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ቐ

ௗே

భ

ௗ௧

ൌ ݎܰ

ଵ

ቀͳ െ

ே

భ

ቁ െܽܰ

ଵ

ܰ

ଶ

ሺͳ െ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ

ௗே

మ

ௗ௧

ൌ െ݀ܰ

ଶ

ܰ

ଶ

݄ሺͳ െ ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ

ǡ ܽǡ ܾǡ ݀ǡ ݄ǡ ݎǡ ܭ Ͳ

**This system is a predator-prey model.
**

First equation (Prey Population):

y ݎ is the linear birth rate. The term ݎܰ

ଵ

ቀͳ െ

ே

భ

ቁ indicates that the population of the prey is a

Verhulstian/logistic type (i.e. it is bounded by the carrying capacity ܭ) if predation is absent.

y ܽܰ

ଵ

ܰ

ଶ

ሺͳ െ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ is the effect of predation, which is the reduction in the prey͛s per capita growth

rate that is proportional to the prey and predator͛s population. However, the constant of

proportionality, ܽǡ is affected by ͳ െ݁

ିே

భ

. This means that as ܰ

ଵ

decreases, then the effect of

predation decreases exponentially. Also, as ܰ

ଵ

increases, then the effect of predation increases

exponentially. If ܰ

ଵ

ൌ Ͳ, then there will be no predation, which is actually trivial.

Second equation (Predator Population):

y െ݀ܰ

ଶ

means that in the absence of prey, predator͛s population results in exponential decay with

rate ݀.

y ܰ

ଶ

݄ሺͳ െ ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ is the prey͛s contribution to the predator͛s growth. The size of the predator͛s

population directly affects the contribution. The effect of prey͛s population is indicated in ݄ሺͳ െ

݁

ିே

భ ሻ

. As ܰ

ଵ

decreases, then the positive effect of the value of ݄ to the predator͛s population

growth decreases exponentially. Also, as ܰ

ଵ

increases, then the positive effect of the value of ݄ to

the predator͛s population growth increases exponentially, and probably the predator is happy with

the plentiful number of preys to devour .

Nondimensionalizing the system:

Let ݑ ൌ

ே

భ

ǡ ݒ ൌ

ே

మ

ǡ ߬ ൌ ݎݐǡ ߙ ൌ

ǡ ߜ ൌ

ௗ

ǡ ߚ ൌ ܾ݇

y

ௗே

భ

ௗ௧

ൌ ݎܰ

ଵ

ቀͳ െ

ே

భ

ቁ െܽܰ

ଵ

ܰ

ଶ

ሺͳ െ ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ ֜ݎ݇

ௗ௨

ௗఛ

ൌ ݎݑ݇ ቀͳ െ

௨

ቁ െ ܽݑܭ

௩

൬ͳ െ݁

ି

ഁ

಼

௨

൰

ൌ ሺ െሻ െሺ െ

ିࢼ

ሻ

y

ௗே

మ

ௗ௧

ൌ െ݀ܰ

ଶ

ܰ

ଶ

݄ሺͳ െ݁

ିே

భ

ሻ ֜

మ

ௗ௩

ௗఛ

ൌ െߜݎ

௩

௩

ߙݎ ൬ͳ െ݁

ି

ഁ

಼

௨

൰

ൌ െࢾ ࢻሺ െ

ିࢼ

ሻ

Steady States:

ௗ௨

כ

ௗఛ

ൌ

ௗ௩

כ

ௗఛ

ൌ0

y ݑ

כ

ൌ Ͳ, ݒ

כ

ൌ Ͳ

y ݑ

כ

ൌ ͳ, ݒ

כ

ൌ Ͳ

Note that ݑ ݒ൫ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ௨

൯ ൏ ͳ and Ȃ ߜ ߙ൫ͳ െ݁

ିఉ௨

൯ Ͳ

Stability Analysis:

Jacobian Matrix ܣ ൌ ቈ

ͳ െ ʹݑ െ ݒെߚݑݒ݁

ିఉ௨

ݒ݁

ିఉ௨

െݑሺͳ െ݁

ିఉ௨

ሻ

ݒߙߚ݁

ିఉ௨

Ȃ ߜ ߙ൫ͳ െ݁

ିఉ௨

൯

y At ݑ

כ

ൌ Ͳ, ݒ

כ

ൌ Ͳ, ȁܣ െߣܫȁ ൌ ቚ

ͳ െߣ Ͳ

Ͳ െߜ െ ߣ

ቚ ൌ Ͳ ֜ ሺͳ െ ߣሻሺെߜ െ ߣሻ ൌ Ͳ

ߣ

ଵ

ൌ ͳ Ͳ and ߣ

ଶ

ൌ െߜ ൏ Ͳ. Hence, ሺͲǡͲሻ is unstable/saddle point.

y At ݑ

כ

ൌ ͳ, ݒ

כ

ൌ Ͳ, ȁܣ െߣܫȁ ൌ ቤ

െͳ െ ߣ െͳ ݁

ିఉ

Ͳ െߜ ൫ͳ െ݁

ିఉ

൯ߙ െߣ

ቤ ൌ Ͳ

֜ ሺെͳ െߣሻ൫െߜ ൫ͳ െ݁

ିఉ

൯ߙ െ ߣ൯ ൌ Ͳ

ߣ

ଵ

ൌ െͳ ൏ Ͳ and ߣ

ଶ

ൌ െߜ ൫ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ

൯ߙ.

ሺͳǡͲሻ can be stable if െߜ ൫ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ

൯ߙ ൏ ͳ ֜ ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ

൏

ఋ

ఈ

.

From the stable steady state ሺͳǡͲሻ: ͳ െ݁

ିఉ

൏

ఋ

ఈ

֜ ݁

ିఉ

ͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

. Since, ݈݊ is monotonically increasing

function, ln ݁

ିఉ

lnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ ֜ െߚ lnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ ֜ ߚ ൏ െlnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ. So if ߚ െlnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ, then

ሺͳǡͲሻ is unstable.

Given that ߚ െlnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ, then the all the steady states, ሺͲǡͲሻanu ሺͳǡͲሻ, are unstable. This implies

that the unstable points which are in the ܰ

ଵ

axis will repel values to go above the ܰ

ଵ

axis. Hence, a

nonzero ܰ

ଶ

population can exist (assuming ܰ

ଶ

ሺͲሻ ് Ͳ). Actually, the population of species ܰ

ଶ

may grow

unboundedly if ߚ െlnቀͳ െ

ఋ

ఈ

ቁ.

It is a fact that Ͳ ൏ ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ

൏ ͳǡ ߚ Ͳ . So if

ఋ

ఈ

ͳǡ then the point ሺͳǡͲሻ is always stable. But if

Ͳ ൏

ఋ

ఈ

൏ ͳ, then technically, bifurcation will occur when ͳ െ ݁

ିఉ

ൌ

ఋ

ఈ

א ሺͲǡͳሻ.

As ߚ increases, let say without bound, then bifurcation will occur at 1, since lim

ఉ՜ஶ

ቀͳ െ

ଵ

ഁ

ቁ ൌ ͳ.

-END-

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