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Metal toxicity due to Ayurveda drugs - Facts and


Myths
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Metal toxicity due to Ayurvedic drugs - Facts and Myths


Krushnkumar Taviad, Galib, Prashant B, BJ Patgiri, PK Prajapati
Dept. of Rasa Shastra & Bhaishajya Kalpana,
Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda,
Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar
INTRODUCTION:
Traditional systems of medicines are being used since
centuries for healthcare by people in countries of the SouthEast Asia Region as well as in other parts of the world. In
recent times, public interest has shifted towards traditional
medicines for various concerns. They continues to be a
valuable source of remedies to the people around the world
to secure their health.1 World Health Organization (WHO)
also encourages, recommends and promotes traditional
medicines in national health programmes because such
drugs are easily available, comparatively safe, people have
faith in such remedies, and their industrial production is
environment friendly,2 and are attracting attention of
developing countries as an alternative or adjuvant to
synthetic drugs.
In Indian sub-continent, Ayurveda has great antiquity and
dates back to about 5,000 years B.C. The Materia Medica
of Ayurveda comprises of resources of plant, animal, metal
and mineral origin,3 which have been advocated for use in
different pathologies. Often, these resources have been
used as ingredients of poly-herbal, herbo-mineral and
metallic compound formulations by the seers, who have
documented their clinical experiences and passed on the
knowledge to further generations.
Rasashastra, an integral part of Ayurveda exclusively uses
various metals and minerals in therapeutics. It deals with
drugs of metals / mineral origin, their varieties,
characteristics, processing techniques, properties,
therapeutic uses, possibilities of developing adverse effects
and their management in a comprehensive way.
Though the roots of this science (Rasashastra) exist in the
ancient scriptures of Indian civilization, actual development
of it as an independent system of learning and therapy
started around 8th century A.D. However, Ayurvedic classics
before this period, like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta
Samhita, had already discussed a good deal about metals
and minerals, their processing techniques and utilization in
therapeutics.

In due course of time, herbo-mineral and metallic


preparations occupied a significant place in Ayurvedic
therapeutics. Since then, they are being routinely
prescribed in different parts of India for centuries. The
preparations are attributed to be safe and efficacious even
in minute doses.4 Being used for over a long period, these
medicines are acknowledged as safe, which is the ultimate
proof for their non - toxic beneficial effects.
However, the use of metallic preparations has raised
concerns and debate in scientific community in the past
couple of decades.5,6,7 These reports raised safety concerns
on Ayurvedic medicines, particularly those of metallic /
mineral / herbo-mineral in origin for containing considerable
levels of heavy metals like lead, mercury and / or arsenic
etc. In addition to this, few months back, UN Environment
Programme (UNEP) released a report Mercury - Time to
Act, where imposing a ban on Mercury for trade considering
its effect on environment has been put forward.8 Such
heavy metal controversies have tried to malign the
reputation of Ayurveda at global levels.
CLASSICAL CONTRIVE:
A drug can be panacea or poison. A drug fulfilling the
criterion of a standard drug will always become panacea
provided, if it is used properly. On the other hand, a poorly
prepared or manufactured drug however used skillfully, will
always prove to be a poison.9 Classics of Ayurveda do
mention the hazards of drugs, which are not properly
manufactured. Such mentions clearly show that they were
fully aware of the hazards of heavy metals or other
substances. Based on this knowledge, they have prescribed
specific processing techniques (like Shodhana and Marana
etc.), which will remove the hazardous properties from
these drugs. They have also prescribed testing methods
(like Bhasma Pariksha), which will tell the manufacturer
whether the drug has attained a form, which does not have
hazardous properties when used properly by a physician.
The metals / minerals thus processed (known as Bhasmas
in Ayurveda) are utilized in therapeutics.

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Categorization of Rasa Dravya: Using processed mineral /


metal in healthcare is the unique characteristic feature of
Rasashastra. Various herbal or animal resources will be
used during different pharmaceutical procedures of minerals
/ metals, which convert them in to bio-assimilable forms. All
these metals such as Parada (Mercury), Swarna (Gold),
Rajata (Silver), Tamra (Copper), Naga (Lead) etc. have
known to the seers for centuries to possess healing powers
as recorded in ancient texts. These processed metals /
minerals are said to be the reservoirs of Prana (energy). All
these metals / minerals described in Rasashastra are
categorized into different categories as depicted at Table 1.

metals / minerals as emphasized in Rasa classics are


depicted at Table 2.

Rasa Aushadhi: Medicines of metallic / herbo-mineral in


origin are familiar as Rasaushadhies in Ayurveda.
Description of different types of Rasaushadhies like
Kharaliya, Kupipakva, Parpati, Pottali, Bhasma etc. are
mentioned in the texts of Rasa classics. Parada (Mercury),
one of such important metals is the inseparable part of
Ayurveda and is used in preparation of formulations like
Makaradhwaja, Rasa sindhura etc. Classical procedures
like Shodhana (purification), Marana (incineration) etc. are
mandatorily to be followed in the pharmaceutical
procedures of these formulations. These procedures are
anticipated to make the metals / minerals safe (harmless)
and render suitable for therapeutic use. Meticulous
guidelines have been laid down in classical texts while
preparing Rasaushadhies, Bhasma (calcined metallic
powders) etc.10 Rasaushadhies will be prepared in
combination with other prescribed material in a rigorous and
specified manner.

Caution while using Rasa Dravya: All the preparations


are not recommended for all the patients. The indications,
dose, to whom to give and to whom not to give, what should
be the vehicle, what are the diseases, where they are not
recommended etc are major factors always considered by
the physician before they recommend these Ayurvedic
metallic products to the patients.

During initial days of Ayurvedic therapeutics; these metals


and minerals were advocated to be used after converting
them into Anjana (microfine) form through different
procedures like Ayaskriti.11 In due course of time; certain
newer techniques like Shodhana, Jarana and Marana etc.
have been developed with an intention to prepare more bioassimilable forms of metals / minerals.
Therapeutic utilization of Rasa Dravya: Great care has
been imposed while using all such metallic preparations in
therapeutics.12 These preparations are to be administered
orally in specified quantities with great caution along with
requisite anupana (vehicles). Emphasis has been laid on
anupana like ghee, milk, honey etc. while administering
Rasaushadhies. Anupana is anticipated to play a key role in
safety aspects of Rasaushadhies. In absence of anupana,
adverse reactions are likely.13 Therapeutic utilities of few

Metal toxicity & Ayurveda: Many of the Ayurvedic


formulations do contain metals or minerals etc. as an
integral component, which if not used by following
Ayurvedic principles may show symptoms of toxicity. Seers
were well versed about this fact and documented the toxic
effects in their respective classics. A brief about the same is
tabulated at Table 3. At the same time treatment for such
occurrences is also mentioned in the classics. Table 4 gives
a view on such few references from Anupana Manjari.

Ayurveda texts are filled with concepts pertaining to drug


administration. Few such concepts provided at Table 5
reveals the vision of the seers in pharmacokinetics and
dynamics of metallic preparations.
In addition, precautions to be taken while consuming
Rasaushadhies are highlighted by the seers. Metallic
preparations should never be consumed alone. A suitable
Anupana (adjuvant) should be administered with them. In
suitable individuals, a gap of one or two or three days is to
be observed.14
Ayurveda considers a number of factors while administering
a drug.15 Right drug at the Right dose by the Right route at
the Right time for the Right person will always provide
beneficial effects.16 Increased morbidity, risk of unwanted
effects etc. have been repeatedly been attributed with
irrational drug use.17 WHO also considers irrational use of
medicines (overuse, underuse or misuse) as a major
problem worldwide that results in widespread health
hazards.18 This aspect has been considered by the pioneers
of Ayurveda in detail in addition to the other possible ways
by which toxicity, untoward effects can occur and provided
all the guidelines to avoid the occurrence of such
incidences. Even, if in any eventuality, some untoward
effects are noticed due to non compliance of code of
conduct of the treatment, the treatment procedures for such
conditions have also been prescribed.

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Few recent studies on metallic preparations:


Studies on mercurial preparations like Makaradhwaja are
reported to improve the quality of life and attributed with
anti-stress activity.19 Rasa sindhura, another mercurial
preparation is proven to increase life-span, and fecundity of
Drosophila.20 Garbhachintamani Rasa has shown to
improve hepatic functions,21 Mahamrutyunjaya Rasa is
proven to be cardiotonic.22 Arogyavardhini Vati, another
herbo-mineral preparation is found to be safer at higher
therapeutic dose levels.23 Bhasmas of Abhraka (mica),
Mandura (iron), and herbo-mineral formulations like Swasa
Kuthara rasa (mercury, sulphur) and Smriti Sagara rasa
(mixture of metals) were reported to be free from
genotoxicity.24 Another metallic preparation, Swarna
Makshika Bhasma (Chalcopyrite predominant of Copper) is
also reported to be free from genotoxic potential.25
Studies At IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University,
Jamnagar:
Studies on metallic preparations have been carried out in
recent past at IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University that
proven the significance of classical procedures in
detoxifying the metals and making them potent and suitable
for therapeutic application. Most of these studies reported
that, the metals / minerals when converted into the
medicines by strictly following classical guidelines as
specified in ancient texts are devoid of toxicity even when
administered at higher doses than the specified therapeutic
doses. Makaradhwaja (combination of Mercury, Gold and
Sulphur) was proven to be safe at 32 TED levels.26
Rasakarpura (Mercuric Chloride) was reported to be safe at
40 TED levels,27 while Naga Bhasma (incinerated Lead)
was tolerable even at 80 TED levels.28
Few other studies on Rasa sindhura, Rasa manikya, Tamra
bhasma, etc. and few herbo-mineral formulations like
Shankha vati, Tribhuvana kirti rasa, Hridayarnava rasa etc.
also established safety at higher therapeutic doses. This
implies that, metallic preparations are comparatively safe
when prepared and administered by following classical
guidelines.

body is poor on oral administration (10 - 15%), while organic


mercurial compounds absorb more than 90%. In addition,
organic mercurials cross blood brain-barrier and bloodplacental barrier, hence are more fatal.29 Interestingly, many
studies on Ayurvedic mercurial preparations have proven
the chemical nature of the finished products to be inorganic
(mostly sulphides).30
Further, traditionally prepared mercurials are proven to be
different from industrial mercurials and supported safety of
such medicines.31 Researches also proven that cinnabar is
not converted into methylmercury by human intestinal
bacteria.32
Further, as well known, Ayurvedic medicines are effective
not due to a single active ingredient but, is due to
combination of different types of substances that are
responsible for therapeutic effects. Studies also established
that, Rasaushadhies do contain traces of other elements in
them, which possibly enter into the end product from
specific treatments.33
SHORT COMINGS OF FEW PREVIOUS STUDIES:
] In most of the western studies, metallic drugs were
subjected to chemical examination using standards
applied in modern medicine, focussing only on the
metallic content. No works are reported on clinical or
pharmacological aspects by them. The chemical
forms of the metallic preparations were never thought
to be attempted.
] The number of cases with adverse reactions with the
use of metallic preparations is very few worldwide
against the use of thousands of consumers. While
reports with synthetic drugs are very frequent, that
appears throughout the world. In such instances,
labelling the traditional practices or metallic
preparations as toxic is not appropriate.
] In few cases, the medicines are being purchased
Over The Counter (OTC) or through internet. This
practice is not applicable for Ayurveda. This also
indicates the trend of self medications.

PROVEN FACTS:
Absorption, distribution, and excretion of all metallic
compounds differ based on the chemical forms. To refer,
absorption of inorganic compounds of mercury in human

] Another important issue is the non-availability of


baseline data for the heavy metals. There is always a
possibility that, the observed heavy metals in the
product may be entered into the product through

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cross-contamination or they may enter into the system


of the consumer as contaminants through food or
water.
In all such instances, one cannot blame a drug or system. It
needs a thorough examination of various factors before
coming to a final decision.
CONCLUSION:
Comprehensive information available in the classics clearly
reflects that the pioneers of Ayurveda were well aware of
the toxicity or untoward effects that can occur with the
improper usage of metals or minerals. They have
documented specific processing techniques, therapeutic
dosage and concurrent diet advice to avoid any ill effects.
Even so, if some complications are noticed due to faulty
processing, improper administration or non-compliance of
code of conduct, treatment procedures for such
complications have also been prescribed. This implies that,
the seers were well versed with the pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynamics of metallic preparations.
In such circumstances, statements like Ayurvedic drugs are
toxic, as they contain heavy metals is nothing but
ignorance about the age old science. Mere presence of
metallic fractions doesnt have any relation with the toxicity
of metallic preparations. Different manufacturing techniques
to which the metals subjected (like Shodhana and Marana
etc.) ensures that, a number of changes will take place in
their structure and the final form after reaction with various
organic and inorganic materials during these procedures is
finally responsible for the specified therapeutic action.
Hence, a person who is unaware of such classical
techniques only can raise concerns over the safety issues.
All this information leaves no doubt that the pioneers of
Ayurveda were well aware of both the remarkable
therapeutic benefits and potential toxicity of metals and
minerals. They took precautions to avoid any harmful
effects resulting from their use in therapeutics.34 Elaborate
processing techniques were tried and tested for each
material to nullify its toxicity and maximize the benefits. Safe
dosages were codified. Suitable Anupana (adjuvants) and
dietary advises were recommended. Even so, if there was
any untoward effect due to non-compliance with the code of
safety, specific antidotes and treatments were prescribed.

To conclude, it can be said that rational use of Rasa


Dravyas was well established before the period of Charaka
Samhita (more than 5000 BC) which is evident from the
clear descriptions available in the classic. This was the
period when most of the countries in the world were just
awakening.35 Looking into the glorious heritage, evidences
through the classical literatures, current practices, preclinical observations; it can be authentically and strongly
can be said that the metallic preparations are the BOON TO
THE AILING POPULATION. All the concerns raised are
some part of conspiracy.
Considering all such concerns, there is a need to develop a
strong networking between sophisticated laboratories,
scientists of biotechnology, and Ayurvedic physicians. The
concepts and impact of different classical procedures may
be highlighted at every possible training opportunity to the
individuals of scientific profession, which will generate
awareness regarding the traditional pharmaceutical
procedures.
REFERENCES:
1. Samlee Pliangbangchang (2010). Foreword in
Traditional Herbal Remedies for Primary Health Care,
WHO, Regional Office for South East Asia, New Delhi.
2. Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM (2003). Natural
products as sources of new drugs over the period 19812002. J Nat Prod. 66(7):1022-37.
3. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary, Sutra 1/68, Chaukhambha Surbharati
Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
4. Gopalakrishna Bhatt, Rasendra Sara Samgraha, 1/4,
Krishnadass Academy, First Edition, 1994.
5. Robert B. Saper, Stefanos N. Kales, Janet Paquin,
Michael J. Burns, David M. Eisenberg, Roger B. Davis,
Russell S. Phillips, Heavy Metal Content of Ayurvedic
Herbal Medicine Products, JAMA 2004;292:2868-73
6. Robert B. Saper, Russell S. Phillips, Anusha Sehgal,
Nadia Khouri, Roger B. Davis,
Janet Paquin,
Venkatesh Thuppil, Stefanos N. Kales, Lead, Mercury,
and Arsenic in US and Indian Manufactured Ayurvedic
Medicines Sold via the Internet, JAMA 2008;300:915-23
7. Paromita Hore, Munerah Ahmed, Jacqueline Ehrlich,
Lourdes Steffen, Slavenka Sedlar et al, Lead Poisoning
in Pregnant Women Who Used Ayurvedic Medications
from India - New York City, 20112012, Centre for
Disease Control and Prevention (Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report), 61 (33) August 24, 2012

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8. http://www.unep.org/PDF/PressReleases/Mercury_Tim
eToAct.pdf last accessed on 19th January 2014.
9. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary, Sutra 1/124-7, Chaukhambha Surbharati
Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
10. Rasa vagbhata, Rasa ratna samuchaya, Chaukhambha
Orientalia, Varanasi.
11. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary, Chikitsa 1-iii/15-23, Chaukhambha
Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
12. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary, Chikitsa 12/21-2, Chaukhambha
Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
13. Kapoor RC. Some observations on the metal-based
preparations in the Indian Systems of Medicine. Indian J
Trad Know. 2010;9(3):562-75
14. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary, Chikitsa 5/57, Chaukhambha Surbharati
Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
15. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
Commentary,
Chikitsa 30/293,
Chaukhambha
Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint 2000.
16. Mehta S, Gogtay NJ. From the pen to the patient:
Minimizing medication errors. J postgrad Med.
2005;51:3-4
17. Srinivasan S. A network for the rational and ethical use
of drugs. Indian J Med Ethics. 2004;1(1)
18. World Health Organization. Rational Use of Medicines.
Available
at
http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/
rational _use/en/index.html; Accessed on 10.05.2013
19. Sinyorita S, Ghosh CK, Chakrabarti A, Auddy B, Ghosh
R, Debnath PK. Effect of Ayurvedic mercury preparation
Makaradhwaja on geriatric canine A preliminary study.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49:537
20. Vibha D, Anandan EM, Rajesh S. M, Muraleedharan
TS, Valiathan MS, Mousumi M, Subhash C.L. In Vivo
Effects Of Traditional Ayurvedic Formulations in
Drosophila melanogaster Model Relate with Therapeutic
Applications. PLoS ONE, May 2012; 7 (5)
21. Bulbul J, Obayed U, Rahaman et al., Effect of Garbha
Cintamani Rasa - An Ayurvedic Formulation on Lipid
Profile, Liver Function and Kidney Function Parameters
of Rat Plasma after Chronic Administration, European
Journal of Scientific Research, 2009, 32(1), 25-32
22. Pallavi DR, Sadhana JR, Biological Evaluation of
Polyherbal Ayurvedic Cardiotonic preparation
Mahamrutyunjaya
Rasa,
Evidence-Based
Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011

23. Gajendra Kumara, Amita Srivastava, SK Sharma, YK


Gupta, Safety evaluation of an Ayurvedic medicine,
Arogyavardhini vati on brain, liver and kidney in rats,
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140 (2012) 151 160
24. Vardhini NV, Sathya TN, Balakrishna MP, Assessment
of genotoxic potential of herbomineral preparations bhasmas, Current Science, 99(8), 2010, 1096-100
25. Savalgi PB, Patgiri BJ, Thakkar JH, Ravishankar B,
Gupta VB, Evaluation of subchronic genotoxic potential
of Swarna Makshika Bhasma, AYU, 33(3), 2012, 418-22
26. Patgiri et al, Pharmaceutical and toxicity study of
Makaradhwaja prepared by Astasanskarita Parada,
PhD Dissertation, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved
University, Jamnagar, 2005
27. Neky et al, Safety profile and Therapeutic effects of
Rasakarpura and Rasa karpura Drava on Kshudra
kushtha, PhD Dissertation, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved
University, Jamnagar, 2007
28. Praveen T et al, Pharmaceutical standardization and
toxicity study of Naga Bhasma prepared by two different
methods, PG Dissertation, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved
University, Jamnagar, 2008
29. Curtis D Klaassen. Heavy Metals and Heavy-Metal
Antagonists in Pharmacological basis of therapeutics.
Ed. Laurence L Brunton, 11th Ed., McGRAW-HILL
Medical publishing Division, Newyork, 2006, 1760.
30. Singh SK, Chaudhary AK, Rai DK, Rai SB. Preparation
and characterization of a mercury based Indian
traditional drug Rasa sindoor. Indian J Trad Know.
2009;8(3):346-51
31. Jie Liu, Jing-Zheng Shi, Li-Mei Yu, Robert A. Goyer and
Michael P. Waalkes. Mercury in Traditional Medicines:
Is Cinnabar toxicologically similar to Common
Mercurials. Exp Bio Med. 2008, 233:810-7.
32. Zhou X, Wang L, Sun X, Yang X, Chen C, Wang Q,
Yang X. Cinnabar is not converted into methylmercury
by human intestinal bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011,
26;135(1):110-5.
33. Bhagwat M. Preparation and physico-chemical
characterization of the bhasmas of Zinc and Calcium
and the intermediates obtained during their synthesis.
PhD Thesis, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 2004
34. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita, Ayurveda Dipika
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Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Reprint
2000.
35. Sonnedecker Gienn. Evolution of Pharmacy (Chapter 2
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Sciences,
Pennsylvania), 1980.

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Table 1: Categorization of Rasa Dravya


Category
1

Rasa

Maha Rasa

Upa Rasa

Sadharana Rasa

Dhatu Varga
Shuddha Loha
Puti Loha
Misra Loha

Ratna / Mani

Uparatna Varga

Sudha Varga

Sikata Varga

10

Ksara Varga

11

Visha

12

Upavisha

Description
Number
Substances under the group
The prime substance of Rasa
1
Rasa (Mercury)
Shastra.
The next important group of
Abhraka, Vaikranta, Makshika, Vimala, Shilajatu,
8
minerals
Sasyaka, Chapala, Rasaka
These are the substances next to
Gandhaka, Gairika, Kasisa, Kankshi, Haratala,
8
Maha Rasa
Manahshila, Anjana, Kankushtha
Substances next to Upa Rasa are
Kampillaka, Gauripashana, Navasadara, Kaparda,
8
Sadharana Rasas
Vahnijara, Girisindoora, Hingula, Mriddara Sringa
Group of metals. Further categorized in to three sub-divisions.
Pure metals
4
Swarna, Rajata, Tamra, Loha
Metals, which emits fetid smell
3
Naga, Vanga, Yashada
while processing
Alloy metals
3
Pittala, Kamsya, Varta
Precious stones. Have astrological
Manikya, Mukta, Pravala, Marakata, Pushparaga,
importance in addition to their role
9
Vajra, Indraneela, Gomeda, Vaidhurya
on human health
Vaikranta, Suryakanta, Chandrakanta, Rajavarta,
Semiprecious stones
6
Pairojaka, Sphatika
Sudha, Khatika, Godanti, Swetanjana,
Group of substances, which are
12
Mrigasringa, Hastidanta, Kurmaprista, Kukkutanda
rich Calcium compounds
Twak, Shankha, Shukti, Shambuka
Dugdha Pashana, Naga Pashana,
Silicate compounds
4
Kausheyashma, Badarashma
Substances with Alkaline nature
3
Tankana, Sarja Ksara, Yava Ksara
Halahala, Kalakuta, Sringaka, Pradeepana,
Poisonous substances
9
Saurashtrika, Brahmaputra, Haridra, Saktuka,
Vatsanabha
Kupeelu, Ahiphena, Jayapala, Dhattura, Bhanga,
Poisonous substances of less
11
Gunja, Bhallataka, Arka, Snuhi, Langali,
potency
Karaveera

Table 2: Therapeutic utility of processed Metals / Minerals


1
2

Metal / Mineral
Parada (Mercury)
Swarna (Gold)

Rajata (Silver)

Tamra (Copper)

Naga (Lead)

Vanga (Tin)

Haratala
(Yellow orpiment)

Manahshila (Realgar)

Therapeutic utility
In all diseases with suitable anupana (adjuvant).
Various formulations of Swarna are useful as Vrishya, Balya,
Rasayana, Medhya, Ayushya, Ojo Vardhaka, and Vayah
Sthapaka and disease alleviators particularly in chronic
debilitating diseases like Rajayakshma, Swasa, Kasa, and
Pandu.
Balya, Rasayana, Medhya, Ayushya, Ojo Vardhaka, and Vayah
Sthapaka
Krimi, Sthaulya, Arsha, Ksaya, Pandu, Kusta, Swasa, Kasa,
Amlapitta, Sotha, Yakrit Roga, and Grahani Dosha
Prameha, Gulma, Arsha, Sweta Pradara, Grahani Roga, and
Antra Sotha
Prameha, Kasa, Shwasa, Krimi, Kshaya, Pandu, Pradara, and
Garbhashaya Chyuti
Kustha (skin diseases), Vishama Jwara (viral fever), Vrana
(ulcers), Arsha (haemorrhoids), Bhagandara (fistula), Apasmara
(epilepsy), Visarpa (erysipelas), etc.
Swasa (breathlessness), Kasa (cough), Agnimandya (loss of
appetite), Kustha (skin diseases), Jwara (fever), etc

Reference
Rasendra Chudamani 15/3
Rasa Tarangini
15/ 69-71
Rasendra Chudamani
14/ 23
Rasa Tarangini
16/ 46-51
Rasa Tarangini
17/ 46
Rasa Tarangini
19/ 44-50
Rasa Tarangini
18/ 39-42
Rasa Tarangini
11/ 52-5
Rasa Tarangini
11/ 116

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National Seminar on Parada Vijnana,


20th & 21st July 2014, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar

Page 6

Table 3: Toxic effects of improperly used Metals / Minerals


Metallic Preparations
Parada (Mercury)

Swarna (Gold)
Rajata (Silver)
Tamra (Copper)

Naga (lead)
Manahshila (Realgar)
Haritala (Yellow orpiment)

Adverse Effects
Vidaha (Burning sensation), Krimi (Worm infestation), Kushtha (Skin
lesions), Agnimandya (Digestive disturbances), Aruchi
(Tastelessness), Vami (Vomiting), Jadya (Stiffness), or even Death
Decrease Oja and Bala (defence mechanism), creates many other
diseases or even death.
Sharira Tapa (pyrexia), Vidbaddhata (constipation), Shukranasha
(vitiated sperm / impotency), Bala and Virya Kshaya (lowering body
resistance power).
Bhrama (Vertigo), Murccha (Unconsciousness), Vidaha (Burning
sensation), Sweda (sweating), Kleda (Wetness sensation),
Vanti(Nausea and vomiting), Aruchi (Anorexia),
Citta santapa (mental uneasiness).
Prameha (Diabetes mellitus), Kshaya (Tuberculosis), Kamala
(Jaundice)
Ashmari (Calculi), Sarkara (Gravel), Mutrakriccha (Dysuria),
Mutravrodha (Obstructed micturition), Mandagni, Mandabala
(General debility), Malabandha (constipation).
Prameha (Diabetes), Tapa (Pyrexia), Sphota (Blisters on the body),
Kushtha Roga (Skin lesions) or even death.

Reference
Ayurveda Prakasha 1/366

Rasa Ratna Samuchya


5/20
Ayurveda Prakasha 3/92
Ayurveda Prakasha 3/115

Ayurveda Prakasha 3/188


Ayurveda Prakasha 2/219
Ayurveda Prakasha 2/179

Table 4: Treatment of toxic effects of improperly used Metals / Minerals


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Bhasma
Suvarna
Tamra
Naga
Vanga
Haratala
Manahshila
Abhraka
Parada
Raskarpura

Antidote
Haritaki with Sita
Agstya with Sita
Haritaki with Sita
Meshasringi with Sita
Jiraka with Sharkara or Kushmanda, Duralabha
Jiraka with Makshika
Amalaki
Gandhaka with Nagvalli
Dhanyaka with Sita

Refrence
Anupana Manjari 1/4
Anupana Manjari 1/6
Anupana Manjari 1/7
Anupana Manjari 1/8
Anupana Manjari 2/7-8
Anupana Manjari 2/11
Anupana Manjari 2/13
Anupana Manjari 2/1-2
Anupana Manjari 2/18

Table 5: Concepts pertaining to Drug Administration

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Concept
Importance of drug examination
Form of the drug
Knowledge of side effects
Persistent use of drugs
Post medication precautions
Care to be taken in emaciated patients etc.
Dose fixation
Effect of administering in excess or less dose

Reference
Kashyapa Khila 3/111
Charaka Sutra 4/7
Kashyapa Khila 3/28
Kashyapa Khila 3/58-60
Kashyapa Khila 3/65
Kashyapa Khila 3/116
Astanga Hridaya Kalpa Siddhi 6
Kashyapa Khila 3/115

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National Seminar on Parada Vijnana,


20th & 21st July 2014, IPGT & RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar

Page 7