# Science Sheet of Objectives Ch.

11
1) Be able to define pressure mathematically and state the
units it is measured in. Be able to define a Pascal. Pressure is the force exerted over on area on the surface of an object more simply Pressure= force/area. Pressure is measured in pascals. This si unit takes the name from the French mathematischian blace pascal who discovered how pressure is transmitted in a fluid. More exactly a pascal is equivalent to Pascal = One Newton per square meter (1n/1meter 2) 2) Be able to explain how pressure works using a practical example (such as snowshoes). Force and pressure are closely related. Pressure increases as Area decreseas: The larger the are a force is distributed the smaller the pressure. For example: if you stand on snow with your every day snekers you exert pressure on both soles. The Area under the soles usually when standing in snow is not enogh to keeep you up because the bothe measure about 500 cm 2 in area and so you sink but fi you put on snow shoes with a greater area such as 1100 cm 2 you are morelikely if your weight (or the force you exerton the ground isn’t execcive) to flot above the snow. + Example of tacchi a spillo 3) Be able to describe fluid pressure and how it varies with elevation and depth. A fluid is a material that can easily flow. In the phases of matter it is the phase between gas and solid.Fluids are made up of particles that constatnatly collide together and with other surfaces. The combination of all the forces exserted by the singleparticles makes up fluid pressure. Fluid pressure = Total force exerted by the combind particles that make u the fluid divided by the are over which it’s exerted. Air pressure = weight of the air created (the weight ) by the force of gravity Balanced Pressure: Why aren’t we destroyed or crusged by the huge atmospheric pressure that lies around us? Well the reason for life on earth resides inside balanced pressure. The pressure in the atmosphere is everywhere so as you are

pushed down by pressure the same pressure pushs you up so cancelling out itself. As for the same thing is why don’t we collapsebecause of ths tremendous pressure pushing us on all sides. Well the answer is that within us there are some fluids which balance out the air pressure around us as water in a bottle . as you pull away the air in a bottle it collapses . the same is for us air and other fluids that inhabit us balance out the Atmospheric pressure that otherwise would crush us. As you change position in respect to the earth pressure changes: As elevation increases atmospheric pressure decreases ( sketch with plane, Mt. everest helicopter and skydiver plus sea level scuba diver , fish and submarine) Water Pressure and Depth:Fluid pressure depnds on depthAs you descend in any fluid (Ex: water and diving) pressure increases because of the direct proportionality : water pressure icreases as dpth increases.

4) Be able to state Pascal’s Principle and briefly explain what
it means using a practical example. When force is applied on a confined fluid the change pressure is transmitted equally throughout (to all parts) the fluid…. This relationship between pressur e and fluids is known as pascals principal Ex: If you squeeze a bottle the pressure is the baottlechanges in the ame way o top on the bottom from left to right ( sketch) Say something on brakes of a car and how they work larger area/ larger force…

5) Be able to state Archimedes’ Principal and explain how it
works using a practical example. Archimedes princial is a rule explaning Buoyancy: the ability to float. This principe states that the buoyant force acting on a submerged object it’s equivalent to the weight of the fluid the object displaces. Fro example : Why do ships fload? Well they float because the buoyant force acting on them is greater than the force pulling them down…… Take twoobjects that weight the same amount for example a ship and a block of solid steel. The ship floats because the form of

it’s hullcauses the ship to diplace great quantities of water. Instead the stells sinks because the water it diplaces is not enogh to keep up with his weight.So since the ship displaces more water than the steel a grater buoyant force acts on the ship and as Archimedes principal states the buoyant force = the weight of the fluid displaced by a suberged object. Archimedes principal helps explin why submarines float and sinkand many other things. ( a ship floats because it’s complexive density so weight is less than or equal to the weight of the water diplaced by a suberged shipDensity mass per unit of volume (D=m/v) Changing density ( submarine Ex) Be able to state Bernoulli’s Principle and explain how it works using a practical example. Bernoulli’s principal has made it possible for humans too fly. As the speed within a moving fluid decreases the pressure within it decreases