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Chapter 1 (Radiation

Fundamentals) Revision 001

Authors

Date

Raghuvir Tomar

21 July,

2014

st

Place

LNMIIT

Jaipur,

India

Rev 001

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Revision History

Revision Date

001

Description

Initial draft

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Table of Contents

1

1.1

1.2

DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................. 2

2.1

Radiation .............................................................................................................. 2

2.2

Irradiation ............................................................................................................. 2

2.3

Antenna ................................................................................................................ 2

4.

5.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

6.

a.

Equations for A and V for the time-varying case ........................................ 11

b.

Potential functions for the sinusoidally time-varying case ......................... 13

a.

b.

c.

Far-field expressions ..................................................................................... 15

Radiated Power .............................................................................................. 16

Radiation Resistance ..................................................................................... 17

a.

Radiation field of the elementary dipole ....................................................... 18

7.

8.

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b.

Radiation resistance of the elementary dipole ............................................. 19

d.

Radiation resistance of the elementary monpole......................................... 19

9.

a.

10.

Analysis of center-fed dipole of arbitrary length.......................................... 20

b.

Half-wave dipole............................................................................................ 20

c. Quarter-wave monopole ................................................................................... 22

Unsolved problems ............................................................................................... 22

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FREQUENCY BANDS

1.1

Nomenclature 1 (TRADITIONAL)

BAND

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF)

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

Low Frequency (LF)

Medium Frequency (MF)

High Frequency (HF)

Very High Frequency (VHF)

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)

Super High Frequency (SHF)

Extremely High Frequency (EHF)

1.2

FREQUENCY

RANGE

<3KHz

3KHz-30KHz

30KHz-300KHz

300KHz-3MHz

3MHz-30MHz

30MHz-300MHz

300MHz-3GHz

3GHz-30GHz

30GHz-300GHz

WAVELENGTH RANGE

>100Km

10Km-100Km

1Km-10Km

100m-1Km

10m-100m

1m-10m

10cm-1m

1cm-10cm

1mm-1cm

Nomenclature 2 (RADAR-BASED)

L Band

S Band

C Band

X Band

Ku Band

K Band

Ka band

Q Band

U Band

V Band

E Band

W Band

F Band

D Band

FREQUENCY

RANGE

1GHz-2GHz

2GHz-4GHz

4GHz-8GHz

8GHz-12GHz

12GHz-18GHz

18GHz-26.5GHz

26.5GHz-40GHz

33GHz-50GHz

40GHz-60GHz

50GHz-75GHz

60GHz-90GHz

75GHz-110GHz

90GHz-140GHz

110GHz-170GHz

WAVELENGTH RANGE

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DEFINITIONS

2.1

Radiation

vacuum or through some other medium containing material.

b) Radiation can be thought of as the phenomenon of transmitting electromagnetic

energy via an unbounded medium (e.g., free space). In other words, no guiding

structures (coaxial lines, waveguides, MIC lines, fibre, etc.) have to be present

for the radiation to occur.

c) Radiation is principally caused by two sources: a) time-varying charge

distribution, b) time-varying current distribution. Charge distribution is generally

measured in Coulomb/m3 and is denoted by Current distribution is generally

measured in Ampere/m3 and is denoted by J.

d) Time-varying charge distribution and time-varying current distribution are not

independent quantities (at least for the time-varying case) and are related by the

well-known equation of continuity

.J=-(

/ t)

which states the following:

The time-rate of decrease of electric charge within a given volume is equal to the net outward

current flow through the closed surface of the volume.

2.2

Irradiation

2.3

Antenna

An antenna is the device which converts non-radiating (that is, guided) electromagnetic

energy into radiated electromagnetic energy.

3

Radiation can be visualized as the propagation (or moving away) of an effect in all

directions, from the source.

The universe has decided (for some unfathomable reasons) that the disturbance of electric

and magnetic fields due to a moving (or accelerating) electric charge will propagate

away from the charge at the speed of light (c=300,000,000 Km/sec in vacuum). Once the

charge accelerates, the fields need to re-align themselves although they will prefer not to

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have to do so. The re-alignment effect will be felt with greater and greater time-delay as

we go further and further away from the charge, the speed at which the disturbance

travels being equal to c.

4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIPS

The two constitutive relationships that govern the electromagnetic behavior of a

given non-conducting material (whether free-space, dielectric medium, or magnetic

medium) are

B=H

(1.1)

D=*E

(1.2)

strength in V/m, B is the magnetic flux density in weber/m2, and D is the electric flux

density in coulomb/m2.

=0r

(1.3)

space, is given by

0=4*10-7 Henry/m

=0*r

(1.5)

where r is the relative permittivity (dielectric constant) of the medium and 0, the

permittivity of free-space, is given by

0=(1/(36*))*10-9 Farad/m

(1.6)

conductivity not infinite) is

J=E

(1.7)

where is the conductivity of the medium, and E is the incident field that causes a surface

current density, J (in A/m2), on the surface of the conductor.

Eq. (1.7) can easily be derived, at least in the case of a rectangular bar made of material with

finite electrical conductivity, by using Ohms law.

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5. MAXWELLS EQUATIONS

The four Maxwells equations are reproduced below. Please note that bold letters

represent vectors and a dot on top represents ( / t). All possible variations of the four

Maxwellian equations are shown. The last few variations shown (in case of each of the

equations) are for the case when ejt type of time-dependence is assumed (a very

practically used case).

a.

The first Maxwells equation is derivable from Faradays law

v(t)= - ( t)

(1.8)

In eq. (2.1.1),v(t) is the induced emf and is the magnetic flux whose rate of

change with time is producing v(t). We can rewrite equation (1.8) as

E.dl

B.dS

(1.9)

where the left hand side (LHS) equates the induced emf to the line integral of the

corresponding electric field (E) and the right hand side (RHS) equates the magnetic flux

to the surface integral of the corresponding magnetic flux density (B). S represents a

two-dimensional surface enclosed by a closed contour C.

Now let us use Stokes theorem

A.dl (curlA).dS

(1.10)

XE=

- ( B/ t)

(M1)

which is the first Maxwellian equation in its differential form. We can re-write this

equation in several other forms, as shown below. As already mentioned, the dot on top of

a mathematical quantity represents the time-derivative of that quantity.

.

XE=

-B

(M1.1)

= - ( H/ t)

(M1.2)

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= - r ( H/ t)

(M1.3)

.

=-

(M1.4)

.

=-

r H

= - r( H/ t)

= - jrH

(M1.6)

= - jB

(M1.8)

(M1.5)

(M1.7)

Note that the last two representations (M1.7 and M1.8) are applicable only when

jt

b.

the Amperes law which states that the line integral of magnetic field around any closed

path C is equal to the total current I enclosed by that path. Mathematically speaking, we

write Amperes law as

H.dl I

(1.11)

Let us now use Stokes theorem (eq. 1.10) to convert eq. (1.11) into

XH=

(1.12)

where J represents the surface current density (in A/m2) associated with I.

Eq. (1.12) is good enough when interactions between time-varying electric and

magnetic fields can be assumed to be negligible. As frequency increases, this, however,

becomes less and less of a safe bet. Maxwells genius lied in suggesting (based on

intuitive reasoning which was later verified experimentally) that an additional term be

added to the RHS of eq. (1.12) to account for the fact that time-varying E gives rise to

effects in total H. Eq. (1.12) was thus modified to

XH=

( D/ t)+J

(M2)

where the first term on the RHS represents the so-called displacement-current density

(in A/m2) that was added-in by Maxwell (for an interesting up-to-date view of

displacement current please visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Displacement_current).

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Eq. (M2) is the second Maxwellian equation in its differential form. We can write

this equation in several other forms too, as shown below.

.

XH=

D+J

= ( E/ t) + J

= r( E/ t) + J

(M2.1)

(M2.2)

(M2.3)

.

=

E + J

(M2.4)

.

rE + J

= r( E/ t) + J

= jrE + J

(M2.5)

= jD + J

(M2.8)

(M2.6)

(M2.7)

Note that the last two representations (M2.7 and M2.8) apply only when ejt type of

time-dependence is assumed for both E and H vectors.

c.

The third Maxwells equation is derivable from Gausss law which states that the

net electric flux passing through a closed surface S is equal to the total electric charge Q

enclosed by that surface. In other words,

D.dS Q

(1.13)

A.dS ( DivA)dV

S

(1.14)

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( DivD)dV Q dV

V

(1.15)

In eq. (1.15), represents the volume charge density in C/m3. This equation easily yields

.D=

(M3)

d.

(M1). We get

.B=

(M4)

by assuming, without any loss of generality, that the constant involved can be assumed to

be zero.

Eq. (M4) is the fourth Maxwellian equation in its differential form.

The equation of continuity (derivable by taking divergence on both sides of M2 and

then using M3) is written as follows:

.J=

-( /

t)

(1.16)

.J = -j

(1.17)

principle of conservation of charge which states the following:

The time-rate of decrease of electric charge within a given volume is equal to the net

outward current flow through the closed surface of the volume.

f.

By using Stokes and Divergence theorems, the four Maxwells equations can also

be integrated and converted into their equivalent integral representations given below.

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E.dl

H .dl

C

B.dS

t S

(M.I.1)

D.dS I

t

S

(M.I.2)

D.dS dV

(M.I.3)

B.dS 0

(M.I.4)

closed path C that is bounding a surface S, vector dS represents an infinitesimally small

area on the surface S, and dV represents an infinitesimally small volume within the total

volume V bounded by the surface S.

In words, eqs. (M.I.1)-(M.I.4) can be summarized as follows:

a) The electromotive force (emf) around a closed path is equal to the time derivative

of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path.

b) The magnetomotive force (mmf) around a closed path is equal to the total current

I flowing through any surface bounded by the path. This current, in general, is

made up of two components, a fictitious displacement current and a conduction

current.

c) The total electric flux through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the total

charge contained within the volume.

d) The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero.

g. Types of media

The various types of transmission media encountered in practice are briefly discussed

below.

1. Homogeneous and non-homogeneous media

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permittivity, and conductivity) do not change with (x,y,z). Inhomogeneous media (e.g.,

human body) are those whose properties do change with (x,y,z).

2. Isotropic and anisotropic media

Isotropic media (e.g., free-space) are those whose properties do not change with

direction. Anisotropic media (e.g., human body) are those whose properties do change

with direction.

For anisotropic materials, the constitutive relationships become (instead of eqs. 1.1

and 1.2):

D E

B H

(1.18)

(1.19)

where [D], [E], [B], and [H] are 3x1 matrices and [] and [] are 3x3 matrices.

Linear media (e.g., free-space) are those whose response to the simultaneous

presence of more than one source can be computed using a linear superposition of the

media responses to individual sources. Non-linear media (e.g., many semiconductors) are

those whose response to more than one source can not be treated as a linear

superposition of the responses to individual sources.

h. How to define wave

other places at later times, the time delay being proportional to the space separation from

the first location, then the group of phenomena is said to constitute a wave.

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6. Time-varying potentials

For a static volume charge distribution (r), the electric scalar potential V ( r) is given

by

(1.20)

where the integration is carried out over the entire volume over which the charge is

distributed, and R,r, and r are defined in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Definitions

Note that the vector r denotes the position vector of the elemental volume over which

the charge is being considered, and is called the source-coordinate. Vector r, on the

other hand, denotes the position vector of the point of observation. Vector R denotes the

difference between r and r, that is

(1.21)

R=r-r

Similarly, for a static volume current distribution J(r), the magnetic vector potential

A(r) is given by

(1.22)

where the following definition for A has been used:

B=

XA

(1.23)

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For radiation to happen, as has already been pointed out, both charge distribution and

current distribution have to be time-varying quantities. Intuitively, we thus modify eqs.

(1.20) and (1.22) to

Finally, for the time-varying case, a finite propagation delay can be expected between the

source and its effect. Assuming v to be the speed of propagation, we thus further modify

the above equations to

These are the so-called retarded potentials.

a. Equations for A and V for the time-varying case

Using eq. (1.23) along with the Maxwells equation

XE=-(

B/ t)

(1.28)

we can write

XE=-(

t)

(1.29)

A/ t)] =0

(1.30)

XA)/

That is

X [E+(

Hence we define

E+( A/ t)] =- V

(1.31)

That is

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E = -( A/ t)] - V

(1.32)

E= - V

(1.33)

Let us now use the Maxwells equation

XH=(

D/ t)+J

(1.34)

2

A-(

A/ t )=

( .A)+

( V/ t)-J

(1.35)

Then use

.D=

(1.36)

2

V+

. ( A/ t) = - /

(1.37)

Eqs. (1.35) and (1.37) represent the two coupled differential equations for the unknown

potentials A and V. It has been shown that the following condition needs to be

additionally satisfied if solutions involving retarded potentials are desired.

( .A) = - ( V/ t)

(1.38)

Eq. (9.17) is known as Lorentz Gauge condition. Using this equation, eqs. (1.35) and

(1.37) become

2

A-(

A/ t )= -J

V/ t )= - /

(1.39)

and

2

V-(

(1.40)

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Eqs. (1.39) and (1.40) represent the two independent equations for the two unknown

potentials A and V. It can be shown that the intuitively constructed solutions given by

eqs. (1.26) and (1.27) do indeed satisfy the above two equations (see section 10.10 of

Jordan and Balmains book).

b. Potential functions for the sinusoidally time-varying case

In this case, eqs. (1.39) and (1.40) become

2

A + k A= -J

(1.41)

and

2

V + k V= - /

(1.42)

where the phase variation exp (-jR) has been brought in, assuming a uniform plane

wave.

7. Infinitesimally small dipole (alternating-current element)

An infinitesimally small dipole (also known as the alternating-current element) is shown

in Figure 2. It consists of a time-varying current-element Idl where I represents the

constant current flowing in the dipole and dl represents the length of the dipole. dl is

assumed to be very small compared to the free-space wavelength involved and, hence,

the current I is assumed to be constant throughout the length of the dipole. Also, the

cross-section of the antenna is assumed to be very small compared to the free-space

wavelength involved.

The case of the infinitesimally-small dipole is not practically realizable in most

situations, but can be thought of as a building block for realizing real antennas.

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Since the length of the dipole is assumed to be along the z-axis, the magnetic vector

potential will have only a z-component. An application of eq. (1.43) yields

(1.45)

In carrying out the volume integration of the current density, the following logic is used:

The result of integration of J over the dipoles cross-section is just the current I.

Moreover, since I is constant over dl, the result of integration along z is simply Idl.

Also note that the antenna is assumed to be centered at the origin of the co-ordinate

system. This means

(1.46)

r=0

and

(1.47)

R=r

It is also easy to show that

Ar=Azcos

(1.48)

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A =-Azsin

(1.49)

A =0

(1.50)

Since the antenna is symmetrical in the plane, we can also assume that neither A nor

any of the field components varies with That is,

A/

Once A is known, we can use eq. (1.23) to derive the various components of the magnetic

field H. We get

Hr=0

(1.52)

H=0

(1.53)

and

H= [Idlsin/(4)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)r

(1.54)

XH=(

D/ t)+J

(1.55)

to derive expressions for the various components of the lectric field. We get

Er=[2Idlcos/(4j)][exp(-jr)][ (jr2)r

(1.56)

(1.57)

E = 0

(1.58)

a. Far-field expressions

In the radiated field equations derived above, the (1/r) terms constitute the far-field

whereas the complete (1/r)+(1/r2)+(1/r3)+ terms constitute the near field.

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Generally, we are concerned with far-fields only. Thus neglecting the (1/r2) and (1/r3)

terms, the field expressions for the radiatied field of an infinitesimally small dipole

antenna become

Er=0

(1.59)

E=H

(1.60)

E = 0

(1.61)

Hr=0

(1.62)

H=0

(1.63)

H= [Idlsin/(4)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)

(1.64)

b. Radiated Power

Radiated power can be computed by first finding the average Poynting vector and then

integrating its radial component Pravg over a spherical surface centered at the element

(see Figure 3).

Pravg=(2/2r2)I2dl2sin2/(162)

(1.65)

The elemental area will be taken as the area of a strip on the surface of the sphere as

shown in Figure 3. That is

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da=2r2sind

(1.66)

After integrating the product of Pravg and da over =0 to =, the total far-field radiated

power can be shown to be given by

(1.67)

where

Ieff=I/sqrt(2)

(1.68)

c. Radiation Resistance

It is customary to define the total radiated power of an antenna in terms of the radiation

resistance Rrad of the antenna. The radiation resistance is that hypothetical resistance

which, assuming an rms current Ieff flowing through the resistance which is same as

the current flowing through the antenna, will dissipate the same amount of power as

the power radiated by the antenna.

Mathematically speaking, we can write

Prad=Rrad Ieff2

(1.69)

whereby the radiation resistance of the infinitesimally dipole antenna turns out to be

(1.70)

monopole)

The elementary dipole antenna has a length large enough so as not to support the

constant-current assumption along the length of the antenna. For cases where the total

length of the dipole is less than quarter-wavelength, it is sufficiently accurate to describe

the current distribution along the antenna length as a linear function of z as shown in

Figure 4a.

The elementary monopole antenna shown in Figure 4b is similar in construction but is

mounted over a ground plane (assumed to be perfectly conducting). For cases where the

total length of the monopole is less than one-eighth wavelength, the current distribution

along the antenna length can be assumed to be linear. For the sake of finding the radiation

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field, the effects of the gorund plane can be incorporated by bringing in an image of the

physical antenna on the other side of the ground plane as shown in Figure 4b.

Assuming a center-fed case for which the linear current distribution shown in Figure 9.4a

is valid, one can easily show that the z-component of the magnetic vector potential is

given by

Az=[/(8)] [Il{exp(-jr)}/r ]

(1.71)

Note that one has to integrate I(z)dz from z=-l/2 to z=l/2 to get to this result (see class

notes for more details).

After this, the rest of the analysis runs along lines similar to those followed for the

infinitesimally-small antenna. We can show that, for far fields,

Er=0

(1.72)

E=H

(1.73)

E = 0

(1.74)

Hr=0

(1.75)

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H=0

(1.76)

H= [Ilsin/(8)][exp(-jr)][ (jr)

(1.77)

The derivation for radiation resistance is also similar to what was done for the

infinitesimally-small dipole. It can be shown that

(1.78)

Note that, compared to the infinitesimally-small dipole, a factor of four has come in, in

the formula for the radiation resistance.

c. Radiation field of the elementary monopole

Eqs. (9.50)-(9.55) would still apply as long as we remember that the monopole would

radiate only in the upper hemisphere.

d. Radiation resistance of the elementary monpole

Because the total radiated power in this case is only for the upper half of the sphere, the

radiation resistance is given by

(1.79)

For dipoles and monopoles of arbitrary length, it is customary to assume a sinusoidal

current distribution as shown in Figure 5, for the center-fed case.

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In this case, we write the current as

for z>0

for z<0

(1.80)

(1.81)

(1.82)

Assuming only far fields, we make the following simplifying approximations:

(1.83)

R=r-zcos ()

for the phase term in the numerator of the two integrands, and

(1.84)

R=r

in the denominator of the two integrands. Eq. (1.82) then yields

Az=[m/(4)][exp(-jr)/r][2/{sin2}][cos{Hcos}-cos(H)]

(1.85)

from which the six field components can be derived exactly as was done for the

infinitesimally-small dipole. Then, expressions for radiated power and radiation

resistance can also be worked out. The expression for radiated power involved the use of

numerical techniques as discussed below for a specific case (half-wave dipole).

b. Half-wave dipole

For a half-wave dipole,

H=/4

L=/2

(1.86)

(1.87)

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Az=[m/(4)][exp(-jr)/r][2/{sin2}][cos/2)cos()}]

(1.88)

Using the same methodology that we used for the infinitesimally-small dipole, it can be

shown that, for far fields,

Er=0

(1.89)

E=H

(1.90)

E = 0

(1.91)

Hr=0

(1.92)

H=0

(1.93)

H= =[jm/(2)][exp(-jr)/r][cos/2)cos}]/[sin

(1.94)

The average Poynting vector can be shown to be

Pravg=[(m/(82r2)][cos2/2)cossin2]

(1.95)

After integrating the product of Pravg and da over =0 to =, the total far-field radiated

power can be shown to be given by

Prad ==[(m/(2)] I

(1.96)

I=

(1.97)

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different numerical techniques are possible:

Two

1). Use trapezoidal or Simpsons rule for numerical integration. Using trapezoidal rule

(5 degree intervals), the approximate value of I turns out to be 0.609. Please see pp. 330331 of Jordan and Balmains book for more details.

2). Transform I into an infinite series and then numerically sum that series. This way

too, the value of I turn out to be approximately equal to 0.609. Please see pp. 330-331 of

Jordan and Balmains book for more details.

Thus, the total far-field radiated power of a center-fed half-wave dipole turns out be

approximately given by

Prad ==[(0.609m/(2)]

(1.98)

Prad ==[(0.609eff/()]

(1.99)

The radiation resistance of the center-fed half-wave dipole thus can be written as

Rrad ==[(0.609/()]

(1.100)

c. Quarter-wave monopole

The analysis of the quarter-wave monopole (after including its image antenna and

removing the ground plane) is similar to that for the half-wave dipole. The only

difference is that the radiation will happen in the upper hemisphere only. Thus

Rrad ==[(0.609/(2)]

(1.101)

10.

Unsolved problems

1) Solve problems 7,8 and 9 from Jordan and Balmains book (pp. 332-333). For

problem 9, use the sine and cosine integral definitions given in section 10.08.

2) Find the radiation resistance of a Herzian dipole (i.e., an infinitesimally small

dipole) of length =(/40) where is the free-space wavelength involved.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

22

Rev 001

______________________________________________________________________

1GHz and with a current of 3 Amperes. Find the radiated power.

4) The field amplitude due to a half-wave dipole at 10Km is 0.1V/m. The antenna

operates at 100MHz. Find the length of the antenna. Also find the radiated

power per m2.

5) What is the length of a half-wave dipole antenna at 1MHz, if the antenna is

situated in a perfect dielectric medium whose dielectric constant is equal to 10?

6) Calculate the radiation resistance of a quarter-wave dipole antenna using a) linear

current distribution, b) sinusoidal current distribution. Compare the two values

thus obtained.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

23

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