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PROCEDURE.

For the Ash determination, all the samples and blanks was prepared in two
different samples. Firstly, the oven was pre heat at 100C and the cool
crucibles being weighed and recorded. Then, 2 gram of the samples (Hup
Seng cracker) was weighed into the crucibles and the weight being recorded.
After that, because of the short time consuming, the sample was burn by
using Bunsen burner until the samples turn to black in colour. After that, let
the crucibles cool down about 10 minutes until reach to room temperature.
After it cool down the crucibles being transferred to furnace at 550 C for
about 24 hours. Lastly, at the next day, the furnace temperature was let to
cool down until 250 C. Then, the crucibles was placed in desiccator to cool
down before the crucibles being weighed when reached to room
temperature.

RESULT.
Table 3 : Test Result for all groups (Hup Seng and Julies )
BRAND

GROUP

Ash Weight
Replicate 1

HUP SENG

JULIES

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.0749
-0.3199
0.0158
0.0450
0.1350
-0.0499
-0.1286

Replicate
2
0.0946
-0.2899
-0.0104
0.0400
0.0050
0.0499
0.0096

MEAN OF ASH (%)

0.08
-0.30
0.14
0.04
0.07
0.00
-0.06

0.2
0.1
0
1

Mean of ash (%)

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4

Group

Figure 1: Trend graph for mean of ash (%) for Hup Seng Cream Crackers

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

Mean of ash (%)

0
-0.02

-0.04
-0.06
-0.08

Group

Figure 2: Trend graph for mean of ash (%) for Julies Cream Crackers

DISCUSSION.
The purpose of the experiment of Ash determination was determination ash content in food
product through the ashing procedure. In this experiment, the sample was burn using Bunsen
burner until the sample turn to black color.
Based on the theory, ash is the inorganic residue remaining after the water and organic matter
has been removed by heating in the presence of oxidizing agents, which provides a measure of
the total amount of minerals within the food. Analytical techniques for providing information
about the total mineral content are based on the fact that the minerals can be distinguished from
all the other components within the food in some measurable way. The most widely used
methods are based on the fact that minerals are not destroyed by heating, and that they have low
volatility compared to other food components. Ashing may also be used as the first step in
preparing samples for analysis of specific minerals, by atomic spectroscopy or the various
traditional methods. Ash contents of fresh foods rarely exceed 5% although some processed
foods can have ash contents as high as 12%. For this experiment, the cream cracker was used.
Cream cracker usually contain ash below than 5%. In this experiment, we used dry ashing
procedures. The food sample is weighed before and after ashing to determine the concentration
of ash present. (Anonymous, 2016)
Basically the experiment was started with weight the empty crucible after heated with 100 oC. 2
grams of Hup Seng cracker was added into the crucible and the weigh is recorded. The sample
then was burn by using Bunsen burner until the sample turn black color. The crucible was being
cooled down at room temperature and being transferred to the furnace. After 24 hours, cooled
down the crucible and weight the crucible. (Aida Safina Aridi, 2016)
Based on the result, mean ash of group 3 is 0.14%. The result obtained is approximately as
stated in the theory. From the theory the value of the food ash for the cream cracker is below than
5%. The difference is a little significant compare to the theoretical value. This is because of the
several reasons. Firstly, part of the minerals volatile at certain temperature. Therefore, this
properties cause the difference between the experimental value and the theoretical value. Some
of the mineral may have been remove due to the volatile property and the temperature of
analytical apparatus itself. Next, the type of the cracker sample given may be not the same as
theoretical sample. This may cause the different of ash content compare with the theory.
Based on the observation, the data shows Hup Seng crackers and Julies crackers not so much
different in the mean of ash. The values were below than 5% which is stated in the theory. This is
due to the same error.
There were few possible error that occur in the experiment. Firstly, used gloves when hold the
crucible because the heat from the body may be transferred to the crucible. Next, used thick
glove when transferred the crucible to the furnace because it is very hot. Last, the experimental
error. The experimental must be patient when handling the experiment.

CONCLUSION.
Based on the obtained results, it can be seen that the difference do exist in
determination of ash in the food product that is Hup Seng cream cracker and
Julies cream cracker by using ashing procedure. For the Hup Seng cracker the
group that get high value of mean of ash (%) is group 3 that is 0.14%. Then,
for the Julies cracker the highest mean of ash (%) is group 5 that is 0.07%.
From that, it shows the total mineral content in Hup Seng cracker is higher
compared with Julies cracker. In addition, for the Julies cracker the mean of
ash (%) from group 6 the value is 0.00%. It approximately not contains either
pure oils or fat [foodscience-avenue.com]. The objective was achieved either
to determine the ash content in cracker.

RECOMMEDATION.
Basically, from the conducted experiment it might occur some errors that
will not give a expected result. There are some recommendation to make the
obtained result is precision and accurate with the theory. Firstly, before start
the experiment, the experimental need to choose a suitable crucibles that
can stand to high temperature (<1200C) and not cracked to avoid the
crucibles crack when heated it with direct fire. The crucibles also need to
make sure it easy to clean when the experiment is finished. Secondly, make
sure the temperature of the furnace reach to 550C before inserted the
crucibles for about 24 hours and need to make sure the temperature drops
until 250C before take the crucibles out of furnace. It is important to open
the furnace door carefully to avoid the ash from losing to the environment.
Lastly, the experimental need to make sure that the crackers samples is not
filled up until the top to prevent a large headspace for the samples, and
make the samples in the same level.

REFERENCES.
1. Nielsen S. Suzanne, Food Analysis, 2010, pg 107.
2. Aida Safina Aridi, Lab Manual Experiment 2, 2016, Ash Determination
3. Anonymous A, 2016, Ash Analysis, [Online]. Available from:
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-1478-1_7 [26th February 2016]
4. Anonymous B, 2016, Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits,
[Online]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010120612013000200017 [26th February 2016]