
Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.96 Netherland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107.64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.98
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.09 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49.62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.60

26 Exports of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants


Source: National Medicinal Plant Board.
Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India
In collaboration with; World Health Organization (WHO)

1 Background- Need for Good Agricultural Practices 2 Definition of Good Agricultural Practices
1.1 India has a rich tradition of plant based health care systems A good agricultural practice in the context of medicinal
contained in its classical texts like Charak Samhita and plants is a cultivation programme designed to ensure
Sushruta Samhita. In recognition of the diversity of health optimal yield in terms of both quality and quantity of any
care practices, the Government of India have recognized
Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Siddha, Unani and crop intended for health purposes.
Homoeopathy as the alternative systems of medicine
under the National Health Policy. 3 Scope
1.2 Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Siddha, 3.1 This document is designed to play a facilitator role and shall
Unani and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) in the Ministry of Health be recommended to all stake holders.
and Family Welfare has the responsibility for quality
3.2 In the current form, these GAPs are essentially meant for
assurance and standardization of the production processes
of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani(ASU) medicines and and applicable to commercial scale of farming.
disseminate the guidelines for production of raw material
used in ASU medicines. 4 Soil and climatic conditions
1.3 To ensure and enhance the quality of ASU medicines, the 4.1 The grower should identify the best possible environment
Government of India have notified Good Manufacturing where the plant can express its full potential in terms of
Practices under Schedule 'T' of the Drugs and Cosmetics both quality and quantity during its entire growth period
Act 1940. The guidelines for Good Agricultural Practices
seek to lay down standards for production of raw material (germination, growth and maturity). Meteorological data
that goes in to the making of the ASU medicines and collated for preceding three years should be taken into
standardize the production processes from farm to factory. account while judging the suitability of the site.

Good Agricultural Practices 49


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4.2 The selected site should qualify in terms of overall soil 5.4 Precautions
health for the purpose of cultivation of medicinal plant 5.4.1 Seed
species. The following should be avoided; i) The seeds chosen for cultivation purposes must be
4.2.1 In general sites designated with high-degree stress factors physically free from pests, diseases, foreign and inert
(salinity, acidity and toxicity), water logging conditions, matter.
industrial wastes and affluent. ii) The seed should be fresh and must have originated
4.2.2 The sites in proximity to grave yards, crematoria or having a from recent harvests and in the accompanying
document; the supplier should mention the date of
traceable history of such usage.
harvest.
4.3 A well drained fertile soil with optimum level of water iii) The seeds which is collected from wild sources must
holding capacity and productivity status should be used for invariably be from recently collected lots and only
medicinal plants cultivation. mature seed should be collected.
4.4 In soils with low fertility levels use of soil amendments as iv) Prescribed seed treatment protocols if any, for the
per the specific site and requirement of species are to be target species, must be completed well in advance so as
followed. The latest soil test report on physico-chemical to match the planting season.
parameters and nutrient profile should be obtained to v) The process for seedling production under nursery
decide the nature and quantity of soil amendments conditions should be initiated as per the recommended
required. agronomic practices for the target species and carried
4.5 The site must be in proximity to a reliable source of out reasonably well before the actual schedule of field
irrigation water. transplantation. Only healthy seedlings should be
4.6 The quality of irrigation water should have been transplanted.
5.4.2 Stem cutting
adequately understood and classified in the context of
I) When the grower takes the responsibility of root
both soil type and the target crop in terms of total salt induction in stem cuttings under nursery conditions for
concentration, Sodium absorption ratio, Bicarbonate and eventual transplantation into the field, the source of
Boron concentration etc. cuttings should be well authenticated for both
4.7 When the end-product is required to conform to standards botanical identity and quality of vegetative propagules.
of residual contaminants, the irrigation water must be ii) The stem cuttings collected for root induction should be
analyzed for heavy metals and residual pesticides also. of uniform dimensions in terms of length and diameter
4.8 When shade-loving crop is planned for, availability of shade and should be in tune with the requirements laid down
across the field should be ascertained. Provision for for the target species. Only healthy stem cutting giving
artificial shading should be examined in the light of crop desired rooting should be used.
economics. 5.4.3 Root cutting
The propagation materials in form of 'ready-to-transplant
5 Seeds and propagation material saplings' or root cuttings should be of uniform size and
maturity, both in terms of aerial and underground parts,
5.1 The seed/planting material should be accompanied with
and must be free from any disease and infection.
the following information:
• Name as per pharmacopoeial nomenclature, trade 6 Crop management for cultivation
name 6.1 Field preparation
• Botanical name The soil should be brought to the desired tilth to facilitate
• Cultivar/ Selection / Phenotype/ Chemotype/ favourable environment for growing seed and seedling.
Genotype The field operation performed should provide better
• Projected quality of crop in terms of physico-chemical rhizospheric environment, soil porosity and texture, and
analysis/ marker based analysis – on the basis of earlier keep it free from weeds for initial 20-30 days.
data/ reports 6.2 Sowing and transplanting
5.2 Marker based analytical projection for the end-product is 6.2.1 The recommended rate of seedings per unit of land area
mandatory requirement when the crop is meant for phyto- should be adhered to. The placement of seeds should take
pharmaceutical industries. place at the appropriate depth in the moist zone of the soil.
6.2.2 In cases where saplings are transplanted the spacing norms
5.3 When the planting material is obtained from wild
in terms of row-to-row and plant-to-plant distance should
resources as it happens during initial crop cycles, efforts
be governed by the needs of target crop as envisaged in the
should be made to establish its correct identity. agronomic protocol for target species.

50 Good Agricultural Practices


Sunil Dutt and Dr. Rajeev Kr. Sharma,
Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine,
Govt. of India, Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare known to foreign substance to increase the weight or potency of the product
mankind. In spite of the great advances observed in modern or to decrease its cost. In general, adulteration is considered as an
medicine in recent decades, medicinal plants still play a very intentional practice. However, unintentional adulterations also
significant role in the healthcare of humankind. The medicinal exist in herbal raw material trade due to various reasons. Owing to
plants constitute an effective source of Unani, Ayurvedic and collection of herbal drugs by unskilled workers from natural
Siddha systems of medicine and have played a key role in human habitats lead to unintentional adulteration. India has a number of
health. In fact today, approximately 70% of “synthetic” medicines vernacular languages in different regions and hence, this causes a
are derived from plants. In India, about 80% of the rural lot of confusion in the identity of the drug. For example Eclipta alba
population depends on medicinal herbs and/or indigenous Hassk. and Wedelia calendulacea Less. are known by the same
systems of medicine. In recent years, however, the popularity of vernacular name 'Bhringraj'. Hence, adulteration or substitution
herbal medicine worldwide and increasing demand of medicinal of the genuine raw material is the main cause of degradation of
plants/herbal drugs has led to overexploitation from wild and the desired therapeutic effect of a particular drug used in Indian
accordingly adulteration and substitution of medicinal System of Medicine. Therefore, the correct taxonomic
plant/herbal drugs also increased drastically. Consequently, the identification of botanical drugs is necessary for their quality,
safety and efficacy of these medicines have degraded significantly safety and efficacy. This article provide a comprehensively
and become an important issue for the health professions. reviewed information on adulterants and substitutes of herbal
Herbal adulteration is one of the common malpractices in drugs with reference to their quality standards with the scope that
herbal raw material trade. Adulteration is an intentional the data can be useful guide for identifying the correct botanical
substitution with another plant species or intentional addition of a source of a particular herbal drug.

Adulterants and Substitutes 55


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Table 1: Adulterants and Substitutes of Herbal Drugs Used in Unani, Ayurvedic and Siddha Systems of Medicine
S.n. Botanical Name Drug Adulterant Substitute Ref. POQS*
1 Abrus precatorius Gunja - Glycyrrhiza glabra 9 A- I, II; T;
S- I; U- IV
2 Acacia catechu Khadira Uncaria gambier - 14 A- I; IH; T
3 Acacia leucophloea Arimeda - Cassia auriculata, C. fisutula, 11 A- II; U- VI
A. farnesiana,A. ferriginea
4 Acacia nilotica Babbula - A. ferru nesiana, A. leucophloea 9 A- I; IP-07;
Q-V; T; U- VI
5 Achyranthes aspera Apamarga Achyranthes bidentata 15 A- II; IH; S- I;
Cyathula prostrata U- IV
6 Aconitum chasmanthum Vatsanabha A.balfourii, A. falconeri A. balfourii, A. palmatum, 10;42; A- VI; U- IV
A. deinorrhizum, A. deinorrhizum, A. ferox, 53;56;
Delphinium demudatum A. laciniatum, A. luridum, 58; 64
A.spicatum
7 Aconitum heterophyllum Ativisha Asparagus racemosus, Aconitum kashmericum, 15; 18 A- I; IH; Q-IV;
A.gonocladus, A. palmatum, A. spicatum T; S- I;
Delphinium denudatum, U- I
Chaerophyllum villosum
8 Acorus calamus Vacha Alpinia officinarum, - 9 A- II; U- V
Alpinia galanga
9 Adhatoda zeylanica Vasa Ailanthus excelsa Adhatoda beddomei 9 A- I, IV; IH;
IP-07; T; S- I;
U- VI
10 Adiantum lunulatum Hamsapadi - A. capillusveneris, A.aethiopium, 41; 46 A- III
A.pedatum, A. venustum
11 Aegle marmelos Bilva - Feronia limonia 9 A- I, III, IV;IH;
Garcinia mangostana S- I; T; U- I
12 Aerva lanata Gorakshganja A.javanica, A.tomentosa, A. javanica, A. tomentosa, 10; A- V; B; S- I
Coleus aromaticus, Coleus aromaticus, 39; 68
Northosaerva bractiata, Northosaerva bractiata,
Rotula aquatic, Rotula aquatica,
Ammania baccifera, Ammania baccifera,
A. sanguinolenta A. sanguinolenta
13 Ailanthus excelsa Araluka Adhatoda vasica Holarrhena antidysentrica 11 A- III; Q-III
14 Alangium salvifolium Ankola - Alangium salvifolium 18 A- V; B; Q-V;
U- V
15 Albizzia lebbec k Siris A.odoratissima, - 52 Khatoon and
A. procera Mehrotra,
2009; Q-II
16 Allium sativum Lashuna - Allium porrum 17 A- III; IP-07;
Q-III; U- V
17 Aloe barbadenis Kumari Acacia catechu - 9 A- I; IH; T; U-I
18 Alternanathera sessilis Matsyakshi E. alba - 13 A- II; S- I
19 Amomum subulatum Sthoolaila Heracleum rigens, Amomum dealbatum 9 A- II; U- IV
Peucedanum grande, A.subulatum,
20 Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Surana A.campanulatus A. campanulatus, A. cammutatus 10 A- III
21 Andrographis paniculata Bhunimba Andrographis echioides Andrographis echioides, 13; 14 IH; IP-07
A. paniculata,Swertia chiryata
22 Annona squamosa Sitaphala - A. cherimda, A. reticulata 4 -
A. glabra
23 Anogeissus latifolia Dhava - Acacia nilotica 9 A- VI; Q-III
24 Areca catechu Puga A. calisa, A. concinna, A. laxa, A.calisa, A.concinna, A.laxa, 13 A- I; Q-III; T;
A. nagensis, A.triandra. A.nagensis, A triand, Actinorhytis U- I
Bombax ceiba, Caryota urens, calapparia, Artocarpus lakoocha,
Ipomoea batatas, Metroxylon sagu, Calamus erectus,Choreospondias
Phoenix dactylifera axillaris, Dendrophothoe falcate,
Gnetum montanum,Heterospathe
elata,Horsfieldia kingie,
Pinanga dicksonii, Santalum album.
*POQS - Pharmacopoeial/ Other Quality. Standards

56 Adulterants and Substitutes


Pranab Misra, Chief Executive Officer
Rawal Medherbs Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

Unusual divergence of topography, climate and eco-system of 2. Consumer Market


India has resulted in high floral diversity, in consequence making Health food supplement industry
India reach in varieties of high value Medicinal and Aromatic Cosmetics and perfumery industry
Plants (MAPs), popularly known as herbs. MAPs much more than a Natural Dye industry
source for traditional healthcare, contribute in important ways to Blending and flavoring
the livelihood and welfare of rural population by providing an Cooking and additives
alternate source of income and employment. Wild harvesting of
medicinal and aromatic plants is a chance for the poorest to make Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (tribal) medicine are the
at least some cash income. Especially those people who do not major systems of indigenous medicine. Amongst these systems,
have access to farm land at all depend on gathering MAPs to earn Ayurveda is most developed and extensively practiced in India.
at least some money. Wild plant species are wild harvested and The number of plants used in these systems of medicines is about
used as crops then sold as products, especially for food and 2200. It is difficult to appraise how many MAPs are commercially
medicines. traded. There is a need to increase the recognition of marketing as
an important means of contributing to sustainable utilization of
Demand of MAPs mostly comes from two sectors: forest resources. It is evident that price is too often used as the
1. Pharmaceutical Industry main, if not the only, means in marketing of crude herbal raw
Medicines materials, distribution channels and service factors play a more
Extracts, isolation of active constituents (alkaloids, glycosides) important role than price does.
Plant derived allopathic medicines Distribution channel of herbals also termed as chain of custody
Essential oils may be defined as all relevant steps involved in the production-

Dynamics of Chain of Custody 65


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INDIA AND NEPAL

supply chain including collecting, cultivating, harvesting, handling, The amount and level of information available with all the
processing and other appropriate related activities. It is a system elements of the chain of custody varies considerable, thereby
of people organizations, technology, activities, information and leading to the exploitation of people having less information.
resources involved in movement of a product or service from its Collectors: Collectors of herbs may be defined as a person who
source of origin to the end user. earns fully or partly his livelihood through collecting herbs from
Channel of distribution and complexities involved, is one of the the wild (whole herb or its parts) with the purpose of selling it to
biggest challenges faced by the individual entrepreneurs and final someone who either sells it further or processes it. Collectors may
product manufacturers in determining quality and price of the be divided in two groups.
herbal raw materials. The length of supply chain is responsible for Independent collectors: They are generally poor farmers with
the receipt of low prices by primary collectors and farmers. As
small landholdings for cultivation and h a v i n g h a r d l y a n y
collection is still more common than cultivation, huge differences
alternative occupation to earn cash income. During period of
in the quality of raw materials occur. The differences concern the
their urgency they are compelled to take advance money from
amount of active ingredients based on the geographic location,
use of plant parts, harvest techniques and storing. local traders or middlemen, who are the only accessible credit
The discussion on supply chain demands total understanding source to them. These traders act as the only source of market
of each component involved in the process. information for the collectors.
Contract Collectors: they are engaged by the forest
Chain of Custody (Supply Chain) of contractors for collection of herbs according to the geographic
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants area allotted to the contractor. Sometimes the species are also
specified for collection.
Manufacturers
Being exposed to adverse weather conditions during
Pharmaceuticals, Herbal Drug, Nutraceuticals, Dyes, Cosmetics, Perfumery etc.
collection, collectors are forced to collect as much as and as
quickly as possible during the day.
Collectors suffer from inadequate business and
Bulk Suppliers Regional International entrepreneurial skills, lack of awareness on collection process,
of Ingredients Markets Market quality requirements, and knowledge on properties of herbs,
price, insufficient market information and regulations.
Cultivator: Herbal cultivators may be divided broadly in two
categories small-scale and large-scale according to their
Small Traditional Traders from Exporter
Extractors landholding capacity. The small-scale farmers may be categorized
Processors healers Other States
as unorganized and semi-organized.
Unorganized: They undertake cultivation of medicinal and
aromatic plants having short gestation period to generate an
Large Traders Market extra income during the unproductive period of their regular
crop and are mostly dependent on the middlemen or local
traders for their sales receiving smaller and smaller amounts
even though the middlemen may be receiving an increasing
Cultivation Small Trader / Cooperatives / profits.
Promoters Middlemen Govt. Agencies Semi-organized: these farmers are normally members of
certain group or cultivate by getting motivation from some
organization promoting medicinal and aromatic plants'
cultivation or against b u y b a c k a s s u ra n c e f ro m s o m e
Cultivator Collector Importer individual/firm.

Large-scale cultivators may also be divided in two categories,


such as entrepreneur cultivators and contract cultivators. In both
Natural Wild and the cases they are well organized with sound financial and
Abandon Forest educational background; capable of risk bearing.

66 Dynamics of Chain of Custody


Information 1 Ÿ Requires the FDA to establish a risk-based schedule for
Government Notifications and Circulars inspecting foreign and domestic food facilities, with a
minimum inspection frequency of once every four years, and
PHARMEXCIL provides that refusing, impeding or delaying an inspection
Pharmaceuticals Export Promotion Council would be cause for suspension of registration and for barring
(Set up by Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt., of India) entry into the U.S.
H.O.: 101, Aditya Trade Centre, Ameerpet, Hyderbad-500038 Ÿ Requires the FDA to inspect foreign and domestic drug
facilities every two years (with some exceptions allowed) and
Ref: PXL/H.O./CIR-143/2008-09 19th March, 2009 denies entry to drugs coming from facilities that limit, delay or
deny FDA inspections.
Ÿ Requires foreign food manufacturers to be certified by FDA
Sub: Food & Drug Administration Globalization Act of 2009 accredited third parties as meeting all U.S. food safety
This is to inform our members that our council has received requirements and prohibits uncertified facilities from
information from, Department of Commerce Government of India exporting to the U.S.
that a bill “Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Globalization Act Ÿ Creates a fast-track import process for food meeting security
2009” has been introduced in the US. The bill is designed to standards.
impose strict monitoring, manufacturing and reporting Ÿ Provides the FDA with new authority to issue mandatory
requirements on all products overseen by the FDA. recalls of foods and drugs and strengthens fines for failure to
The bill also creates a dedicated foreign inspectorate to comply with safety requirements.
increase FDA's ability to monitor foreign facilities producing food, Ÿ Requires drug importers to affirmatively demonstrate that
drugs, devices and cosmetics. The highlights of the bill are their products come from registered facilities and meet all
reproduced below: requirements related to safety and quality.
Ÿ Requires all food, drug medical device and cosmetics facilities Ÿ Requires drug manufacturers, when requested by the FDA, to
operating within the U.S. or exporting such goods to the U.S. to provide documentation of their complete supply chain and to
register with the FDA and pay a registration fee every year. document measures taken to secure their supply chain.

Medherb Information 69
www.medherb.in Medherb Green Pages 2010
INDIA AND NEPAL

Ÿ Create a dedicated foreign inspectorate to increase FDA's 1. As you are aware that the office of DC (MSME) is implementing
ability to monitor foreign facilities producing food, drugs, National manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP)
devices, and cosmetics. consisting ten different schemes. One such Scheme titled ' L e a n
Manufacturing Scheme' had been approved by Government of
In view of the above, members are requested to intimate their India on pilot basis to initially cover 100 mini clusters in the
comments/ feedback, if any to this council at the earliest but not country.
later than 25th March, 2009. 2. Under the Scheme, it is proposed to deploy competent
consultants to carry out Lean Interventions i n s e l e c t e d
Thanking you, clusters. For the implementation of scheme on pilot basis,
With best regards, National Productivity Council has been entrusted the role of
National Monitoring and Implementing Unit(NMlU).
Dr. P.V. Appaji 3. The detailed Guidelines of the scheme are now available on
Executive Director
the website of of Office of Development C o m m i s s i o n e r
(MSME) (www.dcmsme.gov.in).
Information 2
4. It will be appreciated, if you extend full cooperation in the
Office of the Development Commissioner implementation Of the scheme, by publicizing it among the
(Micro Small & Medium Enterprises) Industries/Members. This will accelerate the implementation
Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Govt. of India, and facilitate success of the Pilot scheme.
No.17(2)/1/08-ME 27th July, 2009
Yours faithfully,
To
All Industries Associations

Sub: Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Scheme under (Abhay Bakre)


NMCP. Joint Development Commissioner

Information 3 Directorate General of Foreign Trade,


Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India

Notification No.3/2009-2014 27th August, 2009

S.O.(E) In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 5 read with Section 3(2) of the Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act,
1992 (No.22 of 1992) and also read with Para 1.3 and Para 2.1 of the Foreign Trade Policy, 2009-2014, the Central Government hereby
makes following amendments in Table B of Schedule 2 of ITC(HS) Classifications of Export and Import Items:
I. In Chapter 3, Note 1 below the chapter heading may be substituted to read as following:
“Note 1. The term “Marine Products” in this Chapter covers all the eight digit Exim Codes in the Chapter of the ITC (HS) Classification of
Export and Import items. All marine species that have been included in the Schedules of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 are
prohibited for export and other species listed in CITES are subject to the provisions of the CITES.”
II. In Chapter 5, Note 1 below the chapter heading may be substituted to read as following:
“Note 1. Export of wild animals and their parts and products as covered in Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and CITES are prohibited and
other species listed in CITES are subject to the provisions of the CITES. See restrictions in Table A for detail.”
III. (a) In Chapter 12, existing entries in the column titled 'Item Description', 'Policy' and 'Nature of restriction' at S. No. 60, are substituted
to read as under:
Item Description Policy Nature of restriction
“(a) Plants and plant portions of wild origin, of species Prohibited Not permitted to be exported. Special exemption can be granted for the purpose
specified in any of the Schedules of Wild Life of research, education and life saving drugs on case by case basis by DGFT, on the
(Protection) Act, 1972 or Appendix I of CITES or Export recommendation of Ministry of Environment & Forests.
Licensing Note 1 Subject to production of a Certificate of Legal Possession in favor of the exporter,
issued by the DFO having jurisdiction where the exporter is situated. In case of
(b) Plants and plants portions of cultivation origin of Free species listed in Schedule VI of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, subject to the
species specified in any of the Schedules of Wild Life exporter complying with the provision of S.17A of the Act. In case of species listed
(Protection) Act, 1972 or Appendix I of CITES or Export in Appendix I of CITES subject registration of the nursery and appropriate CITES
Licensing Note 1. documentation from the Asst. Management Authority.

70 Medherb Information
History Cambodia Kolaab
Rose has a long and lively history. Fossil evidence tells that rose English Cabbage Rose, Damask Rose,
is 35 million years old. Today, there are over 30,000 varieties of French Rose De Damas, Rose De Tous Les Mois, Rose
roses and it has the most complicated family tree of any known Hindi Gulab, Sudburg, Bussorah
flower species. Cultivation of rose most likely began in Asia around Indonesia Kembang Eros, Bunga Ros
5000 years ago. Cultivation of rose was introduced in Europe Kannada Gulabihuvu, Panniru, Roja, Gulabi
during late eighteenth century by China. Laos Kuhlaab
From this introduction, experts today tend to divide all roses Malayalam Panniruppu, Penimirpushpam, Rosappu
into two groups. There are old roses (those cultivated in Europe Malaysia Ros, Gul
before 1800) and modern roses (those which began to be Manipuri Atar-Gulab
cultivated in England and France around the turn of the 19th Marathi Gulad, Gulab
century).
Odia Golapa, Tarani
Rose has experienced the most horrible extremes of the
Roman Empire when the farmers were reduced to growing roses Sanskrit Shatapatri, Soumyagandha
instead of food crops in order to satisfy the demands of their Tamil Pannir, Pannirpu, Kulapu
rulers. Telugu Gulabi, Rojapuvu, Gulabipuvvu
More than 10,000 roses are known in cultivation and three Thailand Kulaap Mon, Yee Sun
types of odours are recognized, viz. those of the Cabbage Rose (R. Urdu Gul-E-Surkh, Arq Gulab
centifolia), the Damask Rose (R. damascena) and the Tea Rose.
indica) Plant description
It is a small perennial erect thorny shrub with unequal, large,
Names in different languages hooked spikes and many bristles; grows up to 1.5 meters in height.
Arabic Gulab Leaves are compound imparipinnate, with 5 leaflets, leaflets
Bengali Golap ovate-lanceolate, serrated. Flowers vary in color, usually pink,

Special Features 83
History Names in different languages
The earliest civilizations that can be proved to have used henna Arabic : Alhenna, Henna, Henneh, Hinna, Yoranna
include the Babylonians, Assyrians, Sumerians, Semites, Ugaritics Bengali : Mehedi, Mehndi, Shudi
and Canaanites. Crossing the limitation of boundaries of countries Bombay : Henne, Mendie
and religions “henna” has been used to celebrate and bless Burmise : Dan, Danbin
Canaries : Goranta, Gorante, Goranthu, Korate,
sexuality & fertility of women in over 60 countries among Hindu,
Chinese : Tche Kia Hoa
Muslim, Sepharadic, Jewish, Rom, B'hai, Parsee, Zoasterian, Sikh, Deutsch : Heena
Coptic Christian, and Armenian Christian communities; as a long English : Camphire, Cypress Shrub, Egyptian Privet, Henna
standing valuable social custom. French : Alcana D'orient, Alkanna d'Avicenne
Some scientists believe that the use of henna has originated in Greek : Kypros
ancient India as a cosmetic and medicine, while others suggest its Gujarati : Medi, Mendi, Panwar
use originated in Middle East & North Africa and was brought to Hindi : Hena, Mehndi, Mhindi
India in the 12th century by Egyptian Moguls. But it is Konkani : Meti
apprehended from the illustrations of Bodhisattavas and deities of Malay : Inai
Malayalam: Mayilanji, Pontalasi
cave wall murals that, it was probably used in India seven centuries
Mandarin : Bind, Bindi, Mindi
before the moguls invasion and hundreds of years before Muslim
Marathi : Mendhi, Mendi
religion began in the middle of the 7th century AD. The use of Odia : Mehendi, Mendi, Monjuati, Olota, Rongota
henna as a decoration in India took off with the advent of Muslim Persian : Hina, Panna
rule and become common. Henna is commercially cultivated in Philippines: Cinamomo, Cinamomo Del Pais
India, Pakistan, Iran, Yemen, Morocco and Sudan. Punjabi : Hinna, Mehndi, Nakrize, Panwar

Special Features 87
History Japanese : Obeko
Isabgol the common name in India for Plantago ovata, has Kanada : Isofgolu, Visamagolu, Issabagolu, Isabakolu
come from the Persian words "isap" and "ghol" that mean horse Kashmiri : Is-mogul
ear, which is descriptive of the shape of the seed. It is indigenous to Malayalam : Karkatasringi, Snigddhajirakam, Ispaghal
Mediterranean region and West Asia extending up to Sutlej and Marathi : Isabgola, Isapghol
Sindh in West Pakistan, also distributed from Canary Islands across Nepalese : Isabgol
Southern Spain, North Africa, Middle East and North-Western Nederlands : Bladvlo
Asia. In India the use of isabgol is as old as the Ayurveda System of Oriya : Isabgul
Medicine. It is commercially cultivated in North Gujarat, Western Persian : Ispaghol, Isparzah, Thikam-daridah, Isabghul
Rajasthan, Punjab, Hariyana, and Uttar Pradesh. Punjabi : Lisapghol, Bartang, Abghol
Sanskrit : Ashwagol, Ishadgola, Ashwakarnabeeja,
Names in different languages Sheetabeeja, Ishrawarabola, Snigdhajeeraka
Arabic : Bazre-quatuna, Bazre-katima Sinhalese : Isphgol Vithai
Bengali : Esphopgol, Isabgul, Ishopgul, Ispaghul Tamil : Iskolvirai, Iskol, Isphagol, Ishappukolvirai
Chinese : Ch'-Ch'ientzu Telugu : Isphagula, Isapgaluvittulu, Isapagala
Deutsch : Indische Psylli-samen Urdu : Ispaghul
English : Ispaghula, Psyllium, Blond psyllium, Spogel
seeds, Ripple grass The plant
Gujarati : Isapghol, Isafghol, Ghoda Jeeru, Umtojeeru Plantago ovata is an annual herb that grows to a height of 12 to
Hindi : Isabgol, Isabgul, Issufgul, Ispaghul, Isubgol 18 inches (3046 cm). Leaves are opposite, linear or linear

Special Features 91
History Names in different languages
Senna is an Arabic name. All ancient cultures, including the Arabic : Sanaehindi, Sonna
Aztecs, Asians, and Africans have used infusions of the Cassia Assemese : Sonamukhi
Bengali : Sannamakki, Shonpat, Sonpat
species as a laxative. The first records show the herb being used
Canaries : Nelavare, Nelavarike, Sonamukhi
medicinally by Arabian physicians in the 9th century BC. The herb
Chinese : Fan Hsieh Yeh, Ta Hwai Yeh
was originally brought to medicinal use in Egypt long ago, and from Deutsch : Alexandrinische Senna.
there it entered Greek medicine at the time of Hippocrates. It was English : Alexandrian senna, Indian senna, Senna,
first brought into use by the Egyptian physicians Serapion and Tinnevelly senna, True senna
Mesue. Achiarius was the first Greek to notice it. He French : Casse, Canéficier, Séné d'Alexandrie,
recommended senna pods over the leaf thinking them more Gujarati : Middiawal, Sonamakhi
Hindi : Hindisana, Sanay, Sonai, Sonamukhi
powerful. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have
Kashmiri : Sna
used senna as a laxative for centuries. It was considered a
Kannada : Nelavarika, Sonamukhi,
“cleansing” herb because of its cathartic effect. In addition, the Malayalam : Nilavaka
leaves were sometimes made into a paste and applied to various Marathi : Bhuitarvada, Mulkacha, Shonamukhi
skin diseases. Its name of Ringworm Cassia was given because a Myanmar : Puvekainyoe
leaf extract is used to combat that fungal infection, especially in Norwegian : Sennesplante.
Malaysia. Senna was given the name of Purging Cassia in Europe Oriya : Sunamukhi
Persian : Sanaehindi
during the Middle Ages because it was used at that time in an
Punjabi : Sanapati, Sarnapatta, Sannamakhi
Italian medical school as a purgative.

Special Features 95
Site: Dabur Nepal Nursery, Banepa (Nepal)

Andhra Pradesh 113 Madhya Pradesh 116


Arunachal Pradesh 113 Maharashtra 118
Bihar 113 Meghalaya 119
Chhattisgarh 114 Mizoram 119
Delhi 114 Orissa 120
Gujarat 114 Punjab 121
Haryana 114 Rajasthan 121
Himachal Pradesh 115 Tamil Nadu 122
Jharkhand 115 Uttar Pradesh 123
Karnataka 115 Uttarakhand 124
Kerala 116 West Bengal 124

111
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INDIA AND NEPAL

Andhra Pradesh Rathna Biotec Pvt. Ltd.


Palamner Mandal,
BAS Greengold Farms ........................................................................Amla Chittoor-517 432..........................................................08572-259202
Brindavan Nagar, 2nd Line, S Vijay Prabhakar Rao .........................................................Amla, Annatto
Plot No.32A, 87-136A, 9-6-21, Nr SGR Colony, Rohini Hospital,
Kurnool-518 002 ..........................................................0-9440013889 Santosh Nagar, Hyderabad ...........................................0-9849043689
Dharani Forestry & Orchards Ltd. ......................................................Amla Sagar Valley Herbals Enterprise
D.No.6-20-87, 8/1 Arundelpet, 3-4-5-1085, Narayanguda, Hyderabad-29....................040-23227943
Guntur- 522 002...........................................................0863-2230893 Sai Naturals ...................................................................Bach, Muskadana
Dr. K Govardhan Reddy ............................................Amla, Ashwagandha C/o K. Subbarao, Siva Electronics, Subbaraya Complex,
Shushruta Hospital, Malakpet, Addanki, Distt. Prakasam-523 201 ...............................0-9848079321
Hyderabad-500 036......................................................040-24554401 Shanta Horticultural Farm & Nursery ................................................Amla
Dr. T Ranga Reddy .....................................................Amla, Ashwagandha 4-8-38/C, Manjeeranagar, Sangareddy,
10-5-33/2, Ahmed Nagar, Dist. Medak-502 001....................................................08455-276899
Hyderabad-500 028......................................................040-23327431 Sree Mohan Seeds
Farmwealth Bio-tech (Advt. on page 201) ..............................Aloevera, Amla Old M.G. Brothers Lorry Office, Main Road,
205, Raghava Towers, Yemmiganur, Dist. Kurnool-518 360.............................08512-255407
BHEL Road, Madinaguda, Sreerama Chandra Murthy.....................................Annatto, Lemon Grass
Hyderabad-500 050......................................................040-23046410 27-A, Rd No.4, Sowbhagyapuram, ..............Shri Ramakrishnapuram,
E-mail.........................................................farm2wealth@yahoo.com Hyderabad-500 035......................................................040-24036355
Herbomed Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Sresta Natural Bioproducts Pvt. Ltd.
54-20/9-5A, Thimmarusu Road, Srinagar Colony, Sresta House, Plot No.7, LIC Colony, Sikh Village,
Vijayawada-520 008.....................................................0866-2545959 Secunderabad-500 009 ................................................040-27893028
Jagdish Gupte Sri Sai Traders
Jeevan Jyoti, Ist Fl, 15, Priya Colony, Ph-2, Kakaguda, Plot No.36-28, Defence Colony,
Secunderabad-500 015 ................................................040-27845906 Secunderabad-500 094 ................................................040-25503060
K Seetha Ravamma ...................................................................Palmarosa Trisakthi Farms ..................................................................................Amla
S. Teja Memorial Children Hospital, Main Road, 16, Vikaspuri, S.R. Nagar Post, Hyderabad-38..............040-31157340
Piduguralla, Guntur ......................................................08649-252776 U Kondala Rao ...................................................................Amla, Kalmegh
Krishi Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Growers Society 6-1125, Opp. Mkt Yard, Jaggayyapet,
18-797F, Sai Nagar, 60 Feet Road South, Krishna .........................................................................08645-222792
Opp. Adarshs School, V Vijaya Valli .........................................................................Amla, Pudina
Guntakal-515 801.........................................................08552-223455 C/o V. Rajendra Paul, Forest Officer, Ashok Nagar,
KS Prasad Rao .....................................................................Amla, Gudmar Nandigama, Krishna .....................................................08678-275109
C/o Deepika Rubber Industries, Guntur Road,
Sattenapalli-522 403 ....................................................08641-232406
M Narayan Swamy Nursery..............................................Aloevera, Stevia Arunachal Pradesh
Near III, Choultry, Ashok Sonam.................................................................Citronella, Pippali
Tirupati-517 010...........................................................0877-2243509 Dist. Agriculture & Hort. Devp. Coop Sty. Ltd.,
Medicinal Plants Conservation Centre Mebua, Seppa, Dist. (E) Kameng .................................03787-222978
Kottapeta Oejinnuru, Poduru Mandal, North Easter Tribal Foundation ................................Chiraita, Sarpgandha
Dist.W.G.-534 265.........................................................08813-224020 C/o Dolma House, Tenga Market, PO Tenga Mkt ,
N T Ramalinga Reddy.........................................................Amla, Kalmegh Dist. (W) Kameng .........................................................03782-273355
Vill. & Post Nagradona, Chippagiri Mandal,
Dist. Kurnool.................................................................08523-239942
Nandan Biomatrix Ltd..............................................Jatropha, Safed Musli Bihar
Plot No.46, Road No.13, Banjara Hills, Arun Rai ........................................................................................Tobacco
Hyderabad-500 034......................................................040-23320999 Village & Post Ramchanderpur, Via Sarai Ranjan,
New Life Solutions .......................................................................Aloevera Distt. Samastipur-848 127............................................0-9006040045
18-3-463/1/95, Shivajinagar, Aliyabad, Dr. Jyoti Kumar Bharti......................................................Shatawar, Senna
Hyderabad-500 053......................................................040-24383080 Vill. & P.O. Kadirganj,
Oorvi Agricultural Products India Pvt. Ltd. ........................................Amla Distt. Nawadah-805 104...............................................06324-214512
H.No.2-5-388, Kajoji Street, Fragrance Herbs ...............................................Citronella, Lemmon Grass
Nakkalagutta, Hanamkonda, 302-B, Third Fl, Sukriti Compex, S.P. Verma Road,
Warangal-506 001 ........................................................0870-2570017 Patna-800 001 ..............................................................0612-2238254

Cultivators 113
Andhra Pradesh 135 Kerala 155
Assam 136 Madhya Pradesh 156
Bihar 136 Maharashtra 160
Chhattisgarh 137 Meghalaya 173
Delhi 138 Orissa 173
Gujarat 150 Punjab 174
Haryana 152 Rajasthan 177
Himachal Pradesh 152 Tamil Nadu 179
Jammu & Kashmir 153 Uttar Pradesh 188
Jharkhand 153 Uttarakhand 192
Karnataka 154 West Bengal 195

125
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INDIA AND NEPAL

Andhra Pradesh Hakim & Co. ............................................................................................D


Pathergatti Rd Corner, Mandi Mir Alam,
Alhaj Syed Jahangir Ali Dawasaaz............................................................D Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-55711660
21-2-153, Gulzar Houze, Heritage Bio Natural Systems Pvt. Ltd. .................................................D E
Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-24578070 Plot No.36, H.No.17-20/2, Dharmapuri Colony, Uppal,
Amara Agri Medi......................................................................................E Hyderabad-500 039......................................................040-27151769
T. Kammapalli (V&P), Pullampet (Mandal) Cuddapha, Hindustan Herbs House...........................................................................D
T. Kammapalli-516 107.................................................08565-240640 B-7, Amrutha Arcade, Opp. Venkatramana Theatre,
Amreli Industrial Aromatics.....................................................................D Kachiguda, Hyderabad-500 027 ...................................040-55632805
301, Royal Plaza, K.S. Lane, 4-4-933, Sultan Bazar, Indagri Biotech Pvt. Ltd............................................................................E
Hyderabad-500 095......................................................040-24752323 404, vijaya appartments, D.K. Road, Ameerpet,
Amrutha Herbs........................................................................................D Hyderabad-500016 ......................................................040-23731323
D.No.20/1483, Opp. St. Peters School, Kasturi Medicrops ...................................................................................D
Guntakal-515 801.........................................................0-9396881595 104, 1-2-597-C, Sahita Apts., Near Indira Park, Lower Tank,
Amrytha Herbs.........................................................................................E Bund, Hyderabad-500 029 ...........................................040-27635867
20/1483, Opposite Street, Peters School, Kishanlal Mandanlal...............................................................................D
Guntakul-515 801.........................................................08552-220205 15-7-368, Begum Bazar,
Ananth Herbal Products..........................................................................D Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24743567
1-3-176/8/1, Gandhi Nagar, KL-Agencies .............................................................................................D
Hyderabad....................................................................0-9949588283 G-4, Kundan Towers, Mayur Marg, Begumpet,
Balkishan Harikishan Karwa ....................................................................D Hyderabad-500 016......................................................0-9849596896
15-7-515, Begum Bazar, Lala Dawasaaz Pvt. Ltd. ...........................................................................D
Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24741576 21-2-671, Urdu Lane, Charkaman,
Balmukand Devkaran Sharda ..................................................................D Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-24520858
15-7-320, Devkripa, Begum Bazar, Laxminarayan Sitaram & Co. ...................................................................D
Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24744625 15-5-55, Afzal Ganj,
Balmukund Laduram ...............................................................................D Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24601367
15-7-524, Begum Bazar, Madvik Research Lab. Pvt. Ltd. ...............................................................D
Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24740902 G-2, Rajagruna, 2-2-18/18/3/3, Ahobillmutt Road,
BL Marketing ...........................................................................................D Durgabhai Deshmukh Colony, Hyderabad-500 013......040-27403278
Plot No.54, 1st Floor, IDA, Kattedan, Malladi Agro Systems Pvt. Ltd. (Advt. on page 203) ................................D E I
Hyderabad-500 077......................................................040-24360786 6-3-456/20, F-203, "Esteem House'', Dwarakapuri Colony,
Chatwal Pharmaceuticals ........................................................................D Punjagutta, Hyderabad-500 082 ..................................040-23312138
3-6-291/5, Tirumala Towers, E-mail...........................................................masy@masymalladi.com
Opp. Petrol Pump, Hyderguda, Master Herbs Pvt. Ltd..............................................................................D
Hyderabad-500 029......................................................040-23227812 404 UGB Gardens, Navodaya Colony, Mehdipatnam,
Dalia's Srinivas & Bros. ............................................................................D Hyderabad-500 028......................................................040-23518647
14-7-371/17, Begum Bazar, Opp. Raja Bahadur Bldg., Merix International ............................................................................D E I
Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24606726 2-D, Sai Laxmi Rukmani Estate Apartments, Plot No.1,
Drreddy Exports.......................................................................................E LIC Colony, Sikh Village, Secunderabad-500 009..........040-27842549
18/2, Rtmangalhat, MK Asawa Dawasaz.................................................................................D
Hyderabad-500 006......................................................040-23225914 20-4-1074, Motigalli, Lad Bazar,
Farmwealth Bio-tech (Advt. on page 201) ....................................................D Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-24514133
205, Raghava Towers, BHEL Road, Madinaguda, Munnalal Dawasaz ..................................................................................D
Hyderabad-500 050......................................................040-23046410 15-5-55, Afzal Ganj,
E-mail.........................................................farm2wealth@yahoo.com Hyderabad-500 012......................................................040-24601367
Felcon Herbal Traders..............................................................................D National Trading Co.................................................................................D
EWSH 204, APHB Colony, Moula-Ali, 16-8-238/1, Kaladera, Malakpet,
Hyderabad-500 040......................................................040-31100050 Hyderabad-500 036......................................................040-24571444
Govindlal Asawa Dawasaz .......................................................................D Nav Bharat Trading Co.............................................................................D
20-4-1103, Lad Bazar, 3/4/308/7, Parvarish Bagh, Lingam Pally, Kachiguda, Ist Floor,
Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-55715312 Hyderabad-500 027......................................................040-27565233
Graintec Trading Co. ................................................................................E Navayuga Exports Ltd...............................................................................E
2, Lohia Towers, Nirmala Convent Road, 48-9-17, Dwarakanagar,
Vijayawada-520 010.....................................................0866-2492439 Visakhapatnam-530 016 ..............................................0891-2747335

Dealer Exporter Importer 135


Chapter 7.3

Exporters, Extractors, Manufacturers

Andhra Pradesh 201 Madhya Pradesh 242


Assam 205 Maharashtra 246
Bihar 205 Manipur 266
Chhattisgarh 205 Nagaland 266
Delhi 205 Orissa 266
Goa 215 Pondicherry 266
Gujarat 215 Punjab 266
Haryana 222 Rajasthan 270
Himachal Pradesh 224 Tamil Nadu 273
Jharkhand 226 Uttar Pradesh 279
Karnataka 226 Uttarakhand 288
Kerala 233 West Bengal 290

197
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INDIA AND NEPAL

Adfac Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. ...................................................................M Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-24578802


Plot No.133A, Rd No.15, Jubilee Hills, Chatwal Pharmaceuticals.........................................................................E
Hyderabad-500033 ......................................................040-23541010 3-6-291/5, Tirumala Towers, Opp. Petrol Pump,
Adhuri Natural Products.........................................................................M Hyderguda, Hyderabad-500 029 ..................................040-23227812
3-5-825, Sowmya Agencies, Chemiloids ............................................................................................E E
Maphar Arcade, Hyderguda, 40-15-14, Brindavan Colony, Labbipet,
Hyderabad-500 029......................................................040-55827795 Vijayawada-520 010.....................................................0866-2473468
Agri Gold Organics Pvt. Ltd..................................................................E M Chintaluru Ayurveda Pharmacy..............................................................M
D.NO.40-1-21/21, G.F., 2-2-1107/C/1 & 2, Tilak Nagar,
Catholic Cmpx., M.G. Road, Hyderabad-500 044......................................................040-27550769
Vijayawada-520 010.....................................................0866-5548625 Cureall Remedies ...................................................................................M
Ahmed & Company Unani Pharmacy.....................................................M Saba Clinic, Opp. M.C.H. Park, Keshavgiri,
Gulzar Houz, Chandrayangutta, Hyderabad-500 005 ........................040-24441044
Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-24523580 Dawakhana Faiz Unani Pharmacy ..........................................................M
Allen Homoeo & Herbal Products Ltd. ................................................E M 23-3-228/3, Lane Mir Chowk, Mir Alam Mandi Road,
17-1-383/99/A, I.S. Sadan, 'X' Road, Saidabad, Hyderabad-500 002......................................................040-65400800
Hyderabad-500 059......................................................040-24531331 Deccan Agritech Pvt. Ltd. .......................................................................M
Amreli Industrial Aromatics .....................................................................E Jayalakshmi Nagar, Chebrolu,
301, Royal Plaza, K.S. Lane, 4-4-933, Sultan Bazar, Guntur-522 212............................................................08644-254378
Hyderabad-500 095......................................................040-24752323 Delta Pharmaceuticals ...........................................................................M
Amrita Drugs ..........................................................................................M 102, Sai Jyoti Enclave, D.K. Road, Ameerpet,
9-24, Plot No.33, Gayatri Nagar, Old Karmanghat, Hyderabad-500 016......................................................040-23735709
Hyderabad-500 079......................................................040-24092573 Dharani Forestry & Orchards Ltd............................................................M
Anmol Naturals ......................................................................................M D.No.6-20-87, 8/1 Arundelpet,
16-3-32/B, Kowtha Street, Purnanandampet, Guntur-522 002............................................................0863-2230893
Vijayawada-520 003.....................................................0866-2571559 Dhopeshwar Engineering Pvt. Ltd. .........................................................M
Annapurna Bio-Ved Pvt. Ltd. ..................................................................M A-16, Coop. Indl. Estate, Balanagar Post Office Lane,
16-10-227, Annapurna Nilayam, Old Malakpet, Hyderabad-500 037......................................................040-23771579
Hyderabad-500 036......................................................040-24549755 Dr. Raju Ayurveda...................................................................................M
Arandy Laboratories Ltd. ........................................................................M B/7/19, Sahara State, Hansoorabad,
21, Pancom Chambers, Rajbhavan Road, Hyderabad-500 660......................................................040-24128898
Somajiguda, Hyderabad-500 082 .................................040-23311563 Dr. Rao's Herbal Pharma Pvt. Ltd............................................................M
Ashian Herbex Ltd....................................................................................E 14-7-12, Venugopalarao Street, Hanumanpet,
Flat No.5, Prembagh Apts., 3-4-490/A, Barkatpura, Vijayawada-520 003.....................................................0866-5532116
Hyderabad-500 027......................................................040-27563002 Epic Herbal Products ..............................................................................M
Balaji Ayurveda Pharmacy......................................................................M 10-2-5/8, AC. Guards,
5-5-405, Gandhi Bhawan, M.J. Road, Hyderabad-500 028......................................................040-23391567
Hyderbad-500 001 .......................................................0-9885549900 Excel Extracts & Exim Pvt. Ltd. ..............................................................E E
Base C Forms ...........................................................................................E 76-4-6, Gandhipuram-II,
108, R.T.C. Colony, 3rd Line, Rajahmundry-533 103..................................................0883-2466664
Vijayawada-520 008.....................................................0866-2478255 Farmwealth Bio-tech (Advt. on page 201) ................................................E M
Bee Lines Agri Tech.................................................................................M 205, Raghava Towers, BHEL Road,
F.No.111, Neelagiri Block, Aditya Enclave, Madinaguda, Hyderabad-500 050................................040-23046410
Ameerpet, Hyderabad-500 038....................................040-40036365 E-mail.........................................................farm2wealth@yahoo.com
Biogen Biotechnologies Ltd....................................................................M Fizikem Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. ................................................................M
8-2-681/A-1C, Rd No.12, Banjara Hills, 11-38-24, Rajamahal, Palle Street, PB No.84,
Hyderabad-500 034......................................................040-23315351 Vijayawada-520 001.....................................................0866-2562125
Boodevi Products Ltd. ............................................................................M Four-s Lab...............................................................................................M
843, Banjara Avenue, Rd No.1 , 1-8-726/40, IInd Flr, Achayyanagar,
Hyderabad-500 034......................................................040-23396163 Brindavan Colony, Hyderabad-500 044 ........................040-27666185
Calyx Biotech Ltd. ................................................................................E M Genotex International (I) Pvt. Ltd...........................................................M
5-36/207, Prasanth Nagar, Kukatpally, 4B, SP Biotech Park, Turkapally Village,
Hyderabad-500 072......................................................040-40113141 Hyderabad....................................................................040-40194486
CD Zarda Works Pvt. Ltd.........................................................................M Goodwin Pharma Chem Lab................................................................E M
21-2-366, Lad Bazar, PB No.620, 12-27-202, Seelamvari Street, Kothapet,

202 Exporter Extractor Manufacturer


Andhra Pradesh 295 Madhya Pradesh 297
Assam 295 Maharashtra 298
Bihar 295 Meghalaya 299
Chhattisgarh 295 Mizoram 299
Delhi 295 Orissa 299
Gujarat 296 Punjab 299
Haryana 296 Rajasthan 299
Himachal Pradesh 296 Tamil Nadu 299
Jammu and Kashmir 297 Uttar Pradesh 300
Karnataka 297 Uttarakhand 300
Kerala 297 West Bengal 300

293
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Andhra Pradesh Central Herbal Agro Marketing Federation (CHAMF)


39-A, Rohit Villa, Pachpedi Chowk,
Andhra Pradesh Horticultural University Ring Road No.1,
Senior Scientist (Hort), Herbal Garden, Rajendranagar, Raipur-492 001.............................................................0771-2413195
Hyderabad-500 030......................................................040-24013331 Chhatisgarh State Vanoushadhi Board
Green Universe Environmental Services Sty Old Chhattisgarh College Campus, G.E. Road, Civil Line,
Plot No.704, Rd No.3, Banjara Hills, Raipur-492 001.............................................................0771-2422036
Hyderabad-500 034......................................................040-23358682 Chhattisgarh District Poverty Reduction Project (CGDPRP)
Herbal Garden Acharya NG Ranga Agri University Govt. of Chhattisgarh, Panchayat & Rural Devp. Dept.,
ANGRAU Main Gate, Rajendranagar, S-18, Rajiv Nagar, Raipur-492 001 ................................0771-4014493
Hyderabad-500 038......................................................040-24013331
Integrated Development through Environmental Awakening (IDEA)
Plot No.66, Dasapalla Hills, Delhi
Visakhapatnam-530 003 ..............................................0891-6642586 Agricultural Finance Corp.
Krishi Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Growers Society B-1/9, Community Centre, Janakpuri,
18-797F, Sai Nagar, 60 Feet Road South, Opp. Adarshs School, New Delhi-110 058.......................................................011-45791191
Guntakal-515 801.........................................................08552-223455 Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Devp. Authority (APEDA)
Mehar Baba Society 3rd Flr, NCUI Bldg., 3, Siri Institutional Area,
S. Shiva Shanker, 9/165, Beside CL Bunglow, Gooty, Opp. Asiad Village, August Kranti Marg, Hauz Khas,
Distt. Anantapur-515 402.............................................08552-252723 New Delhi-110016 .......................................................011-26513219
Pharmaceuticals Export Promotion Council (PHARMEXCIL) Amity Centre For Herbal Development
101, Aditya Trade Centre, Ameerpet, E-25, Defence Colony,
Hyderabad-500 038......................................................040-23735462 New Delhi-110 024.......................................................011-41888496
Pragati Green Meadows and Resorts Pvt. Ltd. Association for Promotion of Pure Ayurveda
No.271/A, Road No.10, Jubilee Hills, C-515, Saraswati Vihar, Delhi-110 034 .........................011-27014599
Hyderabad-500 033......................................................040-23553183 Basic Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals &
Sugen Life Sciences Cosmetics Export Promotion Council (CHEMEXCIL)
Division of Pre Clinical Biology, 4/86, S.V. Nagar, 432, Fourth Floor, Somdutt Chamber-II, Bhikaji Cama Place,
Perumalla Palli, Tirupati-517 505 .................................0877-2276118 New Delhi-110 066.......................................................011-26160937
Swami Ramanada Tirtha Institute Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha
1-10-342, Swami Ramananda Tirtha Marg, 61-65, Institutional Area, Opp. D Block, Janakpuri,
Brahmanwadi, Begumpet, New Delhi-110 058.......................................................011-28525852
Hyderabad-500 016......................................................040-27760950 Central Council For Research in Homoeopathy
61-65, Institutional Area, D-Block, Janakpuri,
New Delhi-110 058.......................................................011-28521162
Assam
Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine
All Assam Agar Traders & Agaroil Manufacturers' Associaton 61-65, Institutional Area, Opp. D Block, Janakpuri,
House No.2, Shankar Madhav Path, New Delhi-110 058.......................................................011-25611981
Japorigog, Near Namghar, Chhattisgarh Herbal Agro Mktg Federation
Guwahati-781 005........................................................0-9435350795 133-D, Pkt.-6, MIG Flats, Mayur Vihar, Ph-III,
Institute of Environmental Management & Social Development Delhi-110 096...............................................................011-22625233
"Ratnapeeth", M.G. Rd, Uzan Bazar, Essential Oil Association of India
Guwahati-781 001........................................................0361-2607141 301, 4832/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj,
New Delhi-110 002.......................................................011-23250322
Bihar Ford Foundation
55 Lodi Estate,
Ashanurup Lok Seva Sansthan New Delhi-110 003.......................................................011-24619441
51, Grand Shere, Exhibition Road, German Technical Collabaration (GTZ)
Patna-800 001 ..............................................................0-9431012151 B-5/1, Safdarjung Enclave,
New Delhi-110 029.......................................................011-26715952
Herbs & Kirana Association Regd.
Chhattisgarh
6689-90, Khari Baoli, Delhi-110 006.............................011-23925901
Amarkantak Agro Forestry Development IDRC-CRDI
Shivaji Chowk, Brahaspati Bazar, Tilak Nagar, 208, Jor Bagh,
Bilaspur ........................................................................07752-221032 New Delhi-110 003.......................................................011-24619411

Organisation 295
301
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INDIA AND NEPAL

Acacia catechu Willd.

English: Catechu
Indian: Khair
2
Nepali: Khayer

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr.

English: Neem Tree


Indian: Neem
Nepali: Neem

Neem bark has cool, bitter and astringent properties. It is traditionally used
to treat tiredness, worms, fever and loss of appetite. Because of its
antiseptic and astringent properties, it is especially helpful in healing
wounds. The bark extracts have been used to manufacture different
products, ranging from oral care to skin care, from traditional medicines to
allopathic drugs. 1
English: Bael
Indian: Bael
Nepali: Bael 3

Cassia auriculata Linn. Cinchona officinalis Linn. Cinnamomum cassia Blume

English: Avaram English: Quinine English: Cinnamom


Indian: Tarwar Indian: Cinkona Indian: Dalchini
Nepali: *** 4 Nepali: *** 5 Nepali: Daalchini 6

302 Crude Medicinal Plants


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INDIA AND NEPAL

Arnica montana Linn.

English: Arnica
Indian: Arnica
2
Nepali: ***

Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze

English: Shoe-flower
Indian: Gudhal
Nepali: Japaa Puspi

Gudhal petals have been used in Ayurvedic medicine to stimulate thicker


hair growth and to prevent premature graying, hair loss and scalp
disorders. The petals act as a natural, emollient hair conditioner. Hibiscus
petal powder is used in Ayurvedic hair washes, oil infusion treatments and
vinegar rinses for the hair.
1
English: Bastard Teak
Indian: Tesu
Nepali: Madaane 3

Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. Carthamus tinctorius Linn. Chamomilla recutita (L.)

English: Milk Weed English: Safflower English: Chamomile


Indian: Aak Indian: Kusum Indian: Chamomile
Nepali: Aank 4 Nepali: Kusum 5 Nepali: Chamomile 6

304 Crude Medicinal Plants


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INDIA AND NEPAL

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr.

English: Bael Fruit


Indian: Bael
2
Nepali: Bael

Amomum subulatum Roxb.

English: Chebulic Myrobalan


Indian: Harad
Nepali: Harro

Harad fruit is used for hyperlipidemia and digestive disorders, including


diarrhea, indigestion, constipation and respiratory conditions, including
respiratory tract infections, cough, and sore throat. It is also used orally for
dysentery. It is useful in asthma, vomiting, eye diseases, heart diseases,
hiccup, etc. The Harad fruit is one of the three constituents of the famous
Indian preparation Triphala. 1
English: Greater Cardamom
Indian: Badi Elaychi
Nepali: Alaichi 3

Cassia fistula Linn. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Momordica charantia Linn.

English: Indian Laburnum English: Emblic Myrobalan English: Bitter Gourd


Indian: Amaltas Indian: Amla Indian: Karela
Nepali: Amaltaash 4 Nepali: Amlaa 5 Nepali: Karela 6

306 Crude Medicinal Plants


331
332
Darchula

Mahakali
Dadeldhura Karnali
Mahendarnagar
Seti
Kanchanpur
Dhangadhi

Birendranagar
Bheri
Dhawalagiri
Rapti
Nepalganj
Gandaki
Dang

The external boundary of Nepal as shown in this map is neither authentic nor correct, Not to scale.
Gorkha
Lumbini Butwal Bagmati
Krishnanagar
Kathamndu
Narayani Jiri

MakwanpurSagarmatha
Mechi
Birganj
Janakpur
Bhojpur
Kosi
Dharan Ilam
Birtamode
Jhapa
Biratnagar

334
Taxus baccata Linn.

Country Profile and become a federal democratic republic. The transition to a


Situated in the lap of the Himalayas, Nepal, now officially the republic was completed in May 2008, when the Constituent
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in Assembly voted to dissolve the monarchy.
South Asia and the world's youngest republic. It is bordered to the Nepal is divided into 14 zones under 5 development regions for
north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field
and west by India. With an area of 147,181 square kilometers agencies of the various government ministries. The 5 regions and
(56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 30 million, Nepal 14 zones are:
is the world's 93rd largest country by land mass. Kathmandu is the Purwanchal Madhyamanchal
nation's capital and the country's largest metropolitan city. Nepal (Eastern Region) (Central Region)
is a country of highly diverse and rich geography, culture, and Kosi Bagmati
religions. The mountainous north contains eight of the world's ten Mechi Janakpur
highest mountains, including the highest, The Mount Everest. Sagarmatha Narayani
Nepal is linked historically with the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. Pashchimanchal Madhya Pashchimanchal
(Western Region) (Mid-Western Region)
Government Dhawalagiri Bheri
In Nov. 1990, King Birendra promulgated a new constitution Gandaki Karnali
and introduced a multiparty parliamentary democracy in Nepal. Lumbini Rapti
Under pressure amid massive pro-democracy protests in April Sudur Pashchimanchal
2006, King Gyanendra gave up direct rule and reinstated (Far-Western Region)
Parliament, which then quickly moved to diminish the King's Mahakali
power. In Dec. 2007, Parliament voted to abolish the monarchy Seti

Herbal Drugs - The Green Gold of Nepal 335


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INDIA AND NEPAL

Medicinal Plants critically endangered, endangered, insufficiently known, nearly


Nepal, right in the centre of the Himalayan region, has special threatened, vulnerable, rare, threatened and data deficient. The
significance entangled with different systems of medicine and maximum richness or concentration of these threatened
medicinal plants. Medicinal plants are used in traditional rural medicinal plants peaked at 3500 m a.s.l.
remedies, Ayurvedic medicines, Homoeopathic medicines, and Nepal harbours a wide range of climatic conditions. However,
many of them are also included in allopathic pharmacopoeia. With the climatic conditions can be broadly divided into two types: dry
a wide range of topographic features and climatic conditions in winter period and wet summer period. The climatic condition of
Nepal, one can find large environmental variations (from the Nepal is dominated by the precipitation from the Bay of Bengal
humid lowland forests to glaciated mountain tops). This variation summer monsoon. The amount and distribution of this
has resulted in isolated localities that host a large number of plant precipitation, the duration and altitudes of cloudiness vary
species. considerably in different parts. The amount of rainfall gradually
The traditional health care system based on Himalayan native decreases from east to west, but increases from the plains to
plants has a long history. Pieces of literature written in the Nepali, certain elevations between 800 to 2000 m a.s.l. to the north and
Newari, and Sanskrit languages contain records of Nepali then decreases.
medicinal plants. The original "Saushrut Nighantu," written on Medicinal plants are an important component of the
palm leaves in Newari script and Sanskrit verses during Mandeva vegetation of Nepal, and the distribution pattern of medicinal
Era 301 (879 AD), is said to be the oldest of these books. At higher plants has been found to be approximately 49.2% in the tropical
altitudes, the people are entirely dependent on traditional zone (up to 1,000 meters), 53.96% in the sub-tropical zone (1,000 -
medicine, based largely on plants, provided by local healers 2,000 m), 35.7% in the temperate zone (2,000 - 3,000 m), 18.9% in
known here as Lama, Amchi, Jhakri or Baidya. These healers the sub-alpine zone (3,000 - 4,000 m), and 7.14% in the alpine zone
prepare herbal formulations from medicinal plants collected in (4,000 m upwards). Though Nepal is a small country still almost all
and around the park. Apart from this domestic use, medicinal types of vegetations are available which may be squeezed into five
plants are also collected for sale. divisions and medicinal plants were found growing between the
Due to its geographic and climatic diversity, the relatively small elevations of 100 m to 6,000 m a.s.l.
country of Nepal—occupying just 0.1% of the world's total land Tropical zone (Below 1000 m): The lowermost region of the
mass—is surprisingly rich in biological diversity. Nepal boasts country which runs parallel with the southern border is known
10,167 plant species, 5,891 of which are flowering. The medicinal as Tarai, Bhabar, Dun valley and Shiwalik .The region is hot for
and aromatic plants database for Nepal includes 1,624 species of most of the seasons with maximum temperature of 45 degree
wild, domesticated, and naturalized plant species. Of these, 1,533 C and the minimum of 0 degree C and the annual average
are flowering plants and 92 are non-flowering. The plants are rainfall of 700-1000 mm. This is the zone of Sal as it forms the
found in whole of the country, including the Terai zone at the foot dominant component of the forest. Other components of the
of the Himalaya. The flora of Nepal contains about 7000 species of forest are Adina cordifolia, Dillenia pentagyna, Terminalia
flowering plants, of which 246-310 are national endemics bellirica, Anogeissus latifolia, Mallotus philippensis, Toona
(according to various estimates).The great majority of these ciliata, xylosoma longifolium etc.
endemics are high altitude plants, very few being known from the Some of the essential oil yielding plants of this area are:
Terai. The district with the highest number of endemic species is Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon nardus (lemon grass),
Mustang (78 species) followed by Dolpa (74 species) and Rasuwa Cymbopogon martini (palmarosa).
(60 species). Estimates for the number of medicinal plant species Some of the poisonous plants of the area include Calotropis
in Nepal range from 593 to 1624 (figures that include about 60 gigantea, Datura metel, Jatropha curcas and Nicotiana
imported species) .The greatest number of species is found in tabacum.
central Nepal and, in particular, in the sub-tropical zone (including Other important medicinal plants of the area are: Rauvolfia
the Terai).There are diminishing numbers towards the east and serpentina, Papaver somnifera, Azadirachta indica, Argyreia
west, and with increasing altitude. speciosa, Acacia concinna, Antidesma bunius, Acorus calamus,
The uppermost elevation for the growth of trees, shrubs, Butea monosperma, Catharanths roseus, Clitoria ternatea,
herbaceous forms and climbers were 4500 m, 5000 m, 6000 m and Commelina benghalensis, Eulophia campestris, Solanum
3300 m a.s.l, respectively. The optimum richness of different life surattense, Semecarpus anacardium, Hemidesmus indicus,
forms was also different. The maximum richness of total medicinal Vetiveria zizanioides, Tinospora cordifolia, Operculina
plants was observed at an elevation of 1100 m a.s.l. Similarly the turpethum, Mucuna nigricans, Curcuma angustifolia etc.
maximum richness of trees, shrubs, herbaceous forms and Sub-tropical zone (1000-2000 /2100m): It is the zone running
climbers were found at elevations of 1000 m, 1000 m, 1300 m and parallel with the Shiwalik range on the southern side. The
900 m a.s.l, respectively. Because of overexploitation, sixty species average rainfall of the area is 1000-2500 mm with hot summer
have been assigned to various conservation risk categories: (average temperature 27 degree C) and moderately cold

336 Herbal Drugs - The Green Gold of Nepal


Revised Treaty of Trade between Article I
The Government of India and The Government of Nepal The Contracting Parties shall explore and undertake all
measures, including technical cooperation, to promote, facilitate,
The Government of India and the Government of Nepal expand and diversify trade between their two countries.
(hereinafter referred to as the Contracting Parties), Being Article II
conscious of the need to fortify the traditional connection The Contracting Parties shall endeavour to grant maximum
between the markets of the two countries, Being animated by the
facilities and to undertake all necessary measures for the free and
desire to strengthen economic cooperation between them,
unhampered flow of goods, needed by one country from the
Impelled by the urge to develop their economies for their several
other, to and from their respective territories.
and mutual benefit, and Convinced of the benefits of mutual
sharing of scientific and technical knowledge and experience to Article III
promote mutual trade, Have resolved to conclude a Treaty of Both the Contracting Parties shall accord unconditionally to
Trade in order to expand trade between their respective territories each other treatment no less favourable than that accorded to any
and encourage collaboration in economic development, and Have third country with respect to (a) customs duties and charges of any
for this purpose appointed as their Plenipotentiaries the following kind imposed on or in connection with importation & exportation,
persons, namely, (b) import regulations including quantitative restrictions.
Article IV
For the Government of India For the Government of Nepal The Contracting Parties agree, on a reciprocal basis, to exempt
(Anand Sharma) (Rajendra Mahto)
Commerce & Industry Minister Minister of Commerce & Supplies from basic customs duty as well as from quantitative restrictions
Who, having exchanged their full powers and found them good the import of such primary products as may be mutually agreed
and in due form, have agreed as follows: upon, from each other.

Indo-Nepal Treaty of Trade - 2009 339


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INDIA AND NEPAL

Article V conventions intended to prevent infringement of industrial,


Notwithstanding the provisions of Article III and subject to literary or artistic property or relating to false marks, false
such exceptions as may be made after consultation with the indications of origin or other methods of unfair competition.
Government of Nepal, the Government of India agree to promote Article XI
the industrial development of Nepal through the grant on the In order to facilitate effective and harmonious implementation
basis of non-reciprocity of specially favorable treatment to of this Treaty, the Contracting Parties shall consult each other
imports into India of industrial products manufactured in Nepal in regularly.
respect of customs duty and quantitative restrictions normally Article XII
applicable to them. (a) This Treaty shall come into force on the date of its signature. It
Article VI shall supercede the Treaty of Trade concluded between the
With a view to facilitating greater interchange of goods Government of India and the Government of Nepal on 6th
between the two countries, the Government of Nepal shall December 1991, as amended or modified from time to time.
endeavour to exempt, wholly or partially, imports from India from (b) This Treaty shall remain in force for a period of seven years and
customs duty and quantitative restrictions to the maximum extent shall be automatically extended for further periods of seven
compatible with their development needs and protection of their years at a time, unless either of the parties gives to the other a
industries. written notice, three months in advance, of its intention to
Article VII terminate the Treaty.
Payment for transactions between the two countries will (c) This Treaty may be amended or modified by mutual consent of
continue to be made in accordance with their respective foreign the Contracting Parties.
exchange laws, rules and regulations. The Contracting Parties (d) The Protocol annexed to this Treaty shall constitute its integral
agree to consult each other in the event of either of them part.
experiencing difficulties in their mutual transactions with a view to
Done in duplicate in Hindi, Nepali and English languages, all the
resolving such difficulties.
texts being equally authentic, at Kathmandu on 27th October,
Article VIII
2009. In case of doubt, the English text will prevail.
The Contracting Parties agree to co-operate effectively with
each other to prevent infringement and circumvention of the laws,
(Anand Sharma) (Rajendra Mahto)
rules and regulations of either country in regard to matters
Commerce & Industry Minister Minister of Commerce & Supplies
relating to foreign exchange and foreign trade.
For the Government of India For the Government of Nepal
Article IX
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, either Contracting
Protocol to The Treaty of Trade
Party may maintain or introduce such restrictions as are necessary
I. With Reference to Article I
for the purpose of:
1. It is understood that the trade between the two
(a) Protecting public morals,
Contracting Parties shall be conducted through the
(b) Protecting human, animal and plant life,
(c) Safeguarding national treasures, mutually agreed routes as are mentioned in the Annexure
(d) Safeguarding the implementation of laws relating to the A. Such mutually agreed routes would be subject to joint
import and export of gold and silver bullion, and review as and when required.
(e) Safeguarding such other interests as may be mutually agreed 2. It is further understood that the exports to and imports
upon. from each other of goods which are not subject to
Article X prohibitions or duties on exportation or importation shall
Nothing in this treaty shall prevent either Contracting Party continue to move through the traditional routes on the
from taking any measures which may be necessary for the common border.
protection of its essential security interests or in pursuance of 3. The Government of India, on request from the
general international conventions, whether already in existence Government of Nepal, will make best endeavour to assist
or concluded hereafter, to which it is a party relating to transit, Nepal to increase its capacity to trade through
export or import of particular kinds of articles such as narcotics improvement in technical standards, quarantine and
and psychotropic substances or in pursuance of general testing facilities and related human resource capacities.

340 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Trade - 2009


1. Most Tradable Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Nepal
Botanical Name English Name Indian Name Nepali Name
Abrus precatorius Linn. Jequirity Ratti Laal Gedi
Acacia catechu Willd. Catechu Khair Khayer
Acacia concinna DC. Soap Pod Shikakai Sikakai
Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile Gum Arabic Babul Babool
Achyranthes aspera Linn. Prickly Chaff Flower Latjira Ultekurro
Aconitum ferox Wall. Aconite Atis Bikhmaa
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall ex Royle Indian Aconite Atis Kadvi Atees
Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl.) Stapf. Nepali Aconite Nepali Atis Bikjara
Acorus calamus Linn. Sweet Flag Bach Bojho
Adhatoda vasica Nees Vasaka Adusa Asuro
Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. Maiden Hair Fern Hansraj Unyu
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. Bael Fruit Bael Bael
Aesculus hippocastanum Linn. Horse Chestnut Pangar Paangro
Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. Lebeck Tree Siris kaalo Sirees
Aloe barbadensis Mill. Aloe Gawar Patha Ghiu Kumari
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. Dita-bark Tree Saptaparna Chal Chhatiwan
Amomum subulatum Roxb. Greater Cardamom Badi Elaychi Alaichi
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Pyrethrum Akarkara Akarkala
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees Andrographis Kalmegh Titkaa
Areca catechu Linn. Betel Nut Supari Supaari
Argemone mexicana Linn. Prickly Poppy Satyanasi Beej Thaakal
contd... on page 348

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Botanical Name English Name Indian Name Nepali Name


Aristolochia indica Linn. The Indian Birthwort Ishvari Ishworee
Artemisia dubia Wall. Mugwort Artemisia Tite Patti
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asparagus Shatawar Kurilo
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem Tree Neem Neem
Berberis aristata DC. Berberry Daruhaldi Chutro
Bergenia ciliata Sternb. Bergenia Pakhanved Paakhanved
Betula utilis D. Don Himalayan Birch Bhoj Patra Bhuj Paat
Boerhaavia diffusa Juss. var. hirsuta Spreading Hogweed Punarnava Punarnavaa
Brachycorythis obcordata Lindl. *** Salamisri Gaamdol
Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Cuddapah Almonds Chironji Chiraunjee
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze Bastard Teak Tesu Madaane
Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. Milk Weed Aak Aank
Cannabis sativa Linn. Hemp Bhaang Bhaang
Carthamus tinctorius Linn. Safflower Kusum Kusum
Carum carvi Linn. Caraway Kala Jeera Jangalee Jiraa
Cassia fistula Linn. Indian Laburnum Amaltas Amaltaash
Cassia tora Linn. Ringworm Plant Pawad Chakramandee
Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud Himalayan Cedar Devdaru Devdar
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Indian Pennywort Mandukparni Ghodtaapre
Chamomilla recutita Linn. Chamomile Chamomile Chamomile
Cinnamomum tamala (Ham.) Nees & Eberm. Cinnamon Leaves Tejpaat Tej Patta
Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. Cinnamon Bark Taj Taj
Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. Indian Coleus Coleus Paasaanved
Commiphora mukul Hook ex Stocks Indian Myrrh Guggal Gokuldhup
Crocus sativus Linn. Saffron Kesar Keshar
Croton tiglium Linn. Purgative Croton Jamalgota Lapche Bis
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. Curculigo Kalimusli Kaalo musalee
Curcuma longa Linn. Turmeric Haldi Hardi
Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. Zedoary Kachur Kachur
Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Watson Palmarosa Palmarosa Paamaarosa
Cyperus scariosus R. Br. *** Nagarmotha Naagarmothe
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don.) Soo Salep Orchid Salam Punja Paanch Aunle
Datura metel Linn. Thorn Apple Dhatura Dhaturo
Delphinium denudatum Wallich. Larkspur Jadwar Nirbisi
Didymocarpus albicalyx C. B. Clarke *** Kumkum Kumkum
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Elephants' Foot Hathi Paon Bhyaakur
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum. Utrasum-bead Tree Rudraksh Rudraakshya
Embelia ribes Burm f. Embelia Vai-Vidang Bayubidang
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Emblic Myrobalan Amla Amlaa
Ephemerantha macraei (Lindl.) *** Jeevanti Jiwanti
Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Dwarf morning-glory Vishnukranti Shankha puspi
Ficus benghalensis Linn. Banyan Tree Bargad Bar
Ficus religiosa Linn. Sacred Fig Pipal Pipal
Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don Fritillary Kakoli Kaakolee
Gaultheria frangrans D. Don Wintergreen Jirhap Dhasingre
Gentiana kurroo Royle. Himalayan Gentian Kutki Karu
Geranium nepalense Sweet Nepali Geranium Geranium Chunetroghaans
Gloriosa superba Linn. Glory Lily Kalihari Kewaree
Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Liquorice Mulathi Jethimadhu
Gmelina arborea Roxb. Candahar Tree Gambhari Khamaaree
Gossypium arboreum Linn. Cotton Plant Kapas Kapaas
contd... on page 349

348 Commercially Important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Nepal


Information 1 III. Banned for felling, transportation and export
S.N. Scientific Name Nepali Name
Regulatory (Export Negative List and CITES) 1. Acacia catechu Khayar
2. Bombax ceiba Simal
Protected Plants of Nepal 3. Dalbergia latifolia Satisaal
4. Juglans regia Okhar
S.N. Scientific Name Nepali Name 5. Michelia champaca Chaamp
I. Banned for collection, transportation and trade 6. Pterocarpus marsupium Bijayasaal
1. Dactylorhiza hatagirea Paanchaunle 7. Shorea robusta Saal
2. Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia Kutki*
3. Root bark of Juglans regia Okhar Ko Bokraa Nepal’s Flora under CITES Appendices (Appendix)
1. Ceropegia pubescens Mirke Lahara II
II. Banned for export outside the country without processing 2. Cyathea spinulosa (Tree fern) Rukh Unyu II
(Not applicable for cultivated products) 3. Cycas pectinata (Cycas) Jokar, Jaggar, Kalbal II
1. Abies spectabilis Taalispatra 4. Dioscorea deltoidea Bhyaakur II
2. Cinnamomum glaucescens Sugandhakokila 5. Gnetum montanum Bhote Lahara III
3. Lichens Jhyaau 6. Meconopsis regia Kyashar III
4. Nardostachys grandiflora Jataamansi 7. Orchidaceae (Orchids) Sunaakhari II
5. Rauvolfia serpentina Sarpgandhha 8. Podocarpus neriifolius Gunsi III
6. Taxus baccata Lauth salla 9. Podophyllum hexandrum Laghupatra II
7. Valeriana jatamansii Sugandhawaal 10. Rauvolfia serpentine Sarpagandhaa II
11. Talauma hodgsonii Bhalu Kaath III
* Recently the ban has been lifted for products legally harvested from 12. Taxus baccata Lauth sallaa II
sustainably managed forests. 13. Tetracentron sinense Jharikote III

Medherb Information on Nepal 353


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Website on MAPs by Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal 4. Up-to-date manufacturing license issued by drug control
authority
It has been estimated that the Himalayan region harbors about 5. List of products and dosage forms intended to be registered
8000 species of medicinal and aromatic plants, supporting the 6. Letter of warranty (in format provided by Department of
livelihood of about 600 million people living in the area. The Drug Administration, Nepal)
medicinal plants of the Himalayas are a major source of income for 7. Latest GMP internal audit report
communities in the region; they provide basic healthcare for 8. Photocopy of wholesale registration of Nepalese importer
millions of citizens and possess immense cultural value. Up to 50% 9. A complete set of documents for at least one product
of rural household income of Nepal is derived from collection and needed for product registration, as mentioned below.
trade of medicinal plants. This resource base in terms of the plants If the submitted documents are satisfactory, the company will
themselves and the knowledge of their use is being eroded at an be listed for the audit of manufacturing site. The company will
alarming rate. Ensuring a sustainable future for this resource is a
have to pay USD 1500.00 (for the SAARC country) or USD
national imperative.
2500.00 (for countries other than SAARC) as inspection fee.
Information on Medicinal and aromatic plants are scattered
The company will be audited after the decision of the
and not easily available in public domain. Networking among the
Government of Nepal. If audit team is satisfied with GMP
different stakeholders (institutions, experts, researchers, traders,
farmers, and policy makers) is seriously lacking. In this context, it implementation status, the company will be registered on the
has been realized to develop a consortium or forum for the payment of NRs 50000.00 (for the SAARC country) or NRs.
national networking of medicinal and aromatic plants in Nepal. To 80000.00 (for countries other than SAARC). If the team is not
fulfill this need MAPs-Net Nepal has been planned and developed. satisfied about GMP implementation status, registration will
MAPs-Net is a comprehensive database on medicinal plants of not be granted and no process for re-audit will be initiated for
Nepal built up at ESON with the support from MAPPA/ICIMOD. at least two years.
The database is targeted for incorporating all available After the company registration, this department can process
information on the medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) of for the product registration. The registration fee for the
Nepal. The main purpose is to compile information on different product registration is Rs. 2400 and Rs. 300 for import
issues of MAPs in the database in its own website and make the recommendation letter.
data accessible to all interested stakeholders.
In the first phase about 40 potential medicinal and aromatic 2. Registration of Product
plants has been selected for database. The following documents should be submitted through the
Nepalese importer for the product registration.
Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal (ESON) and International Centre 1. Schedule 4 'x' Application form for product registration as
per Registration Regulation of Drug Act 1978. (Available at
the department and to be filled by Nepalese importer) [see
Information 4 Annexure-1 on next page for the specimen copy of same]
2. Schedule 6 Application form for product recommendation
Procedure of Drug Registration letter as per Registration Regulation of Drug Act 1978.
(Ayurvedic, Unani and Homoeopathic Products) (Available at the department and to be filled by Nepalese
importer) [see Annexure-2 on next page for the specimen copy of
1. Registration of Manufacturer: same]
Application for registration will be accepted only from the 3. Attested copy of Valid Certificate of Pharmaceutical
manufacturers that are WHO-GMP certified. Products (CPP) as recommended by WHO (Attested by Drug
The following documents should be submitted through the Regulatory Authority or Notary Public).
4. Detail formulation including excipients, color, flavor etc.
authorized Nepalese importer for the company
5. Product specification
(manufacturer) registration.
6. Methods of analysis
1. An application by the company for the company registration
7. Samples of the product (2-unit pack), labels and carton.
2. Letter of authority to the importer issued by the responsible
8. Analytical report from own and reputed lab.
person of the company
The above documents are to be indexed and submitted in an
3. Site Master File (as per PICS guidelines or guidelines index file. The Product Registration Document for each
provided by Department of Drug Administration, Nepal) product should be submitted in separate individual file.

358 Medherb information on Nepal


Vernacular Names from the base of the rhizome. The peduncle is short and the buds
Bengali : Boro alach, Buro elachi, Morung elachi encased in tight red bracts. Flowers appear from spring through
Chinese : Xiang dou kou mid summer. Individual flowers stay open for three days and more
Danish : Sort kardemomme and new ones open successively. An inflorescence stays in flower
Dutch : Zwarte kardemom for over a month.
English : Black cardamom, Greater cardamon, Nepal
cardamon, Indian cardamom Habitat
Finnish : Mustakardemumma This species is native to the Eastern Himalayas and inhabits
French : Cardamome noir, Cardamome du Népal cool forest areas near mountain streams and damp forest floors. It
German : Nepal-Cardamom, Schwarzer Cardamom grows fast and vigorously during the summer monsoon months.
Hindi : Bari elaichi
Italian : Cardamomo nero Distribution
Nepali : Alaichi (A-lai-chee) The largest producer of the black cardamom is Nepal followed
Sanskrit : Harenuka, Upakunchika by India and Bhutan.
Spanish : Cardamomo negro
Main constituents
Plant The seeds contain 3% of an essential oil, which is dominated by
This is a clustering ginger with stems growing up to 5ft tall. 1- 8-cineol (more that 70%). Smaller and variable amounts of
Leaves are found on the upper portion of the stem. This is an limonene, terpinene, terpineol, terpinyl acetate and sabinene
evergreen plant with the old stems dying down after a few years. have also been reported.
The rhizomes are a dull red in color. Flower buds appear in spring

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Uses than 70,000 families directly and indirectly. The growth in area,
production and productivity achieved in the recent years are
attractive at 29%, 100% and 59% respectively. There is more land
with suitable agro-climatic conditions available for further area
expansion. Since area is already expanding and it is likely to
appreciate further because of the present attractive price
situation and additional development support expected from the
Nepal government, production will reach 10,000 MT by 2012-13
registering 50% increase in the next five years.
The national average price of large cardamom was at the peak
Medicinal: The seeds are acrid, bitter, aromatic, thermogenic, at NRs 300per kg in 2000. Price gradually declined and touched the
deodorant, appetizer, carminative, digestive, stomachic, bottom level of NRs 144.01 per kg in 2005. This price nose dive
constipative, depurative, cardiac and liver tonic, expectorant, upset the farmers but they went on increasing area and
diuretic, febrifuge. Useful in anorexia, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, productivity of the crop as they had no other avenues to increase
hyperacidity, vomiting, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin diseases, their cash income. The increase in price is not due to hike demand
pruritus, wounds, ulcers, headache, toothache, neuralgia, cardiac alone but due to insufficient availability of large cardamom in the
debility, liver congestion, spleen enlargement, cough, bronchitis, international market. Production declined in Bhutan after the
fever, urinary problems and gonorrhea. right to cultivate crops in forest lands was taken away from farmers
Specifically they are useful in diseases of mouth, vomiting, in 1992. Disease incidence is also rampant in Bhutan. Bhutanese
flatulence, anorexia, piles, fever, cough, respiratory problems, farmers will only be prepared to revive large cardamom
weakness and headache. plantations if prices are rolled back to 2000 levels.
Eladi churna and Eladi gutika are two important formulations
containing Amomum subulatum Propagation
In Manipur, the seed is used in the treatment of cough, Large cardamom is propagated through seeds and suckers.
vomiting, enlarged spleen and diseases of rectum. Seedlings are preferable as the two devastating virus diseases
Culinary: The pods of A. subulatum are used primarily in the namely, Chirkey and Furkey are not transmitted through seeds.
cuisines of India. Black cardamom pods can be used in soup Suckers can be used for planting if collected from disease free
powders, casseroles, and marinades for smoky flavor, much in the mother plants and multiplied in a healthy nursery. While seedlings
way bacon is used. take 5-6 years to come to full bearing, suckers produce normal
In India and Pakistan, black cardamom seeds are often an yield in 3-4 years. Hence most of the farmers in Nepal prefer to use
important component of the Indo-Pak spice mixture garam suckers.
masala. Black cardamom is also commonly used in savory dal and There are a number of varieties of large cardamom cultivated
rice dishes .This is used in making traditional tea’ in Nepal and they are Ramsey, Golsey, Chibesey, Dambersey,
The pods are also often used in Vietnam, where they are called Sawney and Kantidaar. Among these, Ramsey, Golsey and
thao qua and used as an ingredient in the broth for the noodle Chibesey are wide spread in cultivation. For nursery rising, seeds
soup called pho. from fully ripe capsules are collected from high yielding and well
maintained plantations free from viral diseases. After de-husking,
Cultivation seeds are washed thoroughly in water to remove the mucilage
Amomum subulatum is an important economic crop in the completely. Then water is completely drained and seeds are mixed
Eastern Himalayas and especially in the District of Darjeeling and with wood ash, dried in shade and sown in primary nursery. When
state of Sikkim where it is cultivated in large areas. Large attain 3 to 4 leaf stage they are transferred to the secondary
cardamom is one of the old spices indigenous to the Eastern nursery. After growing for about 10 to 12 months, they are ready
Himalayas. The State of Sikkim (India) located between Nepal and for planting in the main field.
Bhutan is its original home. Large cardamom was introduced into
Ilam (Nepal) in 1865. However, its commercial cultivation started Harvesting
in Ilam much later in 1953. The establishment of Cardamom The right time for harvesting is when the top most capsules are
Development Centre at Fikkal in this district in 1975 paved the way fully mature and seeds turn black. At this stage spikes are
for the development of this crop. Today large cardamom is grown harvested by cutting with the help of a special knife. Harvested
only in three countries namely, India, Nepal and Bhutan. spikes are kept heaped overnight to allow other capsules to ripe
Large cardamom is an important cash crop of the Eastern and they are separated on the next day. The seed capsules are
Region of Nepal. With an annual production of 6647 MT from an harvested in autumn and dried and these aromatic dried capsules
area of 11498 hectares, the crop supports the livelihood of more are sold in markets.

364 Alaichi - An important cash crop


Vernacular Name Thitarodes caterpillar larva feeds underground on the roots of
Bhutanese Name : Bub trees and shrubs, mainly Rhododendron, Anemone sp, Anaphalis
Chinese Name : Dong Chon Xia Cao sp, Carese sp, etc. Before the rainy season begins, spores of the
Indian name : Keera jhar, Keeda ghas Cordyceps mushroom settle on the heads of caterpillars' that lives
Japanese Name : Tochukaso underground. The immature larva, which forms the host upon
Korean Name : Tong ch'ug ha ch'o which the Cordyceps grows, usually lives about 6 inches below
Tibetan Name : Yarsha Gomba, Yarsagumba, ground. Within days, a finger-like mushroom grows out from the
larva above the ground during the spring and summer. The fungus
Yarchagumba
gets so much into the body of the caterpillars' that it grows out
through its head and drains all the energy from the insect and
Yarshagumba is a rare and unique herb that grows in meadows
ultimately it dies. Normally, it is found as 2500 plants per hectare
in China, in the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayan regions of
Nepal and India at an altitude between 3000m and 5000m. within the balanced pH soil level of 7-7.5. Moreover, on average it
Yarsagumba literally means summer plant and winter insect in is found in 0.3 to 0.5gm per plant. The caterpillars die near the tops
Tibetan. of their burrows. The dark brown to black fruiting body (or
It is an exceptional combination of a yellow caterpillar and a mushroom) emerges from the ground in spring or early summer,
mushroom (fungus). Just earlier to the rainy season, spores of always growing out of the forehead of the caterpillar. The long,
Cordyceps fungus infect these Himalayan caterpillars that live on usually columnar fruiting body reaches 5–15 cm above the surface
moist grass and hollow soil. After the fungus buries itself in the and releases spores.
caterpillar's body, it works its way out through the insect's head. As
temperature increases and the snow melts -yarsa gumba emerges Caterpillar Fungus's Introduction to the World
and is collected at this time. During monsoon, the yarsa gumba is The first mention of Cordyceps sinensis in traditional Chinese
swept away. Medicine was in Wang Ang's 1694. Outside of the East the fungus

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caught the world's attention due to three female Chinese athletes Use in traditional medicine
who broke 5 world records for 1,500, 3,000 and 10,000 meters in Tibetan herders observed that the Yaks who eat Cordyceps had
1993 at the National Games in Beijing, China. After the games more energy and were more highly sexed. This encouraged the
coach Ma Junren revealed that the runners were taking Cordyceps herders to try Cordyceps which has since led to it use by people
sinensis. over the ages and increasingly all over the world. Now it is highly
prized by practitioners of Tibetan, Chinese and traditional herbal
Part used and form Folk medicines, in which it is used as an aphrodisiac and as a
Natural, wild Cordyceps includes the complete fungus treatment for a variety of ailments from fatigue to cancer. It is
(mushroom) which is attached to the forehead of the carcass of a regarded as having an excellent balance of yin and yang as it is
caterpillar. Occasionally, insects form the growth substrate instead apparently both animal and vegetable and considered potent at
of the more common caterpillar. Modern fermentation type of strengthening lung and kidneys, increasing energy and vitality,
stopping hemorrhage, decreasing phlegm. Traditionally it has
growth includes just the fungus, and does not include the
been used for backache, to increase sperm production and blood
caterpillar. The "caterpillar" has actually been totally transformed
production. Used specifically for excess tiredness, chronic cough
into fungal mycelial mass by the time the herb is collected. There is
and asthma, impotence, debility, anemia, to build the bone
no animal matter left and therefore the herb is vegetarian. marrow and taken for shortness of breath, asthma, impotency,
emission, soreness of loins and knees, dizziness and tinnitus. In
Distribution Chinese medicine C. sinensis is considered sweet and warm,
In Nepal caterpillar fungus is found on the subalpine pastures entering the Lung and Kidney channels.
in Dolpo in Karnali Zone and Darchula in Mahakali zone. It is also It is also known to relieve pain and be effective in the
common in Bhutan and India's Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand treatment of arthritis, spasms and cramps. It is believed that the
Himalayas. Dolpa - a remote district in western Nepal with high herb is known to help reduce cholesterol levels in the body and
steep valleys and dry climate is one of the foremost areas for assists in digestion and to improve appetite. It also provides
collecting Cordyceps. Almost 50% of the annual supply comes vitality and increases physical stamina of the body. Yarsa gumba is
from Dolpa alone. Other important districts are Darchula, used by the Chinese to cure chronic hepatitis B and immune
Gajhang, Mugu, Jumla, and Rasuwa.It is distributed in the sub- function such as dysfunctioning of liver.
alpine and alpine region (between 3000 and 5000 m altitude) Yarsagumba is also known as the “Himalayan Viagra” or
throughout the Himalayan regions of Nepal and neighbouring “Himalayan Gold” for its high medicinal and commercial value.
countries.
Traditional uses
Harvesting season • Cordyceps tonifies Qi.
The harvesting period of Cordyceps sinensis is between the • Cordyceps replenishes Yin and Yang Jing.
months of May and July. • Cordyceps is used to strengthen the body and mind.
• Cordyceps is believed in the Orient to have rejuvenation
Varieties and grading functions.
• Based on the belief that Cordyceps replenishes Yin and Yang
Cordyceps is one of the most rare and expensive herbs in
Jing, Cordyceps is believed in the Orient to h ave a nt i - a g i n g
Chinese tonic herbalism . It can also be grown in a semi-wild
functions.
manner, but this Cordyceps will be of lower quality (it is still very
• Cordyceps is also a Lung tonic.
good). Cordyceps grows in Tibet, Nepal & India Himalayas and in • Cordyceps is used for the purposes of strengthening the primal
Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. Tibetan Cordyceps is Kidney functions, which include sexual f u n c t i o n s , b r a i n
considered to be the best. It is highly sought after and is more power, structural integrity and healing ability, according to
expensive than that from other sources. Wild Cordyceps from traditional Chinese health theory.
Tibet is the best Cordyceps in the world. • Cordyceps can have a benefit in the vascular system.
It is graded according to size, the larger the better. There are • Cordyceps improves the function of the micro-circulation and
occasional species of caterpillar which are larger but not of high improves efficiency at the capillary level.
quality. Fortunately, all Cordyceps is good---it's just that some is • Cordyceps is restorative after excessive exertion.
better than others. High grade Cordyceps is light brown in color • Cordyceps may improve physical endurance.
and neat. The caterpillar should have eight pairs of legs, the four • Cordyceps helps restore cellular energy levels after adapting to
middle ones being predominant. The mushroom, or stroma, stress.
should be slightly longer than the larva's body and will be slightly • Cordyceps helps boost functions associated with the adrenal
twisted. In good quality Cordyceps, most of this stroma will be cortex that aid in the adaptation to stress.
intact. Cordyceps possesses a rich and not unpleasant flavor. • Cordyceps increases respiratory capacity and efficiency.

370 Yarsagumba - A wonder drug from Himalayas


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STAKEHOLDERS’ DIRECTORY
Abdul Ajij Siddhike ..............................................................................D Ansari Traders ..................................................................................D E
Ward No 13, Sadarline, Bhansar Road, Nepalgunj, Ward No.9, Nepalgunj,
Banke..................................................................00977-81-521578 Banke..................................................................00977-81-522346
Abdul Ajij Siddhike ..............................................................................D Arna Bahadur Neupane ......................................................................D
Ward No 13, Sadarline, Bhansar Road, Nepalgunj, Dunai VDC,
Banke..................................................................00977-81-521578 Dolpa ..................................................................00977-87-550127
Abdul Sabir .........................................................................................D Arun Ranjit..........................................................................................D
Ward No. 5, Nepalgunj, Uttarganaga VDC, Ward No 8,
Banke..................................................................00977-81-522339 Shurket ..............................................................00977-83-520940
Abhiyan International Traders (Advt. in Last Colour Pages) ...................D E I Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture & Bioresources .................O
Kalanki Height, Kalanki, PO Box 11035,
Kathmandu.........................................................00977-1-4282427
Kathmandu.........................................................00977-1-4497547
E-mail.........................................................krrish3145@gmail.com
Fax ......................................................................00977-1-4476586
Adhikari Store .....................................................................................D
E-mail .................................................................ansab@ansab.org
Ward No 6, Phikkal VDC,
Website..................................................................www.ansab.org
Ilam ....................................................................00977-27-540175
Aduwa Kharid Bikri Kendra .................................................................D Aziz Kirana Store ..............................................................................D E
Ward No 5, Bhanjyang, Ward No. 13, Shurket Road, Nepalgunj,
Ilam ....................................................................00977-27-520728 Banke..................................................................00977-81-522603
Agro System Pvt. Ltd. .........................................................................M Babu Shahi..........................................................................................D
Kupondole, Ward No 4, Tribhuvan Chowk, Nepalgunj,
Kathmandu.........................................................00977-1-5537483 Banke..................................................................00977-81-520345
Fax ......................................................................00977-1-5552955 Badri Chaudhari Rameshwor Chaudhari.............................................D
E-mail..................................................chanddharm@hotmail.com Mechinagar Municipality, Dhulabari,
Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Ltd..................................................M Jhapa ..................................................................00977-23-560138
PO Box 4555, Bahubali Herbal Essence & Extracts Pvt. Ltd. ..............................E M
Kathmandu.........................................................00977-1-6202842 Ganapur VDC-6, (Advt. on page 373 - 383)
E-mail .................................................................gpg@info.com.np Banke..................................................................00977-81-540234
Ambadutt Traders & Suppliers.........................................................D E E-mail .................................................jainbahubali@wlink.com.np
Ward No. 6, Bhagwati Tol, Kanchanpur, Bal Krishna Bohara..............................................................................D
Mahendra Nagar ................................................00977-99-524000 Dunai VDC,
Ambika Prasad & Sons ....................................................................D E Dolpa ..................................................................00977-87-550130
Butwal Municipality, Hatbazar Tole, Bal Krishna Khadka .............................................................................D
Rupandehi .........................................................00977-71-540843 Bhairab Road, Hetauda,
Amrit Multi Foods Production Pvt. Ltd.............................................M Makwanpur .......................................................00977-57-525458
Ganapur-6, Bal Mani Baral.....................................................................................D
Banke..................................................................00977-81-524369
Phidim VDC, Ward No 7,
Ananda Products..............................................................................D E
Panchthar ...........................................................00977-24-460383
Dharan,
Balaji Store.......................................................................................D E
Nepal ..................................................................00977-25-525017
Barbote VDC, Ward No 3, Biblyante,
Anita's Enterprises ..............................................................................D
PO Box 673, Ilam ....................................................................00977-27-520526
Kathmandu.........................................................00977-1-4264067 Basu Ansari .........................................................................................D
Fax ......................................................................00977-1-4226510 Ward No 5, Salyanibag, Nepalgunj,
E-mail ........................................................jrauniyar@hotmail.com Banke..................................................................00977-81-520543
Ansari Furniture ...............................................................................D E Bhagwati Kirana Store ........................................................................D
Gulariya VDC, Ward No 8, Ward No. 3, Baghbazar,
Bardiya ...............................................................00977-84-420483 Dandeldhura.......................................................00977-96-420223
Ansari Kirana Merchant ...................................................................D E Bhakta Bahadur Thapa .......................................................................D
DSP Road, Nepalgunj, Dunai VDC,
Banke..................................................................00977-81-521461 Dolpa ..................................................................00977-87-550114
Ansari Kirana Store .............................................................................D Bharat Neupane..................................................................................D
Ward No 13, Shurket Road, Nepalgunj, Halwar VDC, Ward No 2, Kalahkola,
Banke..................................................................00977-81-523058 Dang ...................................................................00977-82-520995

Dealer Exporter Importer Manufacturer Organisation 373