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2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

for Continuum, Beams and Plates

This lecture deals with the determination of relations between stresses and strains, called

the constitutive equations. For an elastic material the term elasticity law or the Hookes

law are often used. In one dimension we would write

= E

(4.1)

where E is the Youngs (elasticity) modulus. All types of steels, independent on the yield

stress have approximately the same Young modulus E = 2. GPa. The corresponding value

for aluminum alloys is E = 0.80 GPa. What actually is and in the above equation? We

are saying the uni-axial state but such a state does not exist simultaneously for stresses

and strains. One dimensional stress state produces three-dimensional strain state and vice

versa.

4.1

The second question is how to extend Eq.(4.1) to the general 3-D state. Both stress and

strain are tensors so one should seek the relation between them as a linear transformation

in the form

ij = Cij,kl kl

(4.2)

where Cij,kl is the matrix with 9 9 = 81 coefficients. Using symmetry properties of the

stress and strain tensor and assumption of material isotropy, the number of independent

constants are reduced from 81 to just two. These constants, called the Lame constants, are

denoted by (, ). The general stress strain relation for a linear elastic material is

ij = 2ij + kk ij

where ij is the identity matrix,

ij =

or Kronecker , defined by

1 0 0

ij = 1 if i = j

0 1 0 or

ij = 0 if i 6= j

0 0 1

(4.3)

(4.4)

kk = 11 + 22 + 33 =

4-1

dV

V

(4.5)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

11 = 211 + (11 + 22 + 33 ),

11 = 1

(4.6a)

22 = 1

(4.6b)

33 = 1

(4.6c)

12 = 212

12 = 0

(4.6d)

23 = 223

23 = 0

(4.6e)

31 = 231

31 = 0

(4.6f)

Our task is to express the Lame constants by a pair of engineering constants (E(),

where is the Poisson ratio). For that purpose, we use the virtual experiment of tension

of a rectangular bar

N

11 Extension

positive

3

33 Contraction

negative

In the conceptual test, measured are the force, displacement and change in the crosssectional dimension. The experimental observations can be summarized as follows:

11 is proportional to 11 , 11 = E11

22 is proportional to 11 , 22 = 11

33 is proportional to 11 , 33 = 11

Thus the uniaxial tension is producing the one-dimensional state of stress but three-dimensional

state of strain

0

11 0 0

11 0

ij = 0 0 0 ij = 0 22 0

(4.7)

0 0 0

0

0 33

4-2

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

11 = 211 + (11 11 11 ) = E11

(4.8a)

(4.8b)

2 + (1 2) = E

(4.9a)

2 + (1 2) = 0

(4.9b)

E

2(1 )

E

=

(1 + )(1 2)

=

E

ij =

ij +

kk ij

1+

1 2

(4.10a)

(4.10b)

(4.11)

1

1

The mean stress p where p = kk = (11 + 22 + 33 ) is called the hydrostatic pressure.

3

3

At the same time the sum of the diagonal components of the strain tensor denotes the

change of volume. Let us make the so-called contraction of the stress tensor in Eq.(4.11),

meaning that i = j = k

E

kk =

kk +

kk 3

(4.12)

1+

1 2

where kk = 11 + 22 + 33 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3. From the above equations the following relation

is obtained between the hydrostatic pressure and volume change

p =

where is the bulk modulus

=

dV

V

E

3(1 2)

(4.13)

(4.14)

The elastic material is clearly compressible. It is the crystalline lattice that is compressed

but on removal the forces returns to the original volume.

The inverted form of the 3-D Hooks law is

ij =

1+

ij kk ij

E

E

4-3

(4.15)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

11 =

22 =

33 =

12 =

23 =

31 =

1

[11 (22 + 33 )]

E

1

[22 (11 + 33 )]

E

1

[33 (11 + 22 )]

E

1

12

2

1

23

2

1

31

2

(4.16a)

(4.16b)

(4.16c)

(4.16d)

(4.16e)

(4.16f)

E

is called the shear modulus. Eq.(4.16) illustrates the coupling of

2(1 + )

individual direct strains with all direct (diagonal) components of the stress tensor. At the

same time there is no coupling in shear response. The shear strain is proportional to the

corresponding shear stress.

where G =

4.2

Plane Stress

This is the state of stress that develops in thin plates and shells so it requires a careful

consideration. The stress state in which 3j = 0, where the x3 = z axis is in the through

thickness direction. The non-zero components of the stress tensor are:

0

0

12

11

11 12

ij = 21 22 0 ij = 21 22 0

(4.17)

0

0 0

0

0 33

where i, j = 1, 2, 3 and , = 1, 2. Accordingly, kk = 11 + 22 + 33 = + 0. The 2-D

elasticity law takes the following form in the tensor notation

=

1+

E

E

(4.18)

It can be easily checked from Eq.(4.18) that in plane stress 13 = 23 = 0 but 33 =

(11 +22 ). The through-thickness component of the strain tensor is not zero. Because it

E

does not enter the plane stress strain-displacement relation, its presence does not contribute

to the solutions. It can only be determined afterwards from the known stresses 11 and 22 .

1

By making contraction kk =

kk , one can easily invert Eq.(4.18) in the form

E

=

E

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

4-4

(4.19)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

The above equation is a starting point for deriving the elasticity law in generalized quantities

for plates and shells. We shall return to that task later in this lecture. Before that, lets

discuss three other important limiting cases

E

(11 + 22 )

1 2

E

=

(22 + 11 )

1 2

E

=

12

1+

11 =

(4.20a)

22

(4.20b)

13

Sheet metal

(4.20c)

22

11

11

22

21

12

Plane strain holds whenever 2j = 0. By imposing a constraint on 22 = 0, a reaction

immediately develops in the direction as 22 6= 0.

The components of the strain and Eq.(4.8) stress tensors are

11 12 0

11 12 0

ij = 21 22 0 ij = 21 22 0

(4.21)

0

0 0

0

0 33

Can you show that under the assumption of the plane strain, the reaction stress 33 =

(11 +22 )? The plane strain is encountered in many practical situations, such as cylindrical

bending of a plate or wide beam.

N

3

3

2

2

1

1

N

Figure 4.3: Tension of bending of a wide sheet/plate gives rise to plane strain.

4-5

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

Uniaxial Strain

Uniaxial strain is achieved when the displacement in two directions are constrained. For

example, soil or granular materials are tested in a cylinder (called confinement) with a

piston, Fig.(4.4). The uniaxial strain also develops in a compressed layer between two

rigid plates. Also high velocity plate-to-plate impact products the one-dimensional strain.

Here the only component of the strain tensor is the volumetric strain. The plate-to-plate

experiments are conducted to establish the nonlinear compressibility of metals under very

high hydrostatic loading kk = 3p. Similarly, the plane wave in the 3-D space is generating

a uniaxial strain.

V

Confinement

The components of the stress and strain tensor in the uniaxial strain are:

0

0

0

12

11

11

ij = 21 22 0 ij = 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

0 33

Where the reaction stresses are related to the active stress 11 by 22 = 33 =

(4.22)

(1 + )11

.

1 2

The uniaxial stress state was discussed earlier in this lecture when converting the Lame

constants into the engineering constants (E, ).

4.3

There are three generalized forces in beams (M, N, ) but only two generalized kinematic

quantities ( , ). There is no generalized displacement on which the shear force could exert

work. So the shear force is treated as a reaction in the elementary beam theory. This

gives rise to some internal inconsistency in the beam theory, which will be enumerated in a

separate section.

4-6

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

The starting point in the derivation of the elasticity law for beams is the Euler-Bernoulli

hypothesis,

(z) = + z

(4.23)

and the one-dimensional Hook law, Eq.(4.1), and the definition of the bending moment and

axial force in the beam, Eqs.(3.36a-3.36c). Lets calculate first the axial force N

Z

Z

Z

Exx dA = E ( + z) dA

xx dA =

N=

AZ

AZ

AZ

Z

(4.24)

z dA

dA + E

z dA = E

dA + E

=E

A

Note that the strain of the middle axis and the curvature of the beam axis are independent

of the z-coordinate and could be brought in front of the respective integrals. Also Q =

R

A z dA is the static (first) moment of inertia of the cross-section. From the definition of

the neutral axis, Q = 0. The expression for the axial force reduces then to

N = EA

(4.25)

where EA is called the axial rigidity of the beam. We calculate next the bending moment

in a similar way

Z

Z

N=

xx z dA =

E( + z)z dA

A Z

A Z

(4.26)

2

= E

z dA + E

z dA

A

Because the first term involving the static moment of inertia vanishes, and the expression

for the bending moment becomes

M = EI

(4.27)

where EI is called the bending rigidity and

Z

I=

z 2 dA

(4.28)

I=

bh3

12

(4.29)

The significance of the above derivation is that the bending response is uncoupled from the

axial response and vice versa. This property allows to derive the famous stress formula for

beams. This is indeed one line derivation

N

Mz

= E = E( + z) = E

+

EA

EI

N

Mz

(z) =

+

(4.30)

A

I

4-7

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

M

z

I

N/A

Semester Yr

(z)

Figure 4.5: Linear distribution of stresses along the height of the beam.

Both axial force and bending moment contribute to the stress distribution along the along

the height of the beam, as illustrated in Fig.(4.5).

From Eq.(4.30) one can calculate the point z = where the stresses become zero

=

I N

N

= 2

AM

M

(4.31)

the zero stress axis depends on the ratio of axial force to bending moment. If < h, where

h is the thickness of a rectangular section beam, the zero stress point is inside the beam

boundary, there is a bending dominated response. The tension dominated response is when

is several times larger than h.

4.4

The equations presented in Section 3.6 under the ADVANCED TOPIC were derived without

any approximate assumption. In order for the beam to be in equilibrium, shear force V

must be present, when the beam is under pure bending (uniform bending over the length

of the beam). It is the shear stress xz that give rise to the shear force, according to the

definition, Eq.(3.45). Therefore any inconsistencies must come from the strain-displacement

relations as well as constitutive equations, where some approximations were introduced.

The presence of the shear stresses xz = 13 means that shear strains 13 = xz must

develop according to Eq.(4.16).

xz (z)

xz (z) =

(4.32)

2G

The shear strain is defined as

1 ux uz

xz =

+

(4.33)

2 z

x

The Euler-Bernoulli assumption tells us that the shear strain vanishes. Then, Eq.(4.32) is

violated because the LH is zero while the RH is not. Suppose for a while that xz = 0.

Then

ux

w(x)

=

= (x)

(4.34)

z

x

where uz = w(x) is independent of the coordinate z. Integrating Eq.(4.34) one gets

ux (z) = u z

4-8

(4.35)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

which is equivalent to the plane-remain-plane and normal-remain-normal hypothesis, introduced in Lecture 2. Assume now that the out-of-plane strain is a certain given function of

z. Performing the integration of Eq.(4.32) in a similar way as before, one gets

Z

(4.36)

It transpires from the above results that deformed section are not flat but are warped

instead. The amount of warping is given by the third term in Eq.(4.36).

Can we estimate the amount of warping? Yes, but we have to go ahead of the presented

material and quota the solution for the deflected slope of the beam. Les settle on the

simplest case of a clamped cantilever beam loaded at its tip by the point force P

=

P l2

2EI

(4.37)

Another result needed is the distribution of shear stresses across the height of the beam.

For the rectangular section beam (b h), the shear stress is a parabolic function of z

z2

3P

xz (z) =

1

(4.38)

2A

(h/2)2

The corresponding strain is calculated from Eq.(4.32). Assume that there is no axial force,

N = 0, so from Eq.(4.25) = 0 and u = 0. After integration, the displacement profile

defined by Eq.(4.36) becomes

1 3P

z3

P l2

ux (z) =

z+

z

(4.39)

2EI

2 2 A

3(h/2)2

In order to quantify the correction of the displacement field due to warping, lets calculate

h

the maximum values of the two terms at z = . The first term arising from the Euler2

Bernoulli assumption gives

h

l2 h

uIx (z = ) =

(4.40)

2

2EI 2

4-9

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

1 Ph

h

uII

x (z = ) =

2

2G A 2

(4.41)

II

2

ux

= E I = E

uI 2G Al2

2G l

x

(4.42)

where is the radius of giration of the cross-section. For a rectangular cross-section (b h),

2 =

I

bh3

h2

=

=

A

12bh

12

(4.43)

E

=

2G

E

= (1 + )

E

2

2(1 + )

uII

1+ h 2

x

=

uIx

12

l

(4.44)

(4.45)

l

For a typical beam with = 20, the above ratio becomes 0.25 103 !!! In order to compare

h

the plane and wrapped cross-section, the amount of warping had to be magnified thousand

times, see Fig.(4.6). It can be concluded that the effect of warping is of an order of 0.1 %

and can be safely neglected in the engineering beam theory. In other words the rein of

the Euler-Bernoulli assumption is unchallenged.

Another inconsistency of the elementary beam theory is that the uniaxial stress gives

rise to the tri-axial strain state. In particular, from the 3-D constitutive equation, the strain

components

yy = zz = xx

(4.46)

E

Lets take as an example the same cantilever beam with a tip load. The bending moment

at root of the beam is M = P l, and from the stress formula,

xx =

From the definition yy =

Pl

z

I

(4.47)

duy

, and after integrating with respect to y, one gets

dy

uy =

formula (see Lecture 5)

=

P l

zy

IE

(4.48)

h

b

and y = . Making use of the beam deflection

2

2

P l3

Pl

3

or

= 2

3EI

EI

l

4-10

(4.49)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

the formula for the maximum displacement of a beam, normalized with respect to the beam

thickness becomes

2

(uy )max

h

3

=

(4.50)

h

4

h

l

What is the range of the normalized beam deflections ? The beam deflects elastically until

the most stressed fibers reach yield of the materials, xx z= h = y .

2

Then, from the stress formula

Pl h

y =

(4.51)

I 2

Combining the above expression with the beam deflection formula, Eq.(4.49), the estimate

for the maximum elastic tip displacement

2 y l 2

=

(4.52)

h

3E h

Combining Eqs.(4.50) and (4.52), the expression for the maximum normalized displacement

of the corner of the cross-section becomes

(uy )max

y

=

(4.53)

h

2E

y

1

With realistic values = and

= 103 , the amount of maximum change of the width of

3

E

the beam is 0.1 % of the beam height. Such a tiny change in the cross-sectional dimension

has no practical effect on the beam solution. A similar analysis can be performed to estimate

the change in the height of the beam.

When the signs of z and y coordinates is properly taken into account, the present

calculations predict the following change in the shape of the cross-section.

(uy)max

y

x

Figure 4.7: Predicted (left) and actual anticlastic deformed cross-section of the beam subjected to pure

bending. Note that the deflections were magnified by a factor of 104 .

The anticlastic deformation can be easily seen by bending a rubber eraser, which is a

very short beam. We can conclude the present section that the internal inconsistencies of the

beam theory do not produce any significant errors in engineering applications. Therefore,

one can safely assume that the cross-section of the beam does not deform and only moves

as a rigid body with the increasing beam deflections.

4-11

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

ADVANCED TOPIC

4.5

For convenience, the set of equations necessary to derive the elasticity law for plates is

summarized below.

Hooks law in plane stress reads:

=

E

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

(4.54)

In terms of components:

E

(xx + yy )

1 2

E

=

(yy + xx )

1 2

E

xy

=

1+

xx =

(4.55a)

yy

(4.55b)

xy

(4.55c)

= + z

(4.56)

h

2

Z

M

h

2

z dz

(4.57)

dz

(4.58)

Z

N

h

2

h

2

The bending moment M is now calculated by substituting Eq.(4.54) with Eq.(4.57)

M =

=

E

1 2

h

2

h

2

[(1 ) + ]z dz

E

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

z dz

h

2

E

+

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

=

h

2

h

2

Eh3

[(1 ) + ]

12(1 2 )

4-12

h

2

(4.59)

z 2 dz

Structural Mechanics

Z

Note that the term

2.080 Lecture 4

h

2

Semester Yr

h

2

entering

mid-surface strains

the moment-curvature relation.

Here we define the bending rigidity of a plate D as follows:

D=

Eh3

12(1 2 )

(4.60)

M = D[(1 ) + ]

M

11 M22

=

M21 M22

(4.61)

(4.62)

M11 = D(11 + 22 )

(4.63a)

M22 = D(22 + 11 )

(4.63b)

(4.63c)

Here, we use the hat notation for a function of certain argument, such as:

11 (11 )

M11 = M

= D11

b reads:

Then, the bending energy density U

Z

11 (11 ) d11

Ub =

M

0

Z 11

=D

11 d11

(4.64)

(4.65)

1

11 )2

= D(

2

b = 1 M11

U

11

2

(4.66)

General Case

General definition of the bending energy density reads:

I

Ub = M d

4-13

(4.67)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

M11

Semester Yr

11

D

22

11

d11

Figure 4.8: In one dimension the energy density is the area under the linear moment-curvature plot. In

the multi-axial case the final value can be reached along the straight or nonlinear path.

H

where the symbol denotes integration along a certain loading path.

Lets calculate the energy density stored when the curvature reaches a given value

along a straight loading path:

=

(4.68a)

d =

d

(4.68b)

M

M

=1

=0

Figure 4.9: The straight loading path in the 3-dimensional space of bending moments..

From the linearity of the moment-curvature relation, Eq.(4.61), it follows that

( )

M = M

(

=M

)

(

= M

)

4-14

(4.69)

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

where M

I

( ) d

Ub = M

Z 1

(

M

)

d

=

0

Z 1

(

=M

)

Semester Yr

(4.70)

1

= M

)

(

2

1

= M

2

Now, the bending energy density reads

b = D [(1 )

U

+

]

2

D

= [(1 )

+

]

2

D

( )2 ]

= [(1 )

2

(4.71)

b = D {(1 )[(

U

11 )2 + 2(

12 )2 + (

22 )2 ] + (

11 +

22 )2 }

2

D

= {(1 )[(

11 +

22 )2 2

11

22 + 2(

12 )2 ] + (

11 +

22 )2 }

2

D

= {(

11 +

22 )2 2

11

22 + 2(

12 )2 [2

11

22 + 2(

12 )2 ]}

2

D

= {(

11 +

22 )2 2

11

22 + 2(

12 )2 [2

11

22 + 2(

12 )2 ]}

2

D

= {(

11 +

22 )2 + 2(1 )[

11

22 + (

12 )2 ]}

2

b = D (

U

11 +

22 )2 2(1 )

11

22 (

12 )2

2

(4.72)

(4.73)

The term in the square brackets is the Gaussian curvature, G , introduced in Lecture 2,

Eq.(2.62). Should the Gaussian curvature vanish, as it is often the case in plates, then the

b = 1 D(

bending energy density assumes a very simple form U

11 +

22 )2 .

2

The total bending energy is the integral of the bending energy density over the area of plate:

Z

b dA

Ub =

U

(4.74)

S

4-15

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

The axial force can be calculated in a similar way as before

Z h

2

E

[(1 ) + ] dz

N =

1 2 h

2

Z h

2

E

=

[(1 ) + ] dz

1 2 h

2

Z h

2

E

+

[(1 ) + ]z dz

2

1 h

2

Z h

2

E

=

[(1 ) + ]

dz

2

1

h

2

Z h

2

E

+

[(1 ) + ]

dz

2

1

h

(4.75)

Eh

=

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

Z

The integral

h

2

h

2

Here we define the axial rigidity of a plate C as follows:

C=

Eh

1 2

(4.76)

Now, one gets the membrane force-extension relation in the tensor notation:

N = C[(1 ) + ]

(4.78)

(4.79a)

C(22

(4.79b)

N

11 N12

=

N21 N22

(4.77)

N22 =

N12 = C(1

+ 11 )

)11

(4.79c)

Using the similar definition used in the calculation of the bending energy density, the

extension energy (membrane energy) reads:

I

Um = N d

(4.80)

4-16

Structural Mechanics

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

Lets calculate the energy stored when the extension reaches a given value . Consider a

straight path:

=

d

( )

N = N

(

=N

)

=

N (

)

where N

Z

( ) d

Um =

N

0

Z 1

(

d

=

N

)

0

(4.81a)

(4.81b)

(4.82)

(4.83)

1

= N

)

(

2

1

= N

2

Now, the extension energy reads:

m = C [(1 )

U

]

+

2

C

)2

=

(1 )

+ (

2

The extension energy density expressed in terms of components is:

2

m = C (1 ) (

U

11 ) + 2(

12 )2 + (

22 )2 + (

11 + 22 )2

2

C

=

(1 ) (

11 + 22 )2 2

11 22 + 2(

12 )2 + (

11 + 22 )2

2

C

=

(

11 + 22 )2 2

11 22 + 2(

12 )2 2

11 22 + 2(

12 )2

2

C

=

(

11 + 22 )2 + 2(1 )

11 22 + (

12 )2

2

(4.84)

(4.85)

m = C (

U

11 + 22 )2 2(1 ) 11 22 (

12 )2

(4.86)

2

The total membrane energy is the integral of the membrane energy density over the area of

plate:

Z

m dS

Um =

U

(4.87)

S

4-17

Structural Mechanics

4.6

2.080 Lecture 4

Semester Yr

In the section on beams, it was shown that the profile of axial stress can be determined

from the known bending moment M and axial force N , see Eq. (4.30). A similar procedure

can be developed for plates by comparing Eqs (4.61-4.77) with Eq. (4.54). The stress-strain

curve for the plane stress can be expressed in terms of the middle surface strain tensor

and curvature tensor by combining Eqs. (4.54) and (4.56).

=

E

[(1 ) + ]

1 2

E

[(1 ) + ]z

+

1 2

(4.88)

(1 ) + =

M

D

(4.89)

(1 ) + =

N

C

(4.90)

where D =

Eh3

Eh

is the bending rigidity, and C =

is the axial rigidity of the

2

12(1 )

1 2

plate.

From the above system, one gets

=

Ez M

E N

+

1 2 D

1 2 C

(4.91)

zM

N

+ 3

h

h /12

(4.92)

=

The above equation is dimensionally correct, because both N and M are respective

quantities per unit length. In particular stress in the case of cylindrical bending is

xx =

Nxx

zMxx

+ 3

h

h /12

(4.93)

Multiplying both the numerators and denominators of the two terms above by b yields

xx =

Nxx b zMxx b

+ 3

hb

bh /12

(4.94)

Now, observing that Nxx b = N is the beam axial force, bMxx = M is the beam bending

bh3

moment, hb = A is the cross-section of the rectangular section beam, and

is the moment

12

of inertia, the familiar beam stress formula is obtained

=

N

Mz

+

A

I

4-18

(4.95)

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2013

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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