You are on page 1of 28

Jupiter

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

JupiteristhefifthplanetfromtheSunandthelargestintheSolarSystem.Itisagiant
planetwithamassonethousandththatoftheSun,buttwoandahalftimesthatofallthe
otherplanetsintheSolarSystemcombined.Jupiterisagasgiant,alongwithSaturn.
(UranusandNeptuneareicegiants.)Jupiterwasknowntoastronomersofancienttimes.[11]
TheRomansnameditaftertheirgodJupiter.[12]WhenviewedfromEarth,Jupitercanreach
anapparentmagnitudeof2.94,brightenoughforitsreflectedlighttocastshadows,[13]and
makingitonaveragethethirdbrightestobjectinthenightskyaftertheMoonandVenus.
Jupiterisprimarilycomposedofhydrogenwithaquarterofitsmassbeinghelium,though
heliumcomprisesonlyaboutatenthofthenumberofmolecules.Itmayalsohavearocky
coreofheavierelements,[14]butliketheothergiantplanets,Jupiterlacksawelldefined
solidsurface.Becauseofitsrapidrotation,theplanet'sshapeisthatofanoblatespheroid(it
hasaslightbutnoticeablebulgearoundtheequator).Theouteratmosphereisvisibly
segregatedintoseveralbandsatdifferentlatitudes,resultinginturbulenceandstormsalong
theirinteractingboundaries.AprominentresultistheGreatRedSpot,agiantstormthatis
knowntohaveexistedsinceatleastthe17thcenturywhenitwasfirstseenbytelescope.
SurroundingJupiterisafaintplanetaryringsystemandapowerfulmagnetosphere.Jupiter
hasatleast67moons,includingthefourlargeGalileanmoonsdiscoveredbyGalileoGalilei
in1610.Ganymede,thelargestofthese,hasadiametergreaterthanthatoftheplanet
Mercury.
Jupiterhasbeenexploredonseveraloccasionsbyroboticspacecraft,mostnotablyduring
theearlyPioneerandVoyagerflybymissionsandlaterbytheGalileoorbiter.Jupiterwas
mostrecentlyvisitedbyaprobeinlateFebruary2007,whenNewHorizonsusedJupiter's
gravitytoincreaseitsspeedandbenditstrajectoryenroutetoPluto.Thenextprobetovisit
theplanetwillbeJuno,whichisexpectedtoarriveinJuly2016.Futuretargetsfor
explorationintheJupitersystemincludetheprobableicecoveredliquidoceanofitsmoon
Europa.

Contents

Jupiter

FulldiscviewofJupiterinnaturalcolorinApril
2014[a]
Designations
Pronunciation
Adjectives

/duptr/[1]

Jovian
Orbitalcharacteristics[5]
EpochJ2000

Aphelion

5.454 92AU(816.04Gm)

Perihelion

4.950 29AU(740.55Gm)

Semimajoraxis

5.202 60AU(778.299Gm)

Contents

Eccentricity

0.048 498

Orbitalperiod

1 Formationandmigration

11.8618yr
4,332.59d
10,475.8Joviansolar

2 Structure

days[2]

2.1 Composition
2.2 Massandsize
2.3 Internalstructure

Synodicperiod

398.88d[3]

Averageorbital
speed

13.07km/s[3]

Meananomaly

20.020

Inclination

1.303toecliptic
6.09toSun'sequator
0.32toinvariable

3 Atmosphere
3.1 Cloudlayers

plane[4]
Longitudeof
ascendingnode

100.464

4 Planetaryrings

Argumentof
perihelion

273.867

5 Magnetosphere

Knownsatellites

67(asof2014)

3.2 GreatRedSpotandothervortices

6 Orbitandrotation
7 Observation

Physicalcharacteristics
Meanradius
Equatorialradius

71,492 4km[6][b]
11.209Earths

Polarradius

66,854 10km[6][b]
10.517Earths

8 Researchandexploration
8.1 Pretelescopicresearch

69,911 6km[6][b]

8.2 Groundbasedtelescoperesearch

Flattening

8.3 Radiotelescoperesearch

Surfacearea

6.1419 1010km2[b][7]
121.9Earths

Volume

1.4313 1015km3[3][b]

8.4 Explorationwithspaceprobes
8.4.1 Flybymissions

0.064 87 0.000 15

8.4.1 Flybymissions
8.4.2 Galileomission

1,321Earths
Mass

8.4.3 Futureprobes
8.4.4 Canceledmissions

1.8986 1027kg[3]
317.8Earths
1/1047Sun[8]

Meandensity

1.326g/cm3[3][b]

Surfacegravity

24.79m/s2[3][b]
2.528g

Escapevelocity

59.5km/s[3][b]

Siderealrotation
period

9.925h[9](9h55m30s)

Equatorial
rotationvelocity

12.6km/s
45 300km/h

Axialtilt

3.13(toorbit)[3]

Northpole
rightascension

268.057

13 Seealso

Northpole
declination

64.496[6]

14 Notes

Albedo

0.343(Bond)

9 Moons
9.1 Galileanmoons
9.2 Classification
10 InteractionwiththeSolarSystem
10.1 Impacts
11 Possibilityoflife
12 Mythology

15 References
16 Furtherreading
17 Externallinks

Formationandmigration

17h52m14s[6]

0.52(geom.)[3]
Surfacetemp. min mean
1barlevel
165K(108C)[3]
0.1bar
112K[3]
Apparent
magnitude

max

1.6to2.94[3]

Angulardiameter 29.8to50.1[3]
Atmosphere[3]
Surfacepressure
Scaleheight

20200kPa[10](cloudlayer)

Earthanditsneighborplanetsmayhaveformedfromfragmentsofplanetsaftercollisions
withJupiterdestroyedthosesuperEarthsneartheSun.AsJupitercametowardtheinner
SolarSystem,inwhattheoristscalltheGrandTackHypothesis,gravitationaltugsandpulls
occurredcausingaseriesofcollisionsbetweenthesuperEarthsastheirorbitsbeganto
overlap.[15]
Astronomershavediscoverednearly500planetarysystemseachwithmultipleplanets,and
typicallythesesystemsincludeafewplanetswithmassesseveraltimesgreaterthanEarth's
(superEarths),orbitingclosertotheirstarthanMercuryistotheSun,andJupiterlikegas
giantsarealsooftenfoundclosetotheirstar.
JupitermovingoutoftheinnerSolarSystemwouldhaveallowedtheformationofinner
planets,includingEarth.[16]

Structure
Jupiteriscomposedprimarilyofgaseousandliquidmatter.Itisthelargestofthefourgiant
planetsintheSolarSystemandhenceitslargestplanet.Ithasadiameterof142,984km
(88,846mi)atitsequator.ThedensityofJupiter,1.326g/cm3,isthesecondhighestofthe
giantplanets,butlowerthanthoseofthefourterrestrialplanets.

Composition

27km
Compositionby
volume

byvolume:
89.82.0% hydrogen(H2)
10.22.0% helium(He)
0.3%

methane(CH4)

0.026% ammonia(NH3)
0.003% hydrogen
deuteride(HD)
0.0006%

ethane(C2H6)

0.0004%

water(H2O)

Ices:
ammonia(NH3)
water(H2O)
ammonium
hydrosulfide(NH4SH)

Jupiter'supperatmosphereiscomposedofabout8892%hydrogenand812%heliumby
percentvolumeofgasmolecules.Becauseaheliumatomhasaboutfourtimesasmuchmassasahydrogenatom,thecompositionchanges
whendescribedastheproportionofmasscontributedbydifferentatoms.Thus,Jupiter'satmosphereisapproximately75%hydrogenand24%
heliumbymass,withtheremainingonepercentofthemassconsistingofotherelements.Theinteriorcontainsdensermaterials,suchthatthe
distributionisroughly71%hydrogen,24%heliumand5%otherelementsbymass.Theatmospherecontainstraceamountsofmethane,water
vapor,ammonia,andsiliconbasedcompounds.Therearealsotracesofcarbon,ethane,hydrogensulfide,neon,oxygen,phosphine,andsulfur.
Theoutermostlayeroftheatmospherecontainscrystalsoffrozenammonia.[17][18]Throughinfraredandultravioletmeasurements,trace
amountsofbenzeneandotherhydrocarbonshavealsobeenfound.[19]

Theatmosphericproportionsofhydrogenandheliumareclosetothetheoreticalcompositionoftheprimordialsolarnebula.Neonintheupper
atmosphereonlyconsistsof20partspermillionbymass,whichisaboutatenthasabundantasintheSun.[20]Heliumisalsodepleted,toabout
80%oftheSun'sheliumcomposition.Thisdepletionisaresultofprecipitationoftheseelementsintotheinterioroftheplanet.[21]
Basedonspectroscopy,SaturnisthoughttobesimilarincompositiontoJupiter,buttheothergiantplanetsUranusandNeptunehave
relativelymuchlesshydrogenandhelium.[22]

Massandsize
Jupiter'smassis2.5timesthatofalltheotherplanetsintheSolarSystemcombinedthisissomassive
thatitsbarycenterwiththeSunliesabovetheSun'ssurfaceat1.068solarradiifromtheSun'scenter.
JupiterismuchlargerthanEarthandconsiderablylessdense:itsvolumeisthatofabout1,321Earths,
butitisonly318timesasmassive.[3][23]Jupiter'sradiusisabout1/10theradiusoftheSun,[24]andits
massis0.001timesthemassoftheSun,sothedensitiesofthetwobodiesaresimilar.[25]A"Jupiter
mass"(MJorMJup)isoftenusedasaunittodescribemassesofotherobjects,particularlyextrasolar
planetsandbrowndwarfs.So,forexample,theextrasolarplanetHD209458bhasamassof0.69MJ,
whileKappaAndromedaebhasamassof12.8MJ.[26]

Jupiter'sdiameterisoneorderof
magnitudesmaller(0.10045)than
theSun,andoneorderofmagnitude
larger(10.9733)thantheEarth.The
GreatRedSpotisroughlythesame
sizeastheEarth.

TheoreticalmodelsindicatethatifJupiterhadmuchmoremassthanitdoesatpresent,itwould
shrink.[27]Forsmallchangesinmass,theradiuswouldnotchangeappreciably,andaboveabout
500M(1.6Jupitermasses)[27]theinteriorwouldbecomesomuchmorecompressedunderthe
increasedpressurethatitsvolumewoulddecreasedespitetheincreasingamountofmatter.Asaresult,
Jupiteristhoughttohaveaboutaslargeadiameterasaplanetofitscompositionandevolutionary
historycanachieve.[28]Theprocessoffurthershrinkagewithincreasingmasswouldcontinueuntil
appreciablestellarignitionisachievedasinhighmassbrowndwarfshavingaround50Jupiter
masses.[29]

AlthoughJupiterwouldneedtobeabout75timesasmassivetofusehydrogenandbecomeastar,thesmallestreddwarfisonlyabout30
percentlargerinradiusthanJupiter.[30][31]Despitethis,JupiterstillradiatesmoreheatthanitreceivesfromtheSuntheamountofheat
producedinsideitissimilartothetotalsolarradiationitreceives.[32]ThisadditionalheatisgeneratedbytheKelvinHelmholtzmechanism
throughcontraction.ThisprocesscausesJupitertoshrinkbyabout2cmeachyear.[33]Whenitwasfirstformed,Jupiterwasmuchhotterand
wasabouttwiceitscurrentdiameter.[34]

Internalstructure
Jupiteristhoughttoconsistofadensecorewithamixtureofelements,asurroundinglayerofliquidmetallichydrogenwithsomehelium,and
anouterlayerpredominantlyofmolecularhydrogen.[33]Beyondthisbasicoutline,thereisstillconsiderableuncertainty.Thecoreisoften
describedasrocky,butitsdetailedcompositionisunknown,asarethepropertiesofmaterialsatthetemperaturesandpressuresofthosedepths
(seebelow).In1997,theexistenceofthecorewassuggestedbygravitationalmeasurements,[33]indicatingamassoffrom12to45timesthe
Earth'smassorroughly4%14%ofthetotalmassofJupiter.[32][35]ThepresenceofacoreduringatleastpartofJupiter'shistoryissuggested
bymodelsofplanetaryformationthatrequiretheformationofarockyoricycoremassiveenoughtocollectitsbulkofhydrogenandhelium
fromtheprotosolarnebula.Assumingitdidexist,itmayhaveshrunkasconvectioncurrentsofhotliquidmetallichydrogenmixedwiththe
moltencoreandcarrieditscontentstohigherlevelsintheplanetaryinterior.Acoremaynowbeentirelyabsent,asgravitationalmeasurements
arenotyetpreciseenoughtorulethatpossibilityoutentirely.[33][36]
Theuncertaintyofthemodelsistiedtotheerrormargininhithertomeasuredparameters:oneoftherotational
coefficients(J6)usedtodescribetheplanet'sgravitationalmoment,Jupiter'sequatorialradius,anditstemperature
at1barpressure.TheJunomission,whichisscheduledtoarriveinJuly2016,isexpectedtofurtherconstrainthe
valuesoftheseparametersforbettermodelsofthecore.[37]
Thecoreregionissurroundedbydensemetallichydrogen,whichextendsoutwardtoabout78%oftheradiusof
theplanet.[32]Rainlikedropletsofheliumandneonprecipitatedownwardthroughthislayer,depletingthe
abundanceoftheseelementsintheupperatmosphere.[21][38]
AnimationofJupiterseen

Abovethelayerofmetallichydrogenliesatransparentinterioratmosphereofhydrogen.Atthisdepth,the
ininfrared
[39]
temperatureisabovethecriticaltemperature,whichforhydrogenisonly33K. Inthisstate,thereareno
distinctliquidandgasphaseshydrogenissaidtobeinasupercriticalfluidstate.Itisconvenienttotreat
hydrogenasgasintheupperlayerextendingdownwardfromthecloudlayertoadepthofabout1,000km,[32]andasliquidindeeperlayers.
Physically,thereisnoclearboundarythegassmoothlybecomeshotteranddenserasonedescends.[40][41]

ThetemperatureandpressureinsideJupiterincreasesteadilytowardthecore,duetotheKelvinHelmholtzmechanism.Atthe"surface"
pressurelevelof10bars,thetemperatureisaround340K(67C152F).Atthephasetransitionregionwherehydrogenheatedbeyondits
criticalpointbecomesmetallic,itiscalculatedthetemperatureis10,000K(9,700C17,500F)andthepressureis200GPa.The
temperatureatthecoreboundaryisestimatedtobe36,000K(35,700C64,300F)andtheinteriorpressureisroughly3,0004,500GPa.[32]

ThiscutawayillustratesamodeloftheinteriorofJupiter,witharockycoreoverlaidbyadeeplayerofliquidmetallic
hydrogen.

Atmosphere
JupiterhasthelargestplanetaryatmosphereintheSolarSystem,spanningover5,000km(3,000mi)inaltitude.[42][43]AsJupiterhasno
surface,thebaseofitsatmosphereisusuallyconsideredtobethepointatwhichatmosphericpressureisequalto1MPa(10bar),ortentimes
surfacepressureonEarth.[42]

Cloudlayers
Jupiterisperpetuallycoveredwithcloudscomposedofammoniacrystalsandpossiblyammoniumhydrosulfide.Thecloudsarelocatedinthe
tropopauseandarearrangedintobandsofdifferentlatitudes,knownastropicalregions.Thesearesubdividedintolighterhuedzonesand
darkerbelts.Theinteractionsoftheseconflictingcirculationpatternscausestormsandturbulence.Windspeedsof100m/s(360km/h)are

commoninzonaljets.[44]Thezoneshavebeenobservedtovaryinwidth,colorandintensityfromyear
toyear,buttheyhaveremainedsufficientlystableforscientiststogivethemidentifying
designations.[23]

Thisloopinganimationshowsthe
movementofJupiter'scounter
rotatingcloudbands.Inthisimage,
theplanet'sexteriorismappedontoa
cylindricalprojection.Animationat
largerwidths:720pixels,1799
pixels.

Thecloudlayerisonlyabout50km(31mi)deep,andconsists
ofatleasttwodecksofclouds:athicklowerdeckandathin
clearerregion.Theremayalsobeathinlayerofwaterclouds
underlyingtheammonialayer,asevidencedbyflashesof
lightningdetectedintheatmosphereofJupiter.Thisiscaused
bywater'spolarity,whichmakesitcapableofcreatingthe
chargeseparationneededtoproducelightning.[32]These
electricaldischargescanbeuptoathousandtimesaspowerful
aslightningontheEarth.[45]Thewatercloudscanform
thunderstormsdrivenbytheheatrisingfromtheinterior.[46]

TheorangeandbrowncolorationinthecloudsofJupiterare
causedbyupwellingcompoundsthatchangecolorwhenthey
areexposedtoultravioletlightfromtheSun.Theexactmakeupremainsuncertain,butthesubstances
arethoughttobephosphorus,sulfurorpossiblyhydrocarbons.[32][47]Thesecolorfulcompounds,
knownaschromophores,mixwiththewarmer,lowerdeckofclouds.Thezonesareformedwhen
risingconvectioncellsformcrystallizingammoniathatmasksouttheselowercloudsfromview.[48]

ThisviewofJupiter'sGreatRedSpot
anditssurroundingswasobtainedby
Voyager1onFebruary25,1979,
whenthespacecraftwas
9.2millionkm(5.7millionmi)from
Jupiter.Thewhiteovalstormdirectly
belowtheGreatRedSpotis
approximatelythesamediameteras
Earth.

Jupiter'slowaxialtiltmeansthatthepolesconstantlyreceivelesssolarradiationthanattheplanet'sequatorialregion.Convectionwithinthe
interioroftheplanettransportsmoreenergytothepoles,balancingoutthetemperaturesatthecloudlayer.[23]

GreatRedSpotandothervortices
ThebestknownfeatureofJupiteristheGreatRedSpot,apersistentanticyclonicstormthatislargerthanEarth,located22southofthe
equator.Itisknowntohavebeeninexistencesinceatleast1831,[50]andpossiblysince1665.[51][52]ImagesbytheHubbleSpaceTelescope
haveshownasmanyastwo"redspots"adjacenttotheGreatRedSpot.[53][54]ThestormislargeenoughtobevisiblethroughEarthbased
telescopeswithanapertureof12cmorlarger.[55]Mathematicalmodelssuggestthatthestormisstableandmaybeapermanentfeatureofthe
planet.[56]

Theovalobjectrotatescounterclockwise,witha
periodofaboutsixdays.[57]TheGreatRedSpot's
dimensionsare2440,000km1214,000km.It
islargeenoughtocontaintwoorthreeplanetsof
Earth'sdiameter.[58]Themaximumaltitudeofthis
stormisabout8km(5mi)abovethesurrounding
cloudtops.[59]

Timelapsesequence(over1month)
fromtheapproachofVoyager1to
Jupiter,showingthemotionof
atmosphericbands,andcirculationof
theGreatRedSpot.Fullsizevideo
here

Stormssuchasthisarecommonwithinthe
turbulentatmospheresofgiantplanets.Jupiteralso
haswhiteovalsandbrownovals,whicharelesser
JupiterGreatRedSpotisdecreasinginsize(May
unnamedstorms.Whiteovalstendtoconsistof
15,2014). [49]
relativelycoolcloudswithintheupperatmosphere.
Brownovalsarewarmerandlocatedwithinthe
"normalcloudlayer".Suchstormscanlastaslittleasafewhoursorstretchonforcenturies.
EvenbeforeVoyagerprovedthatthefeaturewasastorm,therewasstrongevidencethatthespotcould
notbeassociatedwithanydeeperfeatureontheplanet'ssurface,astheSpotrotatesdifferentiallywith
respecttotherestoftheatmosphere,sometimesfasterandsometimesmoreslowly.

In2000,anatmosphericfeatureformedinthesouthernhemispherethatissimilarinappearancetotheGreatRedSpot,butsmaller.Thiswas
createdwhenseveralsmaller,whiteovalshapedstormsmergedtoformasinglefeaturethesethreesmallerwhiteovalswerefirstobserved
in1938.ThemergedfeaturewasnamedOvalBA,andhasbeennicknamedRedSpotJunior.Ithassinceincreasedinintensityandchanged
colorfromwhitetored.[60][61][62]

Planetaryrings
Jupiterhasafaintplanetaryringsystemcomposedofthreemainsegments:aninnertorusofparticlesknownasthehalo,arelativelybright
mainring,andanoutergossamerring.[63]Theseringsappeartobemadeofdust,ratherthaniceaswithSaturn'srings.[32]Themainringis
probablymadeofmaterialejectedfromthesatellitesAdrasteaandMetis.Materialthatwouldnormallyfallbacktothemoonispulledinto
Jupiterbecauseofitsstronggravitationalinfluence.TheorbitofthematerialveerstowardsJupiterandnewmaterialisaddedbyadditional
impacts.[64]Inasimilarway,themoonsThebeandAmaltheaprobablyproducethetwodistinctcomponentsofthedustygossamerring.[64]
ThereisalsoevidenceofarockyringstrungalongAmalthea'sorbitwhichmayconsistofcollisionaldebrisfromthatmoon.[65]

Magnetosphere
Jupiter'smagneticfieldis14timesasstrongastheEarth's,rangingfrom4.2gauss(0.42mT)atthe
equatorto1014gauss(1.01.4mT)atthepoles,makingitthestrongestintheSolarSystem(except
forsunspots).[48]Thisfieldisthoughttobegeneratedbyeddycurrentsswirlingmovementsof
conductingmaterialswithintheliquidmetallichydrogencore.ThevolcanoesonthemoonIoemit
largeamountsofsulfurdioxideformingagastorusalongthemoon'sorbit.Thegasisionizedinthe
magnetosphereproducingsulfurandoxygenions.They,togetherwithhydrogenionsoriginatingfrom
theatmosphereofJupiter,formaplasmasheetinJupiter'sequatorialplane.Theplasmainthesheetco
rotateswiththeplanetcausingdeformationofthedipolemagneticfieldintothatofmagnetodisk.
Electronswithintheplasmasheetgenerateastrongradiosignaturethatproducesburstsintherangeof
0.630MHz.[66]
Atabout75Jupiterradiifromtheplanet,theinteractionofthemagnetospherewiththesolarwind
generatesabowshock.SurroundingJupiter'smagnetosphereisamagnetopause,locatedattheinner
edgeofamagnetosheatharegionbetweenitandthebowshock.Thesolarwindinteractswiththese
regions,elongatingthemagnetosphereonJupiter'sleesideandextendingitoutwarduntilitnearly
reachestheorbitofSaturn.ThefourlargestmoonsofJupiterallorbitwithinthemagnetosphere,which
protectsthemfromthesolarwind.[32]
ThemagnetosphereofJupiterisresponsibleforintenseepisodesofradioemissionfromtheplanet's
polarregions.VolcanicactivityontheJovianmoonIo(seebelow)injectsgasintoJupiter's
magnetosphere,producingatorusofparticlesabouttheplanet.AsIomovesthroughthistorus,the
interactiongeneratesAlfvnwavesthatcarryionizedmatterintothepolarregionsofJupiter.Asa
result,radiowavesaregeneratedthroughacyclotronmasermechanism,andtheenergyistransmitted
outalongaconeshapedsurface.WhentheEarthintersectsthiscone,theradioemissionsfromJupiter
canexceedthesolarradiooutput.[67]

TheringsofJupiter

AuroraonJupiter.Threebrightdots
arecreatedbymagneticfluxtubes
thatconnecttotheJovianmoonsIo
(ontheleft),Ganymede(onthe
bottom)andEuropa(alsoonthe
bottom).Inaddition,theverybright
almostcircularregion,calledthe
mainoval,andthefainterpolar
auroracanbeseen.

Orbitandrotation
JupiteristheonlyplanetthathasabarycenterwiththeSunthatliesoutsidethevolumeoftheSun,thoughbyonly7%oftheSun'sradius.[68]
TheaveragedistancebetweenJupiterandtheSunis778millionkm(about5.2timestheaveragedistancefromtheEarthtotheSun,or5.2
AU)anditcompletesanorbitevery11.86years.ThisistwofifthstheorbitalperiodofSaturn,forminga5:2orbitalresonancebetweenthe

twolargestplanetsintheSolarSystem.[69]TheellipticalorbitofJupiterisinclined1.31comparedto
theEarth.Becauseofaneccentricityof0.048,thedistancefromJupiterandtheSunvariesby75
millionkmbetweenperihelionandaphelion,orthenearestandmostdistantpointsoftheplanetalong
theorbitalpathrespectively.
TheaxialtiltofJupiterisrelativelysmall:only3.13.Asaresult,itdoesnotexperiencesignificant
seasonalchanges,incontrastto,forexample,EarthandMars.[70]
Jupiter'srotationisthefastestofalltheSolarSystem'splanets,completingarotationonitsaxisin
slightlylessthantenhoursthiscreatesanequatorialbulgeeasilyseenthroughanEarthbasedamateur
telescope.Theplanetisshapedasanoblatespheroid,meaningthatthediameteracrossitsequatoris
longerthanthediametermeasuredbetweenitspoles.OnJupiter,theequatorialdiameteris9,275km
(5,763mi)longerthanthediametermeasuredthroughthepoles.[41]

Jupiter(red)completesoneorbitof
theSun(center)forevery11.86
orbitsoftheEarth(blue)

BecauseJupiterisnotasolidbody,itsupperatmosphereundergoesdifferentialrotation.Therotation
ofJupiter'spolaratmosphereisabout5minuteslongerthanthatoftheequatorialatmospherethree
systemsareusedasframesofreference,particularlywhengraphingthemotionofatmosphericfeatures.
SystemIappliesfromthelatitudes10Nto10Sitsperiodistheplanet'sshortest,at9h50m30.0s.SystemIIappliesatalllatitudesnorth
andsouthoftheseitsperiodis9h55m40.6s.SystemIIIwasfirstdefinedbyradioastronomers,andcorrespondstotherotationoftheplanet's
magnetosphereitsperiodisJupiter'sofficialrotation.[71]

Observation
Jupiterisusuallythefourthbrightestobjectinthesky(aftertheSun,theMoonandVenus)[48]attimes
MarsappearsbrighterthanJupiter.DependingonJupiter'spositionwithrespecttotheEarth,itcan
varyinvisualmagnitudefromasbrightas2.9atoppositiondownto1.6duringconjunctionwiththe
Sun.TheangulardiameterofJupiterlikewisevariesfrom50.1to29.8arcseconds.[3]Favorable
oppositionsoccurwhenJupiterispassingthroughperihelion,aneventthatoccursonceperorbit.
EarthovertakesJupiterevery398.9daysasitorbitstheSun,adurationcalledthesynodicperiod.Asit
doesso,Jupiterappearstoundergoretrogrademotionwithrespecttothebackgroundstars.Thatis,for
aperiodJupiterseemstomovebackwardinthenightsky,performingaloopingmotion.

ConjunctionofJupiterandtheMoon

BecausetheorbitofJupiterisoutsidetheEarth's,thephaseangleofJupiterasviewedfromtheEarth
neverexceeds11.5.Thatis,theplanetalwaysappearsnearlyfullyilluminatedwhenviewedthrough
Earthbasedtelescopes.ItwasonlyduringspacecraftmissionstoJupiterthatcrescentviewsofthe
planetwereobtained.[72]AsmalltelescopewillusuallyshowJupiter'sfourGalileanmoonsandthe
prominentcloudbeltsacrossJupiter'satmosphere.[73]AlargetelescopewillshowJupiter'sGreatRed
SpotwhenitfacestheEarth.

Researchandexploration
Pretelescopicresearch
TheobservationofJupiterdatesbacktotheBabylonianastronomersofthe7thor8thcenturyBC.[74]
TheancientChinesereferredtoJupiteras"theYearStar"(Suixing),andbythe4thcenturyBC
haddividedtheskyintotwelvezodiacalregions,withJupiterpassingthroughoneeachyear.[75]The
ChinesehistorianXiZezonghasclaimedthatGanDe,anancientChineseastronomer,discoveredof
oneofJupiter'smoonsin362BCwiththeunaidedeye.Ifaccurate,thiswouldpredateGalileo's
discoverybynearlytwomillennia.[76][77]Inhis2ndcenturyworktheAlmagest,theHellenistic
astronomerClaudiusPtolemaeusconstructedageocentricplanetarymodelbasedondeferentsand
epicyclestoexplainJupiter'smotionrelativetotheEarth,givingitsorbitalperiodaroundtheEarthas
4332.38days,or11.86years.[78]In499,Aryabhata,amathematicianastronomerfromtheclassicalage
ofIndianmathematicsandastronomy,alsousedageocentricmodeltoestimateJupiter'speriodas
4332.2722days,or11.86years.[79]

Groundbasedtelescoperesearch

Theretrogrademotionofanouter
planetiscausedbyitsrelative
locationwithrespecttotheEarth.

ModelintheAlmagestofthe
longitudinalmotionofJupiter()
relativetotheEarth().

In1610,GalileoGalileidiscoveredthefourlargestmoonsofJupiter(nowknownastheGalileanmoons)usingatelescopethoughttobethe
firsttelescopicobservationofmoonsotherthanEarth's.OnedayafterGalileo,SimonMariusindependentlydiscoveredmoonsaroundJupiter,
thoughhedidnotpublishhisdiscoveryinabookuntil1614.[80]ItwasMarius'snamesforthefourmajormoons,however,thatstuckIo,
Europa,GanymedeandCallisto.ThesefindingswerealsothefirstdiscoveryofcelestialmotionnotapparentlycenteredontheEarth.The
discoverywasamajorpointinfavorofCopernicus'heliocentrictheoryofthemotionsoftheplanetsGalileo'soutspokensupportofthe
CopernicantheoryplacedhimunderthethreatoftheInquisition.[81]

Duringthe1660s,CassiniusedanewtelescopetodiscoverspotsandcolorfulbandsonJupiterandobservedthattheplanetappearedoblate
thatis,flattenedatthepoles.Hewasalsoabletoestimatetherotationperiodoftheplanet.[82]In1690Cassininoticedthattheatmosphere
undergoesdifferentialrotation.[32]
TheGreatRedSpot,aprominentovalshapedfeatureinthesouthernhemisphereofJupiter,mayhavebeenobservedasearlyas1664by
RobertHookeandin1665byGiovanniCassini,althoughthisisdisputed.ThepharmacistHeinrichSchwabeproducedtheearliestknown
drawingtoshowdetailsoftheGreatRedSpotin1831.[83]
TheRedSpotwasreportedlylostfromsightonseveraloccasionsbetween1665and1708beforebecomingquiteconspicuousin1878.Itwas
recordedasfadingagainin1883andatthestartofthe20thcentury.[84]
BothGiovanniBorelliandCassinimadecarefultablesofthemotionsoftheJovianmoons,allowingpredictionsofthetimeswhenthemoons
wouldpassbeforeorbehindtheplanet.Bythe1670s,itwasobservedthatwhenJupiterwasontheoppositesideoftheSunfromtheEarth,
theseeventswouldoccurabout17minuteslaterthanexpected.OleRmerdeducedthatsightisnotinstantaneous(aconclusionthatCassini
hadearlierrejected),[18]andthistimingdiscrepancywasusedtoestimatethespeedoflight.[85]
In1892,E.E.BarnardobservedafifthsatelliteofJupiterwiththe36inch(910mm)refractoratLickObservatoryinCalifornia.The
discoveryofthisrelativelysmallobject,atestamenttohiskeeneyesight,quicklymadehimfamous.ThismoonwaslaternamedAmalthea.[86]
Itwasthelastplanetarymoontobediscovereddirectlybyvisualobservation.[87]
In1932,RupertWildtidentifiedabsorptionbandsofammoniaandmethaneinthespectraofJupiter.[88]
Threelonglivedanticyclonicfeaturestermedwhiteovalswereobservedin1938.Forseveraldecadesthey
remainedasseparatefeaturesintheatmosphere,sometimesapproachingeachotherbutnevermerging.Finally,
twooftheovalsmergedin1998,thenabsorbedthethirdin2000,becomingOvalBA.[89]

Radiotelescoperesearch
In1955,BernardBurkeandKennethFranklindetectedburstsofradiosignalscomingfromJupiterat
22.2MHz.[32]Theperiodoftheseburstsmatchedtherotationoftheplanet,andtheywerealsoabletousethis
informationtorefinetherotationrate.RadioburstsfromJupiterwerefoundtocomeintwoforms:longbursts(or
Lbursts)lastinguptoseveralseconds,andshortbursts(orSbursts)thathadadurationoflessthanahundredth
ofasecond.[90]
ScientistsdiscoveredthattherewerethreeformsofradiosignalstransmittedfromJupiter.

InfraredimageofJupiter
takenbyESO'sVery
LargeTelescope.

Decametricradiobursts(withawavelengthoftensofmeters)varywiththerotationofJupiter,andareinfluencedbyinteractionofIo
withJupiter'smagneticfield.[91]
Decimetricradioemission(withwavelengthsmeasuredincentimeters)wasfirstobservedbyFrankDrakeandHeinHvatumin1959.[32]
TheoriginofthissignalwasfromatorusshapedbeltaroundJupiter'sequator.Thissignaliscausedbycyclotronradiationfrom
electronsthatareacceleratedinJupiter'smagneticfield.[92]
ThermalradiationisproducedbyheatintheatmosphereofJupiter.[32]

Explorationwithspaceprobes
Since1973anumberofautomatedspacecrafthavevisitedJupiter,mostnotablythePioneer10spaceprobe,thefirstspacecrafttogetclose
enoughtoJupitertosendbackrevelationsaboutthepropertiesandphenomenaoftheSolarSystem'slargestplanet.[93][94]Flightstoother
planetswithintheSolarSystemareaccomplishedatacostinenergy,whichisdescribedbythenetchangeinvelocityofthespacecraft,or
deltav.EnteringaHohmanntransferorbitfromEarthtoJupiterfromlowEarthorbitrequiresadeltavof6.3km/s[95]whichiscomparableto
the9.7km/sdeltavneededtoreachlowEarthorbit.[96]Fortunately,gravityassiststhroughplanetaryflybyscanbeusedtoreducetheenergy
requiredtoreachJupiter,albeitatthecostofasignificantlylongerflightduration.[97]
Flybymissions
Beginningin1973,severalspacecrafthaveperformedplanetaryflybymaneuversthat
broughtthemwithinobservationrangeofJupiter.ThePioneermissionsobtainedthe
firstcloseupimagesofJupiter'satmosphereandseveralofitsmoons.They
discoveredthattheradiationfieldsneartheplanetweremuchstrongerthanexpected,
butbothspacecraftmanagedtosurviveinthatenvironment.Thetrajectoriesofthese
spacecraftwereusedtorefinethemassestimatesoftheJoviansystem.Radio
occultationsbytheplanetresultedinbettermeasurementsofJupiter'sdiameterand
theamountofpolarflattening.[23][99]
Sixyearslater,theVoyagermissionsvastlyimprovedtheunderstandingofthe
GalileanmoonsanddiscoveredJupiter'srings.TheyalsoconfirmedthattheGreat
RedSpotwasanticyclonic.ComparisonofimagesshowedthattheRedSpothad
changedhuesincethePioneermissions,turningfromorangetodarkbrown.Atorus
ofionizedatomswasdiscoveredalongIo'sorbitalpath,andvolcanoeswerefoundon
themoon'ssurface,someintheprocessoferupting.Asthespacecraftpassedbehind
theplanet,itobservedflashesoflightninginthenightsideatmosphere.[23][100]

Spacecraft

Flybymissions
Closest
approach

Distance

Pioneer10

December3,1973

130,000km

Pioneer11

December4,1974

34,000km

Voyager1

March5,1979

349,000km

Voyager2

July9,1979

570,000km

February8,1992[98]

408,894km

Ulysses
Cassini

February4,2004[98] 120,000,000km
December30,2000

NewHorizons February28,2007

10,000,000km
2,304,535km

ThenextmissiontoencounterJupiter,theUlyssessolarprobe,performedaflybymaneuvertoattainapolarorbitaroundtheSun.Duringthis
passthespacecraftconductedstudiesonJupiter'smagnetosphere.SinceUlysseshasnocameras,noimagesweretaken.Asecondflybysix
yearslaterwasatamuchgreaterdistance.[98]
In2000,theCassiniprobe,enroutetoSaturn,flewbyJupiterandprovidedsomeofthehighest
resolutionimagesevermadeoftheplanet.[101]
TheNewHorizonsprobe,enroutetoPluto,flewbyJupiterforgravityassist.Itsclosestapproachwas
onFebruary28,2007.[102]Theprobe'scamerasmeasuredplasmaoutputfromvolcanoesonIoand
studiedallfourGalileanmoonsindetail,aswellasmakinglongdistanceobservationsoftheouter
moonsHimaliaandElara.[103]ImagingoftheJoviansystembeganSeptember4,2006.[104][105]
Galileomission
SofartheonlyspacecrafttoorbitJupiteristheGalileoorbiter,
whichwentintoorbitaroundJupiteronDecember7,1995.[28]It
CassiniviewsJupiterandIoon
orbitedtheplanetforoversevenyears,conductingmultiple
January1,2001
flybysofalltheGalileanmoonsandAmalthea.Thespacecraft
alsowitnessedtheimpactofCometShoemakerLevy9asit
approachedJupiterin1994,givingauniquevantagepointfortheevent.Whiletheinformationgained
abouttheJoviansystemfromGalileowasextensive,itsoriginallydesignedcapacitywaslimitedbythe
faileddeploymentofitshighgainradiotransmittingantenna.[106]

Jupiterasseenbythespaceprobe
Cassini.

A340kilogramtitaniumatmosphericprobewasreleasedfromthespacecraftinJuly1995,entering
Jupiter'satmosphereonDecember7.[28]Itparachutedthrough150km(93mi)oftheatmosphereat
speedofabout2,575km/h(1600mph)[28]andcollecteddatafor57.6minutesbeforeitwascrushedby
thepressureofabout23atmospheresatatemperatureof153C.[107]Itwouldhavemeltedthereafter,
andpossiblyvaporized.TheGalileoorbiteritselfexperiencedamorerapidversionofthesamefate
whenitwasdeliberatelysteeredintotheplanetonSeptember21,2003,ataspeedofover50km/s,to
avoidanypossibilityofitcrashingintoandpossiblycontaminatingEuropaamoonwhichhasbeen
hypothesizedtohavethepossibilityofharboringlife.[106]

Datafromthismissionrevealedthathydrogencomposesupto90%ofJupiter'satmosphere.[28]Thetemperaturesdatarecordedwasmorethan
300C(>570F)andthewindspeedmeasuredmorethan644kmph(>400mph)beforetheprobesvapourised.[28]
Futureprobes
NASA'sJunomissionwillarriveatJupiteronJuly4,2016andwillstudytheplanetindetailfromapolarorbit.[108]Thenextplannedmission
totheJoviansystemwillbetheEuropeanSpaceAgency'sJupiterIcyMoonExplorer(JUICE),duetolaunchin2022,[109]followedby
NASA'sEuropaClippermissionin2025.[110]
Canceledmissions
BecauseofthepossibilityofsubsurfaceliquidoceansonJupiter'smoonsEuropa,GanymedeandCallisto,therehasbeengreatinterestin
studyingtheicymoonsindetail.Fundingdifficultieshavedelayedprogress.NASA'sJIMO(JupiterIcyMoonsOrbiter)wascancelledin
2005.[111]AsubsequentproposalforajointNASA/ESAmission,calledEJSM/Laplace,wasdevelopedwithaprovisionallaunchdatearound
2020.EJSM/LaplacewouldhaveconsistedoftheNASAledJupiterEuropaOrbiter,andtheESAledJupiterGanymedeOrbiter.[112]
However,byApril2011,ESAhadformallyendedthepartnershipcitingbudgetissuesatNASAandtheconsequencesonthemission
timetable.InsteadESAplannedtogoaheadwithaEuropeanonlymissiontocompeteinitsL1CosmicVisionselection.[113]

Moons
Jupiterhas67naturalsatellites.[114]Ofthese,51arelessthan10kilometresindiameterandhaveonly
beendiscoveredsince1975.Thefourlargestmoons,visiblefromEarthwithbinocularsonaclear
night,knownasthe"Galileanmoons",areIo,Europa,Ganymede,andCallisto.

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoMoonsof
Jupiter.

Galileanmoons
TheorbitsofIo,Europa,andGanymede,someofthelargestsatellitesintheSolarSystem,formapatternknownasaLaplaceresonancefor
everyfourorbitsthatIomakesaroundJupiter,EuropamakesexactlytwoorbitsandGanymedemakesexactlyone.Thisresonancecausesthe
gravitationaleffectsofthethreelargemoonstodistorttheirorbitsintoellipticalshapes,sinceeachmoonreceivesanextratugfromits
neighborsatthesamepointineveryorbititmakes.ThetidalforcefromJupiter,ontheotherhand,workstocircularizetheirorbits.[115]

Theeccentricityoftheirorbitscausesregularflexingofthethreemoons'shapes,withJupiter'sgravitystretchingthemoutastheyapproachit
andallowingthemtospringbacktomoresphericalshapesastheyswingaway.Thistidalflexingheatsthemoons'interiorsbyfriction.Thisis
seenmostdramaticallyintheextraordinaryvolcanicactivityofinnermostIo(whichissubjecttothestrongesttidalforces),andtoalesser
degreeinthegeologicalyouthofEuropa'ssurface(indicatingrecentresurfacingofthemoon'sexterior).

Name

TheGalileanmoons,comparedtoEarth'sMoon
Diameter
Mass
Orbitalradius Orbitalperiod
IPA
km %
kg
%
km
% days
%
a.o

3,643 105 8.91022 120

421,700 110

1.77

jrop

3,122 90 4.81022 65

671,034 175

3.55

13

Ganymede nimid 5,262 150 14.81022 200 1,070,412 280

7.15

26

4,821 140 10.81022 150 1,882,709 490

16.69

61

Io
Europa
Callisto

klsto

TheGalileanmoonsIo,Europa,Ganymede,Callisto(inorderofincreasingdistancefromJupiter)

Classification
BeforethediscoveriesoftheVoyagermissions,Jupiter'smoonswerearrangedneatlyintofourgroupsoffour,basedoncommonalityoftheir
orbitalelements.Sincethen,thelargenumberofnewsmalloutermoonshascomplicatedthispicture.Therearenowthoughttobesixmain
groups,althoughsomearemoredistinctthanothers.

Abasicsubdivisionisagroupingoftheeightinnerregularmoons,whichhavenearlycircularorbitsneartheplaneofJupiter'sequatorandare
thoughttohaveformedwithJupiter.Theremainderofthemoonsconsistofanunknownnumberofsmallirregularmoonswithellipticaland
inclinedorbits,whicharethoughttobecapturedasteroidsorfragmentsofcapturedasteroids.Irregularmoonsthatbelongtoagroupshare
similarorbitalelementsandthusmayhaveacommonorigin,perhapsasalargermoonorcapturedbodythatbrokeup.[116][117]
Regularmoons
Innergroup

Theinnergroupoffoursmallmoonsallhavediametersoflessthan200km,orbitatradiilessthan200,000km,and
haveorbitalinclinationsoflessthanhalfadegree.

Galileanmoons[118]

Thesefourmoons,discoveredbyGalileoGalileiandbySimonMariusinparallel,orbitbetween400,000and
2,000,000km,andaresomeofthelargestmoonsintheSolarSystem.
Irregularmoons

Themisto

Thisisasinglemoonbelongingtoagroupofitsown,orbitinghalfwaybetweentheGalileanmoonsandtheHimalia
group.

Himaliagroup

Atightlyclusteredgroupofmoonswithorbitsaround11,000,00012,000,000kmfromJupiter.

Carpo

AnotherisolatedcaseattheinneredgeoftheAnankegroup,itorbitsJupiterinprogradedirection.

Anankegroup

Thisretrogradeorbitgrouphasratherindistinctborders,averaging21,276,000kmfromJupiterwithanaverage
inclinationof149degrees.

Carmegroup

Afairlydistinctretrogradegroupthataverages23,404,000kmfromJupiterwithanaverageinclinationof165degrees.

Pasiphagroup

Adispersedandonlyvaguelydistinctretrogradegroupthatcoversalltheoutermostmoons.

InteractionwiththeSolarSystem
AlongwiththeSun,thegravitationalinfluenceofJupiterhashelpedshapetheSolarSystem.Theorbitsofmostofthesystem'splanetslie
closertoJupiter'sorbitalplanethantheSun'sequatorialplane(MercuryistheonlyplanetthatisclosertotheSun'sequatorinorbitaltilt),the
KirkwoodgapsintheasteroidbeltaremostlycausedbyJupiter,andtheplanetmayhavebeenresponsiblefortheLateHeavyBombardment
oftheinnerSolarSystem'shistory.[119]
Alongwithitsmoons,Jupiter'sgravitationalfieldcontrolsnumerousasteroidsthathavesettledintotheregionsoftheLagrangianpoints
precedingandfollowingJupiterinitsorbitaroundtheSun.TheseareknownastheTrojanasteroids,andaredividedintoGreekandTrojan
"camps"tocommemoratetheIliad.Thefirstofthese,588Achilles,wasdiscoveredbyMaxWolfin1906sincethenmorethantwothousand
havebeendiscovered.[120]Thelargestis624Hektor.

MostshortperiodcometsbelongtotheJupiterfamilydefinedascometswithsemimajoraxes
smallerthanJupiter's.JupiterfamilycometsarethoughttoformintheKuiperbeltoutsidetheorbitof
Neptune.DuringcloseencounterswithJupitertheirorbitsareperturbedintoasmallerperiodandthen
circularizedbyregulargravitationalinteractionwiththeSunandJupiter.[121]

Impacts
JupiterhasbeencalledtheSolarSystem'svacuumcleaner,[123]becauseofitsimmensegravitywelland
locationneartheinnerSolarSystem.ItreceivesthemostfrequentcometimpactsoftheSolarSystem's
planets.[124]Itwasthoughtthattheplanetservedtopartiallyshieldtheinnersystemfromcometary
bombardment.[28]RecentcomputersimulationssuggestthatJupiterdoesnotcauseanetdecreaseinthe
numberofcometsthatpassthroughtheinnerSolarSystem,asitsgravityperturbstheirorbitsinwardin
roughlythesamenumbersthatitaccretesorejectsthem.[125]Thistopicremainscontroversialamong
scientists,assomethinkitdrawscometstowardsEarthfromtheKuiperbeltwhileothersthinkthat
JupiterprotectsEarthfromtheallegedOortcloud.[126]Jupiterexperiencesabout200timesmore
asteroidandcometimpactsthanEarth.[28]

ThisdiagramshowstheTrojan
asteroidsinJupiter'sorbit,aswellas
themainasteroidbelt.

A1997surveyofhistoricalastronomicaldrawingssuggestedthatCassinimayhaverecordedanimpact
scarin1690.Thesurveydeterminedeightothercandidateobservationshadlowornopossibilitiesof
animpact.[127]AfireballwasphotographedbyVoyager1duringitsJupiterencounterinMarch
1979.[128]DuringtheperiodJuly16,1994,toJuly22,1994,over20fragmentsfromthecomet
ShoemakerLevy9(SL9,formallydesignatedD/1993F2)collidedwithJupiter'ssouthernhemisphere,
providingthefirstdirectobservationofacollisionbetweentwoSolarSystemobjects.Thisimpact
providedusefuldataonthecompositionofJupiter'satmosphere.[129][130]
OnJuly19,2009,animpactsitewasdiscoveredatapproximately216degreeslongitudeinSystem
2.[131][132]ThisimpactleftbehindablackspotinJupiter'satmosphere,similarinsizetoOvalBA.
Infraredobservationshowedabrightspotwheretheimpacttookplace,meaningtheimpactwarmedup
theloweratmosphereintheareanearJupiter'ssouthpole.[133]

HubbleimagetakenonJuly23,2009,
showingablemishofabout5,000
mileslongleftbythe2009Jupiter
impact. [122]

Afireball,smallerthanthepreviousobservedimpacts,wasdetectedonJune3,2010,byAnthonyWesley,anamateurastronomerinAustralia,
andwaslaterdiscoveredtohavebeencapturedonvideobyanotheramateurastronomerinthePhilippines.[134]Yetanotherfireballwasseen
onAugust20,2010.[135]

OnSeptember10,2012,anotherfireballwasdetected.[128][136]

Possibilityoflife
In1953,theMillerUreyexperimentdemonstratedthatacombinationoflightningandthechemicalcompoundsthatexistedintheatmosphere
ofaprimordialEarthcouldformorganiccompounds(includingaminoacids)thatcouldserveasthebuildingblocksoflife.Thesimulated
atmosphereincludedwater,methane,ammonia,andmolecularhydrogenallmoleculesstillfoundinJupiter'satmosphere.Jupiter'satmosphere
hasastrongverticalaircirculation,whichwouldcarrythesecompoundsdownintothelowerregions.Thehighertemperatureswithinthe
interioroftheatmospherebreakdownthesechemicals,whichwouldhindertheformationofEarthlikelife.[137]
ItisconsideredhighlyunlikelythatthereisanyEarthlikelifeonJupiter,becausethereisonlyasmallamountofwaterinJupiter'satmosphere
andanypossiblesolidsurfacedeepwithinJupiterwouldbeunderextremepressures.Still,ithasbeenhypothesizedthatammoniaorwater
basedlifecouldevolveinJupiter'supperatmosphere.[138][139][140][141]ThepossiblepresenceofundergroundoceansonsomeofJupiter's
moonshasledtospeculationthatthepresenceoflifeismorelikelythere.

Mythology
TheplanetJupiterhasbeenknownsinceancienttimes.Itisvisibletothenakedeyeinthenightsky
andcanoccasionallybeseeninthedaytimewhentheSunislow.[142]TotheBabylonians,thisobject
representedtheirgodMarduk.TheyusedJupiter'sroughly12yearorbitalongtheecliptictodefinethe
constellationsoftheirzodiac.[23][143]
TheRomansnameditafterJupiter(Latin:Iuppiter,Ipiter)(alsocalledJove),theprincipalgodof
Romanmythology,whosenamecomesfromtheProtoIndoEuropeanvocativecompound*Dyupter
(nominative:*Dyusptr,meaning"FatherSkyGod",or"FatherDayGod").[144]Inturn,Jupiterwas
thecounterparttothemythicalGreekZeus(),alsoreferredtoasDias(),theplanetaryname
ofwhichisretainedinmodernGreek.[145]

Jupiter,woodcutfroma1550edition
ofGuidoBonatti'sLiberAstronomiae

Theastronomicalsymbolfortheplanet, ,isastylizedrepresentationofthegod'slightningbolt.The
originalGreekdeityZeussuppliestherootzeno,usedtoformsomeJupiterrelatedwords,suchaszenographic.[146]
JovianistheadjectivalformofJupiter.Theolderadjectivalformjovial,employedbyastrologersintheMiddleAges,hascometomean
"happy"or"merry,"moodsascribedtoJupiter'sastrologicalinfluence.[147]
TheChinese,KoreansandJapanesecalleditthe"woodstar"(Chinese:pinyin:mxng),basedontheChineseFive

TheChinese,KoreansandJapanesecalleditthe"woodstar"(Chinese:pinyin:mxng),basedontheChineseFive
Elements.[148][149][150]ChineseTaoismpersonifieditastheFustar.TheGreekscalledit,Phaethon,"blazing."InVedicastrology,
HinduastrologersnamedtheplanetafterBrihaspati,thereligiousteacherofthegods,andoftencalledit"Guru",whichliterallymeansthe
"HeavyOne."[151]
InGermanicmythology,JupiterisequatedtoThor,whencetheEnglishnameThursdayfortheRomandiesJovis.[152]
IntheCentralAsianTurkicmyths,JupiteriscalledErendizorErentz,fromeren(ofuncertainmeaning)andyultuz('star').Therearemany
theoriesaboutthemeaningoferen.ThesepeoplescalculatedtheperiodoftheorbitofJupiteras11yearsand300days.Theybelievedthat
somesocialandnaturaleventsconnectedtoErentz'smovementsonthesky.[153]

Seealso
HIP11915
HotJupiter
JovianPlutoniangravitationaleffect
Jovian(fiction)
Juno(spacecraft)
Jupiterinfiction
Spaceexploration

Notes
a.ThisimagewastakenbytheHubbleSpaceTelescope,usingtheWideFieldCamera3,on21April2014.Jupiter'satomosphereanditsappearance
constantlychanges,andhenceitscurrentappearancetodaymaynotresemblewhatitwaswhenthisimagewastaken.Depictedinthisimage,however,
areafewfeaturesthatremainconsistent,suchasthefamousGreatRedSpot,featuredprominentlyinthelowerrightoftheimage,andtheplanet's
recognizablebandedappearance.
b.Referstothelevelof1baratmosphericpressure

References
1.Jupiter,entryintheOxfordEnglishDictionary,preparedbyJ.A.SimpsonandE.S.C.Weiner,vol.8,secondedition,Oxford:ClarendonPress,1989.
ISBN0198612206(vol.8),ISBN0198611862(set.)
2.Seligman,Courtney."RotationPeriodandDayLength".RetrievedAugust13,2009.
3.Williams,DavidR.(November16,2004)."JupiterFactSheet".NASA.RetrievedAugust8,2007.

4."TheMeanPlane(Invariableplane)oftheSolarSystempassingthroughthebarycenter".April3,2009.RetrievedApril10,2009.(producedwithSolex
10(http://chemistry.unina.it/~alvitagl/solex/)writtenbyAldoVitaglianoseealsoInvariableplane)
5.Simon,J.L.Bretagnon,P.Chapront,J.ChaprontTouz,M.Francou,G.Laskar,J.(February1994)."Numericalexpressionsforprecession
formulaeandmeanelementsfortheMoonandplanets".AstronomyandAstrophysics282(2):663683.Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
6.Seidelmann,P.KennethArchinal,BrentA.A'Hearn,MichaelF.etal.(2007)."ReportoftheIAU/IAGWorkingGrouponcartographiccoordinates
androtationalelements:2006".CelestialMechanicsandDynamicalAstronomy98(3):155180.Bibcode:2007CeMDA..98..155S.doi:10.1007/s10569
0079072y.
7."SolarSystemExploration:Jupiter:Facts&Figures".NASA.May7,2008.
8."AstrodynamicConstants".JPLSolarSystemDynamics.February27,2009.RetrievedAugust8,2007.
9.Seidelmann,P.K.Abalakin,V.K.Bursa,M.Davies,M.E.deBurgh,C.Lieske,J.H.Oberst,J.Simon,J.L.Standish,E.M.Stooke,P.
Thomas,P.C.(2001)."ReportoftheIAU/IAGWorkingGrouponCartographicCoordinatesandRotationalElementsofthePlanetsandSatellites:
2000".HNSKYPlanetariumProgram.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
10.Anonymous(March1983)."ProbeNephelometer".GalileoMessenger(NASA/JPL)(6).RetrievedFebruary12,2007.
11.DeCrespigny,Rafe."EmperorHuanandEmperorLing"(PDF).Asianstudies,OnlinePublications.Archivedfromtheoriginal(PDF)onSeptember7,
2006.RetrievedMay1,2012."XuHuangapparentlycomplainedthattheastronomyofficehadfailedtogivethemproperemphasistotheeclipseandto
otherportents,includingthemovementoftheplanetJupiter(taisui).Athisinstigation,ChenShou/Yuanwassummonedandquestioned,anditwas
underthispressurethathisadviceimplicatedLiangJi."
12.StuartRossTaylor(2001).Solarsystemevolution:anewperspective:aninquiryintothechemicalcomposition,origin,andevolutionofthesolar
system(2nd,illus.,reviseded.).CambridgeUniversityPress.p.208.ISBN0521641306.
13."YoungastronomercapturesashadowcastbyJupiter:BadAstronomy".Blogs.discovermagazine.com.November18,2011.RetrievedMay27,2013.
14.Saumon,D.Guillot,T.(2004)."ShockCompressionofDeuteriumandtheInteriorsofJupiterandSaturn".TheAstrophysicalJournal609(2):1170
1180.arXiv:astroph/0403393.Bibcode:2004ApJ...609.1170S.doi:10.1086/421257.
15.KonstantinBatygin."JupitersdecisiveroleintheinnerSolarSystemsearlyevolution".pnas.org.RetrievedNovember17,2015.
16.IllustrationbyNASA/JPLCaltech."Observe:Jupiter,WreckingBallofEarlySolarSystem".nationalgeographic.com.RetrievedNovember17,2015.
17.Gautier,D.Conrath,B.Flasar,M.Hanel,R.Kunde,V.Chedin,A.ScottN.(1981)."TheheliumabundanceofJupiterfromVoyager".Journalof
GeophysicalResearch86(A10):87138720.Bibcode:1981JGR....86.8713G.doi:10.1029/JA086iA10p08713.
18.Kunde,V.G.etal.(September10,2004)."Jupiter'sAtmosphericCompositionfromtheCassiniThermalInfraredSpectroscopyExperiment".Science
305(5690):158286.Bibcode:2004Sci...305.1582K.doi:10.1126/science.1100240.PMID15319491.RetrievedApril4,2007.
19.Kim,S.J.Caldwell,J.Rivolo,A.R.Wagner,R.(1985)."InfraredPolarBrighteningonJupiterIII.SpectrometryfromtheVoyager1IRIS
Experiment".Icarus64(2):23348.Bibcode:1985Icar...64..233K.doi:10.1016/00191035(85)902015.
20.Niemann,H.B.Atreya,S.K.Carignan,G.R.Donahue,T.M.Haberman,J.A.Harpold,D.N.Hartle,R.E.Hunten,D.M.Kasprzak,W.T.
Mahaffy,P.R.Owen,T.C.Spencer,N.W.Way,S.H.(1996)."TheGalileoProbeMassSpectrometer:CompositionofJupiter'sAtmosphere".
Science272(5263):846849.Bibcode:1996Sci...272..846N.doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.846.PMID8629016.
21.vonZahn,U.Hunten,D.M.Lehmacher,G.(1998)."HeliuminJupiter'satmosphere:ResultsfromtheGalileoprobeHeliumInterferometer
Experiment".JournalofGeophysicalResearch103(E10):2281522829.Bibcode:1998JGR...10322815V.doi:10.1029/98JE00695.
22.Ingersoll,A.P.Hammel,H.B.Spilker,T.R.Young,R.E.(June1,2005)."OuterPlanets:TheIceGiants"(PDF).Lunar&PlanetaryInstitute.
RetrievedFebruary1,2007.
23.Burgess,Eric(1982).ByJupiter:OdysseystoaGiant.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress.ISBN023105176X.
24.Shu,FrankH.(1982).Thephysicaluniverse:anintroductiontoastronomy.Seriesofbooksinastronomy(12thed.).UniversityScienceBooks.p.426.
ISBN0935702059.

25.Davis,AndrewM.Turekian,KarlK.(2005).Meteorites,comets,andplanets.Treatiseongeochemistry1.Elsevier.p.624.ISBN0080447201.
26.JeanSchneider(2009)."TheExtrasolarPlanetsEncyclopedia:InteractiveCatalogue".ParisObservatory.
27.Seager,S.Kuchner,M.HierMajumder,C.A.Militzer,B.(2007)."MassRadiusRelationshipsforSolidExoplanets".TheAstrophysicalJournal
669(2):12791297.arXiv:0707.2895.Bibcode:2007ApJ...669.1279S.doi:10.1086/521346.
28.HowtheUniverseWorks3.Jupiter:DestroyerorSavior?.DiscoveryChannel.2014.
29.Guillot,Tristan(1999)."InteriorsofGiantPlanetsInsideandOutsidetheSolarSystem".Science286(5437):7277.Bibcode:1999Sci...286...72G.
doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.72.PMID10506563.RetrievedAugust28,2007.
30.Burrows,A.Hubbard,W.B.Saumon,D.Lunine,J.I.(1993)."Anexpandedsetofbrowndwarfandverylowmassstarmodels".Astrophysical
Journal406(1):15871.Bibcode:1993ApJ...406..158B.doi:10.1086/172427.
31.Queloz,Didier(November19,2002)."VLTInterferometerMeasurestheSizeofProximaCentauriandOtherNearbyStars".EuropeanSouthern
Observatory.RetrievedJanuary12,2007.
32.ElkinsTanton,LindaT.(2006).JupiterandSaturn.NewYork:ChelseaHouse.ISBN0816051968.
33.Guillot,T.Stevenson,D.J.Hubbard,W.B.Saumon,D.(2004)."Chapter3:TheInteriorofJupiter".InBagenal,F.Dowling,T.E.McKinnon,W.
B.Jupiter:ThePlanet,SatellitesandMagnetosphere.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521818087.
34.Bodenheimer,P.(1974)."CalculationsoftheearlyevolutionofJupiter".Icarus.2323(3):31925.Bibcode:1974Icar...23..319B.doi:10.1016/0019
1035(74)900505.
35.Guillot,T.Gautier,D.Hubbard,W.B.(1997)."NewConstraintsontheCompositionofJupiterfromGalileoMeasurementsandInteriorModels".
Icarus130(2):534539.arXiv:astroph/9707210.Bibcode:1997astro.ph..7210G.doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5812.
36.Various(2006).McFadden,LucyAnnWeissman,PaulJohnson,Torrence,eds.EncyclopediaoftheSolarSystem(2nded.).AcademicPress.p.412.
ISBN0120885891.
37.Horia,YasunoriSanoa,TakayoshiIkomaa,MasahiroIdaa,Shigeru(2007)."OnuncertaintyofJupiter'scoremassduetoobservationalerrors".
ProceedingsoftheInternationalAstronomicalUnion(CambridgeUniversityPress)3(S249):163166.doi:10.1017/S1743921308016554.
38.Lodders,Katharina(2004)."JupiterFormedwithMoreTarthanIce".TheAstrophysicalJournal611(1):587597.Bibcode:2004ApJ...611..587L.
doi:10.1086/421970.
39.Zttel,Andreas(September2003)."Materialsforhydrogenstorage".MaterialsToday6(9):2433.doi:10.1016/S13697021(03)009222.
40.Guillot,T.(1999)."AcomparisonoftheinteriorsofJupiterandSaturn".PlanetaryandSpaceScience47(1011):1183200.arXiv:astroph/9907402.
Bibcode:1999P&SS...47.1183G.doi:10.1016/S00320633(99)000434.
41.Lang,KennethR.(2003)."Jupiter:agiantprimitiveplanet".NASA.RetrievedJanuary10,2007.
42.Seiff,A.Kirk,D.B.Knight,T.C.D.etal.(1998)."ThermalstructureofJupiter'satmosphereneartheedgeofa5mhotspotinthenorthequatorial
belt".JournalofGeophysicalResearch103(E10):2285722889.Bibcode:1998JGR...10322857S.doi:10.1029/98JE01766.
43.Miller,SteveAylward,AlanMillward,George(January2005)."GiantPlanetIonospheresandThermospheres:TheImportanceofIonNeutral
Coupling".SpaceScienceReviews116(12):319343.Bibcode:2005SSRv..116..319M.doi:10.1007/s1121400519604.
44.Ingersoll,A.P.Dowling,T.E.Gierasch,P.J.Orton,G.S.Read,P.L.SanchezLavega,A.Showman,A.P.SimonMiller,A.A.Vasavada,A.
R."DynamicsofJupiter'sAtmosphere"(PDF).Lunar&PlanetaryInstitute.RetrievedFebruary1,2007.
45.Watanabe,Susan,ed.(February25,2006)."SurprisingJupiter:BusyGalileospacecraftshowedjoviansystemisfullofsurprises".NASA.Retrieved
February20,2007.
46.Kerr,RichardA.(2000)."Deep,MoistHeatDrivesJovianWeather".Science287(5455):946947.doi:10.1126/science.287.5455.946b.Retrieved
February24,2007.
47.Strycker,P.D.Chanover,N.Sussman,M.SimonMiller,A.(2006).ASpectroscopicSearchforJupiter'sChromophores.DPSmeeting#38,#11.15
(AmericanAstronomicalSociety).Bibcode:2006DPS....38.1115S.

48.Gierasch,PeterJ.Nicholson,PhilipD.(2004)."Jupiter".WorldBook@NASA.RetrievedAugust10,2006.
49.Harrington,J.D.Weaver,DonnaVillard,Ray(May15,2014)."Release14135NASA'sHubbleShowsJupiter'sGreatRedSpotisSmallerthan
EverMeasured".NASA.RetrievedMay16,2014.
50.Denning,W.F.(1899)."Jupiter,earlyhistoryofthegreatredspoton".MonthlyNoticesoftheRoyalAstronomicalSociety59:574584.
Bibcode:1899MNRAS..59..574D.doi:10.1093/mnras/59.10.574.
51.Kyrala,A.(1982)."AnexplanationofthepersistenceoftheGreatRedSpotofJupiter".MoonandthePlanets26(1):1057.
Bibcode:1982M&P....26..105K.doi:10.1007/BF00941374.
52.PhilosophicalTransactionsVol.I(http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28758/28758h/28758h.htm)(16651666.).ProjectGutenberg.Retrievedon
December22,2011.
53."HubbleSiteNewsCenter".NASA.RetrievedDecember12,2013.
54."HubbleSiteNewsCenter".NASA.RetrievedApril26,2015.
55.Covington,MichaelA.(2002).CelestialObjectsforModernTelescopes.CambridgeUniversityPress.p.53.ISBN0521524199.
56.Sommeria,JelMeyers,StevenD.Swinney,HarryL.(February25,1988)."LaboratorysimulationofJupiter'sGreatRedSpot".Nature331(6158):
689693.Bibcode:1988Natur.331..689S.doi:10.1038/331689a0.
57.Cardall,C.Y.Daunt,S.J."TheGreatRedSpot".UniversityofTennessee.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
58."JupiterDataSheet".Space.com.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
59.Phillips,Tony(March3,2006)."Jupiter'sNewRedSpot".NASA.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
60."Jupiter'sNewRedSpot".2006.RetrievedMarch9,2006.
61.Steigerwald,Bill(October14,2006)."Jupiter'sLittleRedSpotGrowingStronger".NASA.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
62.Goudarzi,Sara(May4,2006)."NewstormonJupiterhintsatclimatechanges".USAToday.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
63.Showalter,M.A.Burns,J.A.Cuzzi,J.N.Pollack,J.B.(1987)."Jupiter'sringsystem:Newresultsonstructureandparticleproperties".Icarus69
(3):45898.Bibcode:1987Icar...69..458S.doi:10.1016/00191035(87)900182.
64.Burns,J.A.Showalter,M.R.Hamilton,D.P.etal.(1999)."TheFormationofJupiter'sFaintRings".Science284(5417):114650.
Bibcode:1999Sci...284.1146B.doi:10.1126/science.284.5417.1146.PMID10325220.
65.Fieseler,P.D.Adams,OlenWVandermey,NancyTheilig,E.ESchimmels,KathrynALewis,GeorgeDArdalan,ShadanMAlexander,ClaudiaJ
(2004)."TheGalileoStarScannerObservationsatAmalthea".Icarus169(2):390401.Bibcode:2004Icar..169..390F.doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.01.012.
66.Brainerd,Jim(November22,2004)."Jupiter'sMagnetosphere".TheAstrophysicsSpectator.RetrievedAugust10,2008.
67."RadioStormsonJupiter".NASA.February20,2004.RetrievedFebruary1,2007.
68.Herbst,T.M.Rix,H.W.(1999).Guenther,EikeStecklum,BringfriedKlose,Sylvio,eds.StarFormationandExtrasolarPlanetStudieswithNear
InfraredInterferometryontheLBT188.SanFrancisco,Calif.:AstronomicalSocietyofthePacific.pp.341350.Bibcode:1999ASPC..188..341H.
ISBN1583810145.Seesection3.4.
69.Michtchenko,T.A.FerrazMello,S.(February2001)."Modelingthe5:2MeanMotionResonanceintheJupiterSaturnPlanetarySystem".Icarus
149(2):77115.Bibcode:2001Icar..149..357M.doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6539.
70."InterplanetarySeasons".Science@NASA.RetrievedFebruary20,2007.
71.Ridpath,Ian(1998).Norton'sStarAtlas(19thed.).PrenticeHall.ISBN0582356555.
72."EncounterwiththeGiant".NASA.1974.RetrievedFebruary17,2007.
73."HowtoObserveJupiter".WikiHow.July28,2013.RetrievedJuly28,2013.
74.A.Sachs(May2,1974)."BabylonianObservationalAstronomy".PhilosophicalTransactionsoftheRoyalSocietyofLondon(RoyalSocietyofLondon)
276(1257):4350(seep.44).Bibcode:1974RSPTA.276...43S.doi:10.1098/rsta.1974.0008.JSTOR74273viaJSTOR.(subscriptionrequired(help)).
75.Dubs,HomerH.(1958)."TheBeginningsofChineseAstronomy".JournaloftheAmericanOrientalSociety78(4):295300.

76.Xi,Z.Z.(1981)."TheDiscoveryofJupiter'sSatelliteMadebyGanDe2000YearsBeforeGalileo".ActaAstrophysicaSinica1(2):87.
Bibcode:1981AcApS...1...87X.
77.Dong,Paul(2002).China'sMajorMysteries:ParanormalPhenomenaandtheUnexplainedinthePeople'sRepublic.ChinaBooks.ISBN083512676
5.
78.OlafPedersen(1974).ASurveyoftheAlmagest.OdenseUniversityPress.pp.423,428.
79.tr.withnotesbyWalterEugeneClark(1930).TheAryabhatiyaofAryabhata(PDF).UniversityofChicagoPress.p.9,Stanza1.
80.Pasachoff,JayM.(2015)."SimonMarius'sMundusIovialis:400thAnniversaryinGalileo'sShadow".JournalfortheHistoryofAstronomy46(2):
218234.Bibcode:2015AAS...22521505P.doi:10.1177/0021828615585493.
81.Westfall,RichardS."Galilei,Galileo".TheGalileoProject.RetrievedJanuary10,2007.
82.O'Connor,J.J.Robertson,E.F.(April2003)."GiovanniDomenicoCassini".UniversityofSt.Andrews.RetrievedFebruary14,2007.
83.Murdin,Paul(2000).EncyclopediaofAstronomyandAstrophysics.Bristol:InstituteofPhysicsPublishing.ISBN0122266900.
84."SP349/396PioneerOdysseyJupiter,GiantoftheSolarSystem".NASA.August1974.RetrievedAugust10,2006.
85."Roemer'sHypothesis".MathPages.RetrievedJanuary12,2007.
86.Tenn,Joe(March10,2006)."EdwardEmersonBarnard".SonomaStateUniversity.RetrievedJanuary10,2007.
87."AmaltheaFactSheet".NASAJPL.October1,2001.RetrievedFebruary21,2007.
88.DunhamJr.,Theodore(1933)."NoteontheSpectraofJupiterandSaturn".PublicationsoftheAstronomicalSocietyofthePacific45:4244.
Bibcode:1933PASP...45...42D.doi:10.1086/124297.
89.Youssef,A.Marcus,P.S.(2003)."Thedynamicsofjovianwhiteovalsfromformationtomerger".Icarus162(1):7493.
Bibcode:2003Icar..162...74Y.doi:10.1016/S00191035(02)00060X.
90.Weintraub,RachelA.(September26,2005)."HowOneNightinaFieldChangedAstronomy".NASA.RetrievedFebruary18,2007.
91.Garcia,LeonardN."TheJovianDecametricRadioEmission".NASA.RetrievedFebruary18,2007.
92.Klein,M.J.Gulkis,S.Bolton,S.J.(1996)."Jupiter'sSynchrotronRadiation:ObservedVariationsBefore,DuringandAftertheImpactsofComet
SL9".NASA.RetrievedFebruary18,2007.
93.NASAPioneer10MissionProfile(http://quest.nasa.gov/sso/cool/pioneer10/mission/).NASA.RetrievedonDecember22,2011.
94.NASAGlennResearchCenter(http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/history/pioneer.html).NASA.RetrievedonDecember22,2011.
95.Fortescue,PeterW.Stark,JohnandSwinerd,GrahamSpacecraftsystemsengineering,3rded.,JohnWileyandSons,2003,ISBN0470851023p.
150.
96.Hirata,Chris."DeltaVintheSolarSystem".CaliforniaInstituteofTechnology.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly15,2006.RetrievedNovember28,
2006.
97.Wong,Al(May28,1998)."GalileoFAQ:Navigation".NASA.RetrievedNovember28,2006.
98.Chan,K.Paredes,E.S.Ryne,M.S.(2004)."UlyssesAttitudeandOrbitOperations:13+YearsofInternationalCooperation".AmericanInstituteof
AeronauticsandAstronautics.RetrievedNovember28,2006.
99.Lasher,Lawrence(August1,2006)."PioneerProjectHomePage".NASASpaceProjectsDivision.RetrievedNovember28,2006.
100."Jupiter".NASAJetPropulsionLaboratory.January14,2003.RetrievedNovember28,2006.
101.Hansen,C.J.Bolton,S.J.Matson,D.L.Spilker,L.J.Lebreton,J.P.(2004)."TheCassiniHuygensflybyofJupiter".Icarus172(1):18.
Bibcode:2004Icar..172....1H.doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.018.
102."MissionUpdate:AtClosestApproach,aFreshViewofJupiter".ArchivedfromtheoriginalonApril29,2007.RetrievedJuly27,2007.
103."PlutoBoundNewHorizonsProvidesNewLookatJupiterSystem".RetrievedJuly27,2007.
104."NewHorizonstargetsJupiterkick".BBCNewsOnline.January19,2007.RetrievedJanuary20,2007.
105.Alexander,Amir(September27,2006)."NewHorizonsSnapsFirstPictureofJupiter".ThePlanetarySociety.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonFebruary

21,2007.RetrievedDecember19,2006.
106.McConnell,Shannon(April14,2003)."Galileo:JourneytoJupiter".NASAJetPropulsionLaboratory.RetrievedNovember28,2006.
107.Magalhes,Julio(December10,1996)."GalileoProbeMissionEvents".NASASpaceProjectsDivision.RetrievedFebruary2,2007.
108.Goodeill,Anthony(March31,2008)."NewFrontiersMissionsJuno".NASA.RetrievedJanuary2,2007.
109.Amos,Jonathan(May2,2012)."Esaselects1bneuroJuiceprobetoJupiter".BBCNewsOnline.RetrievedMay2,2012.
110.Wall,Mike(March5,2014)."NASAEyesAmbitiousMissiontoJupiter'sIcyMoonEuropaby2025".Space.com.RetrievedSeptember23,2015.
111.Berger,Brian(February7,2005)."WhiteHousescalesbackspaceplans".MSNBC.RetrievedJanuary2,2007.
112."Laplace:AmissiontoEuropa&Jupitersystem".ESA.RetrievedJanuary23,2009.
113.NewapproachforLclassmissioncandidates(http://sci.esa.int/sciencee/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=48661),ESA,April19,2011
114.Sheppard,ScottS."TheGiantPlanetSatelliteandMoonPage".DepartamentofTerrestrialMagnetismatCarniegeInstitutionforscience.Retrieved
December19,2014.
115.Musotto,S.Varadi,F.Moore,W.B.Schubert,G.(2002)."NumericalsimulationsoftheorbitsoftheGalileansatellites".Icarus159(2):500504.
Bibcode:2002Icar..159..500M.doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6939.
116.Jewitt,D.C.Sheppard,S.Porco,C.(2004).Bagenal,F.Dowling,T.McKinnon,W,eds.Jupiter:ThePlanet,SatellitesandMagnetosphere(PDF).
CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521818087.Archivedfromtheoriginal(PDF)onJuly14,2011.
117.Nesvorn,D.Alvarellos,J.L.A.Dones,L.Levison,H.F.(2003)."OrbitalandCollisionalEvolutionoftheIrregularSatellites".TheAstronomical
Journal126(1):398429.Bibcode:2003AJ....126..398N.doi:10.1086/375461.
118.Showman,A.P.Malhotra,R.(1999)."TheGalileanSatellites".Science286(5437):7784.doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77.PMID10506564.
119.Kerr,RichardA.(2004)."DidJupiterandSaturnTeamUptoPummeltheInnerSolarSystem?".Science306(5702):1676.
doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1676a.PMID15576586.RetrievedAugust28,2007.
120."ListOfJupiterTrojans".IAUMinorPlanetCenter.RetrievedOctober24,2010.
121.Quinn,T.Tremaine,S.Duncan,M.(1990)."Planetaryperturbationsandtheoriginsofshortperiodcomets".AstrophysicalJournal,Part1355:667
679.Bibcode:1990ApJ...355..667Q.doi:10.1086/168800.
122.DennisOverbye(July24,2009)."HubbleTakesSnapshotofJupiter's'BlackEye' ".NewYorkTimes.RetrievedJuly25,2009.
123.Lovett,RichardA.(December15,2006)."Stardust'sCometCluesRevealEarlySolarSystem".NationalGeographicNews.RetrievedJanuary8,2007.
124.Nakamura,T.Kurahashi,H.(1998)."CollisionalProbabilityofPeriodicCometswiththeTerrestrialPlanets:AnInvalidCaseofAnalytic
Formulation".AstronomicalJournal115(2):848854.Bibcode:1998AJ....115..848N.doi:10.1086/300206.RetrievedAugust28,2007.
125.Horner,J.Jones,B.W.(2008)."Jupiterfriendorfoe?I:theasteroids.".InternationalJournalofAstrobiology7(34):251261.arXiv:0806.2795.
Bibcode:2008IJAsB...7..251H.doi:10.1017/S1473550408004187.
126.Overbyte,Dennis(July25,2009)."Jupiter:OurComicProtector?".ThewNewYorkTimes.RetrievedJuly27,2009.
127.Tabe,IsshiWatanabe,JunichiJimbo,Michiwo(February1997)."DiscoveryofaPossibleImpactSPOTonJupiterRecordedin1690".Publications
oftheAstronomicalSocietyofJapan49:L1L5.Bibcode:1997PASJ...49L...1T.doi:10.1093/pasj/49.1.l1.
128.FranckMarchis(September10,2012)."AnotherfireballonJupiter?.".CosmicDiaryblog.RetrievedSeptember11,2012.
129.Baalke,Ron."CometShoemakerLevyCollisionwithJupiter".NASA.RetrievedJanuary2,2007.
130.Britt,RobertR.(August23,2004)."Remnantsof1994CometImpactLeavePuzzleatJupiter".space.com.RetrievedFebruary20,2007.
131.Staff(July21,2009)."AmateurastronomerdiscoversJupitercollision".ABCNewsonline.RetrievedJuly21,2009.
132.Salway,Mike(July19,2009)."BreakingNews:PossibleImpactonJupiter,CapturedbyAnthonyWesley".IceInSpace.IceInSpaceNews.Retrieved
July19,2009.
133.Grossman,Lisa(July20,2009)."Jupitersportsnew'bruise'fromimpact".NewScientist.
134.Bakich,Michael(June4,2010)."AnotherimpactonJupiter".AstronomyMagazineonline.RetrievedJune4,2010.

135.Beatty,Kelly(August22,2010)."AnotherFlashonJupiter!".Sky&Telescope.SkyPublishing.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonAugust27,2010.
RetrievedAugust23,2010."MasayukiTachikawawasobserving...18:22UniversalTimeonthe20th...KazuoAokipostedanimage...Ishimaruof
Toyamaprefectureobservedtheevent"
136.Hall,George(September2012)."George'sAstrophotography".RetrievedSeptember17,2012."10Sept.201211:35UT..observedbyDanPetersen"
137.Heppenheimer,T.A.(2007)."ColoniesinSpace,Chapter1:OtherLifeinSpace".NationalSpaceSociety.RetrievedFebruary26,2007.
138."LifeonJupiter".EncyclopediaofAstrobiology,Astronomy&Spaceflight.RetrievedMarch9,2006.
139.Sagan,C.Salpeter,E.E.(1976)."Particles,environments,andpossibleecologiesintheJovianatmosphere".TheAstrophysicalJournalSupplement
Series32:633637.Bibcode:1976ApJS...32..737S.doi:10.1086/190414.
140.Coffey,Jerry(June17,2008)."IsthereLifeonJupiter?".UniverseToday.RetrievedAugust15,2015.
141."Science:LifeonJupiter?".TIME.August25,1961.RetrievedAugust14,2015.
142.Staff(June16,2005)."StargazerspreparefordaylightviewofJupiter".ABCNewsOnline.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonMay12,2011.Retrieved
February28,2008.
143.Rogers,J.H.(1998)."Originsoftheancientconstellations:I.TheMesopotamiantraditions".JournaloftheBritishAstronomicalAssociation108:9
28.Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
144.Harper,Douglas(November2001)."Jupiter".OnlineEtymologyDictionary.RetrievedFebruary23,2007.
145."GreekNamesofthePlanets".RetrievedJuly14,2012."InGreekthenameoftheplanetJupiterisDias,theGreeknameofgodZeus."Seealsothe
Greekarticleabouttheplanet.
146.Seeforexample:"IAUC2844:Jupiter1975h".InternationalAstronomicalUnion.October1,1975.RetrievedOctober24,2010.Thatparticularword
hasbeeninusesinceatleast1966.See:"QueryResultsfromtheAstronomyDatabase".Smithsonian/NASA.RetrievedJuly29,2007.
147."Jovial".Dictionary.com.RetrievedJuly29,2007.
148.DeGroot,JanJakobMaria(1912).ReligioninChina:universism.akeytothestudyofTaoismandConfucianism.Americanlecturesonthehistoryof
religions10(G.P.Putnam'sSons).p.300.Retrieved20100108.
149.Crump,Thomas(1992).TheJapanesenumbersgame:theuseandunderstandingofnumbersinmodernJapan.NissanInstitute/RoutledgeJapanese
studiesseries(Routledge).pp.3940.ISBN0415056098.
150.Hulbert,HomerBezaleel(1909).ThepassingofKorea.Doubleday,Page&company.p.426.Retrieved20100108.
151."Guru".IndianDivinity.com.RetrievedFebruary14,2007.
152.Falk,MichaelKoresko,Christopher(1999)."AstronomicalNamesfortheDaysoftheWeek".JournaloftheRoyalAstronomicalSocietyofCanada93:
12233.Bibcode:1999JRASC..93..122F.doi:10.1016/j.newast.2003.07.002.
153."TrkAstrolojisi".ntvmsnbc.com.RetrievedApril23,2010.

Furtherreading
Bagenal,F.Dowling,T.E.McKinnon,W.B.,eds.(2004).Jupiter:Theplanet,satellites,andmagnetosphere.Cambridge:Cambridge
UniversityPress.ISBN0521818087.
Beebe,Reta(1997).Jupiter:TheGiantPlanet(Seconded.).Washington,D.C.:SmithsonianInstitutionPress.ISBN1560987316.

Externallinks

HansLohningeretal.(November2,2005)."Jupiter,AsSeenByVoyager1".ATripintoSpace.VirtualInstituteofAppliedScience.
RetrievedMarch9,2007.
Dunn,Tony(2006)."TheJovianSystem".GravitySimulator.RetrievedMarch9,2007.Asimulationofthe62Jovianmoons.
Seronik,G.Ashford,A.R."ChasingtheMoonsofJupiter".Sky&Telescope.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly13,2007.Retrieved
March9,2007.
Anonymous(May2,2007)."InPictures:NewviewsofJupiter".BBCNews.RetrievedMay2,2007.
Cain,Fraser."Jupiter".UniverseToday.RetrievedApril1,2008.
"FantasticFlybyoftheNewHorizonsspacecraft(May1,2007.)".NASA.RetrievedMay21,2008.
"MoonsofJupiterarticlesinPlanetaryScienceResearchDiscoveries".PlanetaryScienceResearchDiscoveries.UniversityofHawaii,
NASA.Retrieved20151117.
June2010impactvideo(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Us6EXc5Hyng)
Bauer,AmandaMerrifield,Michael(2009)."Jupiter".SixtySymbols.BradyHaranfortheUniversityofNottingham.
"NASASolarSystemJupiter".
PhotographsofJupitercirca1920sfromtheLickObservatoryRecordsDigitalArchive,UCSantaCruzLibrary'sDigitalCollections
(http://digitalcollections.ucsc.edu/cdm/search/collection/p265101coll10/searchterm/Jupiter%20(planet)/order/title)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jupiter&oldid=707537104"
Categories: Jupiter Giantplanets Astronomicalobjectsknownsinceantiquity
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon29February2016,at12:22.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.Byusingthissite,youagree
totheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.WikipediaisaregisteredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofit
organization.