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This standard specifies the laboratory test method to determine the engineering (strength) properties of a rock joint (discontinuity), such as observed in slopes, foundations, tunnels and underground cavities. The test method is for a direct shear test using a shear box described below, and it differs from that found in JGS 3511-2004 ‘Method for Insitu Direct Shear Test on Rocks’, which is conducted in-situ.
2 Normative Reference
The following referenced article is indispensable for the application of this method. The newest version of the following document shall apply to this test method. JGS 3821-2006 Method for investigation into the geometrical distribution of discontinuities in rock masses
This standard uses the terms defined as follows: 3.1 Discontinuity A weak plane in the form of joint, bedding, etc., which disturbs the mechanical continuity of rock material, and whose tensile strength is either nil or negligible. 3.2 Roughness Geometrical roughness on the surface of a discontinuity. 3.3 Infilling A material that fills the gap created by a discontinuity. 3.4 Maximum shear strength Maximum value of shear stress. 3.5 Residual shear strength Approximately constant value of shear stress after showing the maximum shear strength. 3.6 Sample Rock material extracted from the boring core or the block sample. It contains a discontinuity that is regarded as a shear plane. 3.7 Specimen Sample that is cut to fit into a shear box. 3.8 Angle of shear resistance
Inclination of Coulomb’s rupture line on the diagram showing the relationship between the normal and shear stresses. 3.9 Cohesion Intercept of Coulomb’s rupture line on the diagram illustrating the relation between the normal and shear stresses.
4 Test Apparatus
Test apparatus is as follows (Refer to Figure 1):
4.1 Shear Box
The shear box contains the specimen and it is divided by the shear plane into two parts: a movable box and a fixed box. The two parts does not contact mutually. The movable box shifts parallel to the fixed box. The shear box has enough stiffness in the prescribed range of applied load. Note: If a special device, having the same function to fix the specimen as the shear box, is equipped in the apparatus, it can be used.
4.2 Apparatus for Loading
Loading apparatus is as follows: 4.2.1 Apparatus for normal loading The apparatus provides the prescribed normal force to the shear box. It controls the normal force applied to the specimen. The apparatus has enough stiffness in the prescribed range of applied load. Note: The apparatus consists of a loading device and an axis. The loading device can control the normal load. The normal load is applied at the center of the specimen. 4.2.2 Apparatus for shear loading The apparatus provides the prescribed shear force to the shear box. It moves the shear box parallel to the shear plane and controls the rate of shear displacement. The apparatus has enough stiffness in the prescribed range of applied load. Note: The apparatus consists of a loading device and an axis. The loading device can control the shear load. Moments generated by the action of shear force should be as small as possible. 4.2.3 Guide for shear box It is installed so that the movable box can shift into the predetermined direction smoothly and parallel to the fixed box. Note: The apparatus consists of sliding parts such as stiffness rollers. It should not have significant influence on the shear force measured. 4.2.4 Reaction frame Normal loading apparatus, shear loading apparatus and guide for the shear box are placed on the reaction frame. It has enough stiffness for the forces acting on these apparatus. 4.2.5 Load cell Normal load and expected shear load should be measured with the tolerance of ±1% or less up to their maximum values. 4.2.6 Displacement gauge Expected normal and shear displacements should be measured with the tolerance of ±1% or less up to their maximum values.
4.3 Other Instruments
4.3.1 Measuring instrument for roughness of discontinuity Instrument to measure the roughness of the discontinuity. Note: A contour gauge, contact or non-contact type displacement gauge should be used. 4.3.2 Instrument for measuring specimen size Instrument to measure the size of the specimen with the tolerance of 0.1mm or less.
5 Test Specimen
The specimen should be cut and trimmed from the extracted sample so that the discontinuity might correspond to the shear plane, and then the specimen should be firmly fixed into the shear box. In the case the sample cannot be fixed to the shear box etc. (e.g., the sample and the shear box do not fit to each other), the fixing material, such as mortar, plaster or resin, should be adopted to prevent any extra movement. 5.1 Measurement and observation on the sample and specimen 5.1.1 Measurement of the area of the shear plane Measure the area of the shear plane of the specimen. Note: In the case the shear plane is in a regular shape, the area can be obtained from the measured dimensions. The area of the shear plane in an irregular shape can be obtained as the area of the traced shape on a paper sheet, which is measured with a planimeter, for example. 5.1.2 Measurement of the roughness of the discontinuity Observe the features of the discontinuity carefully, and measure the roughness of the discontinuity. Note: If possible, it is desirable to measure the roughness along some measuring lines with an appropriate tool or device, such as a contour gauge, contact or non-contact type displacement gauge. 5.1.3 Other measurement If necessary, record the features of the discontinuity before and after the loading of the shear force with sketches or photographs. 5.2 Fixation of the sample a) The sample should be bound temporarily before the complete fixation so as to fit into the shear box suitably and not to slip along the discontinuity. b) The strength of the fixing material should be larger than that of the discontinuity, and be approximately equal to or larger than that of the intact material of the sample. c) Care must be taken so that the fixing material does not enter the discontinuity. d) The sample should be fixed in the shear box so that the discontinuity becomes parallel to the shear direction and is placed at the center of the opening of the shear box (Refer to Figure 2). 5.3 Shape and dimensions of the specimen a) The height of the upper and lower halves of the specimen should be adjusted to be approximately the same. b) The shape of the specimen should be suitable for the stable loading of the normal and shear forces. c) The area of the shear plane should be 1,900 mm2 or larger. 5.4 Number of the specimens The number of the specimens for a single test sequence should be three or more. All the specimens should be made from the discontinuities which have the same features. Note 1: It is impossible to obtain the completely same specimens. The samples for the specimens should be extracted from the same discontinuity and should have the same features. Note 2: The different discontinuities which have the same features may be used for the specimens in a single test sequence.
6 Test Procedure
Test procedure is as follows: 6.1 Preparation 6.1.1 Arrangement of the specimen Arrange the specimen into the test apparatus.
Note 1: The mesh of the upper and lower halves should be in principle the same as that at the initial state. If the specimen has been bound temporarily, the binding articles must be removed. Note 2: Decide the shear direction according to the purpose of the test. 6.1.2 Arrangement of the displacement gauges Arrange the displacement gauges for measuring the relative normal and shear displacements of the specimen. Note: The positions and number of the displacement gauges for the normal and shear directions should be arranged according to the loading system of the normal and shear forces. Note: In some cases, the specimen rotates or inclines by the mechanisms of the test apparatus. In such cases, it is desirable to arrange the displacement gauges so as to indicate the appropriate deformation characteristics. 6.2 Loading of the normal force Load the prescribed normal force slowly to the specimen. Different normal force is applied to each specimen. Record the normal displacement during the process of the normal loading. Note: The confinement of the shear box must be removed before loading. 6.3 Loading of the shear force 6.3.1 Loading of the shear force Start to load the shear force while the prescribed normal force is being maintained. At the same time, start the measurement of the normal and shear forces with the load cells, and also start the measurement of the normal and shear displacements with the displacement gauges; and Note 1: There are two ways to control the shear loading: the displacement controlled loading and the load controlled loading. Note 2: Although the shear force should be generally increased continuously at a fixed rate of shear displacement, the stepwise loading may also be possible. The fixed rate of shear displacement should be 0.1 mm/min or less. Note 3: The normal and shear forces, the normal and shear displacements should be recorded at appropriate intervals until the prescribed shear displacement is reached. Note 4: The intervals for the monitors of the measuring devices and the recording should be given according to the rate of shear displacement. Note 5: When the specimen rotates or inclines by the mechanisms of the test apparatus, such deformation characteristics should be measured precisely with multiple displacement gauges, and then the average displacement should be calculated. 6.3.2 End of the loading of the shear force. Note: Remove the shear force first, and then remove the normal force. Note: Generally, the loading of the shear force is stopped when the prescribed shear displacement is reached. The prescribed shear displacement is 5.0 or 10.0 mm, for example, or 5 through 10 % of the length of the discontinuity in the shear direction.
7 Arrangement of Test Results
7.1 Calculation of normal and shear stresses Obtain the normal stress σ n and shear stress τ using the following formula: σn＝Pn／A, [MN/m2] τ＝Ps／A. [MN/m2] Here, Ps, Pn and A are the shear force (N), normal force (N), and the area of shear plane before loading (mm 2), respectively. 7.2 Graphic representation of the process of shear loading
For each specimen tested, draw diagrams showing the relation between the shear displacement and the shear stress as well as the relation between the shear displacement and the normal displacement. 7.3 Graphic representation of the process of normal loading Draw a diagram showing the relation between the normal displacement and the normal stress in the process of normal loading. 7.4 Identification of the maximum shear strength Identify the maximum shear strength as the maximum of the shear stress in the process of shear loading (Refer to Figures 3 and 4). 7.5 Identification of the residual shear strength Identify the residual shear strength as the constant shear stress after passing the maximum shear strength in the process of shear loading (Refer to Figures 3 and 4). Note: If the shear stress does not become constant, the residual shear strength is in many cases identified as the shear stress at the time the shear loading increment is stopped. If the given shear displacement is small, the residual shear strength may be identified by applying repeatedly the shear loading. 7.6 Graphic representation of the maximum and residual shear strengths: After the above-mentioned arrangements 7.1-7.5 for all specimens, depict for the all test results the relation between the maximum shear strength and the normal stress as well as the relation between the residual shear strength and the normal stress. 7.7 Calculation of the angle of shear resistance and the cohesion: On the diagram drawn in 7.6, individually for the maximum and the residual shear strengths, draw a straight line approximately connecting the points expressing the test results using the method of least squares. Obtain the angle of shear resistance of the discontinuity as the inclination of this straight line and the cohesion of the discontinuity as the intercept on the vertical axis.
Report the following details: 8.1 Samples If more than one sample with different discontinuities are examined, report the following for each sample tested. a) Origin: Site name, location, depth and date of extraction. b) Rock type Note: It is desirable to also indicate the stratum name. a) b) Sample extracting method Conditions of the discontinuity in-situ Note: The conditions of the discontinuity should be described according to JGS 3821-2006 "Method for investigation into the geometrical distribution of discontinuities in rock mass." c) Observation of the sample Note: The properties and conditions of infilling, and if possible, the history of shear deformation in the past, should be described. 8.2 Specimens a) Method of preparation b) Shape, size, and area of the shear plane c) Roughness of the discontinuity d) Observation of the specimen: Properties and conditions of infilling, other features, etc. Note: It is desirable to attach a photograph. e) Fixing material: Material properties, strength, etc. 8.3 Test results a) Test method
b) Loading method Note 1: The loading rate of normal and shear forces should be described. Note 2: If necessary, the shear direction and the history of shear deformation in the past should be described on sketches and photographs. c) Normal stress-normal displacement diagram, shear stress-shear displacement diagram and normal displacement-shear displacement diagram d) Maximum and residual shear strengths Note: The normal stress, normal and shear displacements corresponding to each shear strength should be indicated. e) Conditions of the discontinuity after fracture Note: Sketches or photographs should be attached. f) h) Shear strength-normal stress diagram, angle of shear resistance and cohesion of the discontinuity Other remarkable information g) If a method partially different from this standard is used, its contents should be described.
Fig. 1 An example of the test apparatus.
Fig. 2 An example of the fixed sample with the fixing material.
Fig. 3 The maximum shear strength and the residual shear strength in the case the maximum shear stress is explicitly observed.
Fig. 4 The maximum shear strength and the residual shear strength in the case the maximum shear stress is not explicitly observed.