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8 Hints for

Better Spectrum Analysis


Application Note 1286-1
The Spectrum Analyzer

The spectrum analyzer, like an When digital technology first became To get better spectrum analyzer
oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for viable, it was used to digitize the measurements the input signal must
observing signals. Where the oscil- video signal, as shown in Figure 2. be undistorted, the spectrum ana-
loscope provides a window into the As digital technology has advanced lyzer settings must be wisely set for
time domain, the spectrum analyzer over the years, the spectrum analyzer application-specific measurements,
provides a window into the frequency has evolved to incorporate digital and the measurement procedure
domain, as depicted in Figure 1. signal processing (DSP), after the final optimized to take best advantage of
IF filter as shown by the dotted box, the specifications. More details on
Figure 2 depicts a simplified block to be able to measure signal formats these steps will be addressed in the
diagram of a swept-tuned super- that are becoming increasingly hints.
heterodyne spectrum analyzer. complex. DSP is performed to pro-
Superheterodyne means to mix or vide improved dynamic range, faster
to translate in a frequency above sweep speed and better accuracy.
audio frequencies. In the analyzer,
a signal at the input travels through
an attenuator to limit the amplitude
of the signal at the mixer, and then
through a low-pass input filter to
eliminate undesirable frequencies.
Past the input filter, the signal gets
mixed with a signal generated by the
local oscillator (LO) whose frequency Time domain Frequency domain
is controlled by a sweep generator. measurements measurements

As the frequency of the LO changes,


Figure 1. Measurement domain
the signals at the output of the mixer,
(which include the two original
signals, their sums and differences
and their harmonics), get filtered by Digital signal processor
the resolution bandwidth filter (IF Preselector Resolution
Input or input bandwidth Log Envelope
filter), and amplified or compressed attenuator filter Mixer filter IF gain amp detector
in the logarithmic scale. A detec-
tor then rectifies the signal passing
through the IF filter, producing a
DC voltage that drives the vertical Video
filter
portion of the display. As the sweep
generator sweeps through its Local
oscillator
frequency range, a trace is drawn
A/D
across the screen. This trace shows
Sweep
the spectral content of the input generator
signal within the selected frequency Display
range.

Figure 2. Block diagram of a superheterodyne spectrum analyzer

2
Hint 1. Selecting the Best Resolution Bandwidth (RBW)

The resolution bandwidth (RBW) However, the narrowest RBW setting


setting must be considered when is not always ideal. For modulated
concerned with separating spectral signals, it is important to set the RBW
components, setting an appropriate wide enough to include the sidebands
noise floor and demodulating a of the signal. Neglecting to do so
signal. will make the measurement very
inaccurate.
When making demanding spectrum
measurements, spectrum analyzers Also, a serious drawback of narrow
must be accurate, fast and have RBW settings is in sweep speed. A
high dynamic range. In most cases, wider RBW setting allows a faster
emphasis on one of these parameters sweep across a given span compared
adversely impacts the others. Often- to a narrower RBW setting. Figures
times, these tradeoffs involve the 4 and 5 compare the sweep times Figure 5. Sweep time of 84.73 s for 3 kHz RBW
RBW setting. between a 10 kHz and 3 kHz RBW
when measuring a 200 MHz span It is important to know the funda-
One advantage of using a narrow using sample detector. mental tradeoffs that are involved
RBW is seen when making measure- in RBW selection, for cases where
ments of low-level signals. When the user knows which measurement
using a narrow RBW, the displayed parameter is most important to
average noise level (DANL) of the optimize. But in cases where mea-
spectrum analyzer is lowered, increas- surement parameter tradeoffs
ing the dynamic range and improving cannot be avoided, the modern
the sensitivity of the spectrum ana- spectrum analyzer provides ways to
lyzer. In Figure 3, a –95 dBm signal soften or even remove the tradeoffs.
is more properly resolved by changing By utilizing digital signal processing
the RBW from 100 kHz to 10 kHz. the spectrum analyzer provides for
a more accurate measurement, while
at the same time allowing faster
measurements even when using
narrow RBW.
Figure 4. Sweep time of 7.626 s for 10 kHz RBW

Figure 3. Displayed measurement of 100 kHz


RBW and 10 kHz RBW

3
Hint 2. Improving Measurement Accuracy

Before making any measurement, input signal according to these cor- In the modern spectrum analyzer,
it is important to know that there rections. In Figure 8, the unwanted you can also directly store different
are several techniques that can be attenuation and gain of the signal corrections for your antenna, cable
used to improve both amplitude and delivery network have been elimi- and other equipment so calibration
frequency measurement accuracies. nated from the measurement, pro- will not be necessary every time a
viding for more accurate amplitude setting is changed.
Available self-calibration routines measurements.
will generate error coefficients (for One way to make more accurate
example, amplitude changes versus frequency measurements is to use
resolution bandwidth), that the ana- the frequency counter of a spectrum
lyzer later uses to correct measured analyzer that eliminates many of the
data, resulting in better amplitude sources of frequency uncertainty,
measurements and providing you such as span. The frequency counter
more freedom to change controls counts the zero crossings in the IF
during the course of a measurement. signal and offsets that count by the
known frequency offsets from local
Once the device under test (DUT) is oscillators in the rest of the conver-
connected to the calibrated analyzer sion chain.
the signal delivery network may
degrade or alter the signal of interest, Total measurement uncertainty
which must be canceled out of the involves adding up the different
measurement as shown in Figure 6. Figure 7. Original signal sources of uncertainty in the spectrum
One method of accomplishing this analyzer. If any controls can be left
is to use the analyzer’s built-in unchanged such as the RF attenuator
amplitude correction function in setting, resolution bandwidth, or
conjunction with a signal source reference level, all uncertainties
and a power meter. Figure 7 depicts associated with changing these
the frequency response of a signal controls drop out, and the total mea-
delivery network that attenuates the surement uncertainty is minimized.
DUT’s signal. To cancel out unwanted This exemplifies why it is important
effects, measure the attenuation or to know your analyzer. For example,
gain of the signal delivery network there is no added error when chang-
at the troublesome frequency points ing RBW in the high-performance
in the measurement range. Amplitude spectrum analyzers that digitize the
correction takes a list of frequency IF, whereas in others there is.
and amplitude pairs, linearly con-
nects the points to make a correc- Figure 8. Corrected signal
tion “waveform,” and then offsets the

Spectrum analyzer

DUT

Signal delivery network

• Cables
• Adapters
• Noise

Shift reference plane

Figure 6. Test setup

4
Hint 3. Optimize Sensitivity When Measuring Low-level Signals

A spectrum analyzer’s ability to An amplifier at the mixer’s output To achieve maximum sensitivity,
measure low-level signals is limited then amplifies the attenuated signal a preamplifier with low noise and
by the noise generated inside the to keep the signal peak at the same high gain must be used. If the gain
spectrum analyzer. This sensitivity point on the analyzer’s display. In of the amplifier is high enough (the
to low-level signals is affected by addition to amplifying the input noise displayed on the analyzer
the analyzer settings. signal, the noise present in the increases by at least 10 dB when the
analyzer is amplified as well, raising preamplifier is connected), the noise
Figure 9, for example, depicts a the DANL of the spectrum analyzer. floor of the preamplifier and analyzer
50 MHz signal that appears to be combination is determined by the
shrouded by the analyzer’s noise The re-amplified signal then passes noise figure of the amplifier.
floor. To measure the low-level signal, through the RBW filter. By narrow-
the spectrum analyzer’s sensitivity ing the width of the RBW filter, less In many situations, it is necessary to
must be improved by minimizing the noise energy is allowed to reach the measure the spurious signals of the
input attenuator, narrowing down envelope detector of the analyzer, device under test to make sure that
the resolution bandwidth (RBW) fil- lowering the DANL of the analyzer. the signal carrier falls within a
ter, and using a preamplifier. These certain amplitude and frequency
techniques effectively lower the Figure 10 shows successive lowering “mask”. Modern spectrum analyzers
displayed average noise level (DANL), of the DANL. The top trace shows provide an electronic limit line capa-
revealing the low-level signal. the signal above the noise floor after bility that compares the trace data
minimizing resolution bandwidth to a set of amplitude and frequency
and using power averaging. The (or time) parameters. When the sig-
trace that follows beneath it shows nal of interest falls within the limit
what happens with minimum atten- line boundaries, a display indicating
uation. The third trace employs PASS MARGIN or PASS LIMIT (on
logarithmic power averaging, lowering Agilent analyzers) appears. If the
the noise floor an additional 2.5 dB, signal should fall out of the limit line
making it very useful for very boundaries, FAIL MARGIN or FAIL
sensitive measurements. LIMIT appears on the display as shown
on Figure 11 for a spurious signal.

Figure 9. Noise obscuring the signal

Increasing the input attenuator setting


reduces the level of the signal at the
input mixer. Because the spectrum
analyzer’s noise is generated after
the input attenuator, the attenuator
setting affects the signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR). If gain is coupled to
the input attenuator to compensate Figure 10. Signal after minimizing resolution
for any attenuation changes, real bandwidth, input attenuator and using
signals remain stationary on the dis- logarithmic power averaging Figure 11. Using limit lines to detect spurious
signals
play. However, displayed noise level
changes with IF gain, reflecting the
change in SNR that result from any
change in input attenuator setting.
Therefore, to lower the DANL, input
attenuation must be minimized.

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Hint 4. Optimize Dynamic Range When Measuring Distortion

An issue that comes up with mea- harmonic distortion, third-order 1 dB increase in the level of the
suring signals is the ability to intermodulation distortion, and dis- fundamental at the mixer, the SHD
distinguish the larger signal’s funda- played average noise level (DANL) increases 2 dB. However, since
mental tone signals from the smaller specifications of the spectrum distortion is determined by the
distortion products. The maximum analyzer. From these specifications, difference between fundamental and
range that a spectrum analyzer can a graph of internally generated dis- distortion product, the change is
distinguish between signal and dis- tortion and noise versus mixer level only 1 dB. Similarly, the third-order
tortion, signal and noise, or signal can be made. distortion is drawn with a slope of 2.
and phase noise is specified as the For every 1 dB change in mixer level,
spectrum analyzer’s dynamic range. Figure 12 plots the –75 dBc second- 3rd order products change 3 dB, or 2
harmonic distortion point at –40 dBm dB in a relative sense. The maximum
When measuring signal and distor- mixer level, the –85 dBc third-order 2nd and 3rd order dynamic range
tion, the mixer level dictates the distortion point at a –30 dBm mixer can be achieved by setting the mixer
dynamic range of the spectrum level and a noise floor of –110 dBm at the level where the 2nd and 3rd
analyzer. The mixer level used to for a 10 kHz RBW. The second- order distortions are equal to the
optimize dynamic range can be harmonic distortion line is drawn noise floor, and these mixer levels
determined from the second- with a slope of 1 because for each are identified in the graph.

TOI SHI
0

–10

–20
er
ord

–30
r
de
3rd

or
d
2n

–40

–50
No
(dBc)

ise
(1
0k
–60 Hz
BW
)

–70
Maximum 2nd order
dynamic range

–80
Maximum 3rd order
dynamic range

–90 Optimum
mixer levels

–100
–60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 +10
Mixer level (dBm)

Figure 12. Dynamic range versus distortion and noise

6
To increase dynamic range, a nar-
–30

r
de
rower resolution bandwidth must be

er

or
ord

d
used. The dynamic range increases

2n
3rd
when the RBW setting is decreased
–40
from 10 kHz to 1 kHz as showed in
Figure 13. Note that the increase is
5 dB for 2nd order and 6+ dB for –50 No
3rd order distortion. ise
(1

)
0k
Hz

(
Lastly, dynamic range for intermod- BW
–60 Noi )
se
ulation distortion can be affected (1
kH
by the phase noise of the spectrum zB
W
analyzer because the frequency –70 )
spacing between the various 2nd order
spectral components (test tones and dynamic range improvement
distortion products) is equal to the –80
spacing between the test tones. For 3rd order
example, test tones separated by dynamic range improvement
10 kHz, using a 1 kHz resolution –90
bandwidth sets the noise curve
as shown. If the phase noise at a
10 kHz offset is only –80 dBc, then –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 +10
80 dB becomes the ultimate limit of Mixer level (dBm)
dynamic range for this measurement,
instead of a maximum 88 dB dynam- Figure 13. Reducing resolution bandwidth improves dynamic range
ic range as shown in Figure 14.

–60
(dBc)

–70

Phase noise
–80
Dynamic range (10 kHz offset)
reduction due
to phase noise
–90

–100

–110
–60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 +10
Mixer level (dBm)

Figure 14. Phase noise can limit third order intermodulation tests

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Hint 5. Identifying Internal Distortion Products

High-level input signals may cause


internal spectrum analyzer distor-
tion products that could mask the
real distortion on the input signal.
Using dual traces and the analyzer’s
RF attenuator, you can determine
whether or not distortion generated
within the analyzer has any effect
on the measurement.

To start, set the input attenuator so


that the input signal level minus the
attenuator setting is about –30 dBm.
To identify these products, tune to Figure 15. Internally generated distortion Figure 16. Externally generated distortion
the second harmonic of the input products products
signal and set the input attenuator
to 0 dBm. Next, save the screen data If the responses in Trace A and In Figure 16, since there is no
in Trace B, select Trace A as the Trace B differ, as in Figure 15, then change in the signal level, the
active trace, and activate Marker ∆. the analyzer’s mixer is generating internally generated distortion has
The spectrum analyzer now shows internal distortion products due to no effect on the measurement.
the stored data in Trace B and the the high level of the input signal. The distortion that is displayed is
measured data in Trace A, while In this case, more attenuation is present on the input signal.
Marker ∆ shows the amplitude and required.
frequency difference between the
two traces. Finally, increase the
RF attenuation by 10 dB and com-
pare the response in Trace A to the
response in Trace B.

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Hint 6. Optimize Measurement Speed When Measuring Transients

Fast sweeps are important for A good balance between time and sweep times than the swept mode
capturing transient signals and sensitivity is to use fast fourier in narrow spans. The difference in
minimizing test time. To optimize transform (FFT) that is available in speed is more pronounced when the
the spectrum analyzer performance the modern high-performance spec- RBW filter is narrow when measur-
for faster sweeps, the parameters trum analyzers. By using FFT, the ing low-level signals. In the FFT
that determine sweep time must be analyzer is able to capture the entire mode, the sweep time for a 20 MHz
changed accordingly. span in one measurement cycle. span and 1 kHz RBW is 2.2 s com-
When using FFT analysis, sweep pared to 24.11 s for the swept mode
Sweep time for a swept-tuned super- time is dictated by the frequency as shown in Figure 18 below. For
heterodyne spectrum analyzer is span instead of the RBW setting. much wider spans and wide RBW’s,
approximated by the span divided Therefore, FFT mode proves shorter swept mode is faster.
by the square of the resolution band-
width (RBW). Because of this, RBW
settings largely dictate the sweep
time. Narrower RBW filters trans-
late to longer sweep times, which
translate to a tradeoff between sweep
speed and sensitivity. As shown
in Figure 17, a 10x change in RBW
approximates to a 10 dB improve-
ment in sensitivity.

Figure 17. A 10x change in RBW approximates


to a 10 dB decrease in sensitivity

Figure 18. Comparing the sweep time for FFT and swept mode
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Hint 7. Selecting the Best Display Detection Mode

Modern spectrum analyzers digitize Negative peak detection mode dis- Average detection can provide the
the signal either at the IF or after plays the lowest power level in each average power, voltage or log-power
the video filter. The choice of which bucket. This mode is good for AM or (video) in each bucket. Power
digitized data to display depends FM demodulation and distinguishes averaging calculates the true average
on the display detector following between random and impulse noise. power, and is best for measuring the
the ADC. It is as if the data is sepa- Negative peak detection does not power of complex signals. Voltage
rated into buckets, and the choice of give the analyzer better sensitivity, averaging averages the linear voltage
which data to display in each bucket although the noise floor may appear data of the envelope signal measured
becomes affected by the display to drop. A comparative view of what during the bucket interval. It is often
detection mode. each detection mode displays in a used in EMI testing, and is also
bucket for a sinusoid signal is shown useful for observing rise and fall
in Figure 20. behavior of AM or pulse-modulated
signals such as radar and TDMA
Higher performance spectrum ana- transmitters. Log-power (video)
lyzers also have a detection mode averaging averages the logarithmic
called Normal detection, shown amplitude values (dB) of the envelope
Bucket in Figure 21. This sampling mode signal measured during the bucket
number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 dynamically classifies the data point interval. Log power averaging is best
as either noise or a signal, providing for observing sinusoidal signals,
Figure 19. Sampling buckets a better visual display of random especially those near noise because
noise than peak detection while noise is displayed 2.5 dB lower than
Positive peak, negative peak and avoiding the missed-signal problem its true level and improves SNR for
sample detectors are shown in of sample detection. spectral (sinusoidal) components.
Figure 20. Peak detection mode
detects the highest level in each
One bucket
bucket, and is a good choice for
analyzing sinusoids, but tends to Positive peak
over-respond to noise. It is the
fastest detection mode.

Sample detection mode displays the


Sample
center point in each bucket, regard-
less of power. Sample detection is
good for noise measurements, and
accurately indicates the true ran- Negative peak
domness of noise. Sample detection,
however, is inaccurate for measuring Figure 20. Trace point saved in memory is based on detector type algorithm
continuous wave (CW) signals with
narrow resolution bandwidths, and
may miss signals that do not fall on
the same point in each bucket.

Figure 21. Normal detection displays maximum values in buckets


where the signal only rises or only falls

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Hint 8. Measuring Burst Signals: Time Gated Spectrum Analysis

How do you analyze a signal that In a time gated measurement, the Other types of time-gating available
consists of a bursted (pulsed) RF analyzer senses when the burst in the modern high-performance
carrier that carries modulation when starts, then triggers a delay so the spectrum analyzer are gated-video,
pulsed on? If there is a problem, how resolution filter has time to react to gated-LO and gated-FFT. Gated-LO
do you separate the spectrum of the the sharp rise time of the pulse, and sweeps the local oscillator during
pulse from that of the modulation? finally stops the analysis before the part of the pulsed signal so sev-
Analyzing burst signals (pulses) burst ends. By doing this, only the eral trace points can be recorded
with a spectrum analyzer is very information carried by the pulse is for each occurrence of the signal.
challenging because in addition to analyzed, as is shown in Figure 24. Whereas gated-FFT takes an FFT of
displaying the information carried It is now clear that our pulse con- the digitized burst signal removing
by the pulse, the analyzer displays tained a modulation. the effect of the pulse spectrum. Both
the frequency content of the shape provide advantages of increased
of the pulse (pulse envelope) as well. speed.
The sharp rise and fall times of the
pulse envelope can create unwanted
Digital signal processor
frequency components that add to Preselector Resolution
Input or input bandwidth Log Envelope
the frequency content of the original attenuator filter Mixer filter IF gain amp detector Gate
signal. These unwanted frequency
components might be so bad that
they completely obscure the signal
of interest. Video
filter
Figure 22, for example, depicts the Local
oscillator
frequency content of a burst signal.
A/D
In this case, the EDGE waveform
Ramp
modulation is almost completely generator
hidden by the pulse spectrum.
Display

Figure 23. Spectrum analyzer block diagram with gated video time-gating

Figure 22. Signal without time-gating

Time gated spectral analysis permits


analysis of the contents of the pulse Figure 24. Signal with time-gating
without the effect of the envelope of
the pulse itself. One way of performing
time-gating is to place a gate (switch)
in the video path of the spectrum
analyzer as shown in Figure 23.
This method of time-gating is called
gated video.

11
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2000, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009
Printed in USA, September 7, 2009
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