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ENGINEERING SAFETY
(BEG 468 CI)

BACHELOR IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


IV Year, I Part (Seventh Semester
1.0
1.1

INTRODUCTION TO SAFETY ENGINEERING.

Introduction to Safety Engineering and its scope.

In engineering fields, many small and big works are to be executed. For the execution of these
works, skill and unskilled men power along with the various machines, tools and equipments are
employed. Machines are used much these days to increase the efficiency of the work. Along with
the utilization of various machines, tools and equipments, the number of accidents is also
increasing. It is the fact that where safety ends, the accidents start.
An accident can be defined as an unplanned or unexpected occurrence which offsets the plan
sequence of events and actions resulting in loss of production, injury to the person and damage to
the plants. To prevent any loss due to accident, safety should be given due consideration. Safety
engineering deals with the conducting or supervising of something especially to executive functions

of Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, controlling and Supervising any


industrial or business project or activities with responsibility for others.
Safety engineering education can furnish engineers the reason for and methods of accomplishing
safe systems and indeed general safety education can improve safety attitude and increase
knowledge about accident prevention.
Safety is not always uppermost in individuals mind. A method of external government is required
to provide some regularity in the department necessary for safety achievement. There must be
management committee to prevent accidents or to ensure safety. The aim of prevention of accident
is to safe the human life, equipment and materials etc.
Protection of human life and property should be in top priority in every workshops or work field.
All workers, supervisors and engineers should be aware of possible accidents which may happen by
their negligence and consequences. Engineers are the responsible person to save the workers from
the accidents and different types of hazards. Workers and technicians should be aware of personal
safety as well as safety of the fellow workers.
Safety engineering deals with;
- Safety planning
- Safety Environment
- Safety Rules
- Hazard Analysis
- Accident Investigation etc.
Scope of Safety Engineering;
Safety is required in every field. General knowledge of safety requires to everybody. In every walk
of life, there is danger. In engineering, the major field where safety precautions have to be taken
can be broadly classified as;
a) Construction Field: Dangerous works
b) Production Field: Hazards from Machines and Chemicals
c) Service Field: Chemicals, Pollution from Hospitals etc.
Safety Engineering Includes;
- Hazard Identification
- Hazard Evaluation
- Hazard Control

- Risk Analysis
- Safety Programs
- Safety and Health Standards etc.

1.2 Relationships between Human / Machinery / and Environmental Elements;


A term "Human Factor" is generally used which is defined as the study of the interrelationship
between the humans, the tools and equipment they use in the work place, and the environment in
which they work. One can apply human factor knowledge to wherever human work.
Previously the machines were designed just by paying attention on their performance and utility
without considering much the comfort of workers, which resulted adverse effects in safety.
Recently the focus on user-friendly design of technical systems, machine and tools has increased
with the recognition that such systems provide effectives support for users, improving not only
their effectiveness and efficiency but also satisfaction. It also helped increase in safety and health of
the workers.

Obviously there is interrelationship among human, machinery and working environment. Accidents
can be prevented only if all necessary elements of these three components of an industry are
functioning well.
The following elements (factors) play the role for accidents;
a) Human Elements;
- Negligence
- Over confidence
- Less skill
- No training
- Poor sight (vision)
- Hearing Defect
- Age
b) Machinery Elements:
- Improper machines
- No safety guard
- Electrical Fault
c) Environmental Elements:
- Working space
- Ventilation
- Atmospheric condition
- Fumes
- Pollution

- Fatigue
- Stress (Tension)
- Frustration
- Instability
- Inexperience
- Alcohol, Drugs etc

- Improper installation
- Mechanical fault
- Overload

- Lighting
- Noise
- Chemicals
- Water

1.3 Impact of human and machine characteristics on safety.


The machine can perform most efficiently than the individuals but a person must be adapted to a
variety of task and the environment. A suitable person can be assigned to others or sometimes more
task while the flexibility of machine is limited to the purpose of their design. The system therefore
has to be responsive to the needs of personnel as well as to the companys mission. Therefore
mainly there are three causes for any kind of accidents, they are;
a. Physical causes
b. Physiological causes
c. Psychological causes

Physical causes

The physical causes are related to the machines, tools, material and physical environment
etc. The physiological causes are related to human factors.

Accidents due to machines being unsuitable for the job, due to wear and tear, due to
constant use and due to brittleness nature of used tools and due to explosive and
petroleum products handless carelessly etc. These are the examples of physical causes of
accident.

Physical causes may be occurred due to the failure of the system also.

The only way to improve them is by practicing developed ergonomics.

a. Physiological causes
Accidents due to the poor eye sight, poor health, intoxication are the physiological causes.
These are the causes of accidents because of the beyond control of the human. These causes
are related to the human anatomy.
b.

Psychological causes
Accidents due to mental tension, emotional attitude, overconfidence, carelessness are the
causes related to psychology.

System ergonomics
Now, there is a big debate in either work perform by man is safer or by machine. In this
matter, there must always be good relationship and better understanding between man and
the machine.
Since, neither of them are complete in themselves, any organization must design such
environment and significant point at the design process is called system ergonomics.
Human and machine characteristics:
Machine can perform any job most efficiently than the individual but the ways in which a
person may be adapted to a variety of task and the necessity for providing works are
satisfying. Therefore, the system has to be responsive to the needs of person as well as to
companys mission.
A study conducted by a National Safety Council (USA) has concluded the following results.
-

18% injuries are due to mechanical factors

19% injuries due to the personal factors

63% injuries are due to the combination of both.

Now, there can be big debate in either work perform by man is safer or by the machine. We
must see under relative cost (i.e. purchase, maintenance, depreciation etc.) for the adapting a
machine as oppose to the employer expenses (i.e. compensation, insurance, benefit etc) that
would be incurred if the work is done by the person.
In summary, we can say that the study and solution of behavior related safety problem cannot
proceed simply in one dimension mode. Therefore there must be always good relationship
and better understanding between man and machine that are in use.
Some other studies shows, it seems that 88% accidents are caused by the act of individuals
and 12% are caused by physical environment.
Above study indicates that human characteristics are very important factors to cause accident.
So safety should be focused on that sector. Some of the examples of human characteristics
are experience, training, sex, i.e. male or female, age, education, facilities desires, situation
etc.

1.4 Machine operations and regulations covering safety


To increase productivity, the use of machines and equipment is increasing day by day. Hence,
it is very important to take proper precautions while operating machines and equipment.
There are three principles of safe guarding equipment
* Engineering the hazard equipment
* Guarding the hazard
* Educating the workers
Depending upon the size of project, nature of the work, the machine should be selected. The
maintenance and servicing of the machines should be done regularly by qualified person. For
operating the machine, only qualified and trained person should be appointed. Untrained or

unauthorized person should never be allowed to handle the machines as they are bound to have
accidents. Person working under machines should be mentally and physically fit. Faulty and
defective machines should never be used. Dangerous part of machine such as belt, chain, drive etc,
should be provided with proper cover. Exposed parts of electrical units should be corrected. While
starting the machine, the operator should give a working signal and nobody should be allowed to
stand under the raised part of the machine. While engine is running, replacement, of oil or repair
work should not be done. One should not jump into or from the moving vehicle or equipment.
Machine should not be left running.
The five source of injury that mechanical guarding must protect against are as follow:
o
o
o
o
o

Direct contact with the moving parts of machines


Work in progress (metal chips, hot metals, chemicals, etc)
Mechanical failure
Electrical failure
Human failure

1.5 Safety control device (sign, signals & instructions)


Sign and signals are these systems which convey message instantly to their viewers or listeners
without brief description. So it is easy method to convey, important message promptly.
For the prevention of hazards, different types of signals and signs are provides. Generally, there are
three types of signals.
Generally there are three types of sign and signals being used to prevent accidents;
a. Danger sign and signals
b. Caution signs and signals
c. Informative signs and signals
a. Danger signs and signals
They are used where special precautions have to be taken. E.g. Danger sign board
DANGER must be kept up to 13 M distance from risky working areas such as blasting
areas, demolishing of structure.
b. Caution signs and signals
They are used to warn the people where accidents may happen, e.g. at the explosive storage
place. Sign should be like NO SMOKING.
c. Informative sign and signals
They are used to give information to workers and others. E.g. for traffic safety, various signs
such as: STOP, LEFT TURN, BRIDGE AHEAD, etc. are must be placed at the height or
taller place which is clearly visible to driver.
INSTRUCTIONS General instruction are provided by machine supplier. Those instructions
should be studied carefully before installing and during operation.
- Some instruction should be given to the workers by providing training or general
classes.
- Some instructions are written on board which is intended for workers as well as general
public.
Warning signals such as sirens must be sounded promptly, in case of fire hazard; blasting,
sufficient warning time should be given to enable people working at the site to go to the safe place
or to be used on highways, streets, etc
Safety code of practice

Government prepares acts, regulations and code of practices for different purposes. Act and
regulations are intended to regulate the work to save live and property, job guarantee and security
etc.
The code of practice gives the instruction to the practicener about the work- what to do and how to
do. Different countries and international agencies have different types of acts and regulations but
basic elements are almost similar. Some well known acts and regulation which covers health and
safety at jobs are:
o The Occupational Safety and Health Association(OSHA) act of USA
o The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 UK
o ILO convention and recommendation 1981
o Labor act 1992 (2048, Nepal)

2. ATTITUDE TOWARDS SAFETY


The attitude of any human being drives towards its behavior. The attitude of all relevant
stakeholders plays vital role in maintaining the safety environment in any workplace. No matter
what level of investment is made, if the attitude of the workers, supervisors, managers or owner is
not positive, then there is always high chance of accident.
2.1 Attitude Survey
An employee attitude survey, also called an employee opinion survey, is a tool used by employers
to measure employees' attitudes about their workplace environment. Its general purpose is to
pinpoint problems and make improvements within the company or organization, with the goal of
enhancing employee morale and productivity. An employee attitude survey might be given to
measure employee satisfaction, to identify training and development needs, to improve
communications between managers and employees and for various other reasons. Employee
attitude surveys might be given at regular intervals to monitor employee opinions continuously or
in relation to specific needs assessments, depending on the surveying company or organization.
The questions on an employee attitude survey often are multiple choices, with employees
designating whether they strongly agree, disagree, strongly disagree or are undecided about a
particular statement. Employee attitude surveys might also ask open-ended or yes-or-no questions,
or they might contain a combination of question formats. Questions often are divided into specific
sections that ask how well employees think the company is doing in certain areas. Common
measurement areas found on employee attitude surveys include overall satisfaction with the
organization, compensation, benefits and working conditions. Other measurement areas include
safety concerns, recognition and rewards, career development, corporate culture and more.
The attitude survey provides valuable answer and knowledge about the workforce. The survey
provides various information regarding varieties of safety factors.
The benefits of safety attitude survey are;
* Finding clear picture of organizations current safety climate,
* Identifying current workers attitude to important aspects of safety,
E/g; attitudes to rules and regulation, Production pressures, Incident Reporting, Risk taking
behavior and more,
* Identifying strength and weaknesses of each work site or department,
The outcome of attitude survey can be used to;
target Training
know the strengths and weaknesses of each work site or department
know how supervisors view their own ability to lead with the safety message
know how workforce views management's commitment to safety, their attitudes to rules and
regulations and more
The survey process can be further enhanced by gathering anecdotal feedback from workers
regarding their perceptions of safety in their workplace.
Survey information is normally collected in a confidential manner and results are reported as group
data - individuals are not identified.

2.2 Value of Safety Survey


The value of safety survey is as follow;

Safety survey assists in planning and launching safety programs.


It increases the employee participation in safety activities. The results drawn from the more
safety minded employee are of real value.
It gives the idea to the top level management committee to plan new and effective
programs.
These types of survey can point out the most risky or accident happening equipment or
plants. It forces the management to repair or replace such equipment or plants.
The survey shows the validity of various safety rules. It can help to review the safety rule
books.
Safety survey helps employees to express their problems and feeling without any fear or
favor.
After doing such survey, all of the workers can be categorized into different group
according to the level of their safety knowledge and different training can be started as per
their experience and knowledge.
The survey can help in accident investigation, plant investigation, job analysis and cause of
accident.
Survey can help to check the view of employees before launching a new program. If their
views match with the theme of new program, then there is high chance of success otherwise
the planner need to review their program.
After the careful analysis of survey reactions, detail report can be made which can be
presented to top supervisor throughout the system. This shows the real picture of safety
concern in that organization.
2.3 Reports from the safety personnel.
To plan and launch any safety program, previous data is essential. To maintain the data, proper
reporting system must be developed within the organization. There may be various steps for
reporting;
* Safety Inspector;
- Full time safety inspector can be instructed to write a report in their day to day work inspection
and the attitude of workers by asking many questions such as the difficulties, risk at work,
advantages and disadvantages about the used plant and equipment etc,
- The survey should be verbal since workers have no time to answer the question in written form
and that also disturb their work,
- These questionnaire by the safety inspector should not be done each day as it irritates the
workers.
* Workers safety committee;
- Workers safety committee is formed to raise their voice up to safety management committee
and help them in planning, coordinating and monitoring safety program for workers welfare.
- A report from such committee at sometimes in favorable situations can be valuable source of
information on the attitude of their fellow workmen toward safety as the workmen will usually
talk freely in their fellows.
* Union representative;
- Union leaders sometimes can provide valuable information on the attitude of their members
towards the safety program. When there is good coordination union leader and management, the
union can be particularly helpful in bringing safety complaints to lights.
-It also helps in correcting employees wrong attitude.

* First aid attendants;


- First-aid attendants such as nurse who has good understanding, friendly and intelligence can
determine without much effort the reaction of most of those who go to first aid. From those
reactions, she can draw fair conclusion.
* Foreman Canvass;
- Foreman is the person to supervise the workmen and work which is the key work in accident
prevention. If the foreman is safety minded and active participant in the safety program, their
canvas becomes worthwhile in achieving safe working environment.
- Small notes should be kept as the foreman may need in order to make his report. It is based not
to let the workmen know that notes are taken. After the brief study of his finding his canvas can
measure the current effectiveness of the safety program or some phase of it.
* Sampling by personal contacts;
- A safety director or engineer can make a survey by selecting the personnel I his organization.
While conducting survey, he must keep his power uninfluenced so that the workers will be able
to react or convey the fact thing. Then this method very useful to cross check employee attitude.
* Suggestion box;
- The suggestions given by the employee can be proved very beneficial for improvement of any
organization. The same concept can be used in case of safety attainment also.
- Suggestions and comments may be invited by different means such as by placing suggestion
box, publishing in bulletin etc.
* The safety inventory or questionnaire;
- The inventory is a means of finding facts, defects and effectiveness of already launched
program or current working environment of the organization for further planning and
improvement.
- In safety management, findings from safety inventory helps in planning safety program more
effectively for coming years.
2.4 The interface between safety problems and concerned parties.
The safety program today has evolved from the combined effort of safety engineers, concerned
legislates and sound management. The basic objectives of safety programs include;
-

Gaining and maintaining support for the safety program at all organizational level,
Motivating, educating and training the participants to recognize and correct all reported
hazards,
- Engineering hazard control into the design of machines, tools, processes and facilities,
- Providing a program for inspection of machine, tools, processes and facilities,
- To act in accordance with established safety and health standard.
The effectiveness of such safety programs increases with the interaction between safety problems
and concerned parties. Here the concerned parties including safety engineers, safety managers,
safety legislatives and employees face the real safety problems. The safety problems are taken off
by the employees and the top level managers come down to workers level with their planning. At
that interaction, they can interact and discuss with each other and with their own safety agencies.
For such discussions and interactions, safety management committee can organize such programs,
meetings etc by inviting the key persons such as executive officers, safety engineers, specialist
employees, members of workers safety committee, member of labor union, foreman, supervisors
etc. In this way, they can work together to achieve objectives of safety programs and finally to
develop safe working system in that organization.

3. BASICS OF SAFETY ENGINEERING: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION.


The first step in safety engineering is "hazard identification." A hazard is anything that has the
potential to cause harm when combined with some initiating stimulus.
Many system safety techniques have been pioneered to aid in the identification of potential system
hazards. None is more basic than "energy analysis." Here, potential hazards associated with various
physical systems and their associated operation, including common industrial and consumer
products and related activities, can be identified (for later evaluation and control) by first
recognizing that system and product "hazards" are directly related to various common forms of
"energy." That is, system component or operator "damage" or "injury" cannot occur without the
presence of some form of hazardous "energy."
"Hazard identification" in reality can be viewed as "energy identification," recognizing that a
unanticipated undesirable release or exchange of energy in a system is absolutely necessary to
cause an "accident" and subsequent system damage or operator injury. Therefore, an "accident" can
now be seen as "an undesired and unexpected, or at least untimely release, exchange, or action of
energy, resulting, or having the potential to result, in system damage or injury." This approach
simplifies the task of hazard identification as it allows the identification of hazards by means of a
finite set of search paths, recognizing that the common forms of energy that produce the vast
majority of accidents can be placed into only ten descriptive categories.
The goal of this first step in the hazard control process is to prepare a list of potential hazards
(energies) in the system under study. No attempt is made at this stage to prioritize potential hazards
or to determine the degree of danger associated with them. That will come later. At this first stage,
one is merely taking an "inventory" of potential hazards (potential hazardous energies). A practical
list of hazardous energy types to be identified might include:
3.1 MECHANICAL ENERGY HAZARDS
Mechanical energy hazards involve system hardware components that cut, crush, bend,
shear, pinch, wrap, pull, and puncture. Such hazards are associated with components that
move in circular, transverse (single direction), or reciprocating ("back and forth") motion.
Traditionally, such hazards found in typical industrial machinery have been associated with
the terms "power transmission apparatus," "functional components," and the "point of
operation."
The major sources of mechanical hazards are;
* Unguarded shafts,
* Shaft ends,
* Belt drives,
* Gear trains,
* Rotating parts,
* Chain drives,
* Shear points,
* Points of operation (Working Points),
* Pressure, etc.
Some hazardous machine/equipments;

Elevators,

* Wire-ropes,

* Furnaces

Hoists,

* Boilers,

* Construction equipments, etc.

3.1.1 Protection from Mechanical Hazards;


a. Mechanical Guards;
All danger points of a machine should be enclosed by guards. Most of such points are
already guarded by the manufacturer but some other parts which are open and need to
guard in the real field should be protected by appropriate type of guards.
There are various types of Mechanical guards, Such as;
* Fixed Guard,
* Interlocked guard,
* Automatic Guard,
* Trip guard,
* Barrier Guard,
* Presence sensing device.
b. Basic requirements of Mechanical guards;
The basic requirements for a mechanical guard are as follow;
* Strong enough,
* Easy to maintain,
* Properly mounted,
* No detachable parts which can be lost easily,
* Easy to inspect,
* Easy to handle (If required to handle frequently).
Safety engineers should have basic knowledge about the sources of mechanical hazards and
methods of protection from them. So that s/he can check and guide to the supervisors.
3.2 ELECTRICAL ENERGY HAZARDS
Electrical energy hazards have traditionally been divided by the general public into the
categories of low voltage electrical hazards (below 440 volts) and high voltage electrical
hazards (above 440 volts).
Electricity is one of the most essential means of development. It is a useful servant when it
is under control but it may create great hazard and is responsible for injury when;
-

A person becomes a part of an electrical circuit


The circuit is overloaded and
There is sparking.

3.2.1 Normal Voltage and Electric Shock:


* Normal Voltage for house circuit ----- 110 and 240 volts (Low voltage)
* Industrial Voltage ------------------------440 Volt and above (High Voltage)
An electric shock is the rate of current flow. In some conditions as little as 0.05 ampere (A)
may cause a fatal shock. Electric shock depends upon person to person and situation.
Dry skin resistance is 1, 00,000 ohms but Wet skin can resistance is only 1,000 ohms

3.2.2 Sources of electrical energy hazards;


a. House and industrial wiring,
b. Electrical heating Water heater, Boiler, Air heater.
c. Electrical Utensils Heater, Cooker, Microwave, TV, Computer, Refrigerator etc.
d. Electrically operated machines Welding machine, Lathe, Drilling machine etc.
e. High voltage cables etc.
3.2.3 Protection from electrical hazards;
The following are some protection measures that have to be followed to be safe from
electrical hazards;
a. Safety designed machine and equipments should be used.
b. Wiring system should be designed and worked by qualified and experienced
person.
c. All live parts should be protected using fuse, circuit breakers.
d. High voltage cables should be far away and well protected.
e. Earthling should be provided to all machines.
f. Working area should be clear from wires.
g. Flammable vapors, gases or explosive s should be kept away from sparking points.

3.3 CHEMICAL ENERGY HAZARDS


Chemical energy hazards involve substances that are corrosive, toxic, flammable, or
reactive (involving a release of energy ranging from "not violent" to "explosive" and
"capable of detonation"). During the time of its production or use, we should be very
careful.
Chemicals may be;
a.
b.
c.
d.

Reactive: -- reacts when two or more chemicals come together.


Toxic: -- difficult and dangerous in breathing.
Highly Flammable: -- easily takes fire.
Corrosive: -- eats away some material.

Safety precautions;
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Expert: --should follow expert's suggestions.


Exposure: -- should not be exposed to the atmosphere.
Fire: -- keep away from fire.
Safety equipments: -- use masks, gloves, shoes and appropriate aprons.
Guards: -- provide guards, signboards and keep the chemicals out of public reach.
Ventilation: -- provide proper ventilation.

3.4 KINETIC (IMPACT) ENERGY HAZARDS


Kinetic energy hazards involve "things in motion" and "impact," and are associated with the
collision of objects in relative motion to each other. This would include impact of objects
moving toward each other, impact of a moving object against a stationary object, falling
objects, flying objects, and flying particles.

If a moving particle touches to the people that may cause injury. Moving body is dangerous.
So workers should be careful when working on machines. The metal chips, metal parts,
broken nuts and bolts from moving machine may create hazard. Machine should be well
guarded and proper supervision is required.
3.5 POTENTIAL (STORED) ENERGY HAZARDS
Potential energy hazards involve "stored energy." This includes things that are under
pressure, tension, or compression; or things that attract or repulse one another or the body
which is elevated. Potential energy hazards are associated with things that are "susceptible
to sudden unexpected movement." Hazards associated with gravity are included in this
category, and involve potential falling objects, potential falls of persons, and the hazards
associated with an object's weight. This category also includes the forces transferred
biomechanically to the human body during manual lifting.
3.6 THERMAL ENERGY HAZARDS
Thermal energy hazards involve things that are associated with extreme or excessive heat,
extreme cold, sources of flame ignition, flame propagation, and heat related explosions.
Thermal Stress:
When temperature rises above 250
3.7 ACOUSTIC ENERGY HAZARDS
Acoustic energy hazards involve excessive noise and vibration.
3.8 RADIANT ENERGY HAZARDS
Radiant energy hazards involve the relatively short wavelength energy forms within the
electromagnetic spectrum including the potentially harmful characteristics of radar, infrared, visible, microwave, ultra-violet, x-ray, and ionizing radiation.
3.9 ATMOSPHERIC/GEOLOGICAL/ OCEANOGRAPHIC ENERGY HAZARDS
These hazards are associated with atmospheric weather circumstances such as wind and
storm conditions. Atmospheric air contains suspended dust particles, lint and various gases.
Geological structure characteristics such as underground pressure or the instability of the
earth's surface that may cause collapse of land or land slide. Oceanographic currents, wave
action, tsunami may create hazardous condition.
3.10 BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
These hazards are associated with poisonous plants, dangerous animals, biting insects and
disease carrying bacteria, etc.
To develop a list of potential system hazards, one should consider each form of energy in turn.
First, list each particular type of energy contained in the system under study, and then describe the
various reasonably foreseeable circumstances under which it might become a proximate cause of an
undesirable event. Here, full use of the published literature, accident statistics, system operator
experience, scientific and engineering probability forecasting, system safety techniques, and team
brainstorming are brought to bear on the question of how each form of energy might cause an
undesirable event.
Specifically, one must thoroughly understand (a) the engineering design of the system, including all
physical hardware components - their functions, material properties, operating characteristics, and
relationships or interfaces with other system components, (b) the intended uses as well as the
reasonably anticipated misuses of the system, (c) the specific (demographic and human factor)
characteristics of intended system users, as well as reasonably anticipated unintended users, taking
into account such things as their educational levels, their range of knowledge and skill, and their
physical, physiological, psychological, and cultural capabilities, expectancies, and limitations, and

(d) the general characteristics of the physical and administrative environment in which the system
will be operated. That is, one must have a thorough understanding of the man / machine / task /
environment elements of the system and their interactions.

Apart from energy hazards, various other terms are also used for hazard;
Physical hazard
A substance is classified as a physical hazard if it ignites and burns easily, has the potential to
explode, or can cause a violent reaction. Organic peroxides, oxidizers, and water-reactive
substances are examples of materials that could be involved in violent reactions. A water-reactive
substance is a chemical that reacts with water to release a gas or vapor that either is flammable or
presents a health hazard. Physical hazards are grouped into four categories:

fire hazards
compressed gases
explosives
reactive/unstable chemicals

Fire hazards
Fire hazards are substances that can ignite and burn easily. These substances are classified by their
flash point-the lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off vapors in sufficient concentrations
to ignite. Combustible liquids have flash points above 100F but below 200F. Pyrophoric
substances ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130F or below. Flammable liquids have
flash points below 100F. Chemicals with flash points above 200F are considered nonflammable.
Compressed gases
Compressed gases are contained gases with pressures greater than 40 psi (pounds per square inch).
Propane cylinders and welding gases are compressed gases that may be used for building
maintenance. If a container with compressed gas is not secured properly, it may fall and sustain
damage. A damaged container could become a projectile and cause property damage and/or injury.
Some gases are colorless and odorless. If these gases are released, they may pose a serious health
hazard, because they displace oxygen or cause reactions at low-level exposures.
Explosives
Explosives cause a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, or heat. Very few, if any,
explosive substances should be used for building maintenance. Some epoxy systems use materials
that may be an explosive hazard if improperly used or stored.
Reactive/unstable chemicals
Reactive or unstable chemicals are substances that produce or release energy in the form of heat or
an explosion when under pressure, exposed to light, or subjected to friction or ignition. These
materials may also develop toxic or flammable vapors when mixed with water.

4. BASIC OF SAFETY ENGINEERING: HAZARD

EVALUATION

A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm when combined with some initiating
stimulus. The evaluating stage of safety engineering i.e. hazard evaluation process has the goal of
prioritizing or ordering of the list of potential system condition or physical stage of hazard that are
identified in hazard identification process. The mare pressure of potential hazard tells us nothing
about its potential danger. To know the danger related to the particular hazard, one must first
examine associated risk factor. Risk can be measured as the products of 3 components;
1. The probability that an injury or damage producing mishap will occur during any one exposure
to the hazard.
2. The potential severity or degree of injury or damage that will likely result after a mishap
occurrence.
3. The estimated number of times a person or persons will likely to be exposed to the hazard over
a specific period of time.
In the evaluation of hazards, consideration should be given to horizontal incident data and
reasonable methods of prediction. An accident event can have less probability of occurrence during
any single exposure or during any finite period as a result of exposure to the particular hazard and
could be certain to occur if exposure to that hazard is allowed to be repeated over a long period of
time. Therefore a long term or large sample of probability should be taken for proper evaluation.
Determination of severity potential should centre on most likely resulting injury or damage as well
as the most sever potential outcome. Severity becomes the controlling factor when sever injury or
death may occur as a result of mishap. The risk associated with such hazard must be considered as
being unaccepted and strict attention should be paid to the control of such hazards and related
mishaps.
Exposure evaluation should consider the typical expectancy of the system containing a particular
hazard, the number of systems in use and the number of individuals who will be exposed to these
systems overtimes.
In any investigation, never accept anything as fact until it has been proven. The most useful word
in an investigation is Why?. In safety engineering the questions like; - Why plan?, design?,
operate?, provide?, guides?, signals?, safety equipment? etc. are very important. Too often,
hazardous, inefficient operations and arrangements are permitted to exist simply because they
always been that way.
In hazard evaluation and injury investigation, the investigator should attempt to know;
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

History of the events Past history of the factory etc.


Facts from the reliable witnesses
Physical environment errors in design, faulty planning
Casual factors guards, speed limit etc.
Workers behaviors

Hazard evaluation process with ultimate severe can be divided as a group of acceptable hazards and
unacceptable hazards. Acceptable hazards are those, which are associated with acceptable risk
factors and unacceptable hazards are associated with unacceptable risk factors.

The evaluation stage of the safety engineering process has as its goal the prioritizing or ordering of
the list of potential system condition or physical state hazards, or potential system personnel of
human factors compiled in Step #1.

The mere presence of a potential hazard tells us nothing about its potential danger. To know the
danger related to a particular hazard, one must first examine associated risk factors. Risk can be
measured as the product of three components: (a) the probability that an injury or damage
producing mishap will occur during any one exposure to the hazard; (b) the potential severity or
degree of injury or damage that will likely result should a mishap occur; and (c) the estimated
number of times a person or persons will likely be exposed to the hazard over a specific period of
time. That is...
(1) H x R = D, and since
(2) R = P x S x E, then
(3) H (P x S x E) = D
Where:
H = HAZARD
R = RISK
D = DANGER
P = PROBABILITY
S = SEVERITY
E = EXPOSURE
In the evaluation of mishap probability, consideration should be given to historical incident data
and reasonable methods of prediction.
Use of this equation must take into account that an accident event having a remote probability of
occurrence during any single exposure or during any finite period as a result of exposure to a
particular hazard IS CERTAIN TO OCCUR if exposure to that hazard is allowed to be repeated
over a longer period of time. Therefore, a long term or large sample view of probability should be
taken for proper evaluation.
Determination of severity potential should center on the most likely resulting injury or damage as
well as the most severe potential outcome. Severity becomes the controlling factor when severe
injury or death is a likely possibility among the several plausible outcomes. That is, even when
other risk factors indicate a low probability of mishap over time, if severe injury or death may
occur as a result of mishap, the risk associated with such hazards must be considered as being
"unacceptable and strict attention given to the control of such hazards and related mishaps.
Exposure evaluation should consider the typical life expectancy of the system containing a
particular hazard, the number of systems in use, and the number of individuals who will be exposed
to these systems over time.

4.1 Acceptable vs. Unacceptable Risk.


Risk may be defined as the possibility that an event take place which may have an adverse effect.
All the time and in every field, there is risk. Some works are more risky than others. The risk
should be kept as low as possible.
An acceptable risk can be thought of as a risk that a group of rational, well informed ethical
individuals would dear to expose themselves in order to acquire the clear benefits of such exposure.
An unacceptable risk can be thought of as a risk that a group of rational, well informed ethical
individuals would not dear accept to expose themselves in order to acquire the exposure benefits.
Hazard associated with an acceptable risk are traditionally called Safe, while hazard associated
with an unacceptable risk are traditionally called Unsafe. Therefore what is called a safe does not
mean that it does not contain elements of risk. It is just that such elements have been judged to be
acceptable once again. The mere presence of hazard does not automatically mean that the hazard is
associated with any real danger. It must first be measured as being an acceptable. The result of this
evaluation process will be the compilation of a list of hazards or risks or dangers that are
considered unacceptable. These unacceptable hazards are then carried to the third step of safety
engineering process called Hazard control.

Risk and Hazard control.


Risk and hazards should be eliminated if possible. But, that is almost impossible. So, that should be
reduces or protected.
Hazard control can be thought in various steps;
In case of pre-cast slab (Chart showing hazard control);

Change design.

Eliminate

Yes

Risk eliminated

No

Yes
Provide hooks in pre-cast slab

Reduced

Reduce
No
Yes

Use safe methods of works

Manage

Managed

No

Provide safety equipment

Protected

Yes

Protected

It shows that risk elimination is difficult but could be managed to acceptable (tolerable) condition
by using different methods and equipment. Acceptable level depends upon different factors. It
varies with situation and time.

Degree of control;

Cost

Total cost
Total

Cost of control

BEP

Cost of damage

Degree of control
When degree of control increases,

The cost of damage (Injury) decreases


But
The cost of control increases.
So, management tries to minimize the total cost which is breakeven point.

5. BASIC SAFETY ENGINEERING: HAZARD

CONTROL.

The primary purpose of engineering and design of products and facilities is the physical control of
various material and process to produce a specific benefit. The central purpose of safety
engineering is the control of system hazard which may cause system damage, system user injury or
otherwise decrease system benefit. Current and historic safety engineering references have
advocated a specific order or priority in which hazards are best controlled. Listed in order of
preferences and effectiveness, these control methods have come to be called Cardinal rule of safe
design or the cardinal rule of hazard control.
1. The first cardinal rule of hazard control: It is concerned with the hazard elimination or
inherent safety, i.e. if practical; one should avoid producing potential hazardous components
while designing them on the drawing board. This is accomplished through the use of such
interrelated techniques as hazard removal, hazard substitution and hazard attenuation through
the use of the principle and techniques of system and product safety engineering, system and
product safety management, human factor engineering, beginning with the concept and initial
planning stages of the system design processes.
2. The second cardinal rule of hazard control: It is concerned with the minimization of system
hazard through the use of add-on-safety device or safety feature engineering or facilities on
the drawing board to prevent the exposure of product or facility users to potential hazards. This
preplanned hazard control is called Extrinsic safety. A sample of such devices would include
screens or barriers which will guard or enclose hazardous components. Interlock, pressure
relief valve, stairway handle, speed limit etc could be introduced for hazard minimization.
3. The third cardinal rule of hazard control: It is concerned with the control of hazard through
the development of warnings and instructions, i.e. through the development of effective
communication for safe system use, method and procedures. First, warn persons of the
associated system, regarding dangers that may potentially be encountered under reasonable
foreseeable condition of system use or misuse of service and then instruct them regarding the
precise step that must be followed to cope with or avoid dangers. This third approach must only
be used after all feasible design and safeguarding have been exhausted.
Passive Vs Active Hazard control.
A principle that applies equally to the first two cardinal rule of safe design and minimization of
hazard is that of passive Verses active hazard control.
Simply, a passive control is a control that works without requiring the continuous or periodic
involvement of system user. An active hazard control, in contrast requires the system user or
operator to do something before system use, continuously or periodically during system operation
in order to avoid injury. Passive controls are automatic controls whereas active controls can be
thought of as manual control. Passive control is unquestionably more effective than active control.

6.0 Safety Performance


Accident Vs Injury
An accident is a non-deliberate, non intentional, unplanned event which may produce
undesirably effects and is predicted by unsafe acts and condition. It is also defense as a
harmful encounter with the environment, a danger not adverted. An accident is subjected to
prediction and control.
An injury is the outcome of accident and accident are caused due to the pressure of potential
hazard at that place or system or equipment. So each injury itself proof that hazards or
combination of hazards has not been adequately controlled, injury are mainly of two kinds:
Disabling injury
This injury which disable the injured workers to work for more than the day or shift
during he is injured is known as disabling injury
Lost time injury
This injury which does not disable the injured workers to work for more that day or
shift during his injury is known as lost time injury.
6.1 Injury Frequencies Survey

Injury frequency survey is that which collects the answer of the questions such as:
o What is the number of accidents for a definite time period?
o Who was injured?
o What was the injury?
o How many days, he lost due to injury?
o What machine was involved?

The result obtained from the survey is used to calculate injury frequency rate. Injury survey
rate and those can be used to measure the injury experience of given department or branch,
to compare the experience of one operating unit with one or more other units, etc.

Injury Frequency Rate (IFR)


The injury frequency rate answer the question how often do injuries occur and is defined as the no.
of disabling injuries per one-million man hour worked.
IFR=

No. of injuries * 10, 00000


Total no. of man-hours worked

Injury Severity Rate (ISR)

The injury severity rate answers the question how serious are the injuries and is defined as
the no. of days of lost time per one-million man-hour worked.
ISR=

No. of days lost * 10, 00,000


Total no. of man-hours worked

ISR=

No. of days lost * 10, 00,000


Total no. of workers * working hrs per week * worked weeks

Example 1
What are the injury and severity rates of a firm with 80 workers averaging 40 hours a week each if
in 6 months 4 workers were injured and if they lost jointly 103 days from work?
Solution
IFR= No. of injuries*10, 00000
= 4 * 10, 00,000 = 52.09
Total no. of man-hours worked
80 * (6 * 4) *40

ISR=

No. of days lost * 10, 00,000


Total no. of man-hours worked

103 * 10, 00,000


80 * (6 * 4) 40

1341

Example 2
What are the IFR and ISR for a firm with 120 workers working 40 hrs per week in average
20 workers are injured in a year and they lost 116 days from work.
o

IFR =
=

=
ISR=

=
=

Given
No. of workers =120
No. of injury = 20
Working hrs = 40
No. of days lost= 116 days

No. of injuries * 10, 00,000


Total man-hours worked
20 * 10, 00000
40 * 120 * 52
8.012
No. of days lost * 10, 00,000
Total no. of man-hours worked
116 * 10, 00,000
40 * 120 * 52
464.74

Example 3
Firm A has 115 workers averaging 40 hrs a week each. In 9 months, 3 workers were injured. Firm
B has 132 workers averaging 37 hrs a weak each. In 10 months, 3 workers were injured. Which
firm has the better Injury Frequency Rate and Injury Severity Rate if both firm lost 100 days from
work?
Solution:
Firm A
Injury Frequency Rate (IFR) =

3 x 10, 00,000
115 x 40 x 9/12 x 52

Injury Severity rate (ISR) or Severity Frequency Rate =

= 16.6

100 x 10, 00,000


115 x 40 x 9/12 x 52

= 557.4

Firm B
Injury Frequency Rate (IFR) =

3 x 10, 00,000
132 x 37 x10/12 x 52

Injury Severity rate (ISR) or Severity Frequency Rate =

= 14.7
100 x 10, 00,000
132 x 40 x 10/12 x 52 = 472.5

* Both IFR and ISR of firm B is less than firm A, so firm B has better frequency rate.

6.2 Factors to be considered for operating plant condition


o
o
o
o
o
o

House keeping
Maintenance
Adequacy of safety equipment.
Provision for work comfort
Safety training program
Machinery safe guard

a. Housekeeping: Good housekeeping is equally essential for every industry or construction sites.
It is the measure of good work environment. Building codes and fire regulations must be
observed. For wiring, a qualified technician must be utilized. No smoking sign should be places
where necessary. Materials should be placed in proper location so that it does not create any
hindrance in smooth movement.
b. Maintenance: Good maintenance of plant and equipment is an essential part of good
management. The machines, equipment and tools should be in proper condition all the time to
minimize the injury.
c. Adequacy of safety equipment: Depending the work condition and situation, proper safety
devices must be made available in the site. It should be easily accessible and easy to use. The
workers should be given proper instructions for use of safety gadgets in advance.
d. Provision for work comfort: It is difficult to show the relation of facilities with rate of
accident. But, workers facilities, like toilets, wash rooms, drinking water, lunch rooms etc. may
change workers attitude to work efficiency and safety.
e. Safety training program: Training for safe work practice is an essential of good safety
program. Safety training should be provided to each worker from time to time. The appraiser
should find out what provisions have been made for the safety training.
f. Machinery safeguard: Machines are one of the major sources of hazard. They should be used
safely. Provision of necessary safeguard is must for the machineries to reduce the serious
disabilities.
Management must accept the responsibilities for the safety and must lead and direct the
preventive effort.

7. SAFETY PROGRAMME
In any establishment, following aspects must be considered for better safety performance;
1. There must be forceful, continuous executive leadership.
2. Plant and equipment must be made safe.
3. Supervision must be competent and intensively safety minded.
4. Full employee cooperation in accident prevention must be secured and maintained.
Whether there is an establishment, already in operation or going to be existed, a definite plan and
program is essential regarding the safety performance.
In every case of work-connected injury there must be some degree of hazard (chance of injury) and
unsafe or otherwise faulty behavior. But no work-activities can ever be made entirely hazard free.
Perfect behavior by everyone cannot be attained. Therefore, top-rate safety performance (the
maximum injury elimination) can be had only by reducing the factor of hazard to the minimum,
and concurrently developing employee behavior to the maximum degree of excellence.
The main purpose of the activities carried under safety program is;
(a) reducing the hazard factor and
(b) Developing safe and adequate behavior by every employee.

7.1 Finding and correcting Hazards.


Hazards can be minimized by finding its causes and correcting it. For these purposes, following
activities are essential;
1. Planning
2. Safety in purchasing
3. Inspection
4. Job safety (or hazard) analysis
5. Accident investigation

1. Planning.
For the prevention of accident, planning plays an important role. With better planning and
development of safe behavior, human injury can be practically eliminated in its operation. Slight
modification in process, procedure and handling can contribute a lot in elimination of hazard factor.
Planning that does not eliminate or reduce hazard is useless.

2. Safety in purchasing.
While purchasing new equipment or purchasing modified part of existing plant, the equipment
entering the plant should meet the desired objective of safety. Such procedure will allow the
purchasing department to review a;; the specification for the purchasing of plant material and
equipment. Every specification should be examined to ensure safety. For example, the less toxic
material is substituted where possible instead of toxic components. The equipment with less
probability of hazard is preferred to buy instead of the one with high probability of hazards. If the
safety director or his department is not capable of checking specification for inherent hazards, the
engineering department of the organization should be asked for help in such work.

3. Inspection.
A definite system of inspection should be set up to check all of the plant and every thing in
it. The consideration made to reduce hazard during planning, purchasing and erecting

equipment is not sufficient but it is more important to inspect the daily wear and tear,
changes made etc. In absence of adequate inspection, it is likely to come to light when they
yield injury. Therefore every management should set up a system of inspection suitable to
its need. Inspection that does not discover conditions subject to correction or improvement
is useless.
4. Job safety (or hazard) analysis.
The job safety analysis is to eliminate accidents in work. It is not only important for production
jobs but also equally important for non-productive works, such as shipping, repair and maintenance
etc. All these are high hazard activities. If the safety methods of work for such jobs are worked out,
the hazard points discovered, the advisable safeguards determined and provided for, and proper
training provided, injuries can be eliminated effectively.
Thus the job safety analysis helps to develop better working method and information that will be
helpful in placing and training workers. Job safety analysis that does not develop better working
methods and information that will be helpful in placing and training workers has been wasted.

6. Accident Investigation.
Even if all of the above processes are followed, some hazards will remain under looked or not
adequately safeguarded and some behavior faults will continue. Therefore there will be some
accidents resulting in human injury. Any event, which causes injury, must be investigated.
Accident investigation, therefore, is in the nature of post-mortem whereby the investigator seeks to
discover information that will be helpful in preventing a repetition. An accident investigation that
that results in no useful information or any recommendations for corrective action might as well not
has been made.

7.2 Development of safe behavior.


There is not any definite technique that has proved effective in dealing on safety factor. An
adequate program of developing and maintaining safe behavior must include the continuance of
safety advertising where by all the employees are ready to receive specific ideas and participate in
specific safety activities. Therefore, all of these must be supplemented by on-the-job training in
specific procedures on an individual basis.
Specific activities whose primary purpose is to develop safe and adequate behavior are;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Placement
Training
Supervision
Education
Employee participation

1. Placement: For specific job, people have to have specific capabilities. Job safety analysis
incorporates the proper pre-employment physical and aptitude tests and in some cases,
psychological analysis, which makes it possible to place the job applicant in work, best suited to
his/her abilities. Haphazard placement is the root of many injuries.
2. Training: The worker should be properly trained, regarding his nature of job. The specific
training method has the simple formula; Tell him/her, Show him/her, Have him/her do it,
Correct him/her until he/she has it, Supervise him/her to see that he/she keeps it.
3. Supervision: Supervision plays major role in accident prevention. The foreman is the key man in
safety so that the most careful attention should be given to the selection and training of foreman
so that they can function responsibly.
4. Education: There is clear distinction between education and Training. Education increases the
general knowledge in relevant and allied fields whereas training helps developing skills in

specific task or types of work. Safety education should be related to the workmen doing and
should be presented in a manner that will stimulate their thinking.
5. Employee Participation: The most effective learning takes place by doing. So that optimum
employee participation in safety activities should be sought.
Effective safety program.
The effective safety program has mainly two purposes;
i. Reducing the hazard factor and
ii. Developing safe and adequate behavior by every employee.
In every case of work connected injury, there is not some degree of hazard faulty behavior but
neither any work activities can ever be made entirely hazard free nor perfect behavior of everyone
can be attained. Therefore effective safety program should be launched to reduce the hazardous
factor to minimum and concurrently developing employee behavior to the minimum degree of
accidents.

8. SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD


8.1 Health hazard in construction industries.
Various hazardous conditions may have to be faced by workmen in the construction industries.
There are common hazards that exist in the building and the construction industries. It is important
to learn about these hazards and how to work safely in these environments. Within this industry, we
may be involved in the range of work activities such as setting of simple working platform for the
safe operation, maintenance of equipment including hand tools and power tools, taking
measurement and site levels, performing land excavation, preparing site for concreting etc. As in
other jobs, hazards for construction works are classified as 4 classes.
a. Physical,
b. Biological,
c. Social and
d. Chemical.
a. Physical Hazards:
Physical hazards are presented in every construction project. These hazards include noise, heat and
cold, radiation, vibration and pneumatic pressure. Construction works may have to be carried out in
extreme hot, cold, rainy, foggy or snowy weather or at night. The construction industries are being
mechanized in the present situation. The uses of machines are also contributing to make the
construction sites very noisy. The sources of noise are machine or engines of all kinds, such as,
vehicles, air-compressor, cranes, pneumatic hammer, conveyors, mixers and many more. If the
project requires demolition works then it will not only add the noise but also pollute the
environment by releasing dusts in the surrounding environment.
b. Biological Hazards:
They are presented by exposure to infections micro-organisms to natural substances of biological
origin as animal attacks. Excavation works, for example, can develop histoplasmosis, an infection
of the lung caused by common soil fungus. Since there is a constant change in the composition of
labor for in any one project, individual worker come in contact with other workers and as a
consequence may become affected with diseases like influenza, T.B. etc. Workers may also be at
risks of malaria, rheumatic fever etc. Sometime the work may need to be conducted in areas where
there may be dangerous insects like scorpion, snacks and other poisonous creature. These can be
great threat for the safety of the workers.
Some substances of plant origin can cause skin eruption. Some wood dust are carcinogenic (cancer
causing diseases) and some are allergic.
Attack by animal is rare but may occur. Whenever a construction project disturbs them or
encroaches their habitat, it may become aggressive. Underwater workers may be at risk from attack
by danger fishes, crocodiles etc.
c. Social Hazards:
Construction sites are normally close to some society. Workers may have to be recruited within
from this community or may require to be brought from other community. Locals will consider
others as outsiders and sometimes it is difficult to internalize all the workers.
The expectation and demand of local people may cause conflict in construction projects. Since the
workforce is constantly changing and the hour as well as location of work is also changing, many
project require living in work camp, away from the family. These workers may lack stable and
dependable networking of social support. Feature of construction work such as heavy work load,
limited control and limited social support are associated with increased stress which varies from
other industries. These hazards are not unique to any trade but are common to all construction
works in one way or others.

d. Chemical Hazards:
In the construction work, the workers come in contact with various chemicals. The engineer must
know about the type and effect of the chemical that they have to face with. Cutting fluid used
during metal cutting process, fumes released during welding, cement, lime etc. are hazardous if
came in contact with skin or inhaled during breathing. Proper precaution must be taken while
handling various chemicals.
Due to use of various heavy machineries, handling of construction material and different level of
labor forces in mass, the construction industry is considered as accident prompt region. The various
sources of hazards in construction industries are as follow;
i. Hazardous fields;
- Road and Highway construction,
- Bridge construction,
- Dams and tunneling,
- Electrical powerhouse and towers,
- Electrical and mechanical plants installation,
- Construction of high rise buildings etc.
ii. Some hazardous equipments;
- Cranes

- Dozer

- Loaders,

- Earth roller,

- Earth mover,

- Graders

- Excavators,

- Trippers

- Electrical machines,

- Mechanical machines etc


iii. Unhealthy environment in indoor industries;
-

Uneasy floors,

- Different floor levels,

- Slippery floor

Narrow doors,

- Narrow pass ways,

- Inadequate ventilation

Inadequate storage space - Poor house keeping

- Poor control of dust/fumes.

8.2 Government standards of safety and health;


Industrial safety is a new and rapidly developing field. It has developed many standards but many
more are still necessary to be developed because of new technology, equipment and different
human behaviors have been exhibited from place to place and from generation to generation.
Safety is needed for everybody and at every field of works or life. It is the Government to
formulate safety policies and regulation to save its people from accidental activities and hazardous
working environment. National safety policies and work standard should be prepared to save lives
of worker, employees or consumers.
Basic safety standards are basically the same in all countries, but some are detailed out to suit
national requirements. The safety and health standards are based on the following bases;
a. Accountability in health and safety:
-

Worse working place, working environment, working process and worker's protection.

b. General duties of employers, employees, designers, manufacturers.


Occupational safety and health standards (OSHA).
Occupational safety and health standard (OSHA) is a rule that requires "conditions or use of one or
more practices, means, methods, operations or processes, reasonably appropriate to provide safe
or healthful employment and places of employment".

8.3 Development of self applied standards.


Basically there are two types of standards. They are;
a. Voluntary or self Applied Standards and
b. Regulatory Standard
Voluntary standards are developed by the various interest groups and individuals, who were
involved in accident prevention work. The standards were developed by the experienced persons,
so, that was practicable and accepted by many people although that was not compulsory.
These self applied standards were developed after the production failure of many weapons during
First World War In 1918, the five leading engineering societies of US initiated to form a national
organization to work in the field of health and safety. With the help of government departments,
they formed the American Engineering Standard Committee.
In 1928, the scope of the work was broadened and the name changed to American Standard
Association (ASA). In 1948, ASA was incorporated under the laws of the state of New York. There
are hundreds of technical societies and thousands of companies as the member of ASA. It has
approved more than 2000 standards as American standard.
8.4 Regulatory standards.
Regulatory standards are those which are prepared by the government or accepted by the
government which is developed by civil organizations. Laws or rules, having force or effect, have
been adopted by the government for the prevention of hazards are regulatory standards.
Most of the drafts of standards developed in the industry are created because of a demand for safer
conditions and performances. Definite process must be followed in the development of regulatory
standards. The following is a simple procedure which can be adopted.
a. All groups having legitimate interest in the standard to be drafted are invited to take part in
its drafting.
b. This inspection service agency having duty of administrating the standards usually prepares
tentative drafts and submits to the concerned committee.
c. This drat of standards with changed or additions as approved by this committee then go to
the approval authority for its consideration and action as required under the law.
In some cases parliamentary investigation may need before final approval and certification of the
standards.
The national safety standards may be categorized in following groups:
a. General standards, system structures, terminology, organizations.
b. Standard for harmful agents (physical, chemical, biological) exposure limits, measurements,
working with dangerous substances.
c. Standard for materials used in industries.
d. Standards manufacturing practices, including technical lay outs, duties and responsibilities,
worker's protection and supervision.
8.5 Plant Standard.
Every machine, plant should have minimum standards. The standards may be of different types.
Most of the modern plants producers supply manual for installation, operation and general
maintenance. Some give detail description of standards and other provide short. Those manuals
should be studied before installation and operation of machines.
Standards are developed as needed. Some plants may work in simple standards but plants, say B-52
bombers needs very accurate and detailed standards and that should be strictly followed by the
operators.

Job safety standards.


Standards are developed to control. The control requires in;
* Production
* Installation
* Operation
* Maintenance
* Quality of work piece produced
* Size of work piece
* Working (Place /space) environment
All these job safety standards are related to the;
- Standard for safeguarding,
- Standard for safety equipment,
- Standard for inspection,
- Standard for safe practice,
- Standard for safety rules.
The following points should be considered in developing the safety rules and standard;
a. Every rule be practical with the view point of those to whom it applies,
b. Each hazard condition should be definitely demonstrable as unsafe,
c. Rules should be limited to safety matters, that should not be diverted to other matters,
d. The work men affected must have a full part in developing the rules.

9. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
9.1 Introduction.
The industrial revolution was brought about by the development of mechanized equipments and
applications of steam and electrical energy. Up to this point, the industry was primarily interested
in improving productivity with a little thought to human society.
The new technology brought about a concern for the working conditions and fatal injuries of
workers. Labor unions, newspaper men, and humanitarians raised voices about the industrial safety.
They focused mainly on the following two issues;
a. Installation of safety guards on equipment and
b. Compensation for accidental victims and their dependents.
9.2 Employer Liability Laws.
Installation of safety guards on hazardous machinery was developed in 1970s in Europe and
America. But, the compensation issue was remained unsolved for many years. Employer
Liability Law was the first step, which intended to provide the compensation for the accidental
victims due to employers negligence.
Although the employer liability law initiated to provide compensation to victims in the industry, it
was difficult to prove employers negligence. So, this law also could not be effective and the
Workers Compensation Law came into existence.
9.3 Workers Compensation Laws.
In 1885, legislation was developed in Germany under Bismark to provide compensation to the
injured workers. This legislation spread out across the Europe in the name of Workers
Compensation Legislation. Later the laws of employees Compensation passed in all the
countries.
The purpose of the law is to provide compensation to all the injuries arising out of, or in
connection with the employment. It compels the employers to pay the injured workers for their
medical and hospital expenses along with the compensation to their dependents.
The compensation law was passed in America in 1908 at first. The law passed in all states from
1911 to 1919 with some differences from state to state. In Nepal, Labor Act 2048 has made
provisions for compensation to workers and their dependents.
9.4 Agencies rendering safety services.
All countries do have more or less service agencies to maintain safety at work. The following are
some agencies in Nepal.
a. Ministry of Labor
b. Department of Labor and Transport
c. Labor Trade unions

Nepal Labor Act 2048.


Condition of work (Section 3, Article 16-20);
* Working hours 8 hours a day or 48 hours a week (16)
* Starting time to be decided by the management (17)
* Provision for rest and Tiffin time no more than 5 hours of continuous work half an hour break
(17)
* Provision for overtime 1.5 more wage, no compulsion for overtime.
* Required to keep attendance record.
Compensation (Wage Section 4, Article 21 26):
* Minimum wage, Dearness allowance benefits to be set by a minimum wage setting committee
(Employee, Nepal Government representative, Management representatives in equal number
21) Minimum wage information to be published in gazette.
* Provision for annual increment half a day wage.
* Payment of salary, wage in time managements responsibility (Article 22 23).No pay cut
except in the following condition (24).
Conditions for pay cut ( Article 24);
* Imposed fine, pay cut for being absent,
* To cover the loss of the firm due to the negligence of the employee,
* For the benefits being provided,
* Excess payment,
* Medical benefit coverage during suspension,
* Pay cut from the order of the court, Government office,
* Tax deduction.
Health and security Provisions: Section 5:
* Clean working environment (Article 27 Ka),
* Enough air and light at the work place, Proper waste disposal system, protection from air and
noise pollution, adequate working space, safe drinking water, modern toilet facility at convenient
place for both male and female employees, fire exit and extinguisher, smoke free environment,
health checkup each year,
* Eye protection use of protection devices (28),
* Protection from chemicals (29),
* Protection from fire (30),
* Protection from dangerous machines (31),
* Lifting weight specified maximum weight (32),
* protection arrangement for workers who work in pressure plant,
* Labor department can order firms to apply safety measures,

Employee Welfare:
* provision for employee welfare fund (37) section 6,
* Compensation for injury or loss of body part,
* Gratuity, Provident Fund, Medical expenses (39),
* Leave Public holidays, study leave, home leave, maternity leave, mourning leave, special leave,
* Housing arrangement (5% of the annual profit to be used for gradual development of housing
facility),
* Childcare provision ( if more than 50 women employee),
* Rest rooms and canteen (if more than 50 employee are working).
9.5 Industrial relations, Trade Unions and Safety Representatives.
9.5.1 Industrial Relation
The term Industrial Relations comprises of two terms: Industry and Relations. Industry
refers to any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are)
engaged. By relations we mean the relationships that exist within the industry between the
employer and the workmen.
The term industrial relation explains the relationship between employees and management which
stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship.
Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the
organizational settings. The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between
management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. Industrial
relations are basically the interactions between employers, employees and the government, and the
institutions and associations through which such interactions are mediated.
Three main parties are directly involved in industrial relations:
Employers: Employers have the right to hire and fire them. Management can also affect workers
interests by exercising their right to relocate, lose or merge the factory or to introduce technological
changes.
Employees: Workers seek to improve the terms and conditions of their employment. They
exchange views with management and voice their grievances. They also want to share decision
making powers of management. Workers generally unite to form unions against the management
and get support from these unions.
Government: The central and state government influences and regulates industrial relations
through laws, rules, agreements, awards of court ad the like. It also includes third parties and labor
and tribunal court.
Employers
Association.

Employer
Employees
Government

Industrial Relation

Trade Union
Courts and
Tribunals

The concept of industrial relations has a very wide meaning and connotation. In the narrow sense, it
means that the employer, employee relationship confines itself to the relationship that emerges out
of the day to day association of the management and the labor. In its wider sense, industrial

relations include the relationship between an employee and an employer in the course of the
running of an industry and may project it to spheres, which may transgress to the areas of quality
control, marketing, price fixation and disposition of profits among others.
Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship. Industrial
relation is increasingly being called employment relations because of the importance of nonindustrial employment relationships. Many outsiders also equate industrial relations to labor
relations and believe that industrial relations only studies unionized employment situations, but
this is an oversimplification.
Industrial relations has three faces: science building, problem solving, and ethical.
9.5.2 Trade Union.
A trade union (British English) or labor union (American English) is an organization of workers
that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade
union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and
negotiates labor contracts (collective bargaining) with employers. This may include the negotiation
of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of
workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders
are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other nonmember workers.
Originating in Europe, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial
Revolution, when the lack of skill necessary to perform most jobs shifted employment bargaining
power almost completely to the employers' side, causing many workers to be mistreated and
underpaid. Trade union organizations may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past
workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these
organizations is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".
Trade Union in Nepal
The history of trade union movement in Nepal is of recent origin. There were no trade unions in
Nepal before 1945 as the country was under the family rule of Ranas. Nepal had followed closeddoor economy having almost no relations with the outside world. In 1946 All Nepal Trade Union
Congress (ANTUC) was formed. In 1947, Biratnagar Workers Union (BWU) was set up. In March
1947 the first workers movement took place at Biratnagar for the establishment of democracy. In
1951 ANTUC and BWU became united and formed the first trade union federation in Nepal. The
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) in 1953 granted membership to ANTUC. After the
democratic change of 1950, the freedom of association allowed the opportunities to many voluntary
organizations in the country and the workers, too, felt the need to be united under one umbrella to
fight against the exploitation of the management and the government. The unions existed at that
time were:
Biratnagar Workers Union, Cotton Mills Workers Union, All Nepal Trade Union Congress,
Independent Workers Union, Biratnagar Mills Workers Association, All Nepal United Workers
Union, All Nepal Trade Union Organization and Nepal Labor Union. But these unions were merely
instruments of the political parties without the capacity of free collective bargaining. This is clear
from the fact that Girija Prasad Koirala, and late Mana Mohan Adhikari, were active both in trade
unions and their respective parties. After the success of democratic struggle against 104 years of
Rana family rule in 1950 freedom of expression and organization became part of political life.
The Nepalese political history took a new turn in 1960 when the King staged a putsch, banned the
political parties and trade unions and established a partyless Panchayat system in 1962. This system
limited the freedom of expression and association but envisioned creating exploitation-free society
through the harmonization and co-ordination of the interests of different classes. For this, six
different class organizations including Nepal Labor organization were created. As this organization
was controlled by the system and also that the central body was heavily politicized, the objective of
ensuring the labor welfare remained unfulfilled. Still, some of the noticeable achievements were
also made during this period in the field of labor administration, such as, establishment of a

separate labor ministry, department and some labor offices and the admission of Nepal into the
International Labor Organization (ILO) as a member.
Multi-party democracy was restored in the Spring of 1990 in the country after the success of
people's movement, in which many professional organizations, including workers had actively
participated. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 guaranteed multi-party parliamentary
system, human rights, constitutional monarchy and the sovereignty of people. It also granted the
freedom of expression and association, which inspired the formation of trade unions. At an early
stage, there was mushrooming growth of trade unions. They were heavily divided in the line of
political ideologies. Each party has its own unions, if not general federation. With the passage of
time, most of these unions could not exist and some of the unions were merged.
Three major federations existing in the country are Nepal Trade Union Congress
(NTUC), Democratic Confederation of Nepalese Trade Unions (DECONT) and General
Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions (GEFONT).
* Nepal Trade Union Congress (NTUC) was established in 1947 with the objectives of promoting
workers rights. The labor movement in Nepal started on March 4, 1947 in Biratnagar against the
hereditary Rana rule for the establishment of democracy and advancement of workers rights.
The ideology of NTUC was based on democracy, nationalism and socialism. After the
establishment of democracy in the country in 1950, NTUC became active in the promotion of
workers rights to organize, express and struggle for their collective welfare. In 1960 with the
dissolution of multi-party democracy in Nepal, trade unions were banned along with political
parties for almost 30 years of Panchayat system. With the overthrow of Panchayat polity in 1990
following popular movement for the restoration of democracy, freedom of expression and
organization became a part of national life. Nepal Trade Union Congress also revived its
organization in 1990 and now works closely to ruling Nepali Congress party in general and
current prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala in particular.
* Democratic Confederation of Nepalese Trade Unions (DECONT) is established on May 1,
1997 after it broke away from NTUC. It is not affiliated to Nepali Congress party but works
closely with former Prime ministers Krishna Prasad Bhattarai- Sher Bahadur Deuba group in
particular. This division extends to the grassroots level on factional lines of the political party.
* General Federation of Nepalese Trade Unions (GEFONT) was established in July 20, 1989
with four founder federations: Nepal Independent Workers Union (NIWU), Independent
Transport Workers Association of Nepal (ITWAN),Nepal Independent Workers Union
(NIHWU) and Trekking Workers Association of Nepal (TWAN). It is affiliated to Communist
Party of Nepal Unified Marxist-Leninist party (CPN-UML). A small faction splinted from
GEFONT formed Independent Confederation of Nepalese Trade Unions (ICONT) on March 14,
1998. ICONT is affiliated to CPN Marxist-Leninist party (CPN-ML).
9.5.3 Safety Representatives.
There are various types of safety representatives in different levels. Some of them are;
- Safety inspectors from the company.
- Worker safety committee men.
- Trade union representatives of the company.
-First-aid attendants.
- Inspection officer from the government.
- Representatives from central level trade union.
- Representatives of national safety council.
- Representatives of community safety council,
- Representatives of bureau of labor standards etc.
These representatives work together to formulate safety rules, control the industries to operate and
workers to follow the same. They also work to provide the facility which has to be obtained by the
employees.

10.

RISK MANAGEMENT

Introduction
According to Oxford dictionary, Risk is defined as the possibility that something unpleasant will
happen, or a situation that could be dangerous or have a bad outcome.
Risk is possibility or chance of meeting danger, suffering or injury. So, risk is the variability of
returns from an investment. If the probabilities of possible outcome of a given problem are known,
we can conclude that the problem contains risk, in other words, the problem is risky.
On the other hand, if the probabilities of possible outcomes of a given problem are not known, we
can conclude that the problem has an element of uncertainty, i.e. the outcome cannot be predicted.
The choice of approach for dealing with the analysis depends on the size, type and general nature of
the project or the problem being modeled, the amount and reliability of information available and
the nature of output required.
Identification of Risk.
In any project, there can be various types of risks. It can be divided as;
a. Internal and External.
b. Predictable and unpredictable
c. Technical and Non-technical.
Some major project risk can be listed as;
a. Management Risk,
b. Resource risk,
c. Technical Risk,
d. Political risk,
e. Legal Risk
f. Environmental Risk
g. Financial Risk
a. Management Risk.
Completing the project in time and within the estimated cost itself is a major achievement. A
project that is delayed will result in time over-run which will consequently result in cost over-run.
In the project promoters are not able to pump in additional funds required to meet the cost over-run,
the project runs the risk of coming to standard.
Construction industries require quite-a-few manpower. Sometimes massive turn-over of the worker
creates a big problem and this probability has always high risk.
b. Resource Risk.
Raw material, power, fuel, manpower etc are the resources used by a project. Shortage of raw
material may lead to reduction in capacity utilization and higher cost of production, which will
make all profitability estimate wrong. Similarly, shortage of power, fuel and shortage of skilled
manpower will also jeopardize the project profitability calculations and the project may run the risk
of not earning the estimated returns.
c. Technical Risk.

Rapid growth in technology may make a project obsolete in recent future. The variation in design
due to local condition or faulty design is also a risky factor. It will demand change in design or
extra investment which can have adverse effect on the project.
d. Political Risk.
Political risk is major risk since it cannot be predicted easily. Government intervenes in many
forms such as; levying and regulating taxes, regulating monopolistic trade practices, imposing
import duties etc.
e. Legal Risk
Before launching or during the execution of any project, National and local legal requirements must
be fulfilled. Various legal problems may exist which cause delay in the project completion and
sometimes the whole project may even collapse.
f. Environmental Risk
Environmental factors are generally considered during the design phase of any project but
sometimes unexpected condition may occur suddenly which is out of normal condition and can
cause delay or damage of the built structure.
g. Financial Risk
This is the most concerned risk factor for any project. Mare the management of estimated amount
may not be enough. Sometimes the hike in prices of construction material and unexpected accidents
etc may require more money for the continuation of the project. Due to various other factors too,
the project cost may go up affecting the overall profit. Proper margins must be there to cope with
such risks.
10.1 Techniques of Risk Analysis
a. Brainstorming
Is used extensively in formative project planning and can also be used to advantage to identify and
postulate risk scenarios for a particular project. It is a simple but effective attempt to help people
think creatively in a group setting without feeling inhibited or being criticized by others.
The rules are that each member must try to build on the ideas offered by preceding comments. No
criticism or disapproving verbal or nonverbal behaviors are allowed. The intent is to encourage as
many ideas as possible, which may in turn, trigger the ideas of others.
b. Sensitivity Analysis
Sensitivity analysis seeks to place a value on the effect of change of a single variable within a
project by analyzing that effect on the project plan. It is the simplest form of risk analysis.
Uncertainty and risk are reflected by defining a likely range of variation for each component of the
original base case estimate. In practice such an analysis is only done for those variables which have
a high impact on cost, time or economic return, and to which the project is most sensitive.
Some of the advantages of sensitivity analysis include impressing management that there is a range
of possible outcomes, decision making is more realistic, though perhaps more complex. And the
relative importance of each variable examined is readily apparent. Some weaknesses are that
variables are treated individually, limiting the extent to which combinations of variables can be
assessed, and a sensitivity diagram gives no indication of anticipated probability of occurrence.
c. Probability Analysis
Probability analysis overcomes the limitations of sensitivity analysis by specifying a probability
distribution for each variable, and then considering situations where any or all of these variables
can be changed at the same time. Defining the probability of occurrence of any specific variable
may be quite difficult, particularly as political or commercial environments can change quite
rapidly.

As with sensitivity analysis, the range of variation is subjective, but ranges for many time and cost
elements of a project estimate should be skewed toward overrun, due to the natural optimism or
omission of the estimator.
d. Break-Even Analysis
It is a financial analysis where we analyze mathematically and check whether the project will be at
profit or loss. The break-even point is such a case which indicates that there is neither profit nor
loss. If the earning or benefit is above the break-even point then there is profit and vice versa.
For example;
A production industry that manufactures
e. Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is a code name given by Von Newmann and Ulam to the techniques of solving
problems using random numbers.
The Monte Carlo method, simulation by means of random numbers, provides a powerful yet simple
method of incorporating probabilistic data. Basic steps are:
a. Assess the range of the variables being considered and determine the probability distribution
most suited to each.
b. For each variable within its specific range, select a value randomly chosen, taking account of the
probability distribution for the occurrence of the variable.
c. Run a deterministic analysis using the combination of values selected for each one of the
variables.
d. Repeat steps 2 and 3 a number of times to obtain the probability distribution of the result.
Typically between 100 and 1000 iterations are required depending on the number of variables and
the degree of confidence required.
f. Decision Tree Analysis
Decision tree approach is a graphical technique that can be used for analyzing the possible
alternative decisions and choosing the best possible course of action. In real life situation, decisions
are taken under conditions of uncertainty. In project management, this is more so in view of the
multiplicity of factors involved. For example, a company might have to decide whether to go for
investment in a large plant or a small plant, whether to invest in a new venture or to acquire an
existing company etc.
The point to be noted is that the factors that have a bearing on a project are not constants but are
subject to variations. Hence, there is always an element of uncertainty involved in any project
decision. A decision tree is a diagrammatic representation of the logical relationship between the
different parts of a complex situation and the possible outcomes of different decisions.
A decision tree is made up of nodes and branches. Nodes are of two types. Such as,
-

Decision node (also called decision point) and

Chance node (also called chance point or chance event).

A decision point is represented by a square and chance point is represented by a circle. A different
alternative available for the given situation emerges from the decision point. At each chance point,
the different possible outcomes of one of the alternative decisions are marked.
Rules for drawing decision tree.
* Identify all the alternative decisions available at the initial decision point (i.e. at decision point-1).
* Identify all possible subsequent decision points.
* Identify all possible chance points and the likely outcome of the chance points. Construct the
decision tree diagram from the left to the right. Denote the decision point by a square and the
chance point by a circle.

* After constructing the decision tree, work backwards (i.e. from right to left), computing EMV of
each chance point and each decision point till the initial decision point is reached.
* Determine the best alternative at the initial decision point.
Expected Monetary Value (EMV),
The effectiveness of any decision is measured only in terms of money. Hence, the outcomes of all
decisions are measured in terms of the expected monetary value (EMV). It provides a common base
for comparing the outcomes of different decisions and choosing the one that is found more
advantageous.

The Quality Risk


This risk can best be expressed by the question: What if the project fails to perform as expected
during its operational life? This may well be the result of less than satisfactory quality upon
project completion, and is especially true if quality is not given due attention during the project life
cycle. Since the in-service life of the resulting product is typically much longer than the period
required to plan and produce that product, any quality shortcomings and their effects may surface
over a prolonged period of time.
Consequently, of all the project objectives, conformance to quality requirement is the one most
remembered long after cost and schedule performance have faded into the past. It follows that
quality management can have the most impact on the long-term actual or perceived success of the
project.
Risk Perceptions
1. People do not, in fact, demand zero risk. They take risk every day, both consciously and
subconsciously, and they are willing and able to take benefit/risk decisions, as in driving and
speeding.
2. Peoples judgment of degrees of risk is not, however, coincident with most methodologies for
measuring risk statistically. The public may greatly underestimate familiar risks (e.g. driving)
while greatly overestimating unfamiliar risks (e.g. buying a home near a nuclear facility).
3. A variety of emotional, not logical, factors control risk perceptions:
a. Primary is the sense of personal control and the ability to manage the risk
b. Secondary is qualities of familiarity and conversely, dread. The greater the unfamiliarity and
potential for connection to gruesome, the more it is likely to be judged as highly risky and
therefore unacceptable.
4. Once established, risk perceptions are extremely hard to change. New information may be
absorbed by the intellect, but it is not readily absorbed at an emotional level.
5. Risk perceptions reside fundamentally at an emotional level.
10.2

Interpretation of Risk analysis:

In order to make a decision, we assemble information, analyze it and interpret the results.
Interpretation of information or analytical results is influenced, among other things by professional
experience, the quality of judgment, knowledge of subjective information which may not have been
included in the analysis- and our attitude to the problem under consideration.
The risk analysis tends to encourage professionals to use their experience and judgment more fully.
Quantitative techniques are important but it is equally important that the user of a technique be
fully aware of its strength and weakness, the context of the decision and the factors which influence
attitude.

Risk attitude in gambling card counting.


The most famous contemporary professional gambler is Dr. Edward O. Thorpe. Thorpe is an
American mathematician, who although he now specializes in playing the stock market, began
gambling career by applying optimal strategies for betting casino Blackjack gambler. He was
eventually banned from the premises by several casino owners.
Card counting is method of analyzing risk and taking with high bets only when the odds are
relatively favorable.
In the broad context of business decision making a key feature is the risk to reward ratio. Where the
risks are high, the investor requires an additional premium to make worth while carrying such risk.
Example; higher motorcar insurance premium for fast cars and young drivers. Risk attitude and
Utility theory.
Utility theory suggests that instead of maximizing expected monitory value, people maximize their
own utility. The equation which describes the utility curve is the utility function. Utility functions
vary from person to person. The utility function of an individual is unlikely to be identical to the
utility function of that individuals employing organization. Therefore, people have different risk
attitude according to their utility purposes.
10.3

Human Behavior:

Aspects of risk taking (The allais paradox)This paradox explains how people, who are aware of the probability calculus, are considered to be
rational and whose proposal capital is small compared to the sums involved. It is a case of
psychology of risk. Let us consider the so-called Allias paradox that is credited with prompting
many of the advances is the general theory of random choice and psychology of risk. See an
example.
A decision maker has been faced with two questions as follows:
Case A:
1. Do you prefer situation A or B?
Situation A: Receive a certain amount of Rs. 1 million.
Situation B: Receive a lottery ticket witha. 10% chance of winning Rs. 5m,

(0.1 x 5 = 0.5)

b. 89% chance of winning Rs. 1m,

(0.89 x 1 = 0.89)

c. 1% chance of winning nothing.

(0.01 x 0 = 0)
Total 1.39

2. Do you prefer situation C or D?


Situation C: receive a lottery ticket with

a. 10% chance of winning Rs. 5m,


b. A 90% chance of winning nothing,

Situation D: receive a lottery ticket with; a. 11% chance of winning Rs. 1m,
b. 89% chance of winning nothing
People aware of probability calculus are considered rational and whose capital is small compared to
the sums involved, tend to prefer A over B and C over D. On the face of it, this seems at first
irrational. The relevant EMV are as follows- A=Rs. 1m, B=Rs. 1.39, C=Rs.0.5m and D=Rs.
0.11m.
This paradox demonstrates that people are both risk adverse and risk seeking depending upon the
context. To be more specific, subjects intuitively have quite a sophisticated understanding of utility,
which takes account of the distribution of utility about its mathematically expectation as well as the

expected utility itself. This is the case particularly when the figures involved are large in relation to
the subjects own capital.

11.

SAFETY MANAGEMENT

11.1 Role of Employees


In safely management, the management in any organization concentrates on the safety of its people.
Management concentrates on safety because of the following reasons.
1. People of the organization are the organizational assets (resources), it should be not lost in any
way,
2. Human resources are on top of the priority of any other resources on any ground- cost wise and
humanitarian wise,
3. The government and the court consider the injured people to get penalties from the organization,
4. The organization loses its name and fame form the losses of its people and peoples lives, which
are the intangible assets of the organization,
5. People fear of joining the organization, from which the organization faces shortage of qualified
and active staffs.
The management can initiate to make the employees aware of the hazards in the working fields by,
1. Communicating them
2. Assigning responsibilities to them
3. Granting authorities to them
4. Seeking accountability from them
The management thinks that its employees have become aware of the hazards in their work fields
from the above initiations, which is in fact not true. Individual employees and the group of the
people working together have been influenced from different factors. Those factors can be used by
the management to educate them for the safe working conditions. The influences on the employees
so far found effective have been listed below:
1. The influence of the attitude of the group towards the safety,
2. The influence of selection and placement,
3. The influence of training and education,
4. The influence of supervision,
5. The influence of special-emphasis programs,
6. The influence of media.
1. The influence of the attitude of the group towards the safety
The employees have usually to work in a group and hence the management has to understand the
group psychology to implement safety programs. Groups may be strong and weak.
Strong group voluntarily;
- try to deserve praise from the rest of the group,
- seek recognition from the group leader,
- exert special efforts to achieve group goals,
- Put special efforts into achievement of the group goals.
In a weak group, the members of the group are;
- From clique and subgroup,

- Exhibit little cooperation,


- Are unfriendly
- Use no initiatives
- A void responsibility
- Have no respect for group policies.
The employees need to have following essentialities to make strong group:1. Individual competence,
2. Individual maturity,
3. Individual strength, and
4. Common objectives.
2. Influence of selection and placement
Like- minded people should be in a group to make a secured effort. So, the management can
select and place the employees in a group on the following bases;
1. Biographical data
* Application
* Interviews,
* References,
* Other sources:-Credit, Schools,
- Driving record,
- Agencies

2. Tests
Physical examination
Qualification,
Defects,
Skill Tests,
Job knowledge Tests,
Psychological test.

11.3 Influence of training


Training imparts knowledge to the trainees. The knowledge changes attitudes. Attitude brings skill.
Skill changes behaviors. Therefore, training finally brings changes in behavior. Knowledge,
attitude, skill and behavior promote safe behaviors, which increase safety in the work behaviors.
Management also gets background knowledge, skill and the causes that bring motivation. Training
can be effective it is need based.
Tell

Show

Observe

Correct.

There are many methods of training and following may be needs for employees:1. Orientation for new employees,
2. OJT for new employees,
3. Upgrade/change/refresh/new techniques for experienced,
4. New jobs training for transferred employees,
5. Group toolbox meeting,
6. Other employees as need arise.
Objectives of training decide the type of training. So, the management must be clear of the output
of the employees after training. The objectives must be clear and well defined for all the
management, trainers and the trainees/ employees.
4. The influences of supervision
Supervisors are the first line managers who come direct in contact with the employees in relation to
works, which usually need safeties. Supervisors evaluate and control the employees. So, employees

are responsible to the supervisors. The employees carry out + supervisors directions and
instructions. So, the supervisors can play an impressive role in influence the employees so that they
become aware of unwanted accidents/hazards. The management can control the employees through
the supervisors instruction. So, supervisors must be motivated to inculcate the employees for
safety.
5. The Influence of special-emphasis programs
It is coordinate campaign aimed at a defined problem. A well-run and well-devised specialemphasis program can exert an important influence on employees. For example, Knowing is not
Enough program was conducted by United States Steel Company a nos. of years ago. It was
assumed that employees know what to do, they just do not do it often enough.
Everywhere- All the time was another special emphasis program conducted by Allis-Chalmers
Company and later adopted by the national safety Council. It was under the same assumption of
Knowing is not Enough and defined problem was off the job injuries.
Special emphasis programs are effective because:1. They are directed at defined problem,
2.

They utilize a recall symbol, which trigger response over and over,

3.

They contain enough elements to convince employees that mgt. is

4.

really interested in their safety.

6. Safety Media
Safety media are extremely valuable only when they are heard by receptive ears and seen by
receptive eyes. One should utilize media properly. Media alone does not motivate individuals. In
the industry, the employees are considered having motivators and dissatisfiers in the work field.
Herzberg propounded it and hence it is known Herzbergs dual factor or Motivation- hygiene
theory. With the fulfillment of dissatisfiers, employees do not become motivated, but these are
necessary to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors relate to the job context. They are hygiene factors.
They are;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

11.2

Company policy and administration,


Technical supervision,
Interpersonal relation with superiors, peers and subordinators,
Salary,
Job security,
Personal life,
Work conditions
Status, Motivational factors or motivators:a. Achievement,
b. Recognition
c. Advancement,
d. The work itself
e. The possibility of personal growth,
f. Responsibility
Role of Supervisors

1. Introduction
The attitude of majority of supervisor today lies somewhere between total acceptance and flat
rejection of comprehensive accident prevention programs. Safety is considered far more less than
production, quality, cost control or method improvement in the organization. The managers
attitude towards safety depends upon the following three things.

1. Abilities 2. Role of perceptions 3. Effort


1. Abilities
The performance of manager depends upon the his/her ability brought to the task. The abilities refer
to both inherent capabilities and to specialized knowledge in a particular field of endeavor.
Sufficient knowledge of safety would be ensured through training to supervisors. First line
managers would acquire sufficient knowledge of safety through supervisory training to control
subordinates and working conditions under which they would work.
In most industries, lack of knowledge of safety is not a problem. Usually, line managers know far
more about safety knowledge than they apply. In case the first managers or supervises have little
safety knowledge; the situation can be handled through training.
2. Role perceptions
Line manager's role in safety determines the direction in which they will apply their efforts. Role
perception is more important that ability. In safety, role perception has to do whether line
managers(supervisors) know what management wants in accident control and with whether they
know their duties are. In the area of role perception, the safety professional should search for
answers to some questions about the organization and about each line managers in it. Those
questions concern the content and effectiveness of management's policy on safety, the adequacy of
supervisors' training, company safety procedures, the system used to fix accountability etc.
3.

Effort

The following two factors determine how much effort should a supervisor put into a job
1. His/her opinion of the value of the rewards, and
2. The connection the person sees between efforts and those rewards.
The supervisor will decide whether his effort put on the job reward him or not at first. The
supervisor considers if the value of rewards obtained from the management for achieving the goal
is great, s/he will decide to expend effort much on his/her job.
"Rewards" here means much more than just financial reward. It includes all the things that motivate
people, recognition, opportunity for advancement, increased pay etc. Research shows that the
rewards of Advancement and Responsibility are two greatest motivators.
If the rewards consist of advancement and additional responsibility, the supervisor will put more
effort on the job.
Safety Measurement system needs to be devised to measure a line manager's safety performance in
term of ability, effort and role perception. Such system would enable the management to decide
what level of safety achievement should be expected from the line manager (supervisor). Such a
system of measurement would have been based on self-rating or management's rating.
A system of rating the three elements that go in to safe performance(in term os points, percentage
points, whatever seems logical) would help to identify supervision performance in safety. A
equation can be developed as below:Effort X Ability X Role Perception=Safety Performance.
A rating system can be devised for each of the three factors, resulting in a final number which
could be an indicator or manager's safety performance.
Motivators and Dissatisfiers
Herzberg's hygiene theory of motivation states that unless an organization brings up its context up
to the level, motivating factors do not motivate the workers. They are called hygiene factors or
maintenance factors. Company policies, Supervision, working conditions, Salary, relationship can
status are hygiene factors.

On the other, motivator factors are those, which if employed, the employees become motivate and
put more efforts on jobs. Motivators' are:Advancement- It is most important for supervisor,
Responsibility- It is important next to the advancement for supervisors,
Possibility of growth-It is far more important to supervisor than to employees,
Achievement- It is important to supervisors but not as important as to employees.
Application of the motivators in Supervision
Advancement and Responsibility:
Safety programs should be made an integral part of supervision work so that supervisors can
exercise and maintain safeties in their working field. Supervisors should be evaluated on the three
elements of measurement of effectiveness of safety.
Responsibility growth:
Supervisors should be given free hand in how they control accidents and retain accountability in the
work fields. They should be encouraged to maintain low accidents records in the work field.
Growth and Responsibility:
Supervisors should be assigned specials projects in safety so that new and practicable measures can
be sought for further actions. Safety measures have been learnt from learning by doing in most
cases.
Training
Training is a source of motivation to Supervisors as to employees in addition to knowledge and
skill imparting. There are many sources of help for Supervisory training, including training
packages, self- study courses, programmed courses, an discussion courses.
The institutions that provide training to supervisors are Universities, vocational schools,
government schools, insurance carries, Trade associations or others.
There are a number of courses bout the selection of the course should be made to fit intended
program with specific objectives. At first, it is to determine whether training is the answer to your
defined problem. In case if it is the answer, you should the objective of the training to specifically
solve the problem.
It will be effective if the management conceive the need of the training to particular group of
workers and present the training, implying the importance of aura of training.
11.3 Motivating Management
Motivating is as the willingness to exert high level of efforts towards organizational goals,
conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual needs (Robbins, p.169).
Needs mean some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. Therefore, the
motivating agencies identify the needs of managers so that the agencies may help to fulfill the
needs and the managers can be motivated to exert high level of effort to their works.
Motivation by nature is;
1. Psychological concept e.g. needs, desire, motives and drives,
2. Complex and unpredictable: e.g. difficult to predict as if differs from individual to individual,
3. Concerned with individual e.g. it is different for people to people,
4. Continuous process, e.g. when one need is fulfilled another emerges.
5. Pervasive, e.g. it is necessary to all level of organization,
6. Behavior oriented e.g. motivation reflects in behaviors,

7. Positive and negative e.g. carrot and stick or hot wave stove techniques.
Mangers, system or knowledge represents managements, which is responsible for all policy and
rules and regulation that links external and internal environment of the organization sphere. There
are basically three managerial roles played by the management:Interpersonal roles
1. Figure head
2. Leader
3. Liaison

Information roles
Spokesman
Disseminator
Informational news center

Decision making roles


Negotiator
Entrepreneur
Disturbance handler
Resource allocator

From the above roles of management, it can be assumed that management plays an important roles
in the organization. Unless management is not satisfied with what it has to play because of demotivation, the outcomes shall be extremely undesirable.
With the roles of interpersonal roles, the management maintains integrity, leadership and liaison in
the organization. Unless the organization has sound integrity, visionary leadership and relationship
with inside and outside environment, it will be lost. Integrating the efforts of the efforts of the
organizational staff, leading towards the goal of the organization and maintaining hormonal roles
with the external agencies makes the organization popular and efficient.
With the informational role, the management plays informational center, spokesman ad
disseminator. The management is the only authentic body for accepting or rejecting information.
Outer world believes on the news disseminated by the management. A hearsay information about
organization is not authentic. Whenever outer world seeks information about the organization, it is
only the management that can play as an authentic spokesman.
Decision making roles
The management has to make decision on behalf of an organization and at the same time to play a
role as an entrepreneur in organizational business, calm the conflict in the organization smoothly
and allocate resources so that all the wings of the organization works perfectly and efficiently.
With all those very important roles that the management has to perform, makes the people,
appointed at the management positions very crucial on the part of organization. They are in fact at
the driving seats of the organization. If they feel de- motivated, certainly their performances
directly affect the organization's existence. Therefore, they must be all the time motivated.
The major two motivating factors to the management are profitability of the organization and the
well being of employees. Therefore, management is interested in the relationship of the safety
professional's ideas to the profits of the organization. Whenever one talks to management, s/he
should be dollar-oriented.
It is natural to worry about the safety of the employees who works for the organization. They are
the costliest resources of all in the organization.
Getting to the executive
Major problem in dealing with executives is accessibility- getting to them when we need to. Policy
makers can only motivate executives through working and fringe facilities.
Work performers, who intend to have safety management, will encourage the management, but
management is the one who lifts the panics of safety management in the organization. The
management becomes motivated if the employees initiate safety management, because its roles
become fulfilled.

If we know the traits of executives, it will be easier to switch on them for making them motivated.
The following traits have been identified as traits of executives;
1.
They are usually family oriented and have happy home lives,
2.
They are educated and intelligent,
3.
They are interoperated in further self-development,
4.
They have many outside interests,
5.
They are usually religions,
6.
They are vitally interested in people,
7.
They enjoy good health,
8.
They take risks after through study of facts,
9.
They are interested in new and different approaches to problems,
10.
They are objectives in their approaches and straightforward in their relationship.
Annual report
Every safety professionals ought to utilize the tool of the annual report to motivate management.
Often management does not ask annual report, but it should be submitted anyway. Appointed for
safety maintenance needs to project him/him self before the management of the expense n its
activities.
The safety professional would want the management to know the following through annual report:1. How did we fare last year? (give results expressed in management's terms).
2. What did we accomplish last year? In what ways are we stronger than we were before?
3. What are our objectives for next year? How will we be stronger at this time next year?
4. What do we need from management? What is it letting us down?
Management Motivators
For the management, there are only two concerns-employees oriented and production oriented as
per Michigan University Research in behavioral theory.

Employee Low/High
Oriented
Low/Low

High/High
High/Low

This states the concern of safety professionals with the top management. Management is mainly
interested in the relationship of the safety professional's ideas to the profit of the organization.
Management always wants to be in the best position, which is High/High at right hand top corner.
Here both production and employee concerns are high/high.
11.4 Stress Management
"Everybody knows what stress is and yet nobody knows what is it"- Selye.
A few definitions of stress are given below:" Stress is any condition that disturbs normal functioning"- Arnold. 1960.
"Stress is the state of an organism where s/he perceives that his well-being is endangered and that
the he must divert all his energies t its protection" Cofer & Appley, 1964.
"Stress is a dynamic state within an organism in response to a demand for adaptation"- Wolf, 1968.

So, Stress occurs to an organism simply to adapt a change in the environment, may it be at work or
in any other. Stress is multifaceted in nature and stress response arousal involves work or in any
other and tissues in our body. There are usually three types of stress;
1. Anticipatory stress,
2. Current stress and3. Residual stress.
1. Anticipatory Stress
It is one's response to expected stresses. For example, Mind and body prepare in advance for a
change, crises or challenges or tension before test. It is useful in moderate amount because it
prepares one's body and mind for events that are about to happen. Thus, Anticipatory stress can
be positive. But, it can also interfere with the life in present, as a person might pay more
attention to what might happen than to what is happening.
2. Current Stress
It occurs during an experience; for example, mental alertness in the midst of debate, the surge of
energy in the final 100m of race. Current stress if harnessed effectively is vital for optional
performance.
3. Residual Stress
It occurs after the experience has passed. The body remains in a state of alarm for some time
after a near collision on the highway. Over stimulation, whether pleasant or unpleasant, can have
the same effect (Schafer, 1992).

Stress management is an adaptive process in which one's body and mind prepares or adjust to a
threatening situation from environment. Stress is manifested in physical, psychological and
behavioral deviation.
What is stress then?
Stress is not simply anxiety. Anxiety is emotional and psychological. Stress is emotional,
psychological and physiological. Stress is generally accompanied by anxiety.
Stress is not simply nervous tension may result from stress.
Stress is not necessarily something damaging bad or to be avoided. It is inevitable in
individuals, especially managers. The key is how to handle it.
Positive and Negative stress
Positive stress is known as Eustress. It is needed for people to grow to their full potential. It is
something people should seek out rather than avoid.
Negative stress is known as distress. It has dysfunctional consequences. It should be presented or
effectively controller.

Work
load
Stress

Sources of stress
The following are the sources of stress;
1.
Individual stressors,
2.
Group stressor

Distress

3.
4.

Organizational stressor
Extra Organizational stressor

1. Individual Stressors
The following are the individual stressors:Body oriented:- Sudden appetite loss, sleepless, unfit, feeling of lethargy of tense,
Emotional oriented:- Extended period of sadness, depression, loneliness, frustrated etc.,
Relationship oriented:- Unhappy, bad feeling, unsupported feel, uninvolved feel, ineffective
performance, uninterested in skill increase, not relaxing through yoga, role conflicts etc. in the
org., works or peers,
Event oriented:- Event can be conditioned with S= shared vision, U=understand the need for
change, C= cultural alignment, C= communication, E=expert help (in/outside), S=strong
leadership at highest level, S= shareholders ownership (SUCCESS)
Personality oriented:- Patterns and Traits create stress like-long hour working, taking work at
home, setting ambitious standards, frustration at work situation, lack of personal control on
environment or jobs, psychology hardness or poor stress tolerance capacity.
Physiological

Individual stress

Psychological

2. Group stressors
The following are the causes of group stressors:1. Lack of group cohesiveness,
2. Lack of social supports,
3.

Intra-individual, interpersonal and inter-group conflicts,

4. Goal incompatibility,
5. Unclear roles,
6. Overconfidence.
3. Organizational stressors

Behavior

1. Administrative policies/ strategies: Staff cutoff, competitive pressure in job enrichment,


work shift, over or under work, new technology, pay plans to remuneration, bureaucratic
rules and procedures.
2. Organizational structure/design:
Line staff conflicts, poor promotion opportunity,
centralization/ specialization, untrusting culture, Role ambiguous.
3. Organizational processes: One-way communication, lack of participation, tight control, and
defective performance appraisal system.
4. Working condition: Noise, heat, cold, poor lighting, polluted water, air, stinking toilet,
crowded work area, physical/mental strains, health hazards in the job, poor quality of work
life.
4.

Extra organizational Stressors

Extra organizational stressors are as follows:1. Social change: pace and arte of social change is accelerating,
2. Family,
3. Relocation due to lifes changes: economic condition in the country, community
condition etc.

Strategies for Stress Management


1. Individual stress management:
Exercise: Walk, jog, play and swim
Relaxation: Yoga, meditate, book reading, listening music, watching beautiful news
Behavioral self control: Control situation instead of letting the situation control you
Social support: Through networking,
Good eating habit,
Effective time management,
Clinical therapy: Consult a doctor,
Avoid irritating people,
Have sense of humor
Recognize potential limits,
Set realistic ambitions.
2. Organizational stress management
- Creating a supportive org. climate,
-

Job design or job engineering,

Job enrichment,

Proper placement-fit jobs with skilled people,

Conflict management,

Planning a career path for employees,

Alternation in stressful policies or strategies,

Training stress management,

Improving working condition,

Promoting employees,

Providing counseling for stress management.

3. Extra organizational stress


Adapt to environment change. Pro-act rather than react to such changes,
Stress is not automatically bad. Low level of Eustress can even enhance performance and
effectiveness. Managers, above all, must manage stress effectively. They should not try to above
all, must manage stress effectively. They should not try to avoid it or be afraid of it.
Consequences of Stress
The following may be the consequences of stresses:1. Physiological impact: The conditions resulting from stress can be;
Alcoholism, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, eating disorder, hair loss, headache, heart
disease, heart burn etc.
2.

Psychological impact: Absenteeism, fatigue, dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression,


frustration, conflicts, irritability, or even suicide, drug addiction etc.

3.

Organizational impacts: low motivation, low job performance, low productivity,


high turnover, high absenteeism, lower quality of interpersonal relationship, quality degradation
etc.

So, implement strategies for stress management in any organization for sound, hormonal and
efficient utilization of resources for better productivity.
Stressors:- Stressors relate to any factor within the individual or from the external environment,
which is conductive to stress. Stressors are either Episodic disruption or Chronic condition, which
causes one's automatic nervous system and Endocrine gland system to disrupt one's normal
biophysical equilibrium in preparing one to " fight or flight". Stressor is also defined as a factor,
which produces stress.
Strains:- Strain is the state of being stressed; and it can be physiological, psychological or
Behavioral, but it is by definition an indicator of ill health of the individual. In other words, stressor
usually refers to environment stimulus and the term 'Strain' to individual response.
11.5 Safety Management
All organizations have three things in common:1. Management functions,
2.
Management tasks, and
3.
Management roles
Management functions- management functions can be grouped into four:1.
Planning,
2.
Organizing and staffing
3.
Controlling
4.
Leading
Management Tasks-Management must perform the following three tasks:1.
Carry out the purpose and mission of the organization,

2.
3.

Increase productivity, and


Manage social impacts and social responsibilities.

Planning

Leading

Organizational
Organizational
goals
goals

Organizing and
Staffing

Controlling
Also management skills are of the following three levels;
a. Conceptual skill,
b. Human skill,
c. Technical skill

Management skills:
Top Management

Middle Management

Lower Management

Conceptual
Conceptual

Conceptual
Human
Human

Human
Technical
Technical

Technical

Safety programs.
So, management has every possible opportunity in the organization for attaining organizational
goals. If management involves employees in attaining goals from the very beginning of setting
goals, the employees will become committed to the attainment of goals. As a result, MBO has been
emerged. Employees should be involved in a participatory ways in setting goals, monitoring
progress, implementing feedback of the performances.
Safety Management is in fact implementing safety programs. The National Safety Council, India
suggests the following objectives of safety programs:1. Gaining and maintaining support for the safety programs at all organizational levels,
2.
Motivating, educating and training programs for participants to know, recognize and
correct or report hazards,
3.
Engineering hazards control in to the design of machines, tools, processes and facilities,

4.
5.

Providing programs for inspection of machines, tools, processes and facilities,


Complying with established safety and health standards.

Safety programs in construction


1.

Secure full support of the top management:- The top management has the obligatory
responsibility towards the promoting of safety programs. So, the construction site should secure
the support from top management.
2.
Deputation someone to direct safety programs at site:-Some one, as specific person
should be deputed to look after safety programs in the construction site.
3.
Publicizing safety programs:- every employee should be made conscious of the fact that
safety is not the responsibility of a person. Safety is every bodys job.
4.
Develop a safety program to each job:- Since each job has its own safety hazards, it is
not possible to develop a standardized safety program, which is equally effective for all types of
construction.
5.
Install a safety program on a competitive basis:- there should be a system of providing
awards to the supervisor for having the best safety record every year.
6.
Indoctrinate new employee:- The physical condition of a new employee must be
thoroughly checked by a medical examination prior to employment and at the same time, he
should also be informed of the hazards of his job.
7.
Make the safety practice effective:An effective safety program must install a sense of safety consciousness in every employee.
Some of the major elements for making safety practices effective include the following:- Educating top and middle level management in the fundamentals of safety and effective
accident prevention programs,
- Formal supervising safety training program for all supervisors,
- Formal training programs for all new employees,
- Program of regular visit by safety director to review and control job hazards,
- Periodic safety meeting conducted by the supervisor relating to topics such as how to cause
accidents and how to prevent them,
- Periodic refreshing training for each workers,
- Good communication system by way of publishing and distributing safety hand book to each
employee, displaying of posters depicting safety programs and film and video show.
8. Promote good housekeeping:- Good house keeping means clan job and so promote clean job
everyday in al jobs.
9. Maintain adequate first aids facilities and other infrastructure:- the following infrastructures
should be available at site as far as possible:- Telephone service,
- Vehicles,
- Sufficient numbers of fire extinguishers,
- Sufficient nos. of safety accessories to each worker,
- Proper communication system.
10. Seek assistance from Insurance office for accidents
The national safety council recommends a policy statement, which also reflects the following:1. The importance that management places on the health and well-being of
Employees,
2. Managements commitment to occupational safety and health,

3. The emphasis the company places on efficient operations, with a minimum of accidents and
losses,
4. The intentions of integrating hazard control into all operations, including compliances with
applicable standards,
5. The necessity for active leadership, direct participation and enthusiastic support of the entire
organization.
11.6 Consideration of human error.
Reason(1990) defines human error, as cited by Singh and Dewan, as a generic term to encompass
all those occasions in which a planned sequence of mental or physical activities fails to achieve its
intended outcome, and when these failures cannot be attributed to the intervention of some change
agency (p.294)
The possibilities Human error is always there in any field. Due to various mental and physical
conditions, there is chance of human error. Sometimes it can be corrected easily and sometimes it
may be very critical. There should be provision of correcting human error but at the same time
intended mischief should not be ignored in the name of human error.
11.7 Contracts and legislation
A contract has the following essential elements:1. Offer and acceptance,
2. Competent parties,
3. Legal relationship,
4. Free consent,
5. Lawful consideration,
6. Not expressly declared void,
7. Writing and registration,
8. Possibility of performance,
9. Certainly
10. Lawful object
1. Offers and Acceptance
When a party offers some work to do or not to do, then it is termed as an offer. If the offeree or
promises accepts it to do or not to do, it becomes a contract. The offer should be accepted in the
form of what has been offered. One cannot accept if in a changed form. But there is a counter
offer provision too. When an offeree wants to have some change, in that case s/he can counter
offer and that is a changed offer from offeree. The contract takes place only when the offeree
accepts the counter offer produced by offeree. Offer can be of the following;
1. Offer can be express or implied offer expressed through behavior is also an offer.
2. Direct or indirect offer. Indirect offers are those expressed through public announcements,
advertisement, law etc.
3. An offer made to a definite person. To some definite class or person or to the world at large.
Specific offer to some person and general offer to all people.
4. Clear terms: offers to should be in a clear term without ambiguity.
5. An intension to purpose is not a proposal.
6. Knowledge of offer must be known to offeree.
7. Standing contract or open proposal.
8. An invitation o make an offer is not offer.
9. Legal relationship-offer should intend to establish legal relationship.

10. Communication of proposal can be made through any channel. It cannot be a contract
without knowing an offer.
Termination of offer;
1. by notice of revocation,
2. By lapse of time,
3. By non fulfillment of condition,
4. Death or unconsciousness offeree before the acceptance of offer.
Contract law, 2023 governs the contracts in Nepal till today. The law has been named as The
Contract Law 2023, Nepal, This law shall be regulated throughout Nepal kingdom, It has been
regulated on 1 Paush 2023 in Nepal.
The law has defined contract as the agreement made between two or more than two parties to do
or not to do any work.
Similarly, the law has defined Proposer as the person or party who propose something to the
Proposee with the view of being acceptance to do or not to do it.
Acceptance means, according to the law, as the acceptance agreed upon with the view of the
proposer by the propose.
The parties or persons except the following can make contract:1. Below 16 years of age,
2. Unconscious persons
The guardian, on behalf of the person who is below 16 years, can make contract for the benefit of
the person.
Contract Law, 2023. Proposal and acceptance

The acceptance of the proposal from the proposer by the propose shall be considered as
contract.

In case, the proposer has asked to get information of acceptance within certain dates and if the
proposer does not get the information of acceptance within the stated dates even if the proposal
has been accepted, shall not be considered as contract.

In case, the proposer has not asked the propose to get information of acceptance within certain
date and if the propose does not give information within a reasonable time, the proposal shall
not be considered as contract even if accepted by the propose.

In case, if the proposer has asked to get information within certain dates of the rejection of the
proposal and if the propose fails to inform the proposer within that dates will automatically
mean to have accepted will not mean accepted either.

If the proposer dies or lost consciousness before the proposal being accepted, the proposal shall
be considered in valid.

Propose accepts the proposal and dies or lost consciousness before the proposer receives the
acceptance, such contract shall be in valid.

If the propose accepts the proposal along with alternation or change of certain condition shall
be considered in valid.

Cancellation of proposal or acceptance.


Proposer can cancel his/her proposal through information, but if the proposal is accepted before
getting the information of cancellation, the proposal shall be considered cancelled.

The propose can cancel the acceptance through information. But if the acceptance has been
already sent to the propose before getting the information of cancellation, the proposal shall not
be cancelled.
The party, who send cancellation through information, can also send information of acceptance
again. But, among the information of acceptance or rejection of the proposal, if the cancellation
reaches earlier, it will not be considered contract taken place. If acceptance information reaches
earlier, contract will take places.
Cancellation of the proposal after sending proposal or after acceptance a notice of cancellation
or after the cancellation, sending a notice of acceptance, thus concerning these two contrasting
information, contract will be considered cancelled.
Contract from the proposal placed before the public
If any person tendered notices with certain prize or gift against some work performance and if s/he
performs the job, the notice provider shall give the stated prize. Notices published through any
media can also be cancelled through the same media notices.
If the proposal of the notice of doing work within certain time has been delayed in its performance,
the contract shall automatically be cancelled.
If the work has been performed by many people advertised in the public notice, only the person
who first perform but, two or more than two, whoever complete the job at a time shall be awarded
the sum equally. In case the prize cannot be divided equally, the prize shall be sold and the amount
shall be distributed to each member equally.
Voidable contracts;
1. Contract under forceful compulsions,
2. Illegally agreed contract,
3. Forgery contract,
4. Deceivable contract.
Cancelable contracts;
1. Any contract that Nepal laws restrict profession, business, trade from doing it. Unrestricted
marriage by Nepal Laws but the contract restricts them,
2. Any contract that restricts the use of facilities which Nepal Law allows common people to use
them
3.
The contract that restrict to use the existing legal rights by using any court or law
offices,
4.
Any contract that has been made against the existing law of Nepal,
5.
Any contract that has been made to obtain unethical or against public interest,
6.
The contract that was made without knowing the conditions of contract to complete
them by all parties involved in it and has reached at the condition of impossibilities,
7.
Any contract that was impossible during signing the contract or it is now impossible
to complete it,
8.
Unclear and unable to give reasonable meaning of the contract